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1

Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale Farmers Jump to: navigation, search Name Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale Farmers Agency/Company /Organization International Food Policy Research Institute Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type Publications, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/u UN Region "Western Asia & North Africa" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., "Sub-Saharan Africa" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

2

Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers African farmers risk being forced from their lands by investors or government projects as global demand for biofuels encourages changes at risk if African farmland is turned over to growing crops for biofuel. With growing pressure to find

3

Role of contact farmers as a source of information in the adoption of selected cotton practices among small-scale farmers in two districts of Paraguay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this research was to examine the extent and the manner in which contact farmers in the Training and Visit System of agricultural extension in two districts of eastern Paraguay influenced the dissemination of agricultural information among small-scale follower farmers. The study was conducted in October and November of 2000. Survey instruments were translated into Spanish and data were collected by personal interviews, informal conversations, and through participation in farmer meetings. This descriptive study was based on the responses of 35 Contact Farmers (CF) and 42 Follower Farmers (FF). Results showed that demographic characteristics of the two groups did not differ, except for the level of education (CFs' mean = 6.83, FFs' mean = 5.16, t value = 3.07). The forms of communication used by contact farmers and preferred by follower farmers were individual visits and group meetings. Follower farmers preferred contact farmers, friends, and neighbors, and their own experience to information received from agricultural extensionists. Friends, neighbors, and contact farmers were sources of information that follower farmers stated were available on time, understandable, and trustworthy. Key findings for the adoption of five cotton practices were the following: Paraguayan REBA P-279 was the most recommended, but the Argentine Guazuncho II was most grown; only 9.5% reported the use of the fertilizer formulated as 12-12-17-2; cultural methods of weed control were preferred to chemical control; a 5% increase in plant density from the beginning to the end of the project was seen; and 88% reported that they did not have enough information to control cotton diseases. The knowledge gained will be useful for extension workers, administrators, program managers, policymakers, funding organizations, and the general public to formulate guidelines and organize work programs for disseminating information more effectively to small cotton farmers. Results and recommendations will be presented to the board and staff members of the Agricultural Extension Directorate and the Ministry of Agriculture in order to develop strategies for effective methods of communication long needed among all involved in the agricultural extension process.

Diarte Meza, Nelson Antonio

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Factors affecting the design of a partnership program to facilitate adoption of agricultural practices among small-scale farmers, Mpongwe, Zambia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the study conducted from December 2001 through February 2002 was to collect data needed to facilitate the design of a partnership program involving Mpongwe Development Company (MDC) that would enable the adoption of sustainable, environmentally friendly agricultural practices by the small-scale farmers in Mpongwe District, Zambia. Eleven separate surveys were conducted to gather descriptive information from four groups: 210 small-scale farmers, traditional chiefs, government departments, and MDC. Substantial developmental work continues in Mpongwe. More than 50% of the small-scale farmers were aware of development organizations. The extension service and MDC both enjoyed relatively high awareness by farmers at 82.3% and 87.4%, respectively. The extent of the effectiveness of this work is still unknown because the scope of the study was only to identify areas of possible developmental collaboration. The recently constructed highway and the government Intermediate Means of Transport (IMT) program has opened the District to many development opportunities. To establish guidelines for the proposed collaborative program mission and goals, three key emerging areas were identified. They were finance, organization, and technical assistance. Only 21.4% of the small-scale farmers reported being in arrears. About 79.1% of participating farmer sales consisted of roadside sales with about two percent selling through cooperatives. Only 44% of small-scale farmers reported being members of co-operatives. The only crop reported by the small-scale farmers as being grown in areas greater than one hectare was maize (84.7%). More than 50% of the small-scale farmers surveyed expressed satisfaction with the services offered by the extension service. Information obtained from the extension service was reported by 51.6% of small-scale farmers. Traditional chiefs and radio were the second most frequent source of information. Recommendations were that (1) Government and non-government organizations should partner in agricultural development efforts, (2) The extension service must engage the private sector, and (3) The relevance of the extension service is evident, but a change of approach is necessary. Both the private sector and the extension service will benefit from suggested changes.

Musoma, Henry Kasonde

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale Farmers Jump to: navigation, search Name Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale...

6

Analysis of wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farmers in central Kenya  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farm households in central Kenya. The specific objective were: (1) to determine how households had responded to specific wood-energy policies; (2) to identify factors associated with household adoption or non-adoption of the strategies. Different programs aimed at addressing wood-energy shortages in Kenya were initiated or strengthened during the 1980s: fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting; development and dissemination of improved stoves and fireplaces; promotion of increased accessibility to wood-energy substitutes. Household adoption levels for policy-supported strategies have remained low despite promotion. Survey data from two villages in Nyeri district were collected to determine the factors associated with adoption of the Kenya Ceramic Jiko, the [open quotes]Kuni Mbili[close quotes] stove/fireplace, kerosene stoves, electric cookers, and fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting. Adoption rates varied from as low as 1 percent for electricity to 43 percent for the Kenya Ceramic Jiko. Important policy variables included extension visits per year, income levels, years of formal education received by head of household, access to different fuels, area of farm-land owned, household size, and locational characteristics of the villages. Policy recommendations included: use of research results to direct policy; improvement of information flows between policy makers, extension agents, and technology-users; increased support of agroforestry; and better program coordination. Recommendations for further research included: examining more areas where efficiency gains in energy production and consumption can be made, extending the study to cover the drier parts of central Kenya, and conducting regular case studies in order to better understand the adoption process over time.

Mwangi, A.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 13, 2010 ... (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the ... The recent increase in food demand and the consequences this has for prices ..... selection and management of forage crops, design of dietary.

8

Constructing a Model for Small Scale Fish Farmers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fish farming is a fast growing industry, which, although necessary to feed an ever growing worldwide population, has its share of negative environmental consequences, including… (more)

Longoni, Robert A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Program  

Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Program EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange November 17, 2010 Mike Thien

10

An evaluation of the small farmer outreach training and technical assistance program for farmers of color in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the small farmer outreach training and technical assistance programs as related to farmers of color. The items to be evaluated included financial considerations, educational effectiveness, access and acquisition of farm loans, participation in Extension sponsored events and involvement in community activities. The sample population for this study was small scale agricultural producers representing two ethnic groups, African Americans and Hispanics, located in Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr and Willacy counties and enrolled in the Small Farmer Outreach Training and Technical Assistance Program (N=68) between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2004. Descriptive statistics were used for reporting personal characteristics of the participants, as well as to determine knowledge gained and effectiveness of the Small Farmer Outreach Training and Technical Assistance Program. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences�® (SPSS) was used to calculate frequencies, percentages and variability of the variables. The major findings of the study were as follows: 1. The Small Farmer Outreach Training and Technical Assistance Program is an effective educational program in teaching farm management techniques and assisting with the acquisition of financial resources. 2. Farm size was relatively small with over half of the farms being fewer than 50 acres. 3. The ethnic identity of participants was more likely to be Hispanic than African American. 4. Total household income for a majority of the participants was less than $50,000. 5. The majority of the participants were part-time farmers. 6. The majority of the participants had a farm plan. 7. A majority of the participants had at least a high school education. 8. Program participants were likely to be approved for a loan through the United States Department of Agriculture.

Daniels, Nelson T

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Small-scale alcohol fuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report of a project to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale alcohol fuel production. A list of equipment and costs incurred in contracting the still are included. No experimental results are presented. (DMC)

Evans, J.; McQueary, J.

1983-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

12

Definition: Small Scale Wind | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Small scale wind projects are typically defined as projects with capacity ratings of 1 - 100 kW.1 View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms wind power, wind energy,...

13

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

Gleeson, L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.

Benedict, R.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Park, K.; Teske, G.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

NETL: Carbon Storage - Upcoming Small-Scale Field Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response Staff Bios CONTACT NETL Visiting NETL People Search Go to US DOE Carbon Storage Upcoming Small-Scale Field Projects Injection well with monitoring equipment at...

17

Small-Scale Reactor for the Production of Medical Isotopes  

Small-Scale Reactor for the Production of Medical Isotopes IP Home; Search/Browse Technology ... Drawing upon proven technology with minimal research effort required;

18

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. ... Keywords: Natural gas, Small-scale, LNG, Liquefaction process

Cao Wensheng

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Focus Area: Solar Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-introduction-small-scale-photovoltaic- Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/introduction-small-scale-photovoltaic Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Project Development This video teaches the viewer about photovoltaic arrays and RETscreen's photovoltaic module, which can be used to project the cost and production of an array. An example case study was

20

Small-Scale Energy Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small-Scale Energy Loan Program Small-Scale Energy Loan Program Small-Scale Energy Loan Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Ventilation Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Alternative Fuel Vehicles Water Wind Maximum Rebate None Program Info State Oregon Program Type State Loan Program Rebate Amount Typically $20,000 - $20 million Provider Oregon Department of Energy The Oregon Small-Scale Energy Loan Program (SELP) - created in 1981 after

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Small-Scale Variability in Warm Continental Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have analyzed small-scale fluctuations in microphysical, dynamical and thermodynamical parameters measured in two warm cumulus clouds during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) project (1981) in light of predictions of ...

P. H. Austin; M. B. Baker; A. M. Blyth; J. B. Jensen

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Normal-Mode Decomposition of Small-Scale Oceanic Motions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-scale oceanic motions consist of vortical motion and internal waves. In a linear or weakly nonlinear system these two types of motions can be unambiguously separated using normal-mode decomposition in which the vortical mode carries the ...

Ren-Chieh Lien; Peter Müller

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Triggering of Orographic Rainbands by Small-Scale Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The triggering of convective orographic rainbands by small-scale topographic features is investigated through observations of a banded precipitation event over the Oregon Coastal Range and simulations using a cloud-resolving numerical model. A ...

Daniel J. Kirshbaum; George H. Bryan; Richard Rotunno; Dale R. Durran

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

NETL: Carbon Storage - Small-Scale Field Tests  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small-Scale Field Tests Small-Scale Field Tests Carbon Storage Small-Scale Field Tests The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting a number of small-scale field tests (injection of less than 500,000 million metric tons of CO2 per year) to explore various geologic CO2 storage opportunities within the United States and portions of Canada. DOE's small-scale field test efforts are designed to demonstrate that regional reservoirs have the capability to store thousands of years of CO2 emissions and provide the basis for larger volume, commercial-scale CO2 tests. The field studies are focused on developing better understanding 11 major types of geologic storage reservoir classes, each having their own unique opportunities and challenges. Understanding these different storage classes provides insight into how the systems influence fluids flow within these systems today, and how CO2 in geologic storage would be anticipated to flow in the future. The different storage formation classes include: deltaic, coal/shale, fluvial, alluvial, strandplain, turbidite, eolian, lacustrine, clastic shelf, carbonate shallow shelf, and reef. Basaltic interflow zones are also being considered as potential reservoirs. These storage reservoirs contain fluids that may include natural gas, oil, or saline water; any of which may impact CO2 storage differently. The data gathered during these small-scale tests provides valuable information regarding specific formations that have historically not been evaluated for the purpose of CO2 storage. The Carbon Storage Program strategy includes an established set of field test objectives applicable to the small-scale projects:

25

Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Institutional Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Water Heating Wind Water Home Weatherization Swimming Pool Heaters Maximum Rebate Varies depending on technology and eligible sector Program Info Funding Source Current round: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) State Energy Program (SEP) funds Start Date 6/17/2003 (initial funding) Expiration Date 2013 State Vermont Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies depending on technology and eligible sector

26

Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Lessons  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Lessons Learned Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Lessons Learned May 20, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership, one of seven regional partnerships created by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance carbon capture and storage technologies, has completed a preliminary geologic characterization and sequestration field test at FirstEnergy's R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The project provided significant geologic understanding and "lessons learned" from a region of the Appalachian Basin with few existing deep well penetrations for geologic characterization. The initial targets for the geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the

27

International Workshop on Small Scale Wind Energy for Developing Countries  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Scale Wind Energy for Developing Countries Scale Wind Energy for Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name International Workshop on Small Scale Wind Energy for Developing Countries Agency/Company /Organization Risoe DTU Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Wind Topics Implementation, Technology characterizations Resource Type Workshop, Training materials, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.risoe.dtu.dk/~/medi References International Workshop on Small Scale Wind Energy for Developing Countries[1] Background "The workshop covers the following main themes: Wind energy technologies, their perspectives and applications in developing countries. Reliability of wind turbines, lifetime and strength of wind turbine components. Low cost and natural materials for wind turbines.

28

Design and fabrication issues for small-scale SMES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coil-scaling and structural-force calculations for small-scale solenoidal and toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems are presented. The efficiency of the refrigeration system is estimated as a function of mechanical support, insulation, and power-lead thermal losses. Required high-temperature superconductor (HTS) properties are compared to properties of presently available materials or those expected to evolve in the near term. Potential applications are described for small-scale SMES, and these applications will significantly increase when HTSs can be used. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hull, J.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Schoenung, S.M. (Schafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Palmer, D.N.; Davis, M.K. (ABB, Inc., Windsor, CT (USA). Special Projects Group)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Research on a super-small-scale MHD power system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a super-small-scale MHD power system, which can generate 4--10W pulse power with a plasma produced by an explosive or combustion as a working substance. Heat shielding material was made and tested, with the result that electrical insulation is desirable. This power generator can be used as an electrical power source of rocket or missile fuses.

He, Z.; Huam, L.Z.; Yao, F.G. (East China Inst. of Tech., Nanjing (China))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Stirring by Small-Scale Vortices Caused by Patchy Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented that lateral dispersion on scales of 1–10 km in the stratified waters of the continental shelf may be significantly enhanced by stirring by small-scale geostrophic motions caused by patches of mixed fluid adjusting in the ...

Miles A. Sundermeyer; James R. Ledwell; Neil S. Oakey; Blair J. W. Greenan

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

Dr. Thomas Balk

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Design and operation of a small-scale ethanol still  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A description is presented of a small-scale alcohol still utilizing beer derived from both corn and potato mash. Use was made of the ethanol in alcohol vehicles imported from Brazil. By-products (stillage) were successfully used as cattle feed. (DMC)

Floyd, J.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Manual of small-scale hydroelectric generation in South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a preliminary inventory of small scale hydroelectric potential in South Dakota and a simplified methodology for calculating economic feasibility of a project. In addition, the various technologies presently on the market, sources of technical and financial assistance and the various permits required for development are also discussed.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

DOI: 10.1007/s10745-006-9021-5 Farmer Choice of Sorghum Varieties in Southern Mali  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In southern Mali and throughout the semiarid tropics, small-scale family farmers are faced with the challenge of producing adequate harvests in difficult biophysical and socioeconomic environments. Professional plant breeders have had much difficulty developing modern varieties that outperform farmers ’ traditional varieties in these environments, in part because of an incomplete understanding of why farmers choose the varieties they grow. Improved understanding of farmers ’ varietal choices can contribute to collaboration between farmers and formal plant breeders. Based on a 15-month field study in Dissan, Mali, we examine farmer’s choices among their traditional sorghum varieties in terms of one or more than one variety, and short-cycle or long-cycle varieties, and the interaction between these two choices. Results support our general hypothesis that farmers choose varieties to optimize outputs in the face of variation in the growing environment and in human managed inputs such as labor and tools.

Scott M. Lacy; David A. Clevel; Daniela Soleri

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using(VAWT) is being studied

Tullis, Stephen

37

Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

JGI - LSP Small-Scale Sequencing Plans for 2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Science Program Laboratory Science Program Small-Scale Sequencing Plans For status information, see the Genome Projects section. Organism Proposer Affiliation Five Archaea (Methanohalobium evestigatum, Methanobacterium formicicum, Halococcoides, Ferroglobus placidus, and Acidianus sp. JP7) Kyrpides LBNL Aspergillus terreus EST Baker PNNL Avena Barbata ESTs Anderson BNL Burkholderia cepacia Bu72 van der Lelie BNL ChIP-enriched binding sequences Stubbs LLNL CRISPR loci of Leptospirillum Banfield Cochliobolus heterostrophus Turgeon Cornell University Columbia River Microbiota Magnuson PNNL Dehalococcoides Brodie LBNL Etolico Lagoon in Greece Kyrpides LBNL Fungal comparative genomics (Orpinomyces) Baker PNNL Hypersaline microbial mat Raymond LLNL Leonotis nepetifolia Shanklin BNL

39

(Small scale wind energy conversion programmatic equipment. Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to provide South Dakota citizens with a case study of the institutional and technical problems encountered in the installation, maintenance and use of a small wind energy system. The project will provide information on wind turbine reliability, maintenance requirements and power production to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale wind energy conversion projects for South Dakota. The system was installed by vocational students and instructors at Mitchell Vocational School. It has been in operation since the fall of 1983.

Wegman, S.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

Small-Scale Aeroelastic Rotor Simulation, Design and Fabrication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient, small-scale fixed-pitch rotor blades are essential for miniature rotorcraft. Extremely thin blade sections are required for highly efficient rotor performance that leads to acceptable mission endurance. Such rotor blades are difficult to manufacture from sufficiently rigid material to avoid significant torsional deformation in operating conditions. In practice, it is necessary to trade-off manufacturing simplicity and mechanical rigidity of a blade design against aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a design methodology for this problem, based on development of a simulator for steady-state rotor performance along with a search algorithm to find the ideal taper and twist geometry for a specified motor torque. The approach is demonstrated on the design of rotors for a small scale quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle under development at the Australian National University. Experimental thrust tests indicate good correspondence with theoretical predications. Nomenclature A Rotor disc area, m2 AoA Angle of Attack, rad c Blade chord, m cd Non-dimensional drag coefficient cl Non-dimensional lift coefficient cm Non-dimensional moment coefficient

Paul Pounds; Robert Mahony

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

42

NONLINEAR SMALL-SCALE DYNAMOS AT LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBERS  

SciTech Connect

Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pr{sub M} down to 0.01. For Pr{sub M} < 0.1, most of the energy is dissipated via Joule heat and, in agreement with earlier results for helical large-scale dynamos, kinetic energy dissipation is shown to diminish proportional to Pr{sup 1/2}{sub M} down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k {sup -11/3} spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k {sup -1} spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of Pr{sub M} and decreases by about a factor of two as Pr{sub M} is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at Pr{sub M} = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: brandenb@nordita.org [NORDITA, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

43

Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center; Hall, A.W. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

45

Policy recommendations to improve the competitiveness of small scale farmers in Colombia through Information and Communication Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Half of the Colombian population lives in regions dependent on primary activities such as agriculture, livestock, and fishing. This sector is characterized for being a mix of two kinds of productive systems: large-scale ...

Maya, Natalia (Natalia Carolina Maya Ortiz)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

Kutscher, C.

2001-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

47

Remote plunger removal device for small-scale incremental pressing  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale pressing of high explosives (HE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and elsewhere is routinely performed using pneumatic presses. Blast shields provide protection to the operator during the pressing procedure, but safety of the operator is a concern during removal of the plunger, which is currently performed manually. To minimize this risk, very high tolerances between the plunger and the die are required. These tolerances are often very costly, especially in the case of long, relatively narrow dies. The safety issue is an even greater concern with incremental pressing in which cleaning the die between increments is difficult or impossible. To better protect press operators, a device has been designed and constructed to allow remote plunger removal in a standard HE press. In this report the authors describe this modified press that allows remote removal of the plunger.

Burnside, N.J.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A Review of "Small-Scale Wind Turbines Policy Perspectives and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ERG/200607 A Review of "Small-Scale Wind Turbines ­ Policy Perspectives and Recommendations of Engineering Mathematics at Dalhousie University. #12;Hughes-Long: A Review of Small-Scale Wind Turbines proposed changes to their municipal Bylaws to allow the installation of "small-scale" wind turbines (i

Hughes, Larry

49

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

AFBC-HAGT, an efficient small scale power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A team comprised of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Will-Burt Company, and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) designed installed and tested a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized (bubbling) bed combustion (AFBC) system to heat hot water. Following testing, a commercial prototype unit was installed at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The unit was started up in January, 1995, and is currently in operation. It provides hot water for greenhouse heating, requiring about two hours per day of operator attention. The development was funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the team members. Based on the success of the prototype operation a commercial size unit was recently designed for hot water heating use. This small scale AFBC system can be designed not only to produce hot water or steam but also to efficiently generate electricity (60 kWe to 3.5 MWe size range). Most small scale fluidized bed systems use in-bed heat transfer tubes to generate saturated steam which can then be superheated and fed to a steam turbine for electrical power generation. This AFBC has no internal heat transfer surfaces. It can be combined with an air heater that is integrated with a recuperated Hot Air Gas Turbine (HAGT), to yield a more efficient power plant than that possible with small steam plants of comparable size that have optimal gross efficiencies of about 12% (29,060 Btu/kWhr). Depending on ambient air temperature, this AFBC-HAGT power cycle can reach efficiencies of 28% without auxiliary diesel fuel oil firing. The system is ideally suited for rural communities that are not tied into an electric power grid. It is low tech, easy to operate, provides approximately double the efficiency of small steam cycle power plants, and can be used in areas where water is scarce. When firing local coal and/or bio-mass it can be very cost effective compared to diesel power generation.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Company, Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

A Small-Scale Safety Test for Initiation Components  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a small-scale safety test for initiation train components. A low-cost test was needed to assess the response of initiation components to an abnormal shock environment and to detect changes in the sensitivity of initiation components as they age. The test uses a disk of Detasheet to transmit a shock through a PMMA barrier into a the test article. A schematic drawing of the fixture is shown. The 10-cm-diameter disk of 3-mm-thick Detasheet, initiated at its center by a RISI, RP detonator, produces a shock wave that is attenuated by a variable-thickness PMMA spacer (gap). Layers of metal and plastic above the test article and the material surrounding the test article may be chosen to mock up the environment of the test article at its location in a warhead. A metal plate at the bottom serves as a witness plate to record whether or not the test article detonated. For articles containing a small amount of explosive, it can be difficult to determine whether or not a detonation has occurred. In such cases, one can use a pressure transducer or laser velocimeter to detect the shock wave from the detonation of the article. The assembly is contained in a 10-cm-ID section of PVC pipe and fired in a containment vessel rated at 100 g. Test results are given for a hemispherical, exploding-bridgewire (EBW) detonator.

Cutting, J; Chow, C; Chau, H; Hodgin, R; Lee, R

2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

Whitehead, J.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Small-Scale Power Spectrum of Cold Dark Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the best motivated hypotheses in cosmology states that most of the matter in the universe is in the form of weakly-interacting massive particles that decoupled early in the history of the universe and cooled adiabatically to an extremely low temperature. Nevertheless, the finite temperature and horizon scales at which these particles decoupled imprint generic signatures on their small scales density fluctuations. We show that the previously recognized cut-off in the fluctuation power-spectrum due to free-streaming of particles at the thermal speed of decoupling, is supplemented by acoustic oscillations owing to the initial coupling between the cold dark matter (CDM) and the radiation field. The power-spectrum oscillations appear on the scale of the horizon at thermal decoupling which corresponds to a mass scale of \\~10^{-4}*(T_d/10MeV)^{-3} solar masses for a CDM decoupling temperature T_d. The suppression of the power-spectrum on smaller scales by the acoustic oscillations is physically independent from the free-streaming effect, although the two cut-off scales are coincidentally comparable for T_d~10MeV and a particle mass of M~100GeV. The initial conditions for recent numerical simulations of the earliest and smallest objects to have formed in the universe, need to be modified accordingly. The smallest dark matter clumps may be detectable through gamma-ray production from particle annihilation, through fluctuations in the event rate of direct detection experiments, or through their tidal gravitational effect on wide orbits of objects near the outer edge of the solar system.

Abraham Loeb; Matias Zaldarriaga

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

55

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels - Technology Management, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels-Technology Management, Inc. Background In this congressionally directed project, Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) will develop and demonstrate a residential scale prototype solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system at end-user sites. These small-scale systems would operate continuously on either conventional or renewable biofuels, producing cost effective, uninterruptible

57

Assessment and design of small-scale hydro-electric power plants.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Appraisal and design of small-scale hydro power plants requires a knowledge of hydraulics, hydrology, civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering, and basic economics. Further, small hydro… (more)

Jones, ID

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind Power Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INVESTMENT TIMING AND CAPACITY CHOICE FOR SMALL-SCALE WINDvalue as a func- tion of capacity is declining because ais reduced with increased capacity. A possible approach for

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: System & Application Design Website: www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-introduction-small-scale-wind-energy-s Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/introduction-small-scale-wind-energy- Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Project Development This video teaches the viewer about wind turbines and RETscreen's wind module, which can be used to project the cost and production of a wind

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

Farmers Markets Geographic Data | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Dataset Summary Description longitude and latitude, state, address, name, and zip code of Farmers Markets in the United States Tags Farmers Markets, Direct to Consumer,...

62

DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 Million of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 Million of Federal Funding in Maine, Tennessee and Kentucky DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 Million of Federal Funding in Maine, Tennessee and Kentucky April 18, 2008 - 10:49am Addthis Projects Demonstrate Continued Commitment to Advancing Development of Sustainable, Cost-Competitive Cellulosic Ethanol ALEXANDRIA, VA. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced the competitive selection of three projects in which DOE plans to invest up to $86 million over four years (FY '08 - '11) to support the development of small-scale cellulosic biorefineries in Old Town, ME; Vonore, TN; and Washington County, KY. This funding will further President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by

63

DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects in Wisconsin and Louisiana DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects in Wisconsin and Louisiana July 14, 2008 - 2:15pm Addthis Projects Show Continued Investment in Non-Food Based, Sustainable, and Cost Competitive Second-Generation Cellulosic Biofuels WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the selection of two small-scale cellulosic biorefinery projects in Park Falls, Wis. and Jennings, La. for federal funding of up to $40 million over five years. These projects will further President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive with corn-based ethanol by 2012, and help reduce America's gasoline use by expanding the availability of

64

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding January 29, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Ten percent commercial-scale biorefineries will help the nation meet new Renewable Fuels Standard WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced that DOE will invest up to $114 million, over four years, (Fiscal Years 2007-2010) for four small-scale biorefinery projects to be located in Commerce City, Colorado; St. Joseph, Missouri; Boardman, Oregon; and Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. Building on President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012, these ten-percent of

65

EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and 642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY SUMMARY This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

66

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind Power Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scott Distributed power generation (New York, Marcel Dekker,the renewable share of power generation. The American Windin small-scale wind power generation, as well as the choice

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

Not Available

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Design of a small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration module  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. The goal of this unit is to filter an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) from a mixture of API ...

Wong, Katherine Wing-Shan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

EA-1642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

642S: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY...

71

Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Thermal design of humidification dehumidification systems for affordable and small-scale desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is a carrier-gas-based thermal desalination technique ideal for application in a small-scale system but, currently, has a high cost of water production (about 30 $/mł ...

Govindan, Prakash Narayan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Implications of Small-Scale Flow Features to Modeling Dispersion over Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-scale, topographically forced wind systems often have a strong influence on flow over complex terrain. A problem is that these systems are very difficult to measure, because of their limited spatial and temporal extent. They can be ...

R. M. Banta; L. D. Olivier; P. H. Gudiksen; R. Lange

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind Power Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES [1] American Wind Power Association (AWEA), Road-CHOICE FOR SMALL-SCALE WIND POWER UNDER UNCERTAINTY Stein-Power production from wind power has stochastic inflows, and

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

First Round of Small-Scale First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding January 29, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Ten percent commercial-scale biorefineries will help the nation meet new Renewable Fuels Standard WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced that DOE will invest up to $114 million, over four years, (Fiscal Years 2007-2010) for four small-scale biorefinery projects to be located in Commerce City, Colorado; St. Joseph, Missouri; Boardman, Oregon; and Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. Building on President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012, these ten-percent of

76

Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Maximum Rebate Limits (% of cost) vary by system type, but the following limits also exist: NJCEP Incentive: $1 million Pay for Performance Bonus Incentive: $250,000 Utility Match: $1 million Overall Maximum: $2.25 million Program Info Funding Source New Jersey Societal Benefits Charge (public benefits fund) State New Jersey Program Type State Grant Program

77

ATTACHMENT CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FOR SMALL-SCALE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS USING NANOSCALE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FOR SMALL-SCALE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS USING NANOSCALE MATERIALS, PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY, RICHLAND,WASH[NGTON Proposed Adion: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) proposes to conduct indoor small-scale research and development projects and small-scale pilot projects using nanoscale materials. Nanoscale materials are engineered materials consisting of, or containing structures of between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm) that make use of properties unique to nanoscale forms of materials. Location of Action: The proposed action would occur on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site and in the vicinity ofPNNL facilities in the State of Washington. Description of the Proposed Action:

78

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by wood-fired boilers. By generating biogas through anaerobic digestion of swine manure, fuel can: A mechanical anaerobic digester to handle organic farm waste. A complete biogas collection system with hookPENNSTATE Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic

Demirel, Melik C.

79

The UNEP Project CD4CDM BUNDLING SMALL-SCALE CDM PROJECTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

costs and low sales realizations deter project developers from offering Carbon Emission Reductions (CER it hard to bear high up-front costs and risk capital for running projects through the CDM marketThe UNEP Project CD4CDM BUNDLING SMALL-SCALE CDM PROJECTS December, 2004 H V Kumar S V Kulkarni

80

DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES (AERSP 597/497-K) SPRING 814 865 9871 cxc11@psu.edu Summary : The proposed course is a three-credit gas turbine design course will be evaluated against (agreed) deadlines by the instructor. A number of lecturers from the gas turbine industry

Camci, Cengiz

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Large-Eddy Simulations of Radiatively Driven Convection: Sensitivities to the Representation of Small Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-eddy simulations of a smoke cloud are examined with respect to their sensitivity to small scales as manifest in either the grid spacing or the subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Calculations based on a Smagorinsky SGS model are found to be more ...

Bjorn Stevens; Chin-Hoh Moeng; Peter P. Sullivan

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling of pellet boilers in standard laboratory and in field conditions. This part had three main targets were identified. Pollutants emissions and efficiency of a multi- fuel boiler was compared

Glineur, François

83

Molldeing and Simulation of a Small-Scale Wind Turbine Generator in Isolated Distribution Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, the wind energy capacity is rapidly increasing in importance as a share of electricity supply on worldwide basis. A small-scale wind turbine generator is usually installed in an isolated distribution network. This paper aims to justzjj ...

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A Simplified Self-Help Approach to Sizing of Small-Scale Cogeneration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The following report is a description of a simplified and a self-help approach to determining the economic feasibility of a small-scale Cogeneration system. It has been compiled for use by the energy managers/physical plant directors of various Texas state agencies, so that an initial screening of the potential candidates for Cogeneration can be made.

Somasundaram, S.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

A partnership approach for Electronic Data Capture in small-scale clinical trials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amid researchers' growing need for study data management, the CTSA-funded Institute for Translational Health Sciences developed an approach to combine technical and scientific resources with small-scale clinical trials researchers in order to make Electronic ... Keywords: Biomedical informatics, Clinical trials, Electronic Data Capture

Joshua D. Franklin; Alicia Guidry; James F. Brinkley

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

An active islanding detection method for small-scale distributed generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new islanding detection method for use in a small-scale, grid-interconnected distributed generator system. The proposed islanding detection method is based on voltage fluctuation injection, which can be obtained through high-impedance ... Keywords: correlation factor, distributed generator, islanding detection, voltage fluctuation injection

Wen-Yeau Chang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

An Intense Small-Scale Wintertime Vortex in the Midwest United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intense small-scale low pressure system that moved across portions of the midwest United States is examined. The system produced a continuous band of significant snowfall, typically only 50 km wide but extending over 1500 km in length. The ...

William A. Gallus Jr.; James F. Bresch

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

An Experimental Study of Small-Scale Variability of Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study of small-scale variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) has been carried out at Wallops Island, Virginia. Three Joss–Waldvogel disdrometers were operated at a distance of 0.65, 1.05, and 1.70 km in a nearly straight ...

Ali Tokay; Paul G. Bashor

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Implications of Carbon Taxation on Microgrid Adoption of Small-Scale On-Site Power Generation Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-49309 The Implications of Carbon Taxation on Microgrid Adoption of Small-Scale On-Site Power .................................................................................................................1 1.1 Microgrid Concept

90

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Efficiency Matching  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Efficiency Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Efficiency Matching Grant Program Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Efficiency Matching Grant Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Commercial Heating & Cooling Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Grant Program Rebate Amount 50% of cost, up to $100 Provider Farmers Electric Cooperative Farmers Electric Cooperative (FEC) offers a grant program which splits the cost of simple energy efficient improvements to the home. The utility will cover 50% of the cost of eligible improvements made by the participating member. Grants are limited to $100 per year. A variety of measures and

91

Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

Brown, E.; Mann, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Use of plastic construction materials in small-scale fuel alcohol production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several general designs for small-scale fuel alcohol plants that have been published primarily use conventional materials of construction (steel, copper, etc.). A fuel alcohol plant owned by Dixie Fuels, Inc. Valley Park, Mississippi, and a farm-scale alcohol plant being developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority have incorporated plastic materials in several areas of their plants; results have been excellent in terms of reduced materials, labor, and operating costs. However, plastics were not used in the distillation step. This work investigated the suitability of small-scale distillation equipment made entirely or partially from plastics. A low-cost alcohol distillation system can be constructed using chlorinated poly(viny chloride) (CPVC) pipe or poly(vinly chloride) (PVC) plastic pipe for the column and heat-exchanger shells. Although pipe made from CPVC is preferred, schedule 80 PVC pipe can be used if external supports are used to provide rigidity. 3 figures, 1 table. (DP)

Lightsey, G.R.; Kadir, O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulation for magnetic Prandtl number $\\mathrm{Pm}=20$ on $1024^3$ grid using pseudospectral method. We demonstrate using flux and shell-to-shell energy transfer computations that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large scale velocity field to small scale magnetic field. The energy transfers $U2U$ (velocity to velocity) and $B2B$ (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. We also show that the magnetic energy grows exponentially with time, and it tends to have equipartition with kinetic energy.

Kumar, Rohit; Samtaney, Ravi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

James O'Brien

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Program on Technology Innovation: Small-Scale Testing of Woody and Herbaceous Biomass -Torrefaction and Pelleting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In fall 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a project to conduct small-scale testing of biomass torrefaction in order to investigate the feasibility of torrefying and pelleting different woody and herbaceous biomass feedstocks. Testing was done by Integro Earth Fuels, LLC, using a Wyssmont directly heated torrefaction reactor. The results of this research serve as a first step in determining the feasibility of using torrefaction and pelleting to improve the value of different bio...

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

96

Small-Scale, Biomass-Fired Gas Turbine Plants Suitable for Distributed and Mobile Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of small-scale, biomass-fired gas turbine plants that use an indirectly-fired gas turbine cycle. Such plants were originally thought to have several advantages for distributed generation, including portability. However, detailed analysis of two designs revealed several problems that would have to be resolved to make the plants feasible and also determined that a steam turbine cycle with the same net output was more economic than the gas turbine cycle. The incre...

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

97

Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

None

1986-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

Integrating Small Scale Distributed Generation into a Deregulated Market: Control Strategies and Price Feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small scale power generating technologies, such as gas turbines, small hydro turbines, photovoltaics, wind turbines and fuel cells, are gradually replacing conventional generating technologies, for various applications, in the electric power system. The industry restructuring process in the United States is exposing the power sector to market forces, which is creating competitive structures for generation and alternative regulatory structures for the transmission and distribution systems. The potentially conflicting economic and technical demands of the new, independent generators introduce a set of significant uncertainties. What balance between market forces and centralized control will be found to coordinate distribution system operations? How will the siting of numerous small scale generators in distribution feeders impact the technical operations and control of the distribution system? Who will provide ancillary services (such as voltage support and spinning reserves) in the new competitive environment? This project investigates both the engineering and market integration of distributed generators into the distribution system. On the technical side, this project investigates the frequency performance of a distribution system that has multiple small scale generators. Using IEEE sample distribution systems and new dynamic generator models, this project develops general methods for

Judith Cardell; Marija Ili?; Richard D. Tabors

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Manual for development of small scale hydroelectric projects by public entities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual is designed to provide guidance to towns, cities, counties and other political subdivisions which are interested in undertaking or participating in small scale hydroelectric (SSH) development within or close to their territorial boundaries. The manual is primarily directed to those political subdivisions which either own or have access to a site, are interested in exploring the prospects for development of the site and do not have longstanding experience in the electric power development. For purposes of this manual a small scale hydroelectric project is a project of 25 to 30 MWs or less and utilizes an existing dam or structure or utilizes the site characteristics of partially breached dams or structures. As the reader will observe from the discussion that follows, several incentives under federal and state law have been implemented which favor small scale hydroelectric development at existing sites. This manual is designed to assist political subdivisions in taking advantage of these incentives and devising strategies for development. The manual will provide information to political subdivisions as to what to expect in the development process and the kinds of informed questions to ask of paid advisers. The manual, however, cannot be and should not be used as a substitute for competent advice and assistance from experienced lawyers, engineers, accountants and financing experts.

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

Balk, Thomas

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Easing the burden of fixed telephone lines on small-scale entrepreneurs in Nigeria: GSM lines to the rescue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study reported in this paper investigated the socio-economic characteristics of the adopters of GSM lines and the factors determining the adoption of GSM lines by small-scale entrepreneurs in a major Nigerian city (Ibadan). The results of the study ... Keywords: GSM lines, Nigeria, Small-scale entrepreneurs, Technology adoption

John Olatunji Adeoti; Adetola Ibidunni Adeoti

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Farmers Market directory | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Farmers Market directory Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov Communities Data.gov ...

103

Case Study No. 5: The Farmers Diner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diner Middlebury and Quechee, Vermont Mission innovative Theto an old dairy farm in Vermont to begin farming. Murphy hadsmall community of Barre, Vermont. This location was Farmers

Thistlethwaite, Rebecca

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Characterization of Small Scale Heterogeneity for Prediction of Acid Fracture Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently developed models of the acid fracturing process have shown that the differential etching necessary to create lasting fracture conductivity is caused by the heterogeneous distributions of permeability and mineralogy along the fracture faces. To predict the conductivity that can be created by acid in a particular formation, the models require information about these formation properties. This research aims to quantify correlation lengths using a geostatistical description of small scale heterogeneity to ascertain the distribution of permeability and mineralogy in a carbonate formation. The correlation length parameters are a first step in being able to couple acid transport and rock dissolution models at reservoir scale with a model of fracture conductivity based on channels and roughness features caused by small scale heterogeneity. Geostatistical parameters of small scale heterogeneity affecting wells in the Hugoton Field are developed. Data leading to their derivation are obtained from a combination of well logs and cores. The permeability of slabbed core is measured to yield vertical correlation length. Well logs are used to estimate permeability via an empirical relationship between core plug permeability and well log data for calculation of horizontal correlation length. A fracture simulator computes the acid etched fracture width for known treatment conditions. The resulting geostatistical parameters and acid etched width are used to predict acid fracture performance for a well in the Hugoton Field. Application of new model conductivity correlations results in a unique prediction for the acid fracture case study that differs from the industry standard. Improvements in low cost stimulation treatments such as acid fracturing are the key to revitalizing production in mature carbonate reservoirs like the Hugoton Field. Planning and development of new wells in any carbonate formation necessarily must consider acid fracturing as a production stimulation technique. Reliable models that accurately predict acid fracture conductivity can be used to make an informed investment decision.

Beatty, Cassandra Vonne

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

SMALL-SCALE MICROWAVE BURSTS IN LONG-DURATION SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

Solar small-scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow-band type III bursts, are characterized by very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares that occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 January 14-21. Especially for long-duration flares, the SMBs occurred not only in the early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase and even after the end of the flare. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperatures of at least 8.18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11}-1.92 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} K, very short lifetimes of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7%-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), such SMBs should be individual, independent strong coherent bursts related to some non-thermal energy release and the production of energetic particles in a small-scale source region. These facts show the existence of small-scale strong non-thermal energy releasing activities after the flare maxima, which is meaningful for predicting space weather. Physical analysis indicates that a plasma mechanism may be the most favorable candidate for the formation of SMBs. From the plasma mechanism, the velocities and kinetic energy of fast electrons can be deduced and the region of electron acceleration can also be tracked.

Tan Baolin, E-mail: bltan@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

(A small-scale study of Rocky Flats uncalcined incinerator ash dissolution and filtrate anion exchange)  

SciTech Connect

Small scale experimentation was conducted with incinerator ash in the nitric/hydrofluoric acid cascade dissolver and the anion exchange systems at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos National Laboratories for the purpose of determining the following: to determine the relationship between calcium fluoride dissolution feed levels and plutonium dissolution yields. To determine the relationship between calcium fluoride feed levels to dissolution, and the performance of anion exchange when processing dissolution filtrate. To determine the effect of carbonaceous materials on the dissolution and anion exchange when recovering plutonium from incinerator ash.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Small-scale drift-Alfven wave driven zonal flows in plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The problem of generation of zonal flows by small-scale drift-Alfven waves is illuminated more completely. The growth rate of zonal-flow instabilities much greater than known by previous investigations is obtained. Dependence of the growth rate on the spectrum purity of the wave packet is also investigated. It is shown that the sufficient broadening of the wave packet gives resonant-type instability with the growth rate of the order of hydrodynamic one. The appropriate conditions for instabilities are determined.

Kaladze, T. D.; Wu, D. J.; Yang, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China) and I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics of Tbilisi State University, 2 University Str., 0143 Tbilisi (Georgia); Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fuel from farms: a guide to small-scale ethanol production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A guide on fermentation processes with emphasis on small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as a source of raw material is published. The current status of on-farm ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors is presented. Decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in decision making are included. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Diagrams of fermentors and distilling apparatus are included. (DC)

None

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Analytic Approaches to the Study of Small Scale Structure on Cosmic String Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analytic model specifically designed to address the long standing issue of small scale structure on cosmic string networks. The model is derived from the microscopic string equations, together with a few motivated assumptions. The resulting form of the correlation between two points on a string is exploited to study smoothing by gravitational radiation, loop formation and lensing by cosmic strings. In addition, the properties of the small loop population and the possibility of detecting gravitational waves generated by their lowest harmonics are investigated. Whenever possible, we compare the predictions of the model to the most recent numerical simulations of cosmic string networks.

Jorge V. Rocha

2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

111

Analysis of Two Biomass Gasification/Fuel Cell Scenarios for Small-Scale Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two scenarios were examined for small-scale electricity production from biomass using a gasifier/fuel cell system. In one case, a stand-alone BCL/FERC gasifier is used to produce synthesis gas that is reformed and distributed through a pipeline network to individual phosphoric acid fuel cells. In the second design, the gasifier is integrated with a molten carbonate fuel cell stack and a steam bottoming cycle. In both cases, the gasifiers are fed the same amount of material, with the integrated system producing 4 MW of electricity, and the stand-alone design generating 2 MW of electricity.

Amos, W. A.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

112

Farmers' perception of precision technology: The case of autosteer adoption by cotton farmers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precision agriculture and autosteer technology are, overall, profitable investments for farmers, as previous literature has established. However, what has not been investigated is whether or not farmers perceive these technologies as such. This research ... Keywords: Autosteer, Farmers' perception, Input cost saving, MNL, Multinomial logit estimation, PA, Precision agriculture, RTK, SCPF, Technology adoption

Jeremy M. D'Antoni; Ashok K. Mishra; Hyunjeong Joo

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Small-scale AFBC-hot air gas turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW, plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1450{degrees}F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

Ashworth, R.C. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Hall, A.W. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing and average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. 39 figures, 12 tables.

Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H.; Schroer, B.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Rebates |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Rebates Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Rebates Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Rebates < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Maximum Rebate $5,000 per site $20,000 per total system per year Rebate is capped at wattage that meets 25% of customer's annual kWhr use Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,000 per peak kW Provider Farmers Electric Cooperative Farmer's Electric Cooperative (Kalona) offers rebates for the installation of small wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to its member customers. The amount of the rebate is set at $1,000 per peak kilowatt (kW) for both technologies, with a maximum rebate of $5,000. It is only available for

117

The Structure, Dynamics, and Origin of a Small-Scale Lens of Water in the Western North Atlantic Thermocline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A small-scale, isolated, anticyclonically rotating lens of water was observed in the western North Atlantic thermocline during the POLYMODE Local Dynamics Experiment. Using a combination of SOFAR float, hydrographic, nutrient, and moored current ...

Stephen C. Riser; W. Brechner Owens; H. Thomas Rossby; Curtis C. Ebbesmeyer

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF SMALL SCALE MIXING DEMONSTRATION SAMPLING AND BATCH TRANSFER PERFORMANCE - 12093  

SciTech Connect

The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has previously presented the results of mixing performance in two different sizes of small scale DSTs to support scale up estimates of full scale DST mixing performance. Currently, sufficient sampling of DSTs is one of the largest programmatic risks that could prevent timely delivery of high level waste to the WTP. WRPS has performed small scale mixing and sampling demonstrations to study the ability to sufficiently sample the tanks. The statistical evaluation of the demonstration results which lead to the conclusion that the two scales of small DST are behaving similarly and that full scale performance is predictable will be presented. This work is essential to reduce the risk of requiring a new dedicated feed sampling facility and will guide future optimization work to ensure the waste feed delivery mission will be accomplished successfully. This paper will focus on the analytical data collected from mixing, sampling, and batch transfer testing from the small scale mixing demonstration tanks and how those data are being interpreted to begin to understand the relationship between samples taken prior to transfer and samples from the subsequent batches transferred. An overview of the types of data collected and examples of typical raw data will be provided. The paper will then discuss the processing and manipulation of the data which is necessary to begin evaluating sampling and batch transfer performance. This discussion will also include the evaluation of the analytical measurement capability with regard to the simulant material used in the demonstration tests. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the analysis results illustrating the relationship between the pre-transfer samples and the batch transfers, which support the recommendation regarding the need for a dedicated feed sampling facility.

GREER DA; THIEN MG

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

Small-scale Facilities for Gas Clean Up and Carbon Capture Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Henry W. Pennline Henry W. Pennline Chemical Engineer National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6013 henry.pennline@netl.doe.gov Diane (DeeDee) Newlon Technology Transfer Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4086 r.diane.newlon@netl.doe.gov Small-Scale FacilitieS For GaS clean Up and carbon captUre reSearch Capabilities The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is conducting research on the cleanup of gas produced either by the combustion or gasification of fossil fuels. This effort directly supports the goal of various DOE technology programs (i.e., Carbon Sequestration, Gasification, etc.) to ensure the continued utilization of coal in an environmentally and economically

120

Evidence of small-scale magnetic concentrations dragged by vortex motion of solar photospheric plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vortex-type motions have been measured by tracking bright points in high-resolution observations of the solar photosphere. These small-scale motions are thought to be determinant in the evolution of magnetic footpoints and their interaction with plasma and therefore likely to play a role in heating the upper solar atmosphere by twisting magnetic flux tubes. We report the observation of magnetic concentrations being dragged towards the center of a convective vortex motion in the solar photosphere from high-resolution ground-based and space-borne data. We describe this event by analyzing a series of images at different solar atmospheric layers. By computing horizontal proper motions, we detect a vortex whose center appears to be the draining point for the magnetic concentrations detected in magnetograms and well-correlated with the locations of bright points seen in G-band and CN images.

Balmaceda, L; Palacios, J; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Newly Observed Small-Scale Structures in the Quiet Sun and Their Connection to Solar Oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our observations of the quiet Sun with the NST have yielded unanticipated results on smal-scale solar dynamic. Althought small-scale solar dynamic have been well-studied, the NST is enabling us to probe finer scale dynamic exploiting higher spatial resolution. We discuss NST resutls from data taken 29th July 2009 using an broadband filter centered on TiO 705.7nm spectral line. Data are from the center of the solar disk where we observed quiet Sun. We registered bright-point like structures in most of the intergranular lanes. They vary in behaviour and evolution. Co-registered solar oscillations tend to congregate near certain types of bright-point like structures. The oscillations with maximum power tend to appear only above or near these structures.

Andic, Aleksandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This data package, milestone C95-02.02Y, provides a brief observation and operation report on available data for the Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) feed preparation activities. The test was conducted in two melter feed batch segments prepared from two different feed preparation flowsheets. Testing primarily addressed feed preparation alternate flowsheet options tested in the laboratory to mitigate potential safety issues related to generation of hydrogen and ammonia, to produce acceptable melter feed rheological properties, to maximize total waste oxide loading in the glass, to simplify the vitrification flowsheet, and to increase vitrification flowsheet processing rate. The two flowsheets selected for testing were (1) no reductant addition and titration with HNO{sub 3} to provide an acceptable melter feed rheology near the target oxide loading (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1), and (2) titration with glycolic acid, an alternate reductant to HCOOH (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2).

Smith, G.L.; Smith, H.D.; Tracy, E.M.; Myers, R.L.; sills, J.A.; Fisher, D.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

Small-scale anisotropy and intermittency in high and low-latitude solar wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze low and high--latitude fast solar wind data from the Ulysses spacecraft from 1992 to 1994 using a a systematic method to analyse the anisotropic content of the magnetic field fluctuations. We investigate all available frequencies, 1-10^{-6} Hz, for both high and low--latitudes datasets and are able to quantify the relative importance of the anisotropic versus the isotropic fluctuations. We analyse, up to sixth order, longitudinal, transverse and mixed magnetic field correlations. Our results show that strongly intermittent and anisotropic events are present in the solar wind plasma at high frequencies/small scales, indicating the absence of a complete recovery of isotropy. Anisotropic scaling properties are compatible for high and low--latitude data, suggesting a universal behaviour in spite of the different rate of evolution of the fast solar wind streams in the two environments.

A. Bigazzi; L. Biferale; S. M. A. Gama; M. Velli

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

Radiological assessment of the decontamination and decommissioning of a small-scale fuel-reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of surplus radiological facilities is becoming a major concern as buildings built during the 1940's and 1950's reach the end of their useful lives. Prior to the start of a D and D project, a detailed radiological characterization of the facility is required to determine the nature and extent of residual contamination. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently begun such a characterization of Building 3505, originally called the Metal Recovery Facility, which served as a small-scale fuel reprocessing plant during the 1950's. Extensive contamination remains within areas of the facility, including transuranic (TRU) materials. Laboratory analyses were used in conjunction with in situ measurements of dose rate and contamination levels to determine the current status of the building and surrounding area. This information will be used to estimate the amount of decontamination required and the quantity of radioactive waste.

Simpson, D.R.; Emery, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Small scale ethanol production demonstration: comparison of packed versus plate rectifying column  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant in 1980 from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. In 1981, the Center received a second DOE grant to compare the economics of replacing the plate rectifying column in the initial unit with a packed rectifying column. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit with the packed rectifying column is capable of producing 14 gallons per hour of 170 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation was a positive 2:1. Cost of the packed column was considerably less than the plate column. 1 reference, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Adcock, II, L E; Eley, M H; Schroer, B J

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Small-scale anisotropy and intermittency in high and low-latitude solar wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze low and high--latitude fast solar wind data from the Ulysses spacecraft from 1992 to 1994 using a a systematic method to analyse the anisotropic content of the magnetic field fluctuations. We investigate all available frequencies, 1-10^{-6} Hz, for both high and low--latitudes datasets and are able to quantify the relative importance of the anisotropic versus the isotropic fluctuations. We analyse, up to sixth order, longitudinal, transverse and mixed magnetic field correlations. Our results show that strongly intermittent and anisotropic events are present in the solar wind plasma at high frequencies/small scales, indicating the absence of a complete recovery of isotropy. Anisotropic scaling properties are compatible for high and low--latitude data, suggesting a universal behaviour in spite of the different rate of evolution of the fast solar wind streams in the two environments.

Bigazzi, A; Gama, S M A; Velli, M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

129

Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

The implications of carbon taxation on microgrid adoption of small-scale on-site power generation using a multi-criteria approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Carbon Taxation on Microgrid Adoption of Small-Scale On-1 Microgridopen market. iv Introduction Microgrid Concept The analysis

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; de Almeida, Anibal T.; Marnay, Chris; Rubio, F. Javier

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Geothermal Heat Pumps: 5 ton CFL Bulbs: 12 bulbs per year Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount CFL Bulbs: $2/bulb Geothermal Heat Pumps (New Construction): $350/ton Geothermal Heat Pumps (Upgrade): $700/ton Air Source Heat Pumps (New Construction): $800 Air Source Heat Pumps (Upgrade): $400 Central Air Conditioners: $100 - $200 Heat Pump Water Heaters: $400

133

Puerto Rico- Excise Tax Exemption for Farmers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In Puerto Rico, "bona fide farmers" are exempted from paying all types of excises for equipment, articles and objects whose operation depend solely on solar, wind, hydro or any other type of power,...

134

Farmer's Cooperatives Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Farmer's Cooperatives Wind Farm Farmer's Cooperatives Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Farmer's Cooperatives Wind Farm Facility Farmer's Cooperatives Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Developer DanMar & Associates Energy Purchaser Xcel/ Great River Energy Location Jackson County MN Coordinates 43.612366°, -95.142403° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.612366,"lon":-95.142403,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

135

Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Calibration of Chemical Kinetic Models Using Simulations of Small-Scale Cookoff Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Establishing safe handling limits for explosives in elevated temperature environments is a difficult problem that often requires extensive simulation. The largest influence on predicting thermal cookoff safety lies in the chemical kinetic model used in these simulations, and these kinetic model reaction sequences often contain multiple steps. Several small-scale cookoff experiments, notably Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), One-Dimensional Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), and the Scaled Thermal Explosion (STEX) have been performed on various explosives to aid in cookoff behavior determination. Past work has used a single test from this group to create a cookoff model, which does not guarantee agreement with the other experiments. In this study, we update the kinetic parameters of an existing model for the common explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) using DSC and ODTX experimental data at the same time by minimizing a global Figure of Merit based on hydrodynamic simulated data. We then show that the new kinetic model maintains STEX agreement, reduces DSC agreement, and improves ODTX and TGA agreement when compared to the original model. In addition, we describe a means to use implicit hydrodynamic simulations of DSC experiments to develop a reaction model for TNT melting.

Wemhoff, A P; Becker, R C; Burnham, A K

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

Fricke, K.E.

2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rinehart, B.N.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Prediciting Size Effects and Determing Length Scales in Small Scale Metaliic Volumes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the behavior of metallic structures in small scales. Structural materials display strong size dependence when deformed non-uniformly into the inelastic range. This phenomenon is widely known as size effect. The primary focus of this study is on developing analytical models to predict some of the most commonly observed size effects in structural metals and validating them by comparing with experimental results. A nonlocal rate-dependent and gradient dependent theory of plasticity on a thermodynamically consistent framework is adopted for this purpose. The developed gradient plasticity theory is applied to study size effects observed in biaxial and thermal loading of thin films and indentation tests. One important intrinsic material property associated with this study is material length scale. The work also presents models for predicting length scales and discusses their physical interpretations. It is found that the proposed theory is successful for the interpretation of indentation size effects in micro/nano-hardness when using pyramidal or spherical indenters and gives sound interpretation of the size effects in thin films under biaxial or thermal loading.

Faruk, Abu N.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â?ť Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rinehart, B.N.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power plants spend nearly 50 billion dollars a year on fuel cost. Presently coal accounts for over 75% of the electricity generated in this country. Due to increasingly harsh environmental regulations, the demand for low sulfur (S) coal has dramatically increased. This increase in demand is expected to cause the price of coal to rise. Such a senario has caused the utilities to explore the possibilities of supplementing coal with fuel alternatives such as the byproducts of process industries. The supplemental fuel for utilities located near feedlots (e.g. Northwest Texas) happens to be feedlot manure. Feedlot manure is attractive because it is nearly ten times cheaper than coal and is relatively inexpensive to transport. There exists nearly six million head of cattle in Northwest Texas which produce 25,000 tons of manure each day. Feedlot manure presents water and air pollution concerns if not disposed of properly. As such, the feedlot operators are eager to find methods of safely disposing of the feedlot manure. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure, partially composted feedlot manure, and finished composted feedlot manure. Performance characteristics and emission data were taken for each case. A summary of the results is as follows: (I) sulfur Wyoming coal was fired and a gasification efficiency of 66% was measured. (i I) Emissions measurements were recorded and it was seen that emissions of NO,, and S02 increased as the burnt mass fraction increased. However, all emissions were within NSPS guidelines. (iii) The successful firing of coal and feedlot manure was achieved, a gasification efficiency in the range of 86% was measured, which is higher than 66% obtained when firing coal alone. (iv) When the fuel blend is fully burnt, the NO,, emissions with the blend firing was lower than the firing of coal alone.

Frazzitta, Stephen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

A case study of symmetric instability in the presence of a small-scale cyclone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The case study presented here examines the role of conditional symmetric instability (CSI) in the formation of a meso(x scale (100 km wide) wintertime rainband. The rainband of interest occurred on January 19, 1986, during the first observing period of the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) project. The rainband developed in a region of large-scale southerly flow 500 km ahead of a synoptic-scale cold front and was associated with a small-scale cyclogenesis event along the Eastern Coast of the U. S, Doppler data from the CP-4 radar at Cape Hatteras were obtained for a twelve hour period encompassing the rainband to investigate the temporal evolution of the band. The main objective of this study is to further understanding of mesoscale flow associated with slantwise convection. Also noteworthy in this case study are along-band variations of dry inflow and embedded convection. A synthetic dual-Doppler technique was applied to the Doppler data from the Cape Hatteras CP-4 and has allowed the determination of mesoscale flow characteristics which are associated with slantwise convection in the absence of frontal forcing. In particular the evolution of slantwise updrafts and downdrafts which produce a roll-like structure is presented. It was found that the slope of the mid and upper-level slantwise flow was very near that of temperature and absolute consistent with present CSI the surfaces of equivalent potential temperature and absolute momentum. This observation is consistent with present CSI theory. Also consistent with CSI theory was the persistence of moist slantwise neutrality on the time scale of hours.

Wood, Lance Thomas

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Energy Policy 35 (2007) 43914401 Evaluating the potential of small-scale renewable energy options to meet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the existence of a sizeable market potential for stand-alone renewable energy systems in Western ChinaEnergy Policy 35 (2007) 4391­4401 Evaluating the potential of small-scale renewable energy options to meet rural livelihoods needs: A GIS- and lifecycle cost-based assessment of Western China's options

Delaware, University of

145

Optimization of renewable power system for small scale seawater reverse osmosis desalination unit in Mrair-Gabis village, Libya  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Potential of renewable power system for small scale seawater reverse osmosis desalination unit in Mrair-Gabis village, Libya is evaluated. HOMER optimization model is used to evaluate the different possible configuration options for supplying the electrical ... Keywords: HOMER, Mrair-Gabis-Libya, power system, reverse osmosis seawater desalination

Kh. Abulqasem; M. A. Alghoul; M. N. Mohammed; Alshrif. Mustafa; Kh. Glaisa; Nowshad. Amin; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Farmers Electric Coop | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Farmers Electric Coop Farmers Electric Coop Place Iowa Utility Id 6168 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location MAPP NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Heat Plus Residential Large Commercial Single-Phase Commercial Multi-Phase Commercial Non Residential Commercial Single-Phase Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1200/kWh Commercial: $0.1160/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Farmers_Electric_Coop&oldid=410683"

147

Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

Dunn, Martin L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Talmage, Mellisa J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Limitations for detecting small-scale faults using the coherency analysis of seismic data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coherency analyzes the trace to trace amplitude similarities recorded by seismic waves. Coherency algorithms have been used to identify the structural or stratigraphic features of an area but the limitations for detecting small-scale features are not known. These limitations become extremely important when interpreting coherency within poorly acquired or processed data sets. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coherency limitations, various synthetic seismic data sets were created. The sensitivity of the coherency algorithms to variations in wave frequency, signal-to-noise ratio and fault throw was investigated. Correlation between the coherency values of a faulted reflector and the known offset shows that coherency has the ability to detect the presence of various scale features that may be previously thought to be below seismic resolution or difficult to discriminate with conventional interpretation methods. Coherency values had a smaller standard deviation and were less sensitive to noise when processed with a temporal window length less than one period. A fault could be detected by coherency when the signal-to-noise ratio was >3. A fault could also be detected as long as the throw-to-wavelength ratio was >5% or two-way traveltime-toperiod >10%. Therefore, this study suggests that coherency has the ability to detect a fault as long as the frequency of the data imaging that fault has a period no greater than one order of magnitude to the traveltime through the fault and that the signal can easily be distinguished from noise. Results from application of the coherency analysis were applied to the characterization of a very deep fault and fracture system imaged by a field seismic data set. A series of reverse and strike-slip faults were detected and mapped. Magnitudes of the throws for these faults were not known, but subtle amplitude anomalies in seismic sections confirmed the coherency analysis. The results of this study suggest that coherency has demonstrated an ability to detect features that would normally beoverlooked using traditional interpretation methods and has many future implications for poorly imaged seismic areas, such as sub-salt.

Barnett, David Benjamin

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Farmers' Markets: Managers' Characteristics and Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

' stands, proximity to downtown areas, number of potential customers, safety and use of public land and traffic flow, enough space for farmers' stands, number of potential customers, safety and use of public: Number of Years on the Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Figure 5: Do You Have Any Farming

150

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.  

SciTech Connect

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

151

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels  

SciTech Connect

This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or range of values generally associated with better dispersability, is provided in the Appendix. Special attention was given to characterization of several surface-modified carbon blacks produced by Cabot Corporation through proprietary diazonium salts chemistry. As demonstrated in the report, these advanced carbons offer many advantages over traditional dispersions. They disperse very easily, do not require intensive mechanical shearing or sonication, and the particle size of the dispersed carbon black aggregates is in the target range of 0.15-0.20 {micro}m. The dispersions in water and HMTA/urea solutions are stable for at least 30 days; in conditions of simulated broth, the dispersions are stable for at least 6 hours. It is proposed that the optimization of the carbon black dispersing process is possible by replacing traditional carbon blacks and surfactants with surface-modified carbon blacks having suitable chemical groups attached on their surface. It is recognized that the method advanced in this report for optimizing the carbon black dispersion process is based on a limited number of tests made in aqueous and simulated broth conditions. The findings were corroborated by a limited number of tests carried out with ADUN solutions by the Nuclear Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). More work is necessary, however, to confirm the overall recommendation based on the findings discussed in this report: namely, that the use of surface-modified carbon blacks in the uranium-containing broth will not adversely impact the chemistry of the gelation process, and that high quality uranium oxicarbide (UCO) kernels will be produced after calcination.

Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Dr. Mitchell T. Farmer - Engineering Development and Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitchell T. Farmer DEPARTMENTS Engineering Analysis Nuclear Systems Analysis Research & Test Reactor Nonproliferation and National Security Detection & Diagnostic Systems...

154

Design of a Small-Scale Biodiesel Production System Jeffrey Anderson, Jessica Caceres, Ali Khazaei, Jedidiah Shirey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acres NPV 20 Acres Peanut 136 gal/acre 4.09 -$46,400 -$46,200 -$46,100 Canola 102 gal/acre 3.43 -$6 120000 Utility Net Present Value (dollars) Utility vs. NPV: 10%, Mean, 90% Canola Corn Peanut Soybean using Canola. High biodiesel yield minimizes food supply impact High NPV provides profit for farmer

155

PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates {mu}- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k {approx}window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido, E-mail: jchluba@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

156

Small-scale wind turbines in cities and suburbs S Tullis, K Aly, R Bravo, A Fiedler, S Kooiman, K McLaren S Ziada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in 1970s & 1980s Small VAWTs mainly H-type Sandia 34 m Darrieus Sandia National Labs Cleanfield VAWT #12 is unsuited to traditional small-scale HAWTs Small VAWTs are able to handle the "dirty" air Main technicalSmall-scale wind turbines in cities and suburbs S Tullis, K Aly, R Bravo, A Fiedler, S Kooiman, K

Tullis, Stephen

157

Farmers RECC - Residential Insulation Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farmers RECC - Residential Insulation Rebate Program Farmers RECC - Residential Insulation Rebate Program Farmers RECC - Residential Insulation Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Maximum Rebate $200 Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Free energy audit at Farmers RECC members residence and up to $200 depending on amount of energy which can be saved. Provider Farmers RECC The Farmers Rural Electric Cooperative (RECC) Button-Up Program provides free energy audits and rebates for insulation upgrades to its residential customers. Farmers RECC's energy advisor will visit the customer's home, conduct an energy audit, and calculate the heat gain/heat loss for the home. If needed, customers can then receive up to $200 to increase the

158

Farmers Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethanol LLC Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Farmers' Ethanol LLC Place Adamsville, Ohio Zip OH 43802 Product An association of farmers registered on July 12,2002 with a goal of producing ethanol in the Ohio Appalachian Mountains. Coordinates 35.235864°, -88.390158° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.235864,"lon":-88.390158,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

159

Farmers Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Farmers Electric Coop Corp Farmers Electric Coop Corp Place Arkansas Utility Id 6206 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Rate A-Residential and General Farm Residential Rate AP- Agriculture Processing Commercial Rate B-1 Commercial (Optional) Commercial Rate B-Commercial Commercial Rate I- Agriculture Water Pumping Commercial Rate I-1 Agriculture Water Pumping (Optional) Commercial Rate MSL- Municiple Street Lighting (100 W-all-$/Fixture) Lighting

160

Farmers City Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

City Wind Farm City Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Farmers City Wind Farm Facility Farmers City Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Iberdrola Renewables Developer Iberdrola Renewables Location Atchison County MO Coordinates 40.438596°, -95.469482° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.438596,"lon":-95.469482,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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161

Press report African Monsoon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Press report AMMA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses RREESSUULLTTSS AANNDD : Multidisziplinäre Analysen African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses Afrikaanse Moesson Multidisciplinaire Analyse ..................................................................................................................... 6 Mechanisms of the African monsoon: new insights from AMMA ................................. 6 I

Brierley, Andrew

162

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

Gleeson, L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Summary of the New England conference on legal and institutional incentives to small-scale hydroelectric development (Boston Massachusetts, January 30-31, 1979)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The New England Conference on Legal and Institutional Incentives to Small Scale Hydroelectric Development examined the legal and institutional problems confronting small-scale hydroelectric potential of the northeast. Representatives from DOE, FERC, state legislatures, state public service commissions, private developers, and environmental groups attempted to evaluate the state of hydroelectric development in New England. The meeting began with an introductory panel followed by workshops addressing four topics: Federal regulatory systems, state regulatory systems, the economics of small-scale hydroelectric development, and systems dynamics and the systems dynamics model. Comments by the Honorable Georgiana H. Sheldon, FERC, are presented.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste  

SciTech Connect

In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations.

Hedman, Bjoern [Chemistry Department, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: bjorn.hedman@chem.umu.se; Burvall, Jan [Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 4097, SE-904 03 Umeaa (Sweden); Nilsson, Calle [NBC Defence, NBC Analysis, The Swedish Defence Research Agency, SE-901 82 Umeaa (Sweden); Marklund, Stellan [Chemistry Department, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Effects of Net Metering on the Use of Small-Scale Wind Systems in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Factors such as technological advancements, steadily decreasing costs, consumer demand, and state and federal policies are combining to make wind energy the world's fastest growing energy source. State and federal policies are facilitating the growth of the domestic, large-scale wind power market; however, small-scale wind projects (those with a capacity of less than 100 kilowatts[kW]) still face challenges in many states. Net metering, also referred to as net billing, is one particular policy that states are implementing to encourage the use of small renewable energy systems. Net metering allows individual, grid-tied customers who generate electricity using a small renewable energy system to receive credit from their utility for any excess power they generate beyond what they consume. Under most state rules, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are eligible for net metering; however, some states restrict eligibility to particular customer classes. This paper illustrates how net metering programs in certain states vary considerably in terms of how customers are credited for excess power they generate; the type and size of eligible technologies and whether the utility; the state, or some other entity administers the program. This paper focuses on10 particular states where net metering policies are in place. It analyzes how the different versions of these programs affect the use of small-scale wind technologies and whether some versions are more favorable to this technology than others. The choice of citizens in some states to net meter with photovoltaics is also examined.

Forsyth, T. L.; Pedden, M.; Gagliano, T.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

DEFORMATIONS OF MAASS FORMS D.W. Farmer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEFORMATIONS OF MAASS FORMS D.W. Farmer S. Lemurell Abstract. We describe numerical calculations, deformations, Phillips­Sarnak conjecture, Teichmuller space Typeset by A M S­T E X 1 #12; 2 D.W. FARMER S the surfaces on which we performed our calcula­ tions. #12; 4 D.W. FARMER S. LEMURELL 2.1 Subgroups of PSL(2, R

Lemurell, Stefan

167

Small-Scale Motions Observed by Aircraft in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere: Evidence for Mixing and its Relationship to Large-Scale Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurments of temperature and ozone from instrumental aircraft in the tropical lower stratosphere show the presence of small-scale disturbances generated by 1) underlying cumulus convection and 2) Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The disturbances ...

Leonhard Pfister; Walter Starr; Roger Craig; Max Loewenstein; Marion Legg

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Computer and Internet Use by Great Plains Farmers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

agricultural commodity market information enhances farmers’and financial market information, weather and agriculturalexample, information on commodity markets and input prices

Smith, Aaron; Morrison Paul, Catherine J.; Goe, W. Richard; Kenney, Martin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development IV: fish mortality resulting from turbine passage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document presents a state-of-the-art review of literature concerning turbine-related fish mortality. The review discusses conventional and, to a lesser degree, pumped-storage (reversible) hydroelectric facilities. Much of the research on conventional facilities discussed in this report deals with studies performed in the Pacific Northwest and covers both prototype and model studies. Research conducted on Kaplan and Francis turbines during the 1950s and 1960s has been extensively reviewed and is discussed. Very little work on turbine-related fish mortality has been undertaken with newer turbine designs developed for more modern small-scale hydropower facilities; however, one study on a bulb unit (Kaplan runner) has recently been released. In discussing turbine-related fish mortality at pumped-storage facilities, much of the literature relates to the Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant. As such, it is used as the principal facility in discussing research concerning pumped storage.

Turbak, S. C.; Reichle, D. R.; Shriner, C. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

HINODE Observations of Chromospheric Brightenings in the Ca II H Line during small-scale Flux Emergence Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

\\ion{Ca}{2} H emission is a well-known indicator of magnetic activity in the Sun and other stars. It is also viewed as an important signature of chromospheric heating. However, the \\ion{Ca}{2} H line has not been used as a diagnostic of magnetic flux emergence from the solar interior. Here we report on Hinode observations of chromospheric \\ion{Ca}{2} H brightenings associated with a repeated, small-scale flux emergence event. We describe this process and investigate the evolution of the magnetic flux, G-band brightness, and \\ion{Ca}{2} H intensity in the emerging region. Our results suggest that energy is released in the chromosphere as a consequence of interactions between the emerging flux and the pre-existing magnetic field, in agreement with recent 3D numerical simulations.

S. L. Guglielmino; F. Zuccarello; P. Romano; L. R. Bellot Rubio

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE AS OBSERVED WITH NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND HINODE INSTRUMENTS  

SciTech Connect

With the ever-increasing influx of high-resolution images of the solar surface obtained at a multitude of wavelengths, various processes occurring at small spatial scales have become a greater focus of our attention. Complex small-scale magnetic fields have been reported that appear to have enough stored energy to heat the chromosphere. While significant progress has been made in understanding small-scale phenomena, many specifics remain elusive. We present here a detailed study of a single event of disappearance of a magnetic dipole and associated chromospheric activity. Based on New Solar Telescope H{alpha} data and Hinode photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms and Ca II H images, we report the following. (1) Our analysis indicates that even very small dipoles (elements separated by about 0.''5 or less) may reach the chromosphere and trigger non-negligible chromospheric activity. (2) Careful consideration of the magnetic environment where the new flux is deposited may shed light on the details of magnetic flux removal from the solar surface. We argue that the apparent collision and disappearance of two opposite polarity elements may not necessarily indicate their cancellation (i.e., reconnection, emergence of a 'U' tube, or submergence of {Omega} loops). In our case, the magnetic dipole disappeared by reconnecting with overlying large-scale inclined plage fields. (3) Bright points (BPs) seen in off-band H{alpha} images are very well correlated with the Ca II H BPs, which in turn are cospatial with G-band BPs. We further speculate that, in general, H{alpha} BPs are expected to be cospatial with photospheric BPs; however, a direct comparison is needed to refine their relationship.

Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Abramenko, V. I.; Chae, J.; Cao, W.; Andic, A.; Ahn, K. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Improving Farmers’ Perception and Use of Climate Predictions in Farming Decisions: A Transition Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite tremendous efforts to improve weather and climate predictions and to inform farmers about the use of such weather products, farmers’ attitudes toward forecast use remain poor and farmer use of forecasts has not increased. This paper ...

Lisa M. PytlikZillig; Qi Hu; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Gary D. Lynne; Roger H. Bruning

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Purchase Rate |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Purchase Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Purchase Rate Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Purchase Rate < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Maximum Rebate Payment limited to 25% of customers monthly kWh usage Program Info State Iowa Program Type Performance-Based Incentive Rebate Amount $0.20/kWh Provider Farmers Electric Cooperative Farmers Electric Cooperative offers a production incentive to members that install qualifying wind and solar electricity generating systems. Qualifying grid-tied solar and wind energy systems are eligible for a $0.20 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) production incentive for up to 10 years for energy production that offsets up to 25% of monthly energy usage.

175

Farmers Electric Cooperative - Residential/Agricultural Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farmers Electric Cooperative - Residential/Agricultural Energy Farmers Electric Cooperative - Residential/Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Farmers Electric Cooperative - Residential/Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Electric Water Heaters: $100 Air-Source Heat Pumps: $150 Geothermal Heat Pumps: $1,000 Provider Farmers Electric Cooperative Farmers Electric Cooperative offers incentives for its residential and agricultural members to increase the energy efficiency of eligible homes and facilities. In order to receive rebates, equipment and installation must meet program requirements. Rebates are available for qualifying air

176

Farmers Mutual Electric Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mutual Electric Co Mutual Electric Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Farmers Mutual Electric Co Place Illinois Utility Id 6199 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Rate Schedule A/Single Phase Commercial Commercial Rate Schedule A/Single Phase Residential Residential Rate Schedule AH/Single Phase Residential Electric Heating Commercial Rate Schedule BC Electric Heat Rider/Multi-Phase Service Commercial Rate Schedule BC-1 Irrigation Commercial

177

Farmers Electric Company, Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Company, Ltd Company, Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Farmers Electric Company, Ltd Place Idaho Utility Id 6155 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png College Rider Commercial Commercial-Single Phase Residential Commercial-Three Phase Residential Large Industrial Industrial Large Power Commercial Large Power- Primary Metering Commercial Large Power- Single Phase Commercial Large Power- Three Phase Commercial Residential-Single Phase Residential Residential-Three Phase Residential

178

What determines the price received by farmers? The case of cocoa in Cameroon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009) What determines the price received by farmers? TheBerkeley. What determines the price received by farmers? Thetheir impact on the prices received by the producers.

Bergaly Kamdem, Cyrille; Galtier, Franck; Gockowski, James; David-Benz, Hélčne; Egg, Johny; Kamgnia Dia, Bernadette

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

SITEWIDE CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION fOR SITING, CONSTRUCI1NG, MODIFYING, AND OPERATING SMALL-SCALE STRUcrURES, PACIfiC  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 SITEWIDE CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION fOR SITING, CONSTRUCI1NG, MODIFYING, AND OPERATING SMALL-SCALE STRUcrURES, PACIfiC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON Proposed Action: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) proposes to site, construct, modify, and operate small-scale support buildings and structures. Location of Action: The proposed action would occur on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site and in the vicinity ofPNNL facilities in the State of Washington. Description of tbe Proposed Action: DOE proposes to site, construct, modify, and/or operate small-scale support structures. Siting and construction activities would generally be limited to small facilities and support structures, such as parking areas and storage facilities, that are within or

180

Final Environmental Assessment Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant and Direct-Use Geothermal Application at AmeriCulture Inc., Cotton City, NM  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Colorado 80401-3393 Colorado 80401-3393 August 26, 2002 DOE/EA-1396 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT For the SMALL-SCALE POWER PLANT AND DIRECT-USE GEOTHERMAL APPLICATION At AMERICULTURE, INC., COTTON CITY, NEW MEXICO AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, Golden Field Office ACTION: Finding of No Significant impact (FONSI) SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Small-Scale Power Plant and Direct-Use Application at AmeriCulture, Inc. to evaluate potential impacts of construction and operations that would be funded in part by DOE. Small geothermal power plants have the potential for widespread application, but achieving cost- effectiveness in small plant sizes presents a number of challenges. To address these challenges, DOE is supporting the small-scale field verification projects to (1) determine and validate the

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181

Summary of the Mid-Atlantic conference on small-scale hydropower in the Mid-Atlantic states: resolution of the barriers impeding its development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The workshop was conducted to bring together interested persons to examine and discuss the major problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric dam development in the Mid-Atlantic region. The conference opened with an introductory panel which outlined the objectives and the materials available to conference participants. Two of the workshops discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The other two workshops concerned economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model under development by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Various Federal and state programs designed to stimulate small-scale hydro development were discussed. A plenary session completed the workshops.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. V. Instream flow needs for fishery resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

45b 45b 0554033 I . . ~ ...... . . . . . . . . _ . . _ ~ ~~ ~~ - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . , O R N U T M - 7 8 6 1 Distribution Category UC-97e 0. W-7405-eng-26 ANALYSIS OF ENVIRO RELATED TO SMALL-SCALE HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT. V. INSTREAM FLOW NEE S FOR FISHERY RESOURCES James M. Loar Michael J. Sale TAL SCIENCES D r v r S - I o N Pub1 i c a t i on No. 1829 Prepared f o r U. S. Department o f Energy, A s s i s t a n t Secretary f o r Conservation and Renewable Energy, D i v i s i o n o f H y d r o e l e c t r i c Resource Development Date Pub1 i shed: October 1981 L Tennessee 37830 UNION CARBIDE ~ O ~ ~ ~ R A T I O N f o r the ENT OF ENERGY 3 445b 0554033 B ACKNOWLEDGMENTS W e thank W i l l i a m Knapp (1I.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Service, Region 5) and Mark Robinson (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) for h

183

An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Dynamic simulation of a solar-driven carbon dioxide transcritical power system for small scale combined heat and power production  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide is an environmental benign natural working fluid and has been proposed as a working media for a solar-driven power system. In the current work, the dynamic performance of a small scale solar-driven carbon dioxide power system is analyzed by dynamic simulation tool TRNSYS 16 and Engineering Equation Solver (EES) using co-solving technique. Both daily performance and yearly performance of the proposed system have been simulated. Different system operating parameters, which will influence the system performance, have been discussed. Under the Swedish climatic condition, the maximum daily power production is about 12 kW h and the maximum monthly power production is about 215 kW h with the proposed system working conditions. Besides the power being produced, the system can also produce about 10 times much thermal energy, which can be used for space heating, domestic hot water supply or driving absorption chillers. The simulation results show that the proposed system is a promising and environmental benign alternative for conventional low-grade heat source utilization system. (author)

Chen, Y.; Lundqvist, Per [Div. of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Pridasawas, Wimolsiri [King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Non-linear numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in small-scale flux tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results of non-linear, 2D, numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in the photosphere and chromosphere of small-scale flux tubes with internal structure. Waves with realistic periods of three to five minutes are studied, after applying horizontal and vertical oscillatory perturbations to the equilibrium model. Spurious reflections of shock waves from the upper boundary are minimized thanks to a special boundary condition. This has allowed us to increase the duration of the simulations and to make it long enough to perform a statistical analysis of oscillations. The simulations show that deep horizontal motions of the flux tube generate a slow (magnetic) mode and a surface mode. These modes are efficiently transformed into a slow (acoustic) mode in the vA < cS atmosphere. The slow (acoustic) mode propagates vertically along the field lines, forms shocks and remains always within the flux tube. It might deposit effectively the energy of the driver into the chromosphere. When the driver oscillates with a high frequency, above the cut-off, non-linear wave propagation occurs with the same dominant driver period at all heights. At low frequencies, below the cut-off, the dominant period of oscillations changes with height from that of the driver in the photosphere to its first harmonic (half period) in the chromosphere. Depending on the period and on the type of the driver, different shock patterns are observed.

E. Khomenko; M. Collados; T. Felipe

2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil? The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil? The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil? July 1, 2010 - 11:39am Addthis Lindsay Gsell After a harvest is over, crops can be sold, shipped, canned or consumed. But what happens to the parts of the crops that are inedible-the corn stover, stalks or cobs? Selling crop residues for bioenergy could provide farmers with an extra source of income. Yet, leaving some residue on the fields helps reduce soil erosion and maintain healthy levels of soil carbon and other nutrients. So how can land managers find this balance? Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is developing the Residue Removal Tool -- new software designed to simulate sustainability criteria -- to help find this balance of what to remove and what to leave behind. The software will

187

Nancy Gammons: Four Sisters Farm and Watsonville Farmers' Market Manager  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

things. Like, at the farmers’ market it’s very entertaining.trying to get into the market? Nancy Gammons Gammons: Yes.not dropped out of the market, except seasonally. We lose

Rabkin, Sarah

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money October 22, 2010 - 11:33am Addthis EAA Executive Director Luis Bernal addresses an audience about Puerto Rico’s State Energy Program. | Photo courtesy EAA EAA Executive Director Luis Bernal addresses an audience about Puerto Rico's State Energy Program. | Photo courtesy EAA Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Market saving $16,000 annually from cooling upgrades $37 million in Recovery Act funding projected to save millions on island Recovery Act funded 11 programs 22 direct jobs, 394 indirect jobs in Puerto Rico Buying fruits and vegetables at the Las Piedras farmers market is now more comfortable for the thousands of Puerto Ricans who shop there regularly.

189

High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL Small-Scale Development Apparatus  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger-scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a lo-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed pressure of 0.1 MPa. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K to 650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments. Experiments were conducted to measure the rate of hydrogen oxidation in the absence of ignition sources at temperatures of 500K and 650K, for hydrogen-air mixtures of 15 percent and 50 percent, and for a mixture of equimolar hydrogen-air and 30 percent steam at 650K. The rate of hydrogen oxidation was found to be significant at 650K. Reduction of hydrogen concentration by chemical reaction from 50 to 44 percent hydrogen, and from 15 to 11 percent hydrogen, were observed on a time frame of minutes.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L.; Sato, K.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL small-scale development apparatus  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen composition from 9 to 60 percent by volume and steam fractions up to 35 percent by volume were studied for stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K-650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside diameter SSDA test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent hydrogen at 300K down to between 9 and 10 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsburg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-6 test data report : thermal hydraulic results, Rev. 0.  

SciTech Connect

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure? (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx} {phi} 30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength is being addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus measures the fracture strength of the crust while it is either at room temperature or above, the latter state being achieved with a heating element placed below the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the sixth water ingression test, designated SSWICS-6. This test investigated the quenching behavior of a fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 15 wt% siliceous concrete at a system pressure of 1 bar absolute. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

192

African Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

African Energy Place Scottsdale, Arizona Zip 85267 Sector Solar Product African Energy is a wholesale distributor of back-up and solar power equipment, exclusively for Africa....

193

Southern African Data Sets Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

eleven southern African data sets for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). These data sets, originally prepared in coordination with data investigators...

194

Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar June 24, 2010 - 4:11pm Addthis Alpacas stand outside a solar powered barn on the property of Larry and Cathi Dietsch | Photo courtesy of Larry Dietsch Alpacas stand outside a solar powered barn on the property of Larry and Cathi Dietsch | Photo courtesy of Larry Dietsch Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy It takes a lot of work - and energy - to keep a herd of alpacas, known for their lustrous, long wool coats, happy and healthy. But, by harnessing the sun to power their 12-acre farm, a Georgia couple has shown they are up to the task. Larry and Cathi Dietsch, owners of Destiny Alpacas in Young Harris, are

195

Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar Alpaca Farmers Shearing Energy Costs with Solar June 24, 2010 - 4:11pm Addthis Alpacas stand outside a solar powered barn on the property of Larry and Cathi Dietsch | Photo courtesy of Larry Dietsch Alpacas stand outside a solar powered barn on the property of Larry and Cathi Dietsch | Photo courtesy of Larry Dietsch Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy It takes a lot of work - and energy - to keep a herd of alpacas, known for their lustrous, long wool coats, happy and healthy. But, by harnessing the sun to power their 12-acre farm, a Georgia couple has shown they are up to the task. Larry and Cathi Dietsch, owners of Destiny Alpacas in Young Harris, are

196

Western Farmers Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Western Farmers Elec Coop, Inc Western Farmers Elec Coop, Inc Place Oklahoma Utility Id 20447 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Western_Farmers_Elec_Coop,_Inc&oldid=412173

197

City of Farmer City, Illinois (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Farmer City, Illinois (Utility Company) Farmer City, Illinois (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Farmer City Place Illinois Utility Id 6192 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC SERC Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Alt Electric Rate Commercial Commercial Electric Rate Commercial Commercial rate CI-D Industrial Electric Rate-School Commercial Electric rate- Municipal Commercial Grain Drying Rate Commercial Outdoor Lighting 100 W HPS Lighting

198

Application of Weather Forecasts in Agriculture: Communicating Agro meteorological Information to Smallholder Irrigation Farmers in Kenya  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Food insecurity among smallholder farmers has been a result of the inability of households to produce all its food requirements due to lack of access to productive resources and unfavourable production environment among other factors. Smallholder farmers ...

Willard Zendera; Gilbert O. Obwoyere; Elias K. Maranga

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer and assume some are stochastically present biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer ...

Duflo, Esther

200

Understanding the Influence of Climate Forecasts on Farmer Decisions as Planned Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of a set of four regression models applied to recent survey data of farmers in eastern Nebraska suggest the causes that drive farmer intentions of using weather and climate information and forecasts in farming decisions. The model results ...

Ikrom Artikov; Stacey J. Hoffman; Gary D. Lynne; Lisa M. Pytlik Zillig; Qi Hu; Alan J. Tomkins; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Michael J. Hayes; William Waltman

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Global niche markets and local development : clientelism and fairtrade farmer organizations in Paraguay's sugar industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Globalization has transformed the markets in which agricultural goods are traded, placing new demands on farmers around the world. In developing countries, smallholder and peasant farmers lack many of the resources needed ...

Setrini, Gustavo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Under African Sun by Marianne Alverson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chicago Press. Under African Sun 233 pp. Chicago: First handexaminations. Under African Sun by Marianne Alverson,Rre Segathle. Under African Sun is not a scholarly work. It

Eckert, Mark S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

A comparative analysis of business structures suitable for farmer-owned wind power projects in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

site generation): the electricity bill savings that resultfor half of the farmer’s electricity bill, then the per-kWh

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Technical Status Report for US Wind Farmers Network  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The theme of the work in this quarter was community-based wind and locally owned wind projects. The work Windustry has done is just beginning to touch the heart of the matter for a hugely interested audience of rural landowners and rural communities. We revised and published a Windustry Newsletter on two farmer owned wind projects called Minwind I and Minwind II. This article was largely researched and written last quarter but the principal individuals that organized the wind projects didn't want any more farmers calling them up than they already had, so they urged us to put a hold on the article or not publish it. This presented a unique problem for Windustry. Up to this point, we had not dealt with generating too much attention for a wind energy project. The story of a group of farmers and individuals pooling their resources for two locally owned commercial-scale wind projects is very compelling and the organizers of the projects were getting a great deal of attention from other farmers that want more details on the project. However, the organizers committed a large amount of their own resources toward the set up of this project which took many hours with their legal counsel and they did not have the capacity or the desire to provide answers for all the other farmers and individuals who were requesting information. Windustry worked with the business entity and did not publish the newsletter until we resolved some of the problems with the high level of interest in this project. Windustry resolved to address this issue by creating a custom track in the state and regional wind energy conference held in Minneapolis, November 21-22, 2002. There were a few sessions in the Landowner and Citizen Workshops track that were specifically created to talk about the ''how-to's for rural landowners to put together their own projects. Also, the conference's Community-Based Wind track addressed what makes a good project and what moneylenders are looking for when they evaluate wind projects. All of this contributed to the general knowledge base for other farmers to understand what it takes to put together their own wind energy enterprise. In a limited way, Windustry is beginning to define, differentiate and explore new types of wind energy business models. A good initial step is defining community-based wind as projects that are publicly owned--by a municipality, a rural electric coop, a county, or public entity like a school system, or hospital or jail. Ultimately, this work will lead to new materials on wind energy business models for rural landowners and communities.

Daniels, Lisa

2003-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

205

Analysis of environmental issues related to small scale hydroelectric development. II. Design considerations for passing fish upstream around dams. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1567  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The possible requirement of facilities to move migrating fish upstream around dams may be a factor in determining the feasibility of retrofitting small dams for hydroelectric generation. Basic design considerations are reported that should be evaluated on a site-specific basis if upstream fish passage facilities are being considered for a small scale hydroelectric project (defined as an existing dam that can be retrofitted to generate 25 MW or less). Information on general life history and geographic distribution of fish species that may require passage is presented. Biological factors important in the design of upstream passage facilities are discussed: gas bubble disease, fish swimming speed, oxygen consumption by fish, and diel and photo behavior. Three general types of facilities (fishways, fish locks, and fish lifts) appropriate for upstream fish passage at small scale hydroelectric projects are described, and size dimensions are presented. General design criteria for these facilities (including fish swimming ability and behavior) and general location of facilities at a site are discussed. Basic cost considerations for each type of passage facility, including unit cost, operation and maintenance costs, and costs for supplying attraction water, are indicated.

Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach: Wind for Homeowners, Farmers, and  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Rural Rural Communities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Agricultural & Rural Farm Bill Outreach Articles Wind for Homeowners, Farmers, & Businesses Wind Farms Resources & Tools Native Americans Wind for Homeowners, Farmers, and Businesses Wind Powering America produced Small Wind Electric Systems Consumer's Guides to help homeowners, ranchers, and small businesses decide if wind energy will work for them. A Small Wind Guidebook is available for each state and answers these questions. Is wind energy practical for me? What size wind turbine do I need? What are the basic parts of a small wind electric system? What do wind systems cost? Where can I find installation and maintenance support? How much energy will my system generate? Is there enough wind on my site?

207

Large Scale GSHP as Alternative Energy for American Farmers Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GSHP as Alternative Energy for American Farmers Geothermal GSHP as Alternative Energy for American Farmers Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Large Scale GSHP as Alternative Energy for American Farmers Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description We propose a large scale demonstration of solar assisted GSHP systems on two poultry farms in mid-Missouri. The heating load of Farm A with 4 barns will be 510 tons and Farm B with 5 barns will be 440 tons. Solar assisted GSHP systems will be installed, and new utility business model will be applied to both farms. Farm A will be constructed with commercial products in order to bring immediate impact to the industry. Farm B will also have a thermal energy storage system installed, and improved solar collectors will be used. A comprehensive energy analysis and economic study will be conducted.

208

Small-scale cookoff bomb (SSCB) tests on solutions of DMSO/LX-10-1 and DMSO/PBX-9404  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The small-scale cookoff bomb test was developed by the Navy at China Lake as a method for evaluation of the violence of thermal decomposition of explosives and propellants. The UN {open_quotes}Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods - Tests and Criteria{close_quotes} (ST/SG/AC.10/11) have accepted the small-scale cookoff bomb test as a test for classification of a substance as an explosive (class 1 substance) for storage and shipment. The US Departments of Transportation and Defense have agreed to use the UN tests as US criteria for storage and shipment. The UN scheme is designed to assess the relative hazard of explosives so that an appropriate classification for transport can be made by the competent authority (DOT). Three thermal tests have been approved: the Koenen test, the internal ignition test and the small-scale cookoff bomb (SSCB) test. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed a dissolution work station for removal of the plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) LX-10-1 and PBX-9404 from two artillery fired atomic projectiles (AFAPs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the solvent. The DOE Explosives Safety Manual allows up to 33% solutions of explosives to be handled as non-explosive in the laboratory and 25% solutions to be stored as non-explosives unless the explosive precipitates out. In order to ship solutions of LX-10-1 or PBX-9404 in DMSO on US highways for waste or recycling as non-explosives, these solutions must be approved for shipping by the DOT based on the results of UN test series 1. The compositions of LX-10-1 and PBX-9404 are given in Table 1. The shock sensitivity of solutions of these two plastic bonded explosives in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been evaluated using the UN series 1 gap test for liquids as described in a previous report. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the SSCB tests on pure DMSO and 25% PBX solutions in DMSO to assist in the classification of these solutions.

Helm, F.; Hoffman, D.M.

1994-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Factors hindering the development of small-scale municipal hydropower: a case study of the Black River project in Springfield, Vermont  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are many good reasons to use New England's small-scale hydropower resources to generate electricity. But current production capacity in the three northern states is only 1300 MW, just 35% of the 3710 MW estimated to be available to the states. Though the benefits of properly designed projects seem substantial, many factors combine to hinder their development. The Black River project in Springfield, Vermont, exemplifies the problem. Even after the two has invested over five years and $1 million in its effort to develop 30 MW of capacity, it still has not received either federal or state approval to proceed with construction. The first 4 years of the Springfield experience are described and factors that have greatly increased the cost and planning time for the project are identified. The purpose is to identify changes that could facilitate efforts to develop small-scale hydropower at other acceptable sites. On the basis of this experience it is recommended that: after issuance of a FERC permit, a preliminary determination of the project's impacts should be made by FERC officials; if environmental impacts are solely local or limited, environmental analysis/determination should be placed in the hands of the state; short-form licensing should be used for all run-of-river hydro projects that utilize and do not significantly modify existing water impoundment areas and do not significantly alter downstream flow patterns; and a hydro ombudsman with power at the state level should be established to facilitate governmental inter-agency coordination and project-related information transfer: one-stop licensing. (LCL)

Peters, E.; Berger, G.; Amlin, J.; Meadows, D.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

THE IRREDUCIBILITY OF SOME LEVEL 1 HECKE POLYNOMIALS D.W. Farmer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE IRREDUCIBILITY OF SOME LEVEL 1 HECKE POLYNOMIALS D.W. Farmer K. James Abstract. Let Tp;2 D.W. FARMER K. JAMES condition of having full Galois group as well as irreducibility. They also-1 f(pz) + p-1 p-1 b=0 f z + b p . #12;4 D.W. FARMER K. JAMES In terms of Fourier expansions, if f

James, Kevin

211

The critical success factors for websites for Chinese migrant farmer workers: a multi-case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is to explore the critical success factors for the websites for Chinese migrant farmer workers. A theoretical framework was put forward according to the theories of usability, information architecture, webometrics and business model. A multi-case ... Keywords: Chinese farmer workers, managerial-technical perspective, multi-case study, special website, vulnerable groups, website effect

Fang Wang, Lihong Gu

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Farmers Electric Coop, Inc (Texas) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

182 182 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location TRE NERC ERCOT Yes ISO Ercot Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Residential Residential Street Lighting 100 W HPS Lighting Street Lighting 250 W HPS Lighting Street Lighting 400 W HPS Lighting Street Lighting 400 W MH Lighting Average Rates Residential: $0.1140/kWh Commercial: $0.1070/kWh Industrial: $0.0775/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Farmers_Electric_Coop,_Inc_(Texas)&oldid=410685

213

Farmers Rural Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coop Corp Coop Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name Farmers Rural Electric Coop Corp Place Kentucky Utility Id 6194 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial - Industrial less than 50 kW Commercial Commercial - Industrial more than 50 kW Commercial Large Industrial Industrial Mercury Vapor - 1000 watt Lighting Mercury Vapor - 250 watt Lighting Mercury Vapor - 400 watt Lighting Mercury Vapor Lamp - 175 watt Lighting Mercury Vapor Lamp - 175 watt, shared Lighting

214

Farmers' Electric Coop, Inc (New Mexico) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New Mexico New Mexico Utility Id 6198 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Booster Pump Sprinkle Commercial Commercial/ Industrial Commercial/Industrial With Discounting Commercial Commercial/Industrial With Water Heater Industrial Farm and Residential Residential Farmers Electric Commercial Industrial Power Service Industrial Irrigation Facility Charge Commercial Large Power Commercial Large Power Facility Charge Commercial Large Power With Discount Commercial Livestock/Non-Dom Wel Commercial

215

Searching for simplified farmers' crop choice models for integrated watershed management in Thailand: A data mining approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study used the C4.5 data mining algorithm to model farmers' crop choice in two watersheds in Thailand. Previous attempts in the Integrated Water Resource Assessment and Management Project to model farmers' crop choice produced large sets of decision ... Keywords: Data mining, Decision support system, Decision trees, Farmers' crop choice

Benchaphun Ekasingh; Kamol Ngamsomsuke

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Iowa farmer hopes corn cobs will bring in extra cash | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

farmer hopes corn cobs will bring in extra cash farmer hopes corn cobs will bring in extra cash Iowa farmer hopes corn cobs will bring in extra cash October 22, 2009 - 12:22pm Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Todd Mathisen's family has been working the rich soil in Northwest Iowa for the last 130 years, ever since his great-great grandfather homesteaded the land in the 1870s. Todd has cultivated the fields himself for the last three decades. His family's roots here go so deep they'd be pretty hard to pull up now, and he doesn't plan on leaving anytime soon. But that doesn't mean Todd is stuck in his ways. In fact, he's at the forefront of American farmers helping to supply the United States with a biofuel that may have a promising future: cellulosic ethanol.

217

Big business works with small farmers : the case of the Buabin Oil Palm Outgrower Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Globally, there are about 500 million small farms from which two billion people derive their livelihoods. These farmers face a host of challenges to access both domestic and international markets. This thesis examines the ...

Santini, Christina PioCosta-Lahue

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Decision Making under Climate Risks: An Analysis of Sub-Saharan Farmers’ Adaptation Behaviors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines decision making under climate risks using farmers’ decisions in sub-Saharan Africa, where climate risks are very high. Two risk measures are obtained from the Climate Research Unit’s high-resolution climatology, diurnal ...

S. Niggol Seo

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Weather-Index Drought Insurance in Burkina-Faso: Assessment of Its Potential Interest to Farmers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using a detailed agricultural and climate dataset over Burkina-Faso and simple assumptions regarding the form of an insurance contract, the authors investigate the potential economic efficiency for farmers of a weather-index insurance system ...

Alexis Berg; Philippe Quirion; Benjamin Sultan

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in ...

Qi Hu; Lisa M. Pytlik Zillig; Gary D. Lynne; Alan J. Tomkins; William J. Waltman; Michael J. Hayes; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Ikrom Artikov; Stacey J. Hoffman; Donald A. Wilhite

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Southern African Data Sets Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thirteen new Southern African data thirteen new Southern African data sets. Originally offered on the second CD-ROM volume prepared for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) by the Goddard Space Flight Center, these data sets contain meteorological, aerosol, atmospheric chemistry, and precipitation data. In addition, this data release includes a new data set that compares Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire data from the dry season 2001. The SAFARI 2000 project was conducted during 1999-2001 to develop a better understanding of the earth-atmosphere-human system in southern Africa. These data sets focus primarily on the 2000 dry season— and September— the southern African region, defined as latitude 5° N to 35° S and

222

Barriers and Solutions for Farmer Participation in the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a multiyear collaborative effort, American Farmland Trust (AFT) convened six listening sessions with approximately 150 agricultural producers (farmers) in the Ohio River Basin (ORB) to determine their readiness to sell nutrient credits in a regional water quality trading (WQT) market. In a WQT market, municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial manufacturing plants, and electric power companies can purchase nutrient credits to meet their regulatory requirements. They pay farmers to imple...

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style With Every Heartbeat Is Life #12;#12;Heart Recipe Substitutions for Heart Healthy Cooking at the heart of African American family life and special celebrations. This recipe book brings together many

Bandettini, Peter A.

224

DISPATCHES Emergence of African Swine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identifi ed African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir. African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable, highly contagious, lethal, hemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs (1,2). ASF virus (ASFV) (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses database no. 00.002.0.01.001), an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus, is the only known DNA arbovirus (3). Maintenance and transmission of ASFV involves cycling of virus between soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros and wild pigs (warthogs, bush pigs, and giant forest boars) (1,2). The virus can also be acquired through

Pooneh Rahimi; Amir Sohrabi; Javad Ashrafihelan; Rosita Edalat; Mehran Alamdari; Mohammadhossein Masoudi; Saied Mostofi; Kayhan Azadmanesh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

North Atlantic Hurricanes Contributed by African Easterly Waves North and South of the African Easterly Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A majority of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic develop from African easterly waves (AEWs), which originate along both the southern and northern flanks of the midtropospheric African easterly jet (AEWS and AEWn, respectively). The purpose ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Shih-Yu Wang; Adam J. Clark

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

African American Women and HIV Prevention.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For many health conditions, non-Hispanic Blacks bear a disproportionate burden of disease, injury, death, and disability. The purpose of this study was to examine African… (more)

Samuel, Nicole Monique

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

More Southern African Data Sets Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

six data sets for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). These data sets, originally prepared in coordination with data investigators by the SAFARI 2000...

228

AFRICAN AMERICAN AFFINITY GROUP ARTICLES OF THE CONSTITUTION & BYLAWS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AFRICAN AMERICAN AFFINITY GROUP AFRICAN AMERICAN AFFINITY GROUP ARTICLES OF THE CONSTITUTION & BYLAWS Date: May 22, 2012 African-American Affinity Group AFRICAN AMERICAN AFFINITY GROUP ARTICLES OF THE CONSTITUTION - 2 - Revised and accepted May 22, 2012 ARTICLES OF THE CONSTITUTION ARTICLE I - NAME SECTION 1 The name of the Organization is the "African -American Affinity Group" (AAAG). ARTICLE II - MISSION SECTION 1 The African-American Affinity Group (AAAG) exists to provide a forum where employees and guests can promote awareness of the Black, African, African-American and Caribbean cultures, share professional insights, acquire information and provide leadership on their careers and work

229

Intercomparison and analyses of the climatology of the West African Monsoon in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project (WAMME) first model intercomparison experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the climatology of the West African Monsoon in theWest African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project (the West African Monsoon (WAM) Modeling and Evaluation

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Dynamics of the West African Westerly Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The West African westerly jet (WAWJ) is a low-level westerly jet located at 8°–11°N over the eastern Atlantic and the West African coast. It is clearly distinguished from the monsoon westerly flow by its structure and dynamics, and plays an ...

Bing Pu; Kerry H. Cook

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

FACTORS AFFECTING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS ’ ADOPTION OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN ZAMBIA By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Land and water for agriculture are scarce natural resources hence the promotion of good land management has taken center stage in Zambia. This study attempts to measure the factors that could be associated with the adoption of conservation farming practices considering that farmers have multiple practices to choose from and may adopt a given technology package in pieces. Based on a 1999/2000 national representative sample, the study suggests that farmers may be using intercropping to manage risk in low rainfall areas whereas pot holing does not yet appear to be considered as a risk reduction option. The thrust of this study is that policy makers should strive to build human capital, while at the same time retain skilled farmers through reduced adult mortalities. Provision of extension services should concentrate in areas with relevant physiographical factors while infrastructure should be improved to minimize costs of delivering extension services and agricultural inputs. DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to my wife Doreen and my little daughter Chomba. The patience they showed and the support they provided during the time I was studying up to the very end of writing this thesis was wonderful. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many thanks and appreciation goes to the following institutions and individuals whom without their help and support, the successful completion of my study would not have been possible:

Geoffrey Ndawa Chomba; Geoffrey Ndawa Chomba

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

ATP and Small-scale Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 00-00-4201 Deposition Source for Producing Super Lattice Multi ... Integrated Hybrid DMFC/EC Capacitor Powerpack Mechanical Technology, Inc. ...

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

233

Solar thermoelectrics for small scale power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past two decades, there has been a surge in the research of new thermoelectric (TE) materials, driven party by the need for clean and sustainable power generation technology. Utilizing the Seebeck effect, the ...

Amatya, Reja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Financing of private small scale hydroelectric projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual is a description of the financing process associated with the private development of SSH projects. It examines the institutional framework and the actors within that framework who will have vital impact upon the potential for success of a project. The manual describes the information a developer should obtain in order to make intelligent decisions concerning the multiple directions in which project development can proceed. This information should assist the developer in formulating a business plan. Factors to be considered in choosing a business organizational form are discussed. Included is an analysis of the federal income tax factors relevant to SSH in context of the treatment of specific items: business expenses, depreciation, the Investment Tax Credit, and the Energy Tax Credit as modified by COWPTA. In addition, the tax and organizational factors are applied to an analysis of two mechanisms which can lower development costs through maximum utilization of available tax benefits: limited partnerships and leveraged leases. The manual lists and analyzes the major sources of debt and equity financing that are potentially available to a developer. Finally, all the previously discussed pieces are put together and how the decisions relating to such factors as marketing, taxation and debt financing interrelate to determine the probable success and profitability of a project are investigated. Furthermore, this part of the manual will provide an illustrated guide to understanding the financing process, leading the reader through the decisionmaking and negotiation points, and highlighting what should be borne in mind, what a developer may be giving up and what the perspective of other key actors will be at those points.

Smukler, L.M.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Local, sustainable, small-scale cellular networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over five billion people are active cellular subscribers, spending over a trillion dollars a year on communications. Despite this, hundreds of millions of people are still not connected. Implicit in these networks is a top-down design, with large nation-scale ... Keywords: information and communications technology for development, legal factors

Kurtis Heimerl, Shaddi Hasan, Kashif Ali, Eric Brewer, Tapan Parikh

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Small-Scale Solar Grants (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC) provides incentives for renewable-energy projects. Incentive programs are funded by the Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF) and...

237

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

238

African Adaptation Programme | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Adaptation Programme Adaptation Programme Jump to: navigation, search Logo: African Adaptations Programme Name African Adaptations Programme Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Development Programme, Government of Japan Topics Adaptation, Finance, Implementation, Policies/deployment programs Website http://www.undp-adaptation.org References AAP[1] Overview "UNDP, with funding from the Government of Japan, recently launched a new programme that uses an innovative approach to climate change adaptation in Africa. Under this programme, UNDP will assist 21 African countries in implementing integrated and comprehensive adaptation actions and resilience plans. The projects will ensure that national development processes incorporate climate change risks and opportunities to secure development gains under a

239

Intraseasonal variability of the west African monsoon and African easterly waves during boreal summer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Substantial subseasonal variability in African easterly wave (AEW) activity and cyclogenesis frequency occurs in the main hurricane development region of the Atlantic during boreal summer.… (more)

Alaka, Ghassan J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article investigates the African easterly jet (AEJ), its structure, and the forcings contributing to its maintenance, critically revisiting previous work that attributed the maintenance of the jet to soil moisture gradients over tropical ...

Man-Li C. Wu; Oreste Reale; Siegfried D. Schubert; Max J. Suarez; Randy D. Koster; Philip J. Pegion

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Dynamics of the West African Monsoon Jump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed abrupt latitudinal shift of maximum precipitation from the Guinean coast into the Sahel region in June, known as the West African monsoon jump, is studied using a regional climate model. Moisture, momentum, and energy budget analyses ...

Samson M. Hagos; Kerry H. Cook

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Adversarial Diplomacy and African American Politics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in international affairs and foreign policy. A lawyer byU.S. international affairs and foreign policy, particularlyAffairs and international relations and their collective efforts to mobilize African American interest in U.S. foreign policy

Williams II, Ronald Cartell

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Southern African Environmental Data, November 2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on CD-ROM The ORNL DAAC has released a CD-ROM volume containing recent and historical environmental data from SAFARI 2000, the Southern African Regional Science Initiative. SAFARI...

244

Climate Simulations of African Easterly Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional structure and propagation characteristics of African easterly waves for the 1986–94 period are studied with June–August European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses, National Centers for ...

John C. Fyfe

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Energy Dispersion in African Easterly Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence of an upstream (eastward) group velocity for African easterly waves (AEWs) is shown based on single-point lag regressions using gridded reanalysis data from 1990 to 2010. The eastward energy dispersion is consistent with the ...

Michael Diaz; Anantha Aiyyer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Farmers and ranchers in Calhoun County, TX: their land ethic and their interest in nature tourism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is based on research that investigates (1) the land relationships of farmers and ranchers in Calhoun County, Texas, and (2) their opinions about, and interest in, nature tourism and/or starting a nature tourism enterprise. The methodology of this study consists of in-depth, semi-structured, open-ended interviews following an interpretive research approach (drawing from hermeneutic phenomenology), in order to get at the experiences of the farmers/ranchers and the meanings related to these experiences. The results of this descriptive and interpretive research indicate that the relationship of these agricultural producers with the land are far more complex than expressed in the environmental literature, and extends beyond the simplistic categories of anthropocentric (human centered) and non-anthropocentric (wilderness has value independent of humans) attitudes toward nature and the natural environment. Included in the framework of the producer's agricultural land ethic, which is built from the land relationship, are concepts such as the producers? sincere desire to take care of the land, their respect for the land, and specific views on their practices with the land. The agricultural land ethic provides insight into what guides the farmer in their daily operation of the farm and/or ranch as well as what influences them in their consideration of nature tourism. Finally, implications and recommendations are presented for the conservation and preservation of rural agricultural practices and ecological spaces through a revisited land ethic, and for the potential and pitfalls of diversifying into nature tourism in order to offset declining farm/ranching incomes.

Williams, Kimberly Lyn

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Daytime Evolution of the East African Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a combined observational and theoretical study of the daytime evolution of the equatorial East African low-level jet stream. During the daytime, as the flow advects from a suppressed marine environment across the East African coastline ...

David M. Rubenstein

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Hard Work, Hard Times: Global Volatility and African Subjectivities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

essay has argued that against the backdrop of growing aus- terity, ordinary South Africans have found creative

Makhulu, Anne-Maria; Buggenhagen, Beth A.; Jackson, Stephen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

More Southern African Data Sets Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fifteen southern African data sets fifteen southern African data sets for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). These data sets, originally prepared in coordination with data investigators by the SAFARI 2000 Data Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, contain the results of fire-related measurements including field and laboratory measurements of burning biomass emissions, pre- and post-burning site and ash reflectance, estimates of regional fuel load and emissions, and historical fire occurrence. These data sets also contain the results of measurements and estimates of vegetation emissions of volatile organic compounds; flux measurements of carbon, heat, and water vapor along the Kalahari Transect and at fixed tower sites; and meteorological data from tower sites.

250

Pan African Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pan African Technologies Pan African Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name Pan African Technologies Place Nairobi, Kenya Sector Solar Product A Kenya-based solar panel manufacturer Coordinates -1.277298°, 36.806261° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-1.277298,"lon":36.806261,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

251

Spatio-temporal metamodeling for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatio-temporal metamodeling for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa , CĂ©line Helberta in Western Africa : West African Monsoon. We are particularly interested in studying the influence of sea-temporal modeling, filtering, multivariate penalized regression 1. Introduction West African monsoon is the major

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Spatio-temporal prediction for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatio-temporal prediction for West African monsoon Anestis Antoniadisa , CĂ©line Helberta in Western Africa : West African Monsoon. We are particularly interested in studying the influence of sea-temporal modeling, filtering, multivariate penalized regression 1. Introduction West African monsoon is the major

253

Intercomparison and analyses of the climatology of the West African Monsoon in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intercomparison and analyses of the climatology of the West African Monsoon in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project (WAMME) first model intercomparison experiment Yongkang Xue This paper briefly presents the West African Monsoon (WAM) Modeling and Evaluation Project (WAMME

Xue, Yongkang

254

The JET2000 Project: Aircraft Observations of the African Easterly Jet and African Easterly Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scientific background and motivation for the JET2000 aircraft observing campaign that took place in West Africa during the last week of August 2000 are presented. The Met Research Flight C130 aircraft made two flights along the African easterly ...

C. D. Thorncroft; D. J. Parker; R. R. Burton; M. Diop; J. H. Ayers; H. Barjat; S. Devereau; A. Diongue; R. Dumelow; D. R. Kindred; N. M. Price; M. Saloum; C. M. Tayor; A. M. Tompkins

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Generation of African Easterly Wave Disturbances: Relationship to the African Easterly Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between African easterly waves and the background climatology in which they form is studied using a regional climate model. The surface and lateral boundary conditions in the model are manipulated to modify the background ...

Jen-Shan Hsieh; Kerry H. Cook

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Physics publication productivity in South African universities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Publication productivity during 2009---2011 was studied for physicists who teach in South African universities, using data from departmental websites and Thomson Reuters' Web of Science. The objective was to find typical ranges of two measures of individual ... Keywords: Physics, Productivity, Publication, South Africa, Universities

Alan Peter Matthews

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Situating digital storytelling within African communities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We reflect on the methods, activities and perspectives we used to situate digital storytelling in two rural African communities in South Africa and Kenya. We demonstrate how in-depth ethnography in a village in the Eastern Cape of South Africa and a ... Keywords: Cross-cultural, Digital storytelling, ICT4D, Mobile devices, Oral knowledge, Rural

Thomas Reitmaier; Nicola J. Bidwell; Gary Marsden

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

African Development Bank | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bank Bank Jump to: navigation, search Logo: African Development Bank Name African Development Bank Address Rue Joseph Anoma, 01 BP 1387 Abidjan 01 Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire Place Ivory Coast Year founded 1964 Website http://www.afdb.org/en/ Coordinates 5.336318°, -4.027751° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":5.336318,"lon":-4.027751,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

259

GIZ-Developing Climate Policy Capacity within the South African...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policy Capacity within the South African Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Developing Climate Policy Capacity within DEA...

260

A Tall Order: Climate Models Fall Short in Predicting African  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

during a 1-year deployment in Niamey in 2006, as a contribution to the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis. "The availability of these datasets, as well as the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Growth Trends in the South African Manufactured Export Industry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Through empirical research the researcher gained an in-depth knowledge regarding the growth trends in the South African manufactured export industry as well as the factors… (more)

Moloto, Phineas Rameshovo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Generation of the African Easterly Jet and Its Role in Determining West African Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An examination of analyses and model simulations is used to show that the African easterly jet forms over West Africa in summer as a result of strong meridional soil moisture gradients. In a series of GCM experiments, the imposition of realistic ...

Kerry H. Cook

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Proclamation: President Obama on National African American History Month,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Proclamation: President Obama on National African American A Proclamation: President Obama on National African American History Month, 2012 A Proclamation: President Obama on National African American History Month, 2012 February 1, 2012 - 3:49pm Addthis A PROCLAMATION, from President Barack Obama, on National African American History Month 2012. The story of African Americans is a story of resilience and perseverance. It traces a people who refused to accept the circumstances under which they arrived on these shores, and it chronicles the generations who fought for an America that truly reflects the ideals enshrined in our founding documents. It is the narrative of slaves who shepherded others along the path to freedom and preachers who organized against the rules of Jim Crow, of young people who sat-in at lunch counters and ordinary men and women who

264

Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans to the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans to Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans to the Manhattan Project Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans to the Manhattan Project February 21, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis July 20, 1944 July 20, 1944 September 21, 1944 September 21, 1944 March 24, 1944 March 24, 1944 June 27, 1944 June 27, 1944 July 20, 1944 September 21, 1944 March 24, 1944 June 27, 1944 The Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned an exhibit documenting the contributions of African Americans to the Manhattan Project at Hanford Reservation. The exhibit features pictures taken from the Hanford archives and oral histories of African Americans. The site was used to produce plutonium for the bomb that brought an end to World War II. During that era, people from all over the country came to Hanford, ultimately forming a

265

African sedimentary basins - Tectonic controls on prospectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important prerequisite for the evaluation of any sedimentary basin is the understanding of its regional tectonic setting. This is especially so in the underexplored regions of Africa. The majority of African sedimentary basins developed in an extensional setting although some have undergone subsequent compressional or transpressional deformation. The geometry and evolution of these basins is often influenced by basement structure. The extensional phase of basin development controls not only the distribution of syn-rift sediments but also the magnitude of post-rift regional subsidence and the preservation or removal of pre-rift sediments. This has important consequences for exploration models of syn-rift and pre-rift source rocks and reservoirs. Post-rift basin inversion and uplift provide crucial controls on the preservation of mature source rocks and quality of reservoirs. The distribution, nature, timing, and possible mechanisms of this uplift in Africa will be addressed. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of African basis appears to be highly variable although the limited exploration of some regions makes the exact extent of this variability unclear. Basins considered potentially prospective range from late Precambrian to Tertiary in age. The various tectonic controls outlined above, and criteria for the evaluation of underexplored areas, will be demonstrated by reference to basins studied by The Robertson Group. Examples described include basins from Bagon, Angola, Namibia, East Africa, Tertiary Rift and Karoo Rifts, and North Africa (Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco).

Bunter, M.A.G.; Crossley, R.; Hammill, M.; Jones, P.W.; Morgan, R.K.; Needham, D.T.; Spaargaren, F.A. (Robertson Group plc, Gwynedd (England))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

African Biofuel & Renewable Energy Fund (ABREF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biofuel & Renewable Energy Fund (ABREF) Biofuel & Renewable Energy Fund (ABREF) Jump to: navigation, search Name African Biofuel & Renewable Energy Fund (ABREF) Agency/Company /Organization African Biofuel & Renewable Energy Compnay (ABREC) Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Biomass, - Biofuels Website http://www.bidc-ebid.com/en/fo Country Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa References African Biofuel & Renewable Energy Fund (ABREF)[1]

267

African American Federal Executive Association, Inc. 9th Annual Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

African American Federal Executive Association, Inc. 9th Annual African American Federal Executive Association, Inc. 9th Annual Training Workshop African American Federal Executive Association, Inc. 9th Annual Training Workshop September 16, 2013 9:00AM EDT to September 17, 2013 5:00PM EDT Washington, DC The African American Federal Executive Association, Inc. (AAFEA) will hold its 9th Annual Training Workshop (TW) September 16-17, 2013 in Washington, DC. The theme of this year's TW is "LEADING CHANGE." This training is focused on the programs, policies, practices, and processes that promote career-enhancing opportunities and the core subjects critical for becoming a member of the Senior Executive Service (SES). This TW qualifies as training in compliance with 5 U.S.C. chapter 41, and is open to GS-13/14/15 Federal employees and SES members. It will provide

268

National African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential Proclamation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential National African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential Proclamation National African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential Proclamation February 7, 2013 - 4:44pm Addthis Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity What does this mean for me? Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to foster a diverse and inclusive work environment by visiting our Office of Economic Impact and Diversity website. In February, we celebrate National African American History Month, honoring the heritage of individuals and communities who have shaped our country. President Obama's Proclamation speaks to the power of individuals with the American spirit to make a difference, and the potential of tomorrow's

269

Mozambique-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mozambique-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Mozambique-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Mozambique-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Name Mozambique-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Agency/Company /Organization Overseas Development Institute, Oxfam Topics Background analysis, Co-benefits assessment, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Website http://www.africa-adapt.net/aa Country Mozambique UN Region Eastern Africa References ACCRA[1] Overview "ACCRA is an exciting and ambitious consortium working to improve our understanding of adaptive capacity. It is made up of Oxfam GB, the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Save the Children Alliance, Care International and World Vision International and funded by DFID. We have developed an

270

LEDSGP/about/African Climate and Development Society | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

African Climate and Development Society African Climate and Development Society < LEDSGP‎ | about(Redirected from African Climate and Development Society) Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Advancing climate-resilient low emission development around the world Home About Tools Expert Assistance Events Publications Join Us About How We Work > Regional Platforms > Working Groups LEDS GP Members Steering Committee Guiding Structure Contacts African Climate Development Society A LEDS GP Regional Network Lead organizations: Africa Climate Policy Centre (ACPC), Kenya Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 Member organizations: Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), Energy Center of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology of Ghana, European Commission, Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI),

271

National African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential Proclamation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential Proclamation National African American History Month, 2013: A Presidential Proclamation February 7, 2013 - 4:44pm Addthis Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity What does this mean for me? Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to foster a diverse and inclusive work environment by visiting our Office of Economic Impact and Diversity website. In February, we celebrate National African American History Month, honoring the heritage of individuals and communities who have shaped our country. President Obama's Proclamation speaks to the power of individuals with the American spirit to make a difference, and the potential of tomorrow's leaders to claim a better future.

272

Analysis of Convection and Its Association with African Easterly Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The association between convection and African easterly wave (AEW) activity over tropical Africa and the tropical Atlantic during the boreal summer is examined using satellite brightness temperature (TB) and ECMWF reanalysis datasets. Spectral ...

Ademe Mekonnen; Chris D. Thorncroft; Anantha R. Aiyyer

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Thermal and mechanical development of the East African Rift System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deep basins, uplifted flanks, and volcanoes of the Western and Kenya rift systems have developed along the western and eastern margins of the 1300 km-wide East African plateau. Structural patterns deduced from field, ...

Ebinger, Cynthia Joan

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Does the South American Monsoon Influence African Rainfall?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Teleconnections between the South American monsoon and southern African rainfall are investigated for years with Benguela Nińo or Nińa events in the South Atlantic. During these events, it is found that substantial rainfall anomalies also occur ...

Alice M. Grimm; Chris J. C. Reason

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

West African Monsoon Intraseasonal Variability: A Precipitable Water Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

West African monsoon intraseasonal variability has important implications for food security and drought early warnings. In the present study, intraseasonal variability over the Sahel is assessed from the perspective of precipitable water, as ...

D. Emmanuel Poan; Romain Roehrig; Fleur Couvreux; Jean-Philippe Lafore

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

ORNL DAAC, Southern African CD-ROM, July 8, 2003  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CD-ROM for Southern Africa Goes Public The ORNL DAAC announces that the second CD-ROM volume prepared for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative ( 2000 is now...

277

ORNL DAAC, Southern African Data Release, March 2002  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

African Regional Science Initiative ("SAFARI 2000") are now available on-line from the ORNL DAAC, along with their documentation. The data were earlier released on CD-ROM. The...

278

African Easterly Waves during 2004—Analysis Using Objective Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

African easterly waves (AEWs) are identified in numerical model analyses using an objective technique based on the 700-hPa streamfunction field. This method has been developed to (i) reduce the amount of manual data interpretation, (ii) reduce ...

Gareth Berry; Chris Thorncroft; Tim Hewson

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Case Studies of African Wave Disturbances in Gridded Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

African wave disturbances (AWDs), an important trigger of Sahel summer rainfall, are studied using ECMWF gridded datasets for July and August 1987 and 1988. Power spectra of time series of 700-mb meridional winds near Niamey taken from analyses ...

Leonard M. Druyan; Patrick Lonergan; Judah Cohen

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Studies of African Wave Disturbances with the GISS GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations made with the general circulation model of the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS GCM) run at 4° latitude by 5° longitude horizontal resolution are analyzed to determine the model's representation of African wave ...

Leonard M. Druyan; Timothy M. Hall

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Ethiopia-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Ethiopia-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ethiopia-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Name Ethiopia-African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Agency/Company /Organization Overseas Development Institute, Oxfam Topics Background analysis, Co-benefits assessment, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Website http://www.africa-adapt.net/aa Country Ethiopia UN Region Eastern Africa References ACCRA[1] Overview "ACCRA is an exciting and ambitious consortium working to improve our understanding of adaptive capacity. It is made up of Oxfam GB, the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Save the Children Alliance, Care International and World Vision International and funded by DFID. We have developed an

282

African American Federal Executive Association, Inc. 9th Annual...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DC The African American Federal Executive Association, Inc. (AAFEA) will hold its 9th Annual Training Workshop (TW) September 16-17, 2013 in Washington, DC. The theme of this...

283

Iron mobilization in North African dust.  

SciTech Connect

Iron is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton. Although iron-containing dust mobilized from arid regions supplies the majority of the iron to the oceans, the key flux in terms of the biogeochemical response to atmospheric deposition is the amount of soluble or bioavailable iron. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. sulfuric acid) may transform insoluble iron into soluble forms. Previous studies have suggested higher iron solubility in smaller particles, as they are subject to more thorough atmospheric processing due to a longer residence time than coarse particles. On the other hand, the specific mineralogy of iron in dust may also influence the particulate iron solubility in size. Compared to mineral dust aerosols, iron from combustion sources could be more soluble, and found more frequently in smaller particles. Internal mixing of alkaline dust with iron-containing minerals could significantly reduce iron dissolution in large dust aerosols due to the buffering effect, which may, in contrast, yield higher solubility in smaller particles externally mixed with alkaline dust (Ito and Feng, 2010). Here, we extend the modeling study of Ito and Feng (2010) to investigate atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols from African dust. In contrast to Asian dust, we used a slower dissolution rate for African dust in the fine mode. We compare simulated fractional iron solubility with observations. The inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during long-range transport to the Atlantic Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2%) dissolves from illite in coarsemode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. In contrast, a significant fraction (1-1.5%) dissolves in fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model generally reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles as suggested by measurements over the Atlantic Ocean. Our results imply that the dissolution of iron in African dust is generally slower than that in Asian dust. Conventionally, dust is assumed as the major supply of bioavailable iron with a constant solubility at 1-2% to the remote ocean. Therefore, the timing and location of the atmospheric iron input to the ocean with detailed modeling of atmospheric processing could be different from those previously assumed. Past and future changes in aerosol supply of bioavailable iron might play a greater role in the nutrient supply for phytoplankton production in the upper ocean, as global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing from the deep ocean. Thus the feedback of climate change through ocean uptake of carbon dioxide as well as via aerosol-cloud interaction might be modified by the inclusion of iron chemistry in the atmosphere.

Ito, A.; Feng, Y. (Environmental Science Division); (Research Inst. for Global Change)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

NETL: News Release - Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

hole would be ideal to develop a robust logging, coring, and testing program. Formation Stimulation-As part of the project design process, project developers should request the...

285

Small-Scale Testing of Potential Small Column Ion Exchange ...  

Hockmeyer Test Setup - August 2010 • Based (partly) on previous grinding of zeolite at SRS, in Tank 18/19 in 2008 • Batch processing tested with ...

286

Small-scale alcohol fuel plant. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective to decrease the cost of distillation by the use of solar heat and a vacuum system combined was achieved. My original design of a single pot type still was altered during construction by dividing the distillation tank into three sections with a condenser coil after each section so that 160+ proof alcohol can be acquired without extensive reflux. However, some reflux will still be necessary to extract the most alcohol possible from the mash. This proto-type still could be reproduced for use as an On the Farm Plant if the components are size matched and the modifications are incorporated as I have outlined in Conclusions and Recommendations on page No. 4 of this report.

Fitzcharles, H.M. III

287

AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating  

SciTech Connect

A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programs DeploymentPrograms: Project Development This video teaches the viewer about wind turbines and RETscreen's wind...

289

Small-Scale Moist Turbulence in Numerically Generated Convective Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present simulations of cloud-free and cloudy, nonprecipitating, convective turbulence at spatial resolutions down to ?x = 2.6 m for a domain size of (1 km)3. The runs are analyzed with attention focused on the dynamical differences ...

K. Spyksma; P. Bartello

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

51 5.10. Maximizing the Thermal Energy Spectrum in thecreated is higher than thermal energy levels and moderatorsdown the neutrons to thermal energy levels. Thermal reactors

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, Volume 1 and 2. DOE-conventional fusion reactor theory, UCLA’s method doesn’t

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Analysis of environmental issues related to small scale hydroelectric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

e , AR 72701 Nelsen Jacobs, U.S. Bureau o f Reclamation, P.0, Box 25007, Denver, CO 80226 Peter Kakela, Department of Resource Development, Michigan S t a t e University, East...

293

Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

i n g 9 MI 48824 Street, F. S e u l i See. Marie, Ottzwa, O n t a r i o , Canada P6A 3B3 Peter Kakel a y Depart n t o f Resource Development, Michigan Senator Jolrri K e l l y ,...

294

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nuclear fusion [53]. Unlike conventional fusion reactornuclear watse transmutation strategies have included the use of thermal reactors, fast reactors, fusionfusion-fission hybrid reactor for the dual purpose of generating energy and burning nuclear

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Guide to financing: small-scale geothermal energy projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief overview is given of the current financing sources for projects requiring $1 million or less in capital investment and the major considerations commonly encountered in assembling financing. A directory of technical and financial assistance and a glossary of geothermal/financial terms are included.

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Methane production from hog manure in small-scale units  

SciTech Connect

Fuel gas production from manure on small-sized (100 to 500 hogs) family-operated farms can become an economically sound proposition within a decade if current price rise trends for fossil fuels continue. Minimum plant cost resulting from an optimistic assumption of the state of digestion technology leads to a fuel gas cost about equal to LPG cost on a Btu basis. Hog farms with over 3000 animals would permit digester gas costs, which would match LPG cost. It may be better to build a plant before LPG costs rise to meet gas costs in order to take advantage of lower plant costs, which will generate future cost savings. The credit for gas produced makes digestion competitive with aerobic methods for manure disposal whose capital costs are much lower.

Silveston, P.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Vermont) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Incentive Program, initiated in June 2003, provides funding for new solar water heating, solar electric (photovoltaic), wind, and micro-hydro energy system installations....

298

Ice-­Ocean Thermodynamic Interface and Small-­Scale Issues  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses: (1) Stefan condition, (2) lower boundary condition of mushy layers, (3) salt flux to ocean from gravity drainage, (4) distribution of salt flux in the ocean, (5) under ice melt ponds and false bottoms, and (6) basal ablation.

Turner, Adrian K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

299

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diss. Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics. RoyalTopical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (Handbook: Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, Volume 1 and

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Economic appraisal of small-scale hydro power projects  

SciTech Connect

The report covers (1) preconditions for considering such projects (2) methods of economic appraisal: cost benefit analysis; comparison of present worth of cash flow; internal rate of investment returns; comparison of production costs (3) case study of an economic analysis with reference to a project in Thailand.

Goldsmith, K.

1983-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Small-scale density fluctuations in the adiabatic toroidal compressor  

SciTech Connect

A new class of density fluctuations has been observed in the ATC tokamak by using spectral analysis of scattered microwaves. The observed frequency spectrum is consistent with that of drift waves with amplitudes that are maximum in the wavelength range 0.5 to 1.0 cm where finite ion Larmor radius effects are important for plasma stability. The total density fluctuation is n tilde/sub e/ greater than or equal to 5 x 10$sup -3$ anti n/sub e/. It is estimated that these fluctuations could account for a large fraction of the electron energy losses of the ATC discharge. (auth)

Mazzucato, E.

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neutron economy, D-T fusion reactors can produce fluence onUnlike conventional fusion reactor theory, UCLA’s methodthermal reactors, fast reactors, fusion sources, accelerator

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Entropy Generation In the Ocean by Small-Scale Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An expression that includes salt diffusion was developed and evaluated for the rate of entropy production ? in the ocean. The evaluation was done for mixing events produced by turbulent overturns and double diffusion. Temperature and salinity ...

M. C. Gregg

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Indianapolis Power & Light - Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

customers. IP&L has requested to extend the program (https:myweb.in.govIURCedsTab.aspx?tabid28&dnSEARCHDOCKETEDCASE IURC Cause No. 43623)''''' Indianapolis Power &...

305

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company. May2004. 11. Status of Nuclear Fuel Processing, Partitioningthe In-Zinerator in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Sandia Report,

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 sequestration in Arbuckle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO 2 sequestration in Arbuckle Saline Aquifer and by CO 2 -EOR at Wellington field, Sumner County, Kansas -- W. Lynn Watney and Jason Rush Kansas...

307

Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the presenter teaches the viewer how to effectively navigate the solar module. Focus Area Solar Topics Market Analysis Website http:www.leonardo-energy.org Equivalent URI http:...

308

Small-Scale Reactor for the Production of Medical Isotopes ...  

Currently, there is a severe worldwide shortage of medical isotopes-specifically Molybdenum 99 (Mo-99) which is essential in cancer treatment, ...

309

Demographic Regulators in Small-Scale World-Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1997). A number of agent-based spatial models of interpolitymodel that has been shown to be of seminal importance in prior agent-based

Fletcher, Jesse B; Apkarian, Jacob; Hanneman, Robert A; Inoue, Hiroko; Lawrence, Kirk; Chase-Dunn, Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

15 2.4. Radionuclides to be studied …………………………………………………… 1718 3.1. Radionuclide sources ………………………………………………………….. 18for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers”, International

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Small-scale hydroelectric power in Watauga County, North Carolina  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have completed both the installation of the demonstration project and the assessment of the stream flows in Watauga County, North Carolina. The 17 kW, high head (178'), project on Laurel Creek in Watauga County has produced about 60,000 kWh over its first nine months of operation despite some electrical and other problems. It is currently producing 16 to 17 kW on a steady basis and is functioning as a popular site for visits by people who plan to install their own similar plants in areas throughout the Southeast. The stream assessment proved to be less satisfactory than the subsequently developed method for predicting long term stream flows. The latter method has been applied to all western North Carolina and this report presents its general conclusions.

Ayers, H G

1983-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

314

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Handbook: Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, Volume 1 andnuclear fusion [53]. Unlike conventional fusion reactor theory,

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis: An International Research Project and Field Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) is an international project to improve our knowledge and understanding of the West African monsoon (WAM) and its variability with an emphasis on daily-to-interannual time scales. AMMA is motivated ...

Jean-Luc Redelsperger; Chris D. Thorncroft; Arona Diedhiou; Thierry Lebel; Douglas J. Parker; Jan Polcher

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Failed Cyclogenetic Evolution of a West African Monsoon Perturbation Observed during AMMA SOP-3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The so-called “perturbation D” was a nondeveloping West African disturbance observed near Dakar (Senegal) during special observing period (SOP) 3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) in September 2006. Its mesoscale ...

Joël Arnault; Frank Roux

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Case Study of a Developing African Easterly Wave during NAMMA: An Energetic Point of View  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The West African perturbation that subsequently evolved into Hurricane Helene (2006) during NASA’s African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA), 15 August–14 September 2006, and AMMA’s third special observing period (SOP-3), 15–29 September ...

Joël Arnault; Frank Roux

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Monsoon Regimes and Processes in CCSM4. Part II: African and American Monsoon Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second part of a two part series studying simulation characteristics of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) for various monsoon regimes around the global tropics. Here, the West African, East African, North American, ...

Kerry H. Cook; Gerald A. Meehl; Julie M. Arblaster

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Revaluing waste in New York City : planning for small-scale compost; Planning for small-scale compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??One-third of the municipal solid waste stream is organic material that, when processed in landfills, produces methane, a highly potent greenhouse gas. Composting is a… (more)

Neilson, Sarah (Sarah Jane)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

West African Clean Energy Gateway-Resource Assessment | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

African Clean Energy Gateway-Resource Assessment African Clean Energy Gateway-Resource Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Clean Energy Gateway Home | About | News | Links | Help | Countries Benin | Burkina Faso | Cape Verde | Gambia | Ghana | Guinea| Guinea-Bissau | Ivory Coast | Liberia | Mali | Niger | Nigeria | Senegal | Sierra Leone | Togo Countries ECREEE light.JPG FBenin.png FBurkinaFaso.png FCapeVerde.png FGambia.png FGhana.png FGuinea.png FGuinea-Bissau.png Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau FIvoryCoast.png FLiberia.png FMali.png FNiger.png FNigeria.png FSenegal.png FSierraLeone.png FTogo.png Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo SWERA-thumb.jpg The SWERA landing page allows for the quick browsing of global data layers.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Middle East and African Partnerships and Projects | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Middle East and African Partnerships and Projects Middle East and African Partnerships and Projects Middle East and African Partnerships and Projects EERE engages bilaterally with individual countries in the Middle East and Africa. Bilateral Partnerships Israel Binational Industrial Research and Development (BIRD) Foundation EERE collaborates with the Israeli Ministry of National Infrastructure to conduct jointly-funded research, development, and demonstration projects that aim to successfully commercialize cutting-edge clean energy technologies. The two governments work through the Binational BIRD Foundation, a quasi-governmental entity that was established in the 1970s to stimulate, promote, and support industrial R&D to mutually benefit the United States and Israel. Using funds provided by EERE and Israeli Ministry

322

Economic Community of West African States | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

West African States West African States Jump to: navigation, search Name Economic Community of West African States Address 101, Yakubu Gowon Crescent, Asokoro District Place Abuja, Nigeria Year founded 1975 Website http://www.ecowas.int/ Coordinates 9.058036°, 7.489061° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":9.058036,"lon":7.489061,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

323

Appliance Standby Power and Energy Consumption in South African Households  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Appliance Standby Power and Energy Consumption in South African Households Appliance Standby Power and Energy Consumption in South African Households Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Appliance Standby Power and Energy Consumption in South African Households Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts Website: active.cput.ac.za/energy/web/DUE/DOCS/422/Paper%20-%20Shuma-Iwisi%20M. Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/appliance-standby-power-and-energy-co Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance A modified engineering model is proposed to estimate standby power and energy losses in households. The modified model accounts for the randomness of standby power and energy losses due to unpredicted user appliance operational behavior.

324

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the Environment (CARPE) the Environment (CARPE) Jump to: navigation, search Name Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE) Agency/Company /Organization U.S. Agency for International Development, United States Forest Service, University of Maryland Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Dataset, Maps, Software/modeling tools Website http://carpe.umd.edu/ Country Gabon, Rwanda, Burundi, Sao Tome and Principe, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon Middle Africa, Eastern Africa, Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Middle Africa, Middle Africa, Middle Africa, Middle Africa, Middle Africa References Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)[1]

325

Intraseasonal Variability of the West African Monsoon and Atlantic ITCZ ERIC D. MALONEY AND JEFFREY SHAMAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intraseasonal Variability of the West African Monsoon and Atlantic ITCZ ERIC D. MALONEY AND JEFFREY amplitude of the 30­90-day West African monsoon precipitation variability during a given summer, however and Grist 2003; Redelsperger et al. 2006). Intraseasonal variability of the West African monsoon has

Shaman, Jeffrey

326

Coupled LandAtmosphere Intraseasonal Variability of the West African Monsoon in a GCM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coupled Land­Atmosphere Intraseasonal Variability of the West African Monsoon in a GCM SALLY L of intraseasonal variability in the West African monsoon. This hypothesis is investigated with a set of three in the West African monsoon can exist independently of soil moisture; however, soil moisture and land

Matthews, Adrian

327

100,000 Years of African monsoon variability recorded in sediments of the Nile margin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

100,000 Years of African monsoon variability recorded in sediments of the Nile margin Marie Revel a constitutes a first continuous high resolution record of the East African monsoon regime intensity over of the African monsoon over Ethiopia, the Nabtian period from 14 to 8 ka cal BP and the Saharan period from 98

Demouchy, Sylvie

328

Influence of the Mediterranean Sea on the West African Monsoon: intraseasonal variability in numerical simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of the Mediterranean Sea on the West African Monsoon: intraseasonal variability in the Mediterranean sea on the West African monsoon is investigated, analysing the outputs of numerical sensitivity underlying the Mediterranean action on the West African monsoon is based on the modifications produced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

African Rainfall Climatology Version 2 for Famine Early Warning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new gridded, daily 29-yr precipitation estimation dataset centered over Africa at 0.1° spatial resolution. Called the African Rainfall Climatology, version 2 (ARC2), it is a revision of the first version of the ARC. ...

Nicholas S. Novella; Wassila M. Thiaw

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Genesis of African Easterly Waves by Upstream Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A genesis mechanism for African Easterly Waves (AEWs) is proposed. In the same manner that new troughs and ridges in the mid-latitudes form downstream of existing ones through a mechanism known as downstream development, it is proposed that new ...

Michael Diaz; Anantha Aiyyer

331

Regulatory governance in African telecommunications: Testing the resource curse hypothesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines regulatory governance in the context of African telecommunications. Though there is already a substantial literature devoted to the regulatory practices in developing countries, it generally conceptualizes the quality of regulation ... Keywords: Africa, Development, Paradox of plenty, Regulatory governance, Resource curse, Telecommunications regulation

Krishna Jayakar; Brandie Martin

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Named entity recognition in a South African context  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of a probabilistic Named Entity Recognition system in a South African context was tested. The intended use of the system is in a cyber forensic domain. At the core of the system is a dynamic Bayesian Network, which takes into account ... Keywords: cyber forensics, dynamic Bayesian networks, gazetteers, information extraction, named entity

Anita Louis; Alta De Waal; Cobus Venter

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

African Climate Change Resilience Alliance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resilience Alliance Resilience Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Logo: African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Name African Climate Change Resilience Alliance Agency/Company /Organization Overseas Development Institute, Oxfam Topics Background analysis, Co-benefits assessment, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Website http://www.africa-adapt.net/aa Country Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda UN Region Eastern Africa References ACCRA[1] Overview "ACCRA is an exciting and ambitious consortium working to improve our understanding of adaptive capacity. It is made up of Oxfam GB, the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Save the Children Alliance, Care International and World Vision International and funded by DFID. We have developed an innovative adaptive capacity framework which we are currently consulting

334

Farmers enter compost business  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One sixth of Massachusett's six million tons of solid waste can be composted economically. The Department of Food and Agriculture intends to survey and identify the existing and potential markets for compost and their demand characteristics and to promote the use of compost as an environmentally sound alternative to existing uses of synthetic fertilizers and conditioners. Various pilot projects have been set up composting poultry manures, horse manures, fish wastes, shredded newspaper, cheese whey, wood ash, etc.

Goldstein, N.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

US Wind Farmers Network  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Through this program Windustry representatives have produced, widely used, and distributed new materials and have participated in a wide variety of wind energy events, meetings, and conferences. In this work Windustry representatives have sought to reach a broad audience and grow interest and enthusiasm for wind energy. At the same time, Windustry representatives have sought to provide tools, detailed case studies, and other technical resources that deepen Windustry constituency's knowledge of wind energy options. All of this has served to facilitate development of many actual wind energy projects, particularly projects that emphasize local and community benefits.

Lisa Daniels; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

South Africa-National Development Plan: Vision for 2030 | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Africa-National Development Plan: Vision for 2030 South Africa-National Development Plan: Vision for 2030 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: South Africa-National Development Plan: Vision for 2030 Agency/Company /Organization: Government of South Africa Sector: Climate, Energy, Land, Water Focus Area: Economic Development Topics: Background analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.npconline.co.za/medialib/downloads/home/NPC%20National%20Developme Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Africa Language: English South Africa-National Development Plan: Vision for 2030 Screenshot References: South Africa-National Development Plan[1] References ↑ "South Africa-National Development Plan" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=South_Africa-National_Development_Plan:_Vision_for_2030&oldid=391220"

337

Can passive solar technology help meet African village energy needs  

SciTech Connect

Findings based on attempts to implement renewable energy in African villages over the last three years are presented. Specifically, village energy needs are identified and passive solar technologies are matched with each need. This needs/technology matching process is dominated by social, economic and cultural considerations. It is shown how the technology can only have significance when adapted to particular village settings and when it is understood within the cultural framework of the people. The resources available to most African villages are sunlight, mud, dung, thatch and person power. Villagers must be trained to make solar units such as solar ovens, passive air heaters, food dryers, water heaters, passive coolers and insulation out of these materials and some imported glass or fiberglass. These solar units must cost less than ten or fifteen dollars. Experiences in training, construction, performance and village acceptance are presented along with justification for the conclusion that passive solar technology has limited, but important, applications in improving living conditions and health standards in African villages.

Lillywhite, M.; Lillywhite, L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

THE WEST AFRICAN MONSOON: DYNAMICS, DECADAL VARIABILITY AND INTERACTION WITH THE EASTERN TROPICAL ATLANTIC SSTS .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation documents regional modeling studies of various aspects of West African Monsoon dynamics and variability. The physical processes responsible for observed characteristics seasonal evolution… (more)

hagos, samson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Research capacity development of individuals at three South African university research centres.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In South Africa, there has been recognition of the need for increasing research capacity at South African universities and within the national science system.… (more)

Dison, Arona.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Effects of Schools Attuned on Special Education Referrals for African American Boys.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study compared the number of special education referrals for African American boys before and after the implementation of the training program, Schools Attuned. The… (more)

Rodriguez, Andrea B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

African-American and Arab American Muslim communities in the Detroit Ummah.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This paper provides overview of the two larger Muslim communities in Detroit (African-American and Arab American), their differing views on theology, racism, and women's… (more)

Omanson, Lisa Gail

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Developing a Curriculum for African American Pastors and Church Leaders in Crescent City, Florida.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is the writer's premise that there is a great void, particularly within the African American Church of academic training in theology amongst clergy and… (more)

Golden, Cornelius

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

East African crisis response shaping Ethiopian peace force for better participation in future peace operations .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ethiopia, being one of the force-contributing countries to the East African Standby Brigade (EASBRIG) and given its, resources, strategic location, and its military's long history,… (more)

Amdemichael, Haile Araya.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Wild, willful, and wicked: African American childhood and the nineteenth-century literary imagination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation examines nineteenth-century depictions of African American children in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), Frank J. Webb's The Garies and Their Friends… (more)

Brewington, Paulette F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Changes in the African monsoon region at medium-term time horizon using 12 AR4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Changes in the African monsoon region at medium-term time horizon using 12 AR4 coupled models.58 ° in mean) and a southward shift in 6 /11 models in the western region (-0.24°) is observed. African monsoon of land compared to oceans, which would be responsible for driving a stronger monsoonal flow inland

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability: artefact or reality ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability: artefact or reality ? H. DOUVILLE, S of moist static energy. Particularly intriguing is the observed relationship between summer monsoon influence of SST and SM boundary conditions on the West African monsoon predictability over the 1986

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

Response of the West African Monsoon to the MaddenJulian Oscillation SALLY L. LAVENDER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Response of the West African Monsoon to the Madden­Julian Oscillation SALLY L. LAVENDER School suggested: 1) forcing by equatorial waves; 2) enhanced monsoon moisture supply; and 3) increased African. Intraseasonal convective anomalies over West Africa during the summer monsoon season are simulated

Matthews, Adrian

348

An abrupt change in the African monsoon at the end of the Younger Dryas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An abrupt change in the African monsoon at the end of the Younger Dryas Michael R. Talbot translation of the African monsoon system at circa 11.5 ± 0.25 ka B.P. The data assembled here contribute monsoon at the end of the Younger Dryas, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q03005, doi:10.1029/2006GC001465

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

Role of the West African Westerly Jet in Sahel Rainfall Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The West African westerly jet is a low-level feature of the summer climatology that transports moisture from the eastern Atlantic onto the African continent at 8°–11°N. This study examines the relationship between the jet and Sahel precipitation ...

Bing Pu; Kerry H. Cook

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Dynamics of the West African Monsoon under Mid-Holocene Precessional Forcing: Regional Climate Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The African Humid Period (AHP), about 14 800 yr ago [14.8–5.5 ka (ka ? 1000 yr ago)], was a time of increased humidity over Africa. Paleoclimate evidence suggests that the West African summer monsoon was stronger and more extensive 6 ka than ...

C. M. Patricola; K. H. Cook

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

352

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The vertical cloud structure of the West African monsoon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the West African monsoon: A four-year climatology using CloudSat and CALIPSO T. H. M. Stein,1 D. J. Parker Abstract. The West African summer monsoon (WAM) is an important driver of the global climate and locally. Introduction The West African summer monsoon (WAM) controls the climate of the countries of sub-Saharan West

Hogan, Robin

353

African American Fathers’ Perceptions of Childhood Overweight: An Exploratory Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Childhood overweight/obesity (CHO) is a serious health concern for children and adolescents. Despite increased efforts to prevent CHO, prevalence rates have actually increased. Evidence suggests that parents are critical to successful interventions to reduce CHO among children. While research efforts aimed at parental inclusion have increased, limited research has been conducted to investigate fathers’ perception of CHO, or their influences on their children’s health. The objective of this two-phase study was to answer three research questions: a) How does the extant literature operationalize African American parental perceptions of childhood overweight/obesity? b) What are African American fathers’ perceptions of CHO? and c) How do African American fathers perceive CHO in relation to their own child’s weight status? Evidence-based studies reveal that fathers have the potential to play a significant role in CHO prevention. Phase one (literature review) revealed that published studies on parental perception of CHO either exclude fathers, include them only in data collection, and/or report no results specific to paternal perception. Thus, an exploratory qualitative study was needed to explore African American fathers’ perceptions of CHO. In phase two (qualitative study), four fathers were interviewed about their perceptions of CHO and how they contextualize this problem. The results indicated fathers believe that weight categories are racially & culturally insensitive and do not account for individual health status or differences in body/bone structure, and that parents with overweight children are financially disadvantaged, irresponsible and overworked. Fathers also indicated that colloquial terms (e.g., chunky, husky, big-boned, thick) were commonly substituted medical definitions for overweight and that child/teen sports participation was motivated by health, as well as non-health related benefits (e.g., competitiveness, educational scholarships). Further, fathers’ identification of CHO is subjective and includes visual means and parental assessment of health status (e.g., child mobility/activity levels). Implications of this study are that additional studies are needed to clarify fathers’ roles in CHO and that future studies should consider complex familial structures, as well as reframe prevention efforts to focus on optimal child health as opposed to weight labeling and focusing on parents’ accuracy in identifying weight categories.

Byrd, Vanessa

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Feral Africanized honey bee ecology in a coastal prairie landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Honey bees, Apis mellifera, play an important role in many ecosystems, pollinating a wide variety of native, agricultural, and exotic plants. The recent decline in the number of feral and managed honey bee colonies in North America, as well as the arrival of Africanized honey bees, have caused concern about adequate pollination for agricultural crops and natural plant communities. However, little is known about feral colonies, and the feral population is the source for Africanized honey bees as they spread and infiltrate managed populations. The goal of my dissertation was to examine the ecology of feral honey bee colonies, adding the spatial context necessary to understand the population ecology and patterns of resource use by feral honey bees on the Welder Wildlife Refuge. I defined the functional heterogeneity of feral honey bee habitat by identifying the suitability of different habitats for feral colonies based on the distribution and abundance of important resources (cavities, nectar, and pollen). I evaluated the distribution and abundance of feral colonies by examining nest site characteristics, population trends, and spatial and temporal patterns in cavity use. Lastly, I examined resource use by evaluating patterns in pollen collection and identifying where and when honey bees searched for resources. Overall, the Welder Wildlife Refuge provided excellent habitat for feral honey bees, supporting a high density of feral colonies. The dense live oak habitat was the best overall source for cavities, nectar, and pollen. Nectar and pollen were abundant throughout the year, with the exception of December and January, when a large number of honey bees searched for resources. Cavities did not appear to vary in their suitability for feral colonies based on measured structural and environmental attributes, since no cavity attributes were correlated with indices of cavity quality. However, the cavity quality indices varied between cavities, suggesting some cavities were more suitable for feral honey bees than others. Colonies were aggregated within the study area, probably due to the distribution of resources. The invasion of Africanized honey bees appeared to fragment the existing European population, with Africanized colonies aggregated in distribution and European colonies random in distribution.

Baum, Kristen Anne

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Crustal thinning between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus from modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The East African and Ethiopian Plateaus have long been recognized to be part of a much larger topographic anomaly on the African Plate called the African Superswell. One of the few places within the African Superswell that exhibit elevations of less than 1 km is southeastern Sudan and northern Kenya, an area containing both Mesozoic and Cenozoic rift basins. Crustal structure and uppermost mantle velocities are investigated in this area by modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion. Modeling results indicate an average crustal thickness of 25 {+-} 5 km, some 10-15 km thinner than the crust beneath the adjacent East African and Ethiopian Plateaus. The low elevations can therefore be readily attributed to an isostatic response from crustal thinning. Low Sn velocities of 4.1-4.3 km/s also characterize this region.

Benoit, M H; Nyblade, A A; Pasyanos, M E

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

Knott, D.

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

357

Infrastructure and Capacity Building: Creating an Enterprise GIS for Multiscale,Infrastructure and Capacity Building: Creating an Enterprise GIS for Multi scale, Interdisciplinary Analysis of Farmers' Land Use Decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

development effort, which included team member training in ArcSDE & SQL, was designed to ensure,Infrastructure and Capacity Building: Creating an Enterprise GIS for Multi scale, Interdisciplinary Analysis of Farmers database management system (RDBMS). The vector, raster and tabular data are currently being integrated

Peterson, Blake R.

358

African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.

Herrera, Victor M Velasco; H., Graciela Velasco; Gonzalez, Laura Luna

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Delayed Seasonal Cycle and African Monsoon in a Warmer Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing greenhouse gases will change many aspects of the Earth's climate, from its annual mean to the frequency of extremes such as heat waves and droughts. Here we report that the current generation of climate models predicts a delay in the seasonal cycle of global rainfall and ocean temperature in response to increasing greenhouse gases, with important implications for the regional monsoons. In particular, the rainy season of the semi-arid African Sahel is projected to start later and become shorter: an undesirable change for local rainfed agriculture and pastoralism. Previous work has highlighted the uncertainty in this region's response to anthropogenic global warming: summer rainfall is predicted either to decrease or increase by up to 30% depending which model is used. The robust agreement across models on the seasonal distribution of rainfall changes signifies that the onset date and length of the rainy season should be more predictable than annual mean anomalies.

Biasutti, Michela

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

African Wind Energy Association - South Africa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Name African Wind Energy Association - South Africa Place South Africa Coordinates -30.559482°, 22.937506° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-30.559482,"lon":22.937506,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

East African Rainfall and the Tropical Circulation/Convection on Intraseasonal to Interannual Timescales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is known that the East African short rains (October–December, OND) have a positive correlation with El Nińo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). A prediction scheme based on sea surface temperature eigenvectors (SST EOFs) including Pacific, Indian, ...

Charles C. Mutai; M. Neil Ward

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Influence of Twenty-First-Century Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature Forcing on West African Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The persistence of extended drought events throughout West Africa during the twentieth century has motivated a substantial effort to understand the mechanisms driving African climate variability as well as the possible response to elevated ...

Christopher B. Skinner; Moetasim Ashfaq; Noah S. Diffenbaugh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

A Study of the Energetics of African Easterly Waves Using a Regional Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution and spatial distribution of the energetics of African waves are studied. Complete eddy energy equations for an open system are derived for the computation of energy transformations during wave generation and dissipation. It is found ...

Jen-Shan Hsieh; Kerry H. Cook

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Climate Research and Seasonal Forecasting for West Africans: Perceptions, Dissemination, and Use?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beginning in response to the disastrous drought of 1968–73, considerable research and monitoring have focused on the characteristics, causes, predictability, and impacts of West African Soudano–Sahel (10°–18°N) rainfall variability and drought. ...

Aondover Tarhule; Peter J. Lamb

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A metallurgical study of West African iron monies from Cameroon and Liberia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this thesis is to make a contribution to the study of West African iron monies through examination and analysis of a group of these objects in the collection of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology ...

Papakirillou, Ismini

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The online obstacle : a study of African-American enterprise on the Internet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iconic Web companies based in the US, along the likes of Google, Facebook, and Twitter, have exhibited some racial/ethnic diversity among their founders, yet there appears to be a dearth of African-Americans in the group. ...

Lamb, Allen T. (Allen Terrel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Validation of the Space–Time Variability of African Easterly Waves Simulated by the CNRM GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM) general circulation model (GCM) to properly simulate the space–time variability of the African easterly waves (AEWs) has been examined over the period 1982–88. The relative ...

J. P. Céron; J. F. Guérémy

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Influence of ENSO on the West African Monsoon: Temporal Aspects and Atmospheric Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant part of the West African monsoon (WAM) interannual variability can be explained by the remote influence of El Nińo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Whereas the WAM occurs in the boreal summer, ENSO events generally peak in late autumn. ...

Mathieu Joly; Aurore Voldoire

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The West African Monsoon Dynamics. Part III: The Quasi-Biweekly Zonal Dipole  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an investigation of the mechanisms giving rise to the main intraseasonal mode of convection in the African monsoon during northern summer, here identified as the quasi-biweekly zonal dipole (QBZD). The QBZD is primarily ...

Flore Mounier; Serge Janicot; George N. Kiladis

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Black Carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation:observations and simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM) region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis ...

Huang, J.

371

The Effect of East African Topography on Flow Driven by Zonally Symmetric Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The low-level circulation in summer over the western Indian Ocean is characterized by southeast trades that are channeled near the African coast into a concentrated southerly flow across the equator and thence north-eastward into the southwest ...

Jan Paegle; J. E. Geisler

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

West African Monsoon Dynamics and Eastern Equatorial Atlantic and Pacific SST Anomalies (1970–88)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique atmospheric GCM is used to investigate relationships between West African monsoon dynamics and SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Atlantic and Pacific for the period 1970–88. Positive SST anomalies ...

Serge Janicot; Ali Harzallah; Bernard Fontaine; Vincent Moron

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

ORNL DAAC, Southern African CD-ROM Vol. 3, March 8, 2004  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Third CD-ROM for Southern Africa Now Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the third and final in a series of CD-ROMs prepared for the Southern African Regional Science...

374

Multidecadal Covariability of North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, African Dust, Sahel Rainfall, and Atlantic Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most studies of African dust and North Atlantic climate have been limited to the short time period since the satellite era (1980 onward), precluding the examination of their relationship on longer time scales. Here a new dust dataset with the ...

Chunzai Wang; Shenfu Dong; Amato T. Evan; Gregory R. Foltz; Sang-Ki Lee

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Climate Change, Justice, and Adaptation among African American Communities in the Chesapeake Bay Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors present results from a study of climate change and community adaptation, focusing on two African American communities on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. These two communities are representative of small, ...

Michael Paolisso; Ellen Douglas; Ashley Enrici; Paul Kirshen; Chris Watson; Matthias Ruth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Distribution and Statistics of African Mesoscale Convective Weather Systems Based on the ISCCP Meteosat Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides for the first time an objective short-term (8 yr) climatology of African convective weather systems based on satellite imagery. Eight years of infrared International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project–European Space Agency’s ...

K. I. Hodges; C. D. Thorncroft

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Detection and Attribution of Twentieth-Century Northern and Southern African Rainfall Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial patterns, time history, and seasonality of African rainfall trends since 1950 are found to be deducible from the atmosphere’s response to the known variations of global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The robustness of the oceanic ...

Martin Hoerling; James Hurrell; Jon Eischeid; Adam Phillips

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Urban Modification of the Surface Energy Balance in the West African Sahel: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface–atmosphere energy exchanges in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, located in the West African Sahel, were investigated during February 2003. Basic knowledge of the impact of land cover changes on local climate is needed to understand and forecast ...

B. Offerle; P. Jonsson; I. Eliasson; C. S. B. Grimmond

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Glamour and Honor: Going Online and Reading in West African Culture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the fragile reading cultures of the developing world, will people abandon print as they embrace the Internet? Whether media compete or collaborate depends on place-specific factors. West Africans insert online practices into a local context of material ...

Wendy Griswold; Erin Metz McDonnell; Terence Emmett McDonnell

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Intermittent African Easterly Wave Activity in a Dry Atmospheric Model: Influence of the Extratropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamical model is constructed of the northern summertime global circulation, maintained by empirically derived forcing, based on the same dynamical code that has recently been used to study African easterly waves (AEWs) as convectively ...

Stephanie Leroux; Nicholas M. J. Hall; George N. Kiladis

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Three-Dimensional Structure and Dynamics of African Easterly Waves. Part III: Genesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper promotes the view that African easterly waves (AEWs) are triggered by localized forcing, most likely associated with latent heating upstream of the region of observed AEW growth. A primitive equation model is used to show that AEWs can ...

Chris D. Thorncroft; Nicholas M. J. Hall; George N. Kiladis

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Coupled Model Simulations of the West African Monsoon System: Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of coupled GCMs to correctly simulate the climatology and a prominent mode of variability of the West African monsoon is evaluated, and the results are used to make informed decisions about which models may be producing more reliable ...

Kerry H. Cook; Edward K. Vizy

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Circulation Regimes of Rainfall Anomalies in the African-South Asian Monsoon Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study explores the spatial differentiation of climate anomalies and associated circulation mechanisms across the African-South Asian monsoon belt through empirical analyses mainly for the period 1948–83. Observations include surface ship ...

Uma S. Bhatt

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Satellite-Derived Interannual Variability of West African Rainfall during 1983?88  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two satellite algorithms for rain estimation are used to study the interannual variability of West African rainfall during contrasting years of the period 1983?88. The first algorithm uses a frequency of occurrence index quantifying the number of ...

Mamoudou B. Ba; Robert Frouin; Sharon E. Nicholson

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

African Easterly Wave Dynamics in a Mesoscale Numerical Model: The Upscale Role of Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To examine the dynamical role of convection in African easterly wave (AEW) life cycles the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the evolution of a single AEW from September 2004. The model simulations are validated ...

Gareth J. Berry; Chris D. Thorncroft

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Automatic Tracking and Characterization of African Convective Systems on Meteosat Pictures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the objective of budding climatological statistics on propagating African convective systems and extracting pertinent parameters for the evaluation of precipitation an automatic method of tracking clouds with cold tops on Meteosat infrared (...

Yves Arnaud; Michel Desbois; Joel Maizi

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

School racial composition and academic performance of african american students in an urban school district  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the academic performance of economically disadvantaged African-American students attending schools with distinct racial composition in selected inner-city Texas high schools based on the information available in the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) database. The degree to which certain schools’ racial compositions may impact the achievement of economically disadvantaged African-American students was explored. The study was conducted in order examine the academic performance of economically disadvantaged African-American student groups in three large, comprehensive high schools with distinct ratios of school racial compositions. The analyses of student performance data in these three educational settings over three years offers insight into whether school racial composition affects the academic achievement of economically disadvantaged African-American students. A quantitative, two factor factorial (with repeat on the last factor) design was used to answer the questions posed. A mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze school and student level differences between the percentage of minority students in a school and the academic outcomes. Specifically, the reading and mathematics TAKS scores of economically disadvantaged African-American students from three high schools with distinct ratios of school racial composition were compared and analyzed. The final sample included 428 African-American students. The first school had a racial composition of 80/20, with African-Americans being the minority. The second school had a balanced racial composition (defined as “30/30/30”), and the third school’s racial composition was 30/70, with African-Americans being the majority. The most important finding in this study is that the differences in the reading and math performance of economically disadvantage African-American high school students attending schools with different racial composition are statistically significant. The researcher observed an increase in the average academic performance of African- American students as the concentration of minority students in the schools was reduced. Although the effect of school racial composition was minimal, the findings indicate that (even after controlling the effects of schools and students’ demographic factors by holding these variables constant) reading and math TAKS scores were consistently higher in the 80/20 school than in the 30/30/30 school, followed by the 30/70 school.

Osagie, Andree O.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The African growth and opportunity act and the textiles and apparel industry in Kenya and South Africa .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents an analysis of the economic impact of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) in the textiles and apparel industry in Kenya… (more)

Frimpong, Augustine Anane

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Radical Cosmopolitanism: W. E. B. Du Bois, Germany, and African American Pragmatist Visions for Twenty-First Century Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beck,  Ulrich.   “The  Cosmopolitan  Society  and  Its multi­ and intercultural, cosmopolitan dynamics of African saw Berlin as a wide­open, cosmopolitan city of the  Weimar 

Lenz, Günter H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Emotional Skillfulness in African American Marriage: Intimate Safety as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Emotional Skillfulness and Marital Satisfaction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The current study examined emotional skillfulness theory and the possible impact emotional skillfulness may have on martial satisfaction and the intimacy process among African Americans.… (more)

Dunham, Shea M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Comparison between Two Case Studies of Developing and Nondeveloping African Easterly Waves during NAMMA and AMMA/SOP-3: Absolute Vertical Vorticity Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two West African disturbances observed in August and September 2006 during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) and the Special Observing Period 3 (AMMA/SOP-3) have been simulated ...

Joël Arnault; Frank Roux

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Understanding the West African monsoon variability and its remote effects: an illustration of the grid point nudging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the West African monsoon variability and its remote effects: an illustration defi- ciencies in simulating the basic features of the West Afri- can Monsoon at intraseasonal either inside or outside the West African Monsoon region toward the ERA40 reana- lysis. This regional

393

A Characterization of African Easterly Waves on 2.5–6-Day and 6–9-Day Time Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study shows that the African easterly wave (AEW) activity over the African monsoon region and the northern tropical Atlantic can be divided in two distinct temporal bands with time scales of 2.5–6 and 6–9 days. The results are based on a two-...

Man-Li C. Wu; Oreste Reale; Siegfried D. Schubert

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: An Energy Model for a Low Income Rural African Village Agency/Company /Organization: Howells, Alfstad, Victor, Goldstein and Remme Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: iea-etsap.org/web/Workshop/worksh_6_2003/2003P_howells.pdf Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Africa Language: English This paper reports on efforts to extend a MARKAL energy model for South Africa to include rural energy choices, allowing for computation of optimal energy systems in a typical (non-electrified) rural village.

395

GIZ-Developing Climate Policy Capacity within the South African Department  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policy Capacity within the South African Department Policy Capacity within the South African Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Developing Climate Policy Capacity within DEA Agency/Company /Organization German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) Partner South African Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http://www.gtz.de/en/weltweit/ Program Start 2009 Program End 2011 Country South Africa UN Region Eastern Africa References Championing Action against Climate Change in South Africa[1] "This project will support DEA in its climate policy capacity building, in

396

American racism and African diplomats: race and American Cold War policy in West Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two of the most significant influences on post-World War II American society were Cold War ideology and the struggle over civil rights. The Kennedy years provide a special opportunity to examine the relationship between these two facets of modern American society. The interconnectedness between Cold War ideology and civil rights increased during the 1960s. Cold War tensions escalated and the American government became increasingly concerned about the effect of racial strife on the country's image abroad. Many officials feared that America's racial problems placed her in a weaker position than the Soviet Union in the struggle to win the "hearts and minds" of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. This study will examine the political and social ramifications of the experiences of African diplomats in the United States during the Kennedy administration within both a national and international context. African encounters with American racism illustrate the interplay between foreign policy and domestic pressures and the globalization of the civil rights movement. The Kennedy administration, especially the State Department, took decisive action on the behalf of the African diplomats. However, racial problems confronting the African diplomats could not be resolved without resolving the racial problems confronting black Americans and other people of color in the United States. The main argument of this thesis is that the administration's efforts to solve this international image problem were significant steps towards the eventual end of de jure segregation in the long-term. This thesis includes an examination of relations between the United States and British West Africa, the African and Soviet response to American racism, the efforts of the State Department on behalf of the mistreated African diplomats, and the relationship between the civil rights movement and independence movements in Africa.

Oriabure, Stephannie Ebhota

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Mesoscale Structure of the Low-Level Flow near the Equatorial East African Coast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field experiment called MONSOON 77 was organized in June-July 1977 to delineate the kinematics and thermodynamics of the low-level flow near the equator over the East African coast. The National Center for Atmospheric Research's Electra flew ...

Henry M. E. Van De Boogaard; Gandikota V. Rao

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

A Study of the Dynamic Factors Influencing the Rainfall Variability in the West African Sahel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines selected dynamical factors associated with wet and dry years in the West African Sahel. The approach is to evaluate the temperature, wind, and moisture fields and the dynamic instabilities for a 4-yr“wet” composite (1958–61) ...

Jeremy P. Grist; Sharon E. Nicholson

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Interoperability requirements for a South African joint command and control test facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The South African National Defence Force is in the process of establishing a Joint Command and Control Test Facility at a National Research Institute. The goal with this facility is to provide an integrated environment for Joint Command and Control doctrine ... Keywords: architectures, interoperability requirements, joint command & control, service-orientated architectures, test facility

Willem H. le Roux

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. xxxx, 2000 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S - Syntaxis AF - Agulhas/Falkland fracture zone K - Karoo P - Parana BC - Beacon BW - Bowan BASINS N Figure 1 Syntaxis and which preserves Karoo stratigraphy in its hanging wall. #12;4 Journal of African Earth the southern margin of the Carboniferous to Triassic Karoo Basin. Conversion of this basin from

Johnston, Stephen T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Using a Wireless Sensors Network in the Sustainable Management of African Palm Oil Solid Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All human activities have an impact in the environment in which we live. Nowadays, the industrial gases emission is considered as one of the main causes for worsening greenhouse effect. The African Palm agro industry in Ecuador is no stranger to this ... Keywords: compost, production science, solid waste, wireless sensors network, wireless communication technologies

Mauro Jimenez, Alejandra Jimenez, Pablo Lozada, Santiago Jimenez, Cristhy Jimenez

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Characterization of the Diurnal Cycle of the West African Monsoon around the Monsoon Onset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the diurnal cycle of the West African monsoon and its seasonal modulation with particular focus on the monsoon onset period. A composite analysis around the monsoon onset date is applied to the 1979–2000 NCEP–DOE ...

Benjamin Sultan; Serge Janicot; Philippe Drobinski

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Properties of African Squall Lines Inferred from Time-Lapse Satellite Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of 48 h of time-lapse satellite imagery of a family of squall lines in Africa links the phenomena with a characteristic cloud cluster and with a wind field perturbation which is enhanced in passing through an African easterly wave ...

Michael Fortune

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

405

Revolutionary Secrets: Technology's Role in the South African Anti-Apartheid Movement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the late 1980s, Operation Vula brought exiled African National Congress (ANC) leaders and military capacity into South Africa despite legal and military obstacles. According to participants, a purpose-built encrypted communication system was critical ... Keywords: ANC, South Africa, activism, computers, information and communication technology, social movements

R. Kelly Garrett; Paul N. Edwards

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Improving the simulation of the West African Monsoon using the MIT Regional Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM) in simulating the West African Monsoon. MRCM is built on Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) but with several improvements; including coupling of ...

Eun-Soon Im; Rebecca L. Gianotti; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

407

Fair Trade in the fields : outcomes for Peruvian coffee products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accessing specialty coffee markets is recognized as a way for some small-scale coffee farmers to earn higher prices, counteract unequal distributions of market power, and achieve a better quality of life. Members of CEPICAFE, ...

Walsh, Jean Marie, 1969-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The East African March–May Rainy Season: Associated Atmospheric Dynamics and Predictability over the 1968–97 Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the East African March–May “long rains.” Particularly, it investigates the atmospheric patterns associated to the March–May rainfall anomalies, then proposes a seasonal prediction model.

P. Camberlin; N. Philippon

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Energy Transformation and Diabatic Processes in Developing and Nondeveloping African Easterly Waves Observed during the NAMMA Project of 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an understanding of essential differences between developing and nondeveloping African easterly waves, which was a major goal of NAMMA, NASA’s field program in the eastern Atlantic, which functioned as an extension of the ...

Robert S. Ross; T. N. Krishnamurti; S. Pattnaik; A. Simon

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Genesis of Hurricane Julia (2010) within an African Easterly Wave: Low-Level Vortices and Upper-Level Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While a robust theoretical framework for tropical cyclogenesis (TCG) within African easterly waves (AEWs) has recently been developed, little work explores the development of low-level meso-?-scale vortices (LLVs) and a meso-?-scale surface low ...

Stefan F. Cecelski; Da-Lin Zhang

411

Radar Observations of Convective System Variability in Relationship to African Easterly Waves during the 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A radar-based analysis of the structure, motion, and rainfall variability of westward-propagating squall-line mesoscale convective systems (SLMCSs) in Niamey, Niger, during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities ...

Williams, Earle R.

412

Implication of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the 40-Day Variability of the West African Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Madden–Julian oscillations (MJOs) are extracted over the Indo-Pacific basin using a local mode analysis. The convective perturbations are then projected over a larger domain to evaluate their remote consequences over the West African monsoon (WAM)...

Benjamin Pohl; Serge Janicot; Bernard Fontaine; Romain Marteau

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Radar Observations of Convective System Variability in Relationship to African Easterly Waves during the 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radar-based analysis of the structure, motion, and rainfall variability of westward-propagating squall-line mesoscale convective systems (SLMCSs) in Niamey, Niger, during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (AMMA) 2006 special ...

Rosana Nieto Ferreira; Thomas Rickenbach; Nick Guy; Earle Williams

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

INTEGRATING PERSONALITY AND AFRICAN AMERICAN RACIAL/ETHNIC IDENTITY IN A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL OF PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND WELL-BEING .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??INTEGRATING PERSONALITY AND AFRICAN AMERICAN RACIAL/ETHNIC IDENTITY IN A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL OF PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND WELL-BEING Abstract By Quaneecia L. Rainey, Ph.D. Washington State University… (more)

Rainey, Quaneecia L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003–07  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African easterly waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan air layer on the nearby storms has ...

Po-Lun Ma; Kai Zhang; Jainn Jong Shi; Toshihisa Matsui; Albert Arking

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Saharan Air Layer and the Fate of African Easterly Waves—NASA's AMMA Field Study of Tropical Cyclogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2006, NASA led a field campaign to investigate the factors that control the fate of African easterly waves (AEWs) moving westward into the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Aircraft and surface-based equipment were based on Cape Verde's islands, ...

Edward J. Zipser; Cynthia H. Twohy; Si-Chee Tsay; N. Christina Hsu; Gerald M. Heymsfield; K. Lee Thornhill; Simone Tanelli; Robert Ross; T. N. Krishnamurti; Q. Ji; Gregory Jenkins; Syed Ismail; Richard Ferrare; Gao Chen; Edward V. Browell; Bruce Anderson; Robbie Hood; H. Michael Goodman; Andrew Heymsfield; Jeffrey Halverson; Jason P. Dunion; Michael Douglas; Robert Cifelli

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Satellite-Derived Surface Radiation Budget over the African Continent. Part II: Climatologies of the Various Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temporal and spatial variabilities of the surface radiation budget over the African continent are examined using Meteosat data acquired during 1983–88. Continental maps of land surface albedo, downward solar irradiance, and net radiation are ...

Mamoudou B. Ba; Sharon E. Nicholson; Robert Frouin

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Satellite-Derived Surface Radiation Budget over the African Continent. Part I: Estimation of Downward Solar Irradiance and Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Downward surface solar irradiance and albedo of the African continent are estimated from Meteosat B2 data at 30-km spatial resolution. The algorithm, based on Dedieu et al.’s approach, is verified against other satellite estimates and ground-...

Mamoudou B. Ba; Robert Frouin; Sharon E. Nicholson; Gérard Dedieu

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Seasonal to Decadal Prediction of Southern African Climate and Its Links with Variability of the Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the interannual to interdecadal variability of the southern African region and its links with the Atlantic is given. Emphasis is placed on modes such as the Benguela Nińo that develop within the Atlantic and may have some ...

C. J. C. Reason; W. Landman; W. Tennant

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The Radiation Budget of the West African Sahel and Its Controls: A Perspective from Observations and Global Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous measurements of the shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cross-atmosphere radiation flux divergence over the West African Sahel were made during the year 2006 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and ...

Mark A. Miller; Virendra P. Ghate; Robert K. Zahn

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Impact of potential large-scale irrigation on the West African Monsoon and its dependence on location of irrigated area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the impact of potential large-scale irrigation on the West African Monsoon using the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM). A new irrigation module is implemented to assess the impact of location and scheduling of irrigation on ...

Eun-Soon Im; Marc P. Marcella; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

422

Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 1, Small scale research, development and testing: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development and testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. To date it has consisted of the testing of the aid in small diameter (1.5 and 1.625 inch) holes in Jefferson City Dolomite for both bench and crater blasting configurations. Full scale field trials are being conducted nearby in similar rock in an aggregate quarry. The data acquisition equipment used in Phase 1 included both a Spin Physics SP2000 high speed video motion analysis system and acoustic and seismic monitoring units. Measurements for each test included peak air over pressure, ground surface ppv, stemming displacement and velocity and face movement and extent. The results illustrate that the concept is sound and that its successful application to production blasting at full scale will be a function of manufacturing cost, the development of suitable insertion techniques for large diameter boreholes and the selection of a suitable low cost material for the aid. 17 refs., 20 figs.

Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Market Analysis and Information System) is a proprietary data base of commercial and residential energy and

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Yu-Shu Wu, H.matrix interaction in Yucca Mountain site characterizationthe Unsaturated Zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Journal of

Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Dissipation and Cascades to Small Scales in Numerical Models Using a Shape-Preserving Advection Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nondivergent barotropic mode1 and a shallow-water model are presented that exploit a high-order shape-preserving scheme for the advection of vorticity or potential vorticity as well as tracers. The dissipation associated with the advection ...

John Thuburn

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The Effect of Small-Scale Moisture Variability on Thunderstorm Initiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) project illustrate that horizontal convective rolls are capable of providing sufficient forcing to initiate free moist convection. Rolls occurred on the majority of days ...

Tammy M. Weckwerth

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Biological Engineering Small Scale Technology: Airway Mucus Rheological Properties and Pulmonary Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were positioned in the goniometer of a Brookhaven laserspectrometer (Brookhaven Instruments, NY, USA). Mucin gelsampling time using a Brookhaven BI 9000AT autocorrelator.

Chen, Eric

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Less Parking, More Carsharing: Supporting Small-Scale Transit-Oriented Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sensitivity  of  car  share  membership  and  usage  to  access  and  car  share  membership/usage:     8. Do  you  car-­?share  vehicles,  neighborhood  density,  or  off-­?street  parking  access   on  carshare  membership  and  usage?      

Dentel-Post, Colin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Improving the environmental performance of a small-scale industrial building project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investor-owned utility built three line crew centers to meet the requirements of its environmentally oriented new construction DSM program. The new locations are distributed around a region to replace a large central facility. Each facility includes an office building, a garage area, a warehouse, covered parking, and a fueling station. The office buildings were designed to use 43% less energy than if constructed according to Oregon code minimum. The facility as a whole uses resource-efficient building products. A quality indoor environment is achieved through the use of low toxicity building materials. Environmental responsibility was demonstrated by using water-efficient fixtures, recycling of construction materials and creating a bioswale, or retention pond, to receive runoff water. One site also includes 2.8 acres of wetland creation and enhancement where habitat was created for the northern red-legged frog, which has been designated as a species of concern.

Peterson, J.C.; Good, N.L.; Parr, R.W.; Nicolay, R.D.; Millican, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Exploring the Possible Role of Small-Scale Terrain Drag on Stable Boundary Layers over Land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the possible role of unresolved terrain drag, relative to the turbulent drag on the development of the stable atmospheric boundary layer over land. Adding a first-order estimate for terrain drag to the turbulent drag appears ...

G. J. Steeneveld; A. A. M. Holtslag; C. J. Nappo; B. J. H. van de Wiel; L. Mahrt

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

The Effects of Small-Scale Turbulence on Air–Sea Heat Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The air–sea exchange of heat is mainly controlled by the molecular diffusive layer adjacent to the surface. With an order of magnitude difference between the kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity of water, the thermal sublayer is embedded ...

Fabrice Veron; W. Kendall Melville; Luc Lenain

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

U.S. Department of Energy Small-Scale Biorefineries Project Overview...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Innovation Science & Technology Science Education Innovation Energy Sources Energy Usage Energy Efficiency Mission News & Blog Maps Data About Us For Staff & Contractors...

433

Critical review of siting characteristics of small scale solar thermal energy systems  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was made of unique technical issues to be considered in siting solar-thermal energy systems in small communities. Four systems are described: central receiver, parabolic trough, parabolic dish, hemispherical bowl. The difference between central receiver systems and distributed receiver systems are indicated with reference to current applications. Finally, a technical siting comparison is made of the four systems defined, including overall efficiency, end use, land requirements, failure rates, safety considerations, energy backup systems and capital costs.

Sokolow, B.B.; Lobnitz, M.M.; Baruch, S.B.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Inertial Ranges and Small-Scale Intermittency in One-Dimensional Turbulence Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of one-dimensional turbulence models can be constructed by applying severe D-1 directional Fourier truncation to the D-dimensional fluid equations, allowing for numerical calculation over an extremely wide range of scales. At low resolution ...

Peter Bartello

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A Multispacecraft Analysis of a Small-Scale Transient Entrained by Solar Wind Streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar wind and solar transients between the Sun and 1 AU bythe solar wind can be tracked continuously from the Sun tothe Sun’s corona, known as coronal holes, where solar plasma

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report describes the progress during the contract period March 1, 1998 through April 30, 2003, on the design, development, and testing of a novel mixed-refrigerant-based 1000 gal/day natural gas liquefier, together with the associated gas cleanup equipment. Based on the work, it is concluded that a cost-effective 1000 gal/day liquefaction system is technically and economically feasible. A unit based on the same developed technology, with 5000 gal/day capacity, would have much improved economics.

Kountz, K.; Kriha, K.; Liss, W.; Perry, M.; Richards, M.; Zuckerman, D.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

Small-Scale Industrial Cogeneration: Design Using Reciprocating Engines and Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a packaged cogeneration system designed for light industrial applications (i.e., situations where a user wants a maximum of 1 MW of cogenerated electricity). The design employs reciprocating engines fueled with natural gas or liquid fuels. Waste heat from the engine exhaust and jacket water is used to drive an absorption chiller. This approach yields a variety of unique advantages, including: (1) ability to satisfy the needs of facilities that have a low ratio of thermal-to-electric energy needs, and which have significant refrigeration loads, and (2) the ability to provide greater operating efficiency in the <1 MW size range, especially at part load, when compared to systems based on gas turbines or steam turbines. Although component substitution can be used to vary the energy output capabilities of the system, the discussion focuses on a unit having an electrical rating of 418 kW and cooling capacity of 160 tons. This paper discusses component selection, operating parameters, economics, maintenance issues, and other factors.

Wagner, J. R.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind Power Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Generation, Distributed Generation, Risk Analysis,both central and distributed generation is needed. Small-Among proponents of distributed generation there is a desire

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind Power Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. S. Schwartz, Electricity prices and power derivatives –is a thresh- old level of electricity prices at which theinformation about electricity prices equals the marginal net

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 p ($/kW) Regulated tariff for energy purchases during hourthe Tariff scenario installed capacity is high, while energytariff type, a monthly- ratcheted power charge and an energy

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distributed Small-Scale Wind in New Zealand: Advantages, Barriers and Policy Support Instruments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Despite having one of the best wind resources in the world, New Zealand’s wind energy industry is growing at a slower rate than the OECD… (more)

Barry, Martin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

together with loads in microgrids. These clusters couldfor analysing the effect that microgrids may have on typicalwhile the emergence of microgrids represents the second.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Control of Large-Scale Heat Transport by Small-Scale Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equilibrium of an idealized flow driven at the surface by wind stress and rapid relaxation to nonuniform buoyancy is analyzed in terms of entropy production, mechanical energy balance, and heat transport. The flow is rapidly rotating, and ...

Paola Cessi; W. R. Young; Jeff A. Polton

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Effects of Small-Scale Vertical Motion on Radar Measurements of Wind and Temperature Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical velocities were observed during the month of June 1990 with two side-by-side wind profilers at Platteville, Colorado. Many of the observations reveal strong wave motion, probably mountain lee waves, that sometimes caused vertical ...

B. L. Weber; D. B. Wuertz; D. C. Law; A. S. Frisch; J. M. Brown

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Spacing of Orographic Rainbands Triggered by Small-Scale Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of idealized numerical simulations and analytical theory is used to investigate the spacing between convective orographic rainbands over the Coastal Range of western Oregon. The simulations, which are idealized from an observed ...

Daniel J. Kirshbaum; Richard Rotunno; George H. Bryan

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Small-Scale Low Cost Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in tasks seeking greater cell power density and lower cost through new cell designs, new cell materials and lower operating temperature is summarized. The design of the program required Proof-of-Concept unit of residential capacity scale is reviewed along with a summary of results from its successful test. Attachment 1 summarizes the status of cell development. Attachment 2 summarizes the status of generator design, and Attachment 3 of BOP design.

S. D. Vora

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

Scalable parallel simulation of small-scale structures in cold dark matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a parallel implementation of the particle-particle/particle-mesh (PłM) algorithm for distributed memory clusters. The llp3m-hc code uses a hybrid method for both computation and domain decomposition. Long-range ...

Shirokov, Alexander V. (Alexander Victorovich)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Small-scale Specimen Testing of Monolithic U-Mo Fuel Foils  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to develop a shear punch testing (SPT) procedure and standardize it to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated fuels in a hot-cell so that the tensile behavior can be predicted using small volumes of material and at greatly reduced irradiation costs. This is highly important in the development of low-enriched uranium fuels for nuclear research and test reactors. The load-displacement data obtained using SPT can be interpreted in terms of and correlated with uniaxial mechanical properties. In order to establish a correlation between SPT and tensile data, sub-size tensile and microhardness testing were performed on U-Mo alloys. In addition, efforts are ongoing to understand the effect of test parameters (such as specimen thickness, surface finish, punch-die clearance, crosshead velocity and carbon content) on the measured mechanical properties, in order to rationalize the technique, prior to employing it on a material of unknown strength.

Ramprashad Prabhakaran; Douglas E. Burkes; James I. Cole; Indrajit Charit; Daniel M. Wachs

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Highly damped quasinormal modes and the small scale structure of quantum corrected black hole exteriors  

SciTech Connect

Quasinormal modes provide valuable information about the structure of spacetime outside a black hole. There is also a conjectured relationship between the highly damped quasinormal modes and the semiclassical spectrum of the horizon area/entropy. In this paper, we show that for spacetimes characterized by more than one scale, the 'infinitely damped' modes in principle probe the structure of spacetime outside the horizon at the shortest length scales. We demonstrate this with the calculation of the highly damped quasinormal modes of the nonsingular, single-horizon, quantum corrected black hole derived in [A. Peltola and G. Kunstatter, Phys. Rev. D 79, 061501 (2009); ].

Babb, James; Kunstatter, Gabor [Department of Physics, The University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Daghigh, Ramin [Natural Sciences Department, Metropolitan State University, 700 East Seventh Street, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55106 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Combined Satellite Infrared and Passive Microwave Technique for Estimation of Small-Scale Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are numerous applications in climatology and hydrology where accurate information at scales smaller than the existing monthly/2.5° products would be invaluable. Here, a new microwave/infrared rainfall algorithm is introduced that combines ...

Martin C. Todd; Chris Kidd; Dominic Kniveton; Tim J. Bellerby

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Small-Scale and Mesoscale Variability in Cloudy Boundary Layers: Joint Probability Density Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The joint probability density function (PDF) of vertical velocity and conserved scalars is important for at least two reasons. First, the shape of the joint PDF determines the buoyancy flux in partly cloudy layers. Second, the PDF provides a ...

Vincent E. Larson; Jean-Christophe Golaz; William R. Cotton

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

A Statistical Description of Small-Scale Turbulence in the Low-Level Nocturnal Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The probability density function (PDF) and spatial statistics of both the energy dissipation rate ? and the temperature structure constant C2T are determined for the shear region of a nocturnal jet. The PDF of ? and C2T are approximately lognormal. In ...

Rod Frehlich; Yannick Meillier; Michael L. Jensen; Ben Balsley

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Small-scale costs of hydrogen derived from ammonia. [As ammonia  

SciTech Connect

A systems study was made to assess the economic prospects for using purchased industrial ammonia as a hydrogen distribution and storage medium for users requiring 33 to 330 million std ft/sup 3/ per year (MSCFY) of hydrogen (or 0.1 to 1.0 MSCFD) at a plant capacity factor of 0.9. Projected costs to the end user were determined for the dissociated ammonia product (75 vol % hydrogen, 25 vol % nitrogen), and for ultra-high-purity hydrogen (99.999%) obtained by separation of the nitrogen. Costs were also projected for hydrogen produced by steam-reforming of natural gas, for electrolytic hydrogen, and for purchased (merchant) liquid hydrogen. The costs of ammonia and its hydrogen, and liquid hydrogen made by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), are also listed for comparison. The latter costs from a recent study were updated to include more realistic (higher) hydrogen purification costs. All of the costs, expressed as 1980 $/MBTU in 1990, were obtained for two sets of forecast energy prices on the basis that advanced technology electrolyzers and OTEC products would be available in 1990. Results of the analysis showed that merchant liquid hydrogen was substantially higher in cost than all of the other options. Although hydrogen derived from industrial ammonia was significantly higher in cost than electrolytic hydrogen or hydrogen derived from OTEC ammonia, it can be produced using state-of-the-art technology. Possible reductions in the total cost of obtaining hydrogen via ammonia could make it lower in cost than electrolytic hydrogen. Hydrogen produced from natural gas was lowest in cost, among the land-based sources, for plant sizes exceeding 100 MSCFY. Other comparisons are provided, including the cost of ammonia made from coal. The criteria and methodology applied in the study are described. Uses of the product hydrogen are suggested along with recommendations for future work.

Strickland, G.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Revaluing waste in New York City : planning for small-scale compost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One-third of the municipal solid waste stream is organic material that, when processed in landfills, produces methane, a highly potent greenhouse gas. Composting is a proven strategy for organic waste management, which ...

Neilson, Sarah (Sarah Jane)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

RESPONSE OF GRANULATION TO SMALL-SCALE BRIGHT FEATURES IN THE QUIET SUN  

SciTech Connect

We detected 2.8 bright points (BPs) per Mm{sup 2} in the quiet Sun with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, using the TiO 705.68 nm spectral line at an angular resolution {approx}0.''1 to obtain a 30 minute data sequence. Some BPs formed knots that were stable in time and influenced the properties of the granulation pattern around them. The observed granulation pattern within {approx}3'' of knots presents smaller granules than those observed in a normal granulation pattern, i.e., around the knots a suppressed convection is detected. Observed BPs covered {approx}5% of the solar surface and were not homogeneously distributed. BPs had an average size of 0.''22, they were detectable for 4.28 minutes on average, and had an averaged contrast of 0.1% in the deep red TiO spectral line.

Andic, A.; Chae, J.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Ahn, K.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40398 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

458

DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% {+-} 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of -1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's -5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

459

Global Trends of Sea Ice: Small-Scale Roughness and Refractive Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea ice is one of the most important parameters in the global climate system, specifically the exchange of energy and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. In previous studies, a steady decline in Arctic sea ice has been observed over ...

Sungwook Hong; Inchul Shin

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

A New Look into the Treatment of Small-Scale Drop Variability...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

entropy and thus convey minimum information about drop distribution variation in space (Ash 1965). The use of such distributions in the radiative transfer equation, therefore,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Observations of the Small-Scale Variability of Precipitation Using an Imaging Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many years, spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in precipitation fields have been studied using scanning radars, cloud radars, and disdrometers, for example. Each measurement technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Conventional ...

Robert D. Palmer; Boon Leng Cheong; Michael W. Hoffman; Stephen J. Frasier; F. J. López-Dekker

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Base line for determining local, small-scale vertical movements in Louisiana  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subsidence in Louisiana is a result of many factors ranging from local, man-induced to regional, large-scale processes. The measurement of local, man-induced subsidence is especially critical in areas with high rates of land loss. In order to measure local vertical movement, absolute historical geodetic movements have been estimated by adjusting all movements along the first-order vertical control network from northeast to southwest Louisiana as related to the Monroe Uplift. The adjustment will serve as a base line by which local subsidence or uplift can be measured. A generalized trend of increasing subsidence to the south in Louisiana is probably a reflection of increasing sediment thickness and weight toward the AXIS of the Gulf Coast Basin. Anomalous values as low as -17.6 mm/y occur superjacent to the position of Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial elements. Positive movement, up to +4.1 mm/y, has been found associated with the Iberian structural axis in south-central Louisiana. Land subsidence due to natural causes may far outweigh subsidence resulting from fluid withdrawal or depressurization of geopressured aquifers. The effects of regional and local natural processes should not be underestimated in any systematic approach to measuring subsidence. 13 references, 7 figures.

Trahan, D.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

diverse and relevant feedstocks including agricultural residues, such as corn fiber, corn stover, switchgrass and sorghum. ICM, Inc. will integrate biochemical and...

464

DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of plant materials or non-food based feedstocks, including agricultural wastes such as corn stover, forest waste including saw dust and paper pulp, and energy crops, like...

465

DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefiner...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of plant materials or non-food based feedstocks, including agricultural wastes such as corn stover; forest wastes such as saw dust and forest thinnings; and energy crops, such...

466

UCRL-ID-124563 LLNL Small-scale Friction Sensitivity (BAM) Test  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Salicylate Lead-2-ethyl hexaoate ' (56.431.77.71 .01 .61.6) Ammonium nitrate-Fuel oil 3-Amino-5-nitro-l,2,4-triazole Potassium Nitrate Sulfur charcoal (751015)...

467

Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ladders, supported by a carbon fiber structure, will bein one end of the carbon fiber cone will provide capability

Szelezniak, Michal A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The Challenges of Biofuels in Ohio: From the Perspective of Small-Scale Producers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The increased interest in renewable biofuels, such as biodiesel and ethanol, has come in the wake of higher domestic fuel costs after many years of… (more)

McHenry, John Carl Izaak

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applied in some cases 6 Standby charge in $/kW/month thatDER investment cost, total standby charges, and minus the50Turnkey HighNatG LowNatG Standby C. IntRate k 290 W 280

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cells are used in a baseload role and microturbines aregeneration dominates baseload roles and vice-versa. 5.generation tends to fill a baseload role, and the customers

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Farm ethanol production demonstration. Progress report, September 1, 1981-August 30, 1983. [Small-scale facility  

SciTech Connect

This report contains engineering drawings of an ethanol demonstration production unit at the Agricultural Technical Institute Campus in Wooster, Ohio. A brief description of the cooking unit and distillation unit are included. (DMC)

Longbrake, W.R.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

Wiltsee, G.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Cloud-Top Entrainment Instability through Small-Scale Mixing and Its Parameterization in Numerical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent paper, Kuo and Schubert demonstrated the lack of observational support for the relevance of the criterion for cloud-top entrainment instability proposed by Randall and by Deardorff. Here we derive a new criterion, based on a model of ...

M. K. MacVean; P. J. Mason

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

An Experimental Study of Small-Scale Variability of Radar Reflectivity Using Disdrometer Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of data collected by four disdrometers deployed in a 1-km2 area is presented with the intent of quantifying the spatial variability of radar reflectivity at small spatial scales. Spatial variability of radar reflectivity within the radar ...

Benjamin J. Miriovsky; A. Allen Bradley; William E. Eichinger; Witold F. Krajewski; Anton Kruger; Brian R. Nelson; Jean-Dominique Creutin; Jean-Marc Lapetite; Gyu Won Lee; Isztar Zawadzki; Fred L. Ogden

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Parameterization of Small Scales of Three-Dimensional Isotropic Turbulence Utilizing Spectral Closures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral equation derived from two-point closures applied to three-dimensional isotropic turbulence is studied from the subgrid-scale modeling point of view, with a cutoff wavenumber kc located in the inertial range of turbulence. Ideas of ...

Jean-Pierre Chollet; Marcel Lesieur

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Small-scale stress heterogeneity in the Anza seismic gap, southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Focal mechanism inversions reveal significant lateral variations in stress orientations along the Anza segment of the San Jacinto fault zone. The most notable stress anomaly is within the 20-km aseismic (seismic gap) portion of the fault zone, where {sigma}{sub 1}, the maximum compressive stress, is nearly horizontal and is oriented at 74{degrees} {+-} 13{degrees} relative to the fault strike. This contrasts with orientations ranging from 62{degrees} {+-} 11{degrees} to 49{degrees} {+-} 7{degrees} along the more seismically active portions of the fault zone immediately to the northwest and southeast of the seismic gap. Regional stress results, found by inverting all focal mechanisms simultaneously, indicate that {sigma}{sub 1} is horizontal and trends north-south, while {sigma}{sub 3} is horizontal and trends east-west. Approximately, 15 km west of the seismic gap, in the off-fault Cahuilla swarm area, {sigma}{sub 1} and {sigma}{sub 3} solutions are rotated clockwise by about 25{degrees} relative to the regional model. Roughly, 10 km southeast of the seismic gap near the Buck Ridge fault, {sigma}{sub 1} and {sigma}{sub 3} are rotated counterclockwise by about 10{degrees} relative to the regional solution. Northwest of the seismic gap along the fault zone, {sigma}{sub 3} plunges about 30{degrees} from the horizontal, correlating with a local increase in reverse faulting between the Hot Springs and San Jacinto faults. Southeast of the seismic gap, {sigma}{sub 1} plunges about 45{degrees} from the horizontal, correlating with a local increase in normal faulting in the trifurcation region of the Buck Ridge, Clark, and Coyote Creek faults. The authors propose a simple mechanical model in which a block rotation superimposed on the dominant right-lateral strike-slip motion of the fault zone satisfies the first-order observations of stress orientation, faulting, and horizontal surface strain. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Hartse, H.E.; Fehler, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Aster, R.C. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Scott, J.S.; Vernon, F.L. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1994-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

477

Bridgeport Geothermal Energy Project: a heating district and small-scale-electric feasibility investigation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Bridgeport Geothermal Project, a proposed community heating district, appears to be feasible. Analysis of the feasibility of the Bridgeport Geothermal Project required three critical assumptions: a successful supply well, a commercially viable wellhead generator, and successfully obtaining simultaneous financing from private investors, a commercial lendor and a granting agency. The geothermal supply well for the Bridgeport Project will be sited near Travertine Hot Springs about 1 1/2 miles southeast of town. The well should yield 1000 gallons per minute at 205/sup 0/F to 240/sup 0/F. The hot brine will be piped (1) to a primary heat exchanger for the heating district which will distribute heat to public and commercial buildings via a fresh water loop, and (2) to an organic Rankine boiler to drive a 500 kW (gross) generator. The institutional structure for the project is well established. The capital cost of the installed project will be about $4.1 million to be raised through equity, commercial debt and grant funding. The system revenues are projected to result in a positive cash flow in the eighth year of operation, and over a 20 year payout are projected to yield an internal rate of return (IRR) of 23/sup +/% to the private investors.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Small scale heater tests in argillite of the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Near-surface heater tests were run in the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site, in an effort to evaluate argillaceous rock for nuclear waste storage. The main test, which employed a full-scale heater with a thermal output approximating commercial borosilicate waste, was designed to operate for several months. Two smaller, scaled tests were run prior to the full-scale test. This report develops the thermal scaling laws, describes the pretest thermal and thermomechanical analysis conducted for these two tests, and discusses the material properties data used in the analyses. In the first test, scaled to a large heater of 3.5 kW power, computed heater temperatures were within 7% of measured values for the entire 96-hour test run. The second test, scaled to a large heater having 5.0 kW power, experienced periodic water in-flow onto the heater, which tended to damp the temperature. For the second test, the computed temperatures were within 7% of measured for the first 20 hours. After this time, the water effect became significant and the measured temperatures were 15 to 20% below those predicted. On the second test, rock surface spallation was noted in the bore hole above the heater, as predicted. The scaled tests indicated that in-situ argillite would not undergo major thermostructural failure during the follow-on, 3.5 kW, full-scale test. 24 figures, 6 tables.

McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Bridging the Gap Between Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry in Studies of Small-Scale Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current understanding of the influence of atmospheric turbulence on chemical reactions is briefly reviewed. The fundamentals of this influence and the consequences for the transport and mixing of the reactants are discussed. A classification ...

Jordi Vilŕ-Guerau de Arellano

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Small-Scale Spatial Gradients in Climatological Precipitation on the Olympic Peninsula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Persistent, 10-km-scale gradients in climatological precipitation tied to topography are documented with a finescale rain and snow gauge network in the Matheny Ridge area of the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Precipitation totals are 50% ...

Alison M. Anders; Gerard H. Roe; Dale R. Durran; Justin R. Minder

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "african small-scale farmers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variation during the operation. The analysis will consider an average profile for heat and power demand gross electricity generation in 2010 by doubling the generation capacity and increasing the plant load and degrades the fuel cells. To counteract the degradation, the system has not to be stressed with rapid load

Liso, Vincenzo

482

Analysis of Small-Scale Convective Dynamics in a Crown Fire Using Infrared Video Camera Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A good physical understanding of the initiation, propagation, and spread of crown fires remains an elusive goal for fire researchers. Although some data exist that describe the fire spread rate and some qualitative aspects of wildfire behavior, ...

Terry L. Clark; Larry Radke; Janice Coen; Don Middleton

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a significant impact on radionuclide transport in the UZresults for tracer/radionuclide transport are presented witha reactive (neptunium) radionuclide. Transport simulation is

Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Small-Scale Low Cost Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tasks carried out during the reporting period March 2005-August 2005 are summarized. During this reporting period, the primary focus was on tasks leading to the fabrication of a proof-of-concept (POC) unit with HPD5R1 cells. Assembly of the POC unit was completed and the initial operation was started. Optimization of HPD cell design, investigation of scandia doped zirconia and low temperature operation of YSZ electrolyte based cells continued. Development of seal to be used in a ''once-thru'' design or an ''up-down'' design was started. Attachment 1 describes the progress in cell development and Attachments 2 and 3 deal with status of generator and BOP design. Operation of POC is summarized in Attachment 4. Plans for future work are summarized in Attachment 5.

S.D. Vora

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

485

Analysis of Small-Scale Melter Run Samples from the DOE-EM ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intent of this DOE-EM task was to develop a phosphate glass formulation that could simultaneously meet processing and product quality requirements for ...

486

Observations of Small-Scale Turbulence and Energy Dissipation Rates in the Cloudy Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tethered balloon–borne measurements with a resolution in the order of 10 cm in a cloudy boundary layer are presented. Two examples sampled under different conditions concerning the clouds' stage of life are discussed. The hypothesis tested here ...

Holger Siebert; Katrin Lehmann; Manfred Wendisch

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Observations of Small-Scale Processes Associated with the Internal Tide Encountering an Island  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current-meter, temperature, and microstructure observations of the large-amplitude internal tide shoaling on the continental shelf of the east coast of northern New Zealand show the complexity of the internal kinematics and mixing. The ...

Craig L. Stevens; Edward R. Abraham; C. Mark Moore; Philip W. Boyd; Jonathan Sharples

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis University of Kentucky Project Number: FE0010482 Project Description The overarching goal...

489

Scrubbing of Aerosols by Water Pools, Volume 3: Small-Scale Single-Orifice Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During a postulated severe accident in a BWR, the pressure suppression pool provides an important barrier to the release of radioactive fission-product aerosols. Experiments have been performed in a labscale apparatus to investigate the aerosol scrubbing efficiency obtained as a function of several parameters.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Experimental investigation of small-scale breaking waves : flow visualization across the air-water interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of breaking waves significantly affect air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, mass and energy across the ocean interface. Breaking waves also contribute considerable loading to offshore and coastal structures, and ...

McDonald, Angus Kai

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Feasibility Study of Small Scale Standalone Wind Turbine for Urban Area.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The recent worldwide economic crisis, climate change and global warming have emphasized that the need for low carbon emissions while also ensuring the economic… (more)

Gebrelibanos, Kalekirstos Gebremariam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Simulation of the atmospheric behavior for the environment of a small-scale wind turbine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates a method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model low-elevation atmospheric conditions. There are three goals in this research: to analyze the… (more)

Nguyen, Viet

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Small-Scale XMI Programming: A Revolution in UML Tool Use?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main motivation for the development of the OMG's XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI) was the need to have a standard way for UML tools to interchange UML models. However, the fact that UML models, saved as XML documents, are now accessible to standard ... Keywords: UML, XMI, XML, model analysis, tool integration

Perdita Stevens

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

OPERATION STRATEGY FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR SMALL-SCALE STATIONARY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

groups of distributed generation technologies that supply electricity or heat at the site at which other applications but also include removing strain from the electricity grid, which is a utility for heat and power demand of a family house. Finally data analysis and power system limitations

Liso, Vincenzo

495

ThermoSolar and photovoltaic hybridization for small scale distributed generation : applications for powering rural health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of provisioning a remote health clinic or school with electricity, heating and cooling (trigeneration) is considered from an engineering design and optimization standpoint. A baseline technical-economic review ...

Orosz, Matthew S. (Matthew Sándor), 1977-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Feasibility of using power steering pumps in small-scale solar thermal electric power systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to determine performance curves for a variety of positive displacement pumps in order to select an efficient and low cost option for use as a boiler feed pump in a 1-kWe organic Rankine cycle ...

Lin, Cynthia, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Observations of Small-Scale Mixing Processes in the Seasonal Thermocline. Part I: Salt Fingering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Towed conductivity microstructure measurements are examined for evidence of salt fingering in the seasonal thermocline of the Sargasso Sea. Patches of limited-amplitude, narrow-bandwidth signals occur in particular fluid layers about 1 m thick ...

G. O. Marmorino

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Lidar-Based Estimation of Small-Scale Rainfall: Empirical Evidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant scale gap between radar and in situ measurements of rainfall using rain gauges and disdrometers indicates a pressing need for improved knowledge of rainfall variability at the spatial scales below those of today’s operational radar ...

Piotr A. Lewandowski; William E. Eichinger; Anton Kruger; Witold F. Krajewski

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z