Sample records for africa-low carbon growth

  1. South Africa-Low Carbon Growth Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolarSolkar SolarSomontDevelopingGTZ

  2. South Africa-Low Carbon Growth Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolarSolkar SolarSomontDevelopingGTZExample What

  3. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience from Six Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies:...

  4. Philippines-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    include: Customizing low-carbon growth planning framework that is transparent, flexible, and user-friendly Helping developupdate low-carbon roadmap Providing a suite of...

  5. Carbon Storage in Young Growth Coast Redwood Stands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    515 Carbon Storage in Young Growth Coast Redwood Stands Dryw A. Jones1 and Kevin L. O'Hara1 Abstract Carbon sequestration is an emerging forest management objective within California and around the dynamics of carbon sequestration and to accurately measure carbon storage is essential to insure successful

  6. Low Carbon Green Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    scarcity and climate change and how adopting Low Carbon Green Growth can provide win-win solutions for fostering inclusive sustainable development while mitigating and...

  7. QUANTIFYING GROWTH AND CALCIUM CARBONATE DEPOSITION OF CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martone, Patrick T.

    NOTE QUANTIFYING GROWTH AND CALCIUM CARBONATE DEPOSITION OF CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES Station of Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California 93950, USA Growth and calcium carbonate measurement of growth and calcium carbonate deposition at each meristem. In Calliarthron, meristematic

  8. Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China b Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B7 Received 17 February 2001 Abstract Carbon monoxide

  9. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preparation of Cu substrates will lead to larger grapheneGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) Substrate selection and preparationGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) 3.1 Substrate selection and preparation

  10. Original article Carbon balance and tree growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for wood construction and whether the fraction of assimilation used for production varies among social déterminer la pro- portion du carbone assimilé utilisée pour la construction de bois et sa variation en prima- ry productivity (NPP). To predict effects of global environmental change on ecosystems

  11. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  12. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@dlou.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023 (China); Su, Yan [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  13. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  14. Ghana-Supporting Low Carbon Growth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/Exploration < Geothermal JumpGermany:Energylow carbon growth

  15. Brazil-Low Carbon Growth Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotinsBoston CollegeBrazil TimberLow Carbon Growth

  16. Controlled epitaxial graphene growth within removable amorphous carbon corrals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, James; Hu, Yike; Hankinson, John; Guo, Zelei; Heer, Walt A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State St. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kunc, Jan [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State St. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Institute of Physics, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State St. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Universit Grenoble Alpes/CNRSInstitut Nel, BP166, Grenoble Cedex 9 38042 (France)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the question of control of the silicon carbide (SiC) steps and terraces under epitaxial graphene on SiC and demonstrate amorphous carbon (aC) corrals as an ideal method to pin SiC surface steps. aC is compatible with graphene growth, structurally stable at high temperatures, and can be removed after graphene growth. For this, aC is first evaporated and patterned on SiC, then annealed in the graphene growth furnace. There at temperatures above 1200?C, mobile SiC steps accumulate at the aC corral that provide effective step flow barriers. Aligned step free regions are thereby formed for subsequent graphene growth at temperatures above 1330?C. Atomic force microscopy imaging supports the formation of step-free terraces on SiC with the step morphology aligned to the aC corrals. Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of good graphene sheets on the step-free terraces.

  17. CVD Growth of Carbon Nanostructures from Zirconia: Mechanisms and a Method for Enhancing Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudo, Akira

    By excluding metals from synthesis, growth of carbon nanostructures via unreduced oxide nanoparticle catalysts offers wide technological potential. We report new observations of the mechanisms underlying chemical vapor ...

  18. China-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Government of Republic of Korea...

  19. Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures M. H. Kuang and Z of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China Received 19 October 1999; accepted for publication 11 January 2000 Recent interest in the growth of aligned carbon nanotube films using transition metal catalysts has led

  20. Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotrees with branched carbon nanofibers synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    be interesting for future applications in nanoelectronic devices and also composite materials. hal-008807221 Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotrees with branched carbon nanofibers synthesized by plasma , Didier Pribat*, 3 1 State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science

  1. Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon To study the impact of ozone (O3) and O3 plus CO2 on aspen growth, we planted two trembling aspen clones growth and modified crown architecture of both aspen clones. Ozone exposure decreased leaf, stem, branch

  2. Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes on tips of cantilevers and nanowires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Eres, Gyula; Wei, Yayi; Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructures on the tips of nanowires, cantilevers, conductive micro/nanometer structures, wafers and the like. The method can be used for production of carbon nanotube-anchored cantilevers that can significantly improve the performance of scaning probe microscopy (AFM, EFM etc). The invention can also be used in many other processes of micro and/or nanofabrication with carbon nanotubes/fibers. Key elements of this invention include: (1) Proper selection of a metal catalyst and programmable pulsed electrolytic deposition of the desired specific catalyst precisely at the tip of a substrate, (2) Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes/fibers at the catalyst-deposited tips, (3) Control of carbon nanotube/fiber growth pattern by manipulation of tip shape and growth conditions, and (4) Automation for mass production.

  3. Engineering carbon nanostructures : development of novel aerogel-nanotube composites and optimization techniques for nanotube growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Stephen Alan, III

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels offer several unique advantages which make them ideal for evaluating a metal's ability to catalyze nanotube growth, including in situ carbothermic reduction of oxidized nanoparticles to their catalytic ...

  4. Elucidating Nucleation and Growth Behavior of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes obtained via Catalyzed Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos Beltran, Juan Carlos

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    use of SWCNTs in electronic devices. RMD simulations demonstrate that small catalyst particles favor the growth of lengthy nanotubes over catalyst encapsulation as a result of an increase of the curvature energies of the carbon capsule. Furthermore...

  5. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    TR-42 1972 Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  6. A Novel Growth Process of Calcium Carbonate Crystals in Silk Fibroin Hydrogel System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 A Novel Growth Process of Calcium Carbonate Crystals in Silk Fibroin Hydrogel System Yufei Ma fibroin hydrogel; Biomineralization 1. Introduction Calcium carbonate is an important mineral due to its) 2413-2420" DOI : 10.1016/j.msec.2013.02.006 #12;2 ABSTRACT We report an interesting finding of calcium

  7. Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials due their numerous applications in flexible electronic devices, biosensors and multifunctional aircraft materials, among others. However, the ...

  8. Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling Xuesong Li, Weiwei Cai, Luigi Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas 75243 Received August 3, 2009 ABSTRACT Large-area graphene growth) of hydrocarbons has shown some promise in growing large-area graphene or few-layer graphene films on metal

  9. CVD growth control and solar cell application of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    CVD growth control and solar cell application of single-walled carbon nanotubes ( CVD ) #12;#12; Doctoral Dissertation CVD Growth Control and Solar Cell Application of Single is supposed to be a very promising candidate for next-generation solar cell applications. However, three main

  10. Carbonate platform growth and cyclicity at a terminal Proterozoic passive margin, Infra Krol Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    Carbonate platform growth and cyclicity at a terminal Proterozoic passive margin, Infra Krol lagoon, an arrangement reminiscent of many Phanerozoic and Proterozoic platforms. Growth of this complex. Variations in the number of both sets of cycles and component metre-scale cycles across the platform may

  11. Control Mechanisms for the Growth of Isolated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, Vladimir I [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Guillorn, M. A. [Cornell University; Lowndes, Douglas H [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have been grown using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the effects of the growth conditions on VACNF morphology and composition have been determined in substantial detail. The dependence of the growth rate, tip and base diameters, and chemical composition of isolated VACNFs on the growth parameters is described, including the effects of plasma power and gas mixture. Phenomenological models explaining the observed growth behavior are presented. The results indicate the importance of plasma control for the deterministic growth of isolated VACNFs, which are promising elements for the fabrication of practical nanoscale devices.

  12. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  13. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  14. Computational Study of Catalyzed Growth of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jin

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis process called CoMoCAT yields single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)s of controlled diameter and chirality, making them extremely attractive for technological ...

  15. Computational Study of Catalyzed Growth of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jin

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis process called CoMoCAT yields single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)s of controlled diameter and chirality, making them extremely attractive for technological applications...

  16. Carbon Nanotube Growth Using Ni Catalyst in Different Layouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, H. Q.

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been grown using Ni as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (PECVD) in various pre-patterned substrates. Ni was thermally evaporated on silicon substrates ...

  17. Carbon nanotubes: in situ studies of growth and electromechanical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weis, Johan Ek

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes have been found to have extraordinary properties, such as ballistic electrical conductivity, extremely high thermal conductivity and they can be metallic or semiconducting with a wide range of band ...

  18. Process variables controlling consistency of carbon nanotube forest growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Hanna Megumi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes (A-CNTs), called CNT forests, are the precursor for controlled-morphology macroscopic nanocomposites and nanoengineered composites due to theirscale-dependent, tunable physicall properties. ...

  19. Growth and deterministic assembly of single stranded carbon nanotube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddabasanagouda, Sunil

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to control the shape, position, alignment, length and assembly of carbon nanotubes over large areas has become an essential but very difficult goal in the field of nanotechnology. Current assembly efforts for ...

  20. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  1. CVD Growth of Carbon Nanostructures from Zirconia: Mechanisms and a Method for Enhancing Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudo, Akira; Steiner, Stephen A., III; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Hofmann, Stephan; Strano, Michael S.; Wardle, Brian L.

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    the growth is due to zirconia nanoparticles. Recently, morphologies of carbon nanostructures similar to those investigated in this work have been reported in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) comprised of yttria-stabilized zirconia.63,64 ? CONCLUSION Distinct... and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited. etc.). Despite attempts to improve yield via parametric optimization of process conditions,18 a reliable process for reproducible growth of CNTs and CNFs that yields comparable areal density...

  2. Original article Responses of growth, nitrogen and carbon partitioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    concentration in live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) seedlings in relation to nutrient supply Roberto Tognettia Jon D. Johnsona aSchool of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 326 Newins interval. CO2 treatment had a positive effect on seedling growth. Differences in biomass between elevated

  3. Laser Directed Growth of Carbon-Based Nanostructures by Plasmon Resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Steve

    Laser Directed Growth of Carbon-Based Nanostructures by Plasmon Resonant Chemical Vapor Deposition the strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles in the catalytic decomposition of CO to grow various forms of carbonaceous materials. Irradiating gold nanoparticles in a CO environment at their plasmon resonant frequency

  4. Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLDGDL)(catalyst) (pulsed laser deposition PLD) (plasma plume) () #12;III Abstract key word: Fuel CellPulsed Laser. People begin to develop fuel cells for seeking alternative energy sources. Fuel cell use the chemical

  5. Effects of oxygen on the growth characteristics of carbon nanotubes on conductive substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaparte, Ryan K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of oxygen on Fe-catalyzed carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on Ta substrates was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe thin-film catalysts deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C?H? in a thermal chemical vapor ...

  6. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell Shigeo two different SWNT assemblies for SWNT-Si heterojuction solar cells. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro-honeycomb network for the application of solar cells

  7. Growth of novel micro-structured carbon thin films by using ultrashort-pulse laser deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;! ! )! 1.1 pulsed-laser deposition PLD PLD ultra-short pulse laser deposition uPLD PLD [1] figure 1 seed electron PLD PLD nano-second ns Lab 325 femto-second fs ultra-short pulse laser deposition uPLD) u! ! "! Growth of novel micro-structured carbon thin films by using ultrashort-pulse laser

  8. Growth and control of microscale to nanoscale carbon nitride particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H. Y.; Shi, Y. C.; Feng, P. X. [Physics Department, Dong Hua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (Puerto Rico) and Physics Department, Dong Hua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscale to nanoscale carbon nitride (China) particles are prepared using plasma sputtering deposition techniques. The preferred orientation of nanoscale CN particle distributions is obtained. Particles are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. SEM micrographs show that the CN particles are spherical with nearly the same diameters of 2.5 {mu}m prepared without setting bias voltage. The distribution of these particles is random. Setting bias voltage up to 5 kV, plasma sputtering deposition yields several dispersed ring patterns of particle distributions where many small groups of nanoscale particles are observed. Each group of these particles is in a sunflower type of distribution, in which the biggest (85 nm) particle at the center is surrounded by many small sizes (30 nm) of CN particles. Disk type of the particles with a diameter of 10 {mu}m is also observed at different deposition conditions. Typical carbon bands and CN band in the Raman spectra of the samples are identified. The intensity of the bands obviously varies at the different deposition conditions.

  9. Slow bainite: an opportunity to determine the carbon content of the bainitic ferrite during growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caballero, Francesca G. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Garcia-Mateo, C. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of carbon in solid solution in bainitic ferrite at the early stage of transformation has been directly determined by atom probe tomography at 200 C, taking advantage of the extremely slow transformation kinetics of a novel nanocrystalline steel. Results demonstrated that the original bainitic ferrite retains much of the carbon content of the parent austenite providing strong evidence that bainite transformation is essentially displacive in nature. In this work, the carbon content of the bainitic ferrite away from any carbon-enriched regions has been determined by atom probe tomography as the bainite transformation progresses at 200 C in this nanocrystalline steel. Results provide experimental evidence for the mechanism controlling bainitic ferrite growth in steels.

  10. Growth of carbon nanotubes using nanocrystalline carbon catalyst Yong Seob Park a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Byungyou

    application areas such as field emission devices [2], scanning probes, nanoscale electronic devices [3], hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, and composite reinforcing materials [4]. CNTs are known to have better decomposition of a carbon precursor on a nanostructured transition metal catalyst such as Co, Ni, or Fe

  11. Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nam, Youngwoo [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cole, Matthew T. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON Nanoinstruments Ltd., Swavesey, CB24 4FQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently grow from below. By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?C growth temperature.

  12. A general equilibrium analysis of the effects of carbon emission restrictions on economic growth in a developing country

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general equilibrium approach, in the form of a multisector, intertemporal programming model, is used to analyze the effects on the growth of the Egyptian economy of carbon emissions constraints that differ across sectors ...

  13. Methodology, morphology, and optimization of carbon nanotube growth for improved energy storage in a double layer capacitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku, Daniel C. (Daniel Chung-Ming), 1985-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to optimize the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a conducting substrate for use as an electrode to improve energy density in a double-layer capacitor. The focus has been on several areas, ...

  14. CONTROLLED GROWTH OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON CONDUCTIVE METAL SUBSTRATES FOR ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.; Engtrakul, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impressive mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them ideally suited for use in a variety of nanostructured devices, especially in the realm of energy production and storage. In particular, vertically-aligned CNT forests have been the focus of increasing investigation for use in supercapacitor electrodes and as hydrogen adsorption substrates. Vertically-aligned CNT growth was attempted on metal substrates by waterassisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CNT growth was catalyzed by iron-molybdenum (FeMo) nanoparticle catalysts synthesized by a colloidal method, which were then spin-coated onto Inconel foils. The substrates were loaded into a custom-built CVD apparatus, where CNT growth was initiated by heating the substrates to 750 C under the fl ow of He, H2, C2H4 and a controlled amount of water vapor. The resultant CNTs were characterized by a variety of methods including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the growth parameters were varied in an attempt to optimize the purity and growth yield of the CNTs. The surface area and hydrogen adsorption characteristics of the CNTs were quantifi ed by the Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) and Sieverts methods, and their capacitance was measured via cyclic voltammetry. While vertically-aligned CNT growth could not be verifi ed, TEM and SEM analysis indicated that CNT growth was still obtained, resulting in multiwalled CNTs of a wide range in diameter along with some amorphous carbon impurities. These microscopy fi ndings were reinforced by Raman spectroscopy, which resulted in a G/D ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 across different samples, suggestive of multiwalled CNTs. Changes in gas fl ow rates and water concentration during CNT growth were not found to have a discernable effect on the purity of the CNTs. The specifi c capacitance of a CNT/FeMo/Inconel electrode was found to be 3.2 F/g, and the BET surface area of a characteristic CNT sample was measured to be 232 m2/g with a cryogenic (77K) hydrogen storage of 0.85 wt%. This level of hydrogen adsorption is slightly higher than that predicted by the Chahine rule, indicating that these CNTs may bind hydrogen more strongly than other carbonaceous materials. More work is needed to confi rm and determine the reason for increased hydrogen adsorption in these CNTs, and to test them for use as catalyst support networks. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing CNTs for energy storage applications using water-assisted CVD.

  15. Growth of FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Yuji, E-mail: fujiwara@phen.mie-u.ac.jp; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Hori, Kenta; Takase, Sho; Sato, Hideki; Maeda, Kohji; Kobayashi, Tadashi [Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Kurima-machiya-cho 1577, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Jimbo, Mutsuko [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Daido University, Takiharu-cho 10-3, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition using an Fe/Pt bilayer catalyst. The CNTs were grown according to the base growth model. Selected area electron diffraction results revealed that the encapsulated particles were A1-FePt, L1{sub 0}-FePt, and Fe{sub 3}PtC. The crystal structures of particles found at the root parts of CNTs were not able to be identified, however. The layered structure of catalytic films seemed to be responsible for the difference in Pt content between particles found at tip and root parts of CNTs. Approximately 60% of CNTs grown at 800?C had particles at their tip parts, compared to only 30% when the growth temperature was 700?C, indicating that higher process temperatures promote particle encapsulation in CNTs.

  16. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsi, Lorenzo; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy) [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)] [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 ?m and a mass density of 1.6 g cm{sup ?3}. This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ?22 k?), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors.

  17. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Growth, yield and plant water relationships in sweet potatoes in response to carbon dioxide enrichment 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 1985, under the joint program of US Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Division, and Tuskegee University, experiments were conducted to study growth, yield, photosynthesis and plant water relationships in sweet potato plants growth in an enriched CO{sub 2} environment. The main experiment utilized open top chambers to study the effects of CO{sub 2} and soil moisture on growth, yield and photosynthesis of field-grown plants. In addition, potted plants in open top chambers were utilized in a study of the effects of different CO{sub 2} concentrations on growth pattern, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and biomass increment at different stages of development. The interaction effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and water stress on biomass production, yield, xylem potential, and stomatal conductance were also investigated. The overall results of the various studies are described.

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Changes in carbon density for three old-growth forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    a living laboratory for studying forest carbon sequestration under natural environmental conditions that forest landscapes on Changbai Mountain are indeed carbon sinks. Keywords Carbon sequestration . China provide baselines that reveal the potential for continued carbon sequestration in many places where

  19. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar assembly of SWNTs for SWNT-Si heterojunction solar cells will be discussed. We found the reversible to be encapsulated diatomic N2 molecules interior of SWNTs with the content of 1 at %. We address that the nitrogen

  20. Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

  1. Molecular jet growth of carbon nanotubes and dense vertically aligned nanotube arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eres, Gyula (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of growing a carbon nanotube includes the step of impinging a beam of carbon-containing molecules onto a substrate to grow at least one carbon nanotube on the catalyst surface.

  2. Passivation of carbon acceptors during growth of carbon-doped GaAs, InGaAs, and HBTs by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockman, S.A.; Hanson, A.W.; Lichtenthal, S.M.; Fresina, M.T.; Hoefler, G.E.; Hsieh, K.C.; Stillman, G.E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon doped p-type GaAs and In[sub 0.53]Ga[sub 0.47]As epitaxial layers were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using CCl[sub 4] as the carbon source. Low-temperature post-growth annealing resulted in a significant increase in the hole concentration for both GaAs and In[sub 0.53]Ga[sub 0.47]As, especially at high doping levels. The most heavily doped GaAs sample had a hole concentration of 3.6 [times] 10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3] after a 5 minute anneal at approximately 400[degree]C in N[sub 2], while the hole concentration in In[sub 0.53]Ga[sub 0.47]As reached 1.6 [times] 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] after annealing. This behavior is attributed to hydrogen passivation of carbon acceptors. Post-growth cool-down in an AsH[sub 3]/H[sub 2] ambient was found to be the most important factor affecting the degree of passivation for single, uncapped GaAs layers. No evidence of passivation is observed in the base region of InGaP/GaAs HBTs grown at approximately 625[degree]C. The effect of n-type cap layers and cool-down sequence on passivation of C-doped InGaAs grown at approximately 525[degree] shows that hydrogen can come from AsH[sub 3], PH[sub 3], or H[sub 2], and can be incorporated during growth and post-growth cool-down. In the case of InP/InGaAs HBTs, significant passivation was found to occur in the C-doped base region. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Evolution of catalyst particle size during carbon single walled nanotube growth and its effect on the tube characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harutyunyan, Avetik R.; Tokune, Toshio; Mora, Elena; Yoo, Jung-Woo; Epstein, Arthur J. [Honda Research Institute USA Inc., 1381 Kinnear Road, Columbus, Ohio 43212 (United States); Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 and Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University, 100 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of Fe catalysts, with different mean diameters, supported on alumina with different molar ratios, was studied before and after carbon single walled nanotubes growth using magnetic measurements and Raman scattering techniques (laser excitation wavelengths from 1.17 to 2.54 eV) to follow changes on catalyst particle size and composition, as well as the relationship between particle size and diameter of nanotubes grown. In all cases, an increase and redistribution of the particle size after the growth was concluded based on the blocking temperature values and Langevin function analysis. This is explained in terms of agglomeration of particles due to carbon-induced liquefaction accompanied with an increase in the catalyst mobility. For large particles no direct correlation between the catalyst size and the nanotube diameters was observed.

  4. Bundles of carbon nanotubes generated by vapor-phase growth Maohui Ge and Klaus Sattler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sattler, Klaus

    show that another hollow carbon structure is possible to form under such high density conditions. We report the observation of assemblies of carbon nano- tubes in the form of bundles. The bundles. It is located horizontally on the flat graphite substrate. It is separated from other deposited carbon nano

  5. A general integrative model for scaling plant growth, carbon flux, and functional trait spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.

    Carthy1 & Charles A. Price1 Linking functional traits to plant growth is critical for scaling attri- butes and biomass flux within and across plants is needed. Building on foundational work on relative growth rate4 are ultimately governed by the isometric scaling4,5,20,21 of whole-plant net biomass growth rate, d

  6. Single-step CVD growth of high-density carbon nanotube forests on metallic Ti coatings through catalyst engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Guofang; Xie, Rongsi; Yang, Junwei; Robertson, John

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    was carried out by heating the substrates under 500 sccm pure H2, 15 mbar from room 8 temperature to 650?C in 3min, then switching off the heater power and letting the samples to cool down with the H2 flow on. As shown in Fig. 3a, for the conventional... , Futaba DN, Mizuno K, Namai T, Yumura M, Iijima S. Water-assisted highly efficient synthesis of impurity-free single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science. 2004;306:1362-4. [4] Hart AJ, Slocum AH. Rapid growth and flow-mediated nucleation of millimeter...

  7. Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes and Coral Growth in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea as Environmental and Climate Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Amy Jo

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    thanks goes to the crew of the M/V Fling; the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) staff, E. Hickerson, G.P. Schmal, L. Kurjelja; the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary staff, J. Halas, B. Causey, A. Massey; U.S. Geological Survey... OXYGEN AND CARBON ISOTOPES AND CORAL GROWTH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND CARIBBEAN SEA AS ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE INDICATORS A Dissertation by AMY JO WAGNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

  8. Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110 042 (India)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

  9. Chemical, mechanical, and thermal control of substrate-bound carbon nanotube growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Anastasios John, 1979-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are long molecules having exceptional properties, including several times the strength of steel piano wire at one fourth the density, at least five times the thermal conductivity of pure copper, and ...

  10. Growth and welfare losses from carbon emissions restrictions : a general equilibrium analysis for Egypt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an assessment for a particular country, Egypt, of the economic effects, under various conditions, of carbon emission restrictions. Like other work, it is an exemplification of some of the economic possibilities. ...

  11. Growth of a single freestanding multiwall carbon nanotube on each nanonickel dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark

    that the structures are indeed hollow nanotubes. The diameter and height depend on the nickel dot size and growth time displays FEDs . Attempts to manipulate nano- tubes for these applications have been made by postgrowth deposition CVD on mesopo- rous silica with imbedded iron particles.9 The growth of large arrays of well

  12. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the validity and explores the practical implications of the proposition that CO2 enrichment of the leaf environment enhances plant growth and, simultaneously decreases plant water use. A theoretical ...

  13. Study of Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Pure Metal and Metal Alloy Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the surface prior to the CNT growth. Cupro-Nickel alloys and electroless Ni plated Cu were not suitable. Electroless Ni coated Monel and Ni deposited Si wafer with 20 nm Cr under layer gave the highest density

  14. Problem Statement: Airports need to achieve carbon neutral growth operating an enterprise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Rental Cars and Commercial Vehicles Convert Rental Cars from Gas to Hybrid 50% Rental Fleet to Hybrid 0. Alternatively Fueled Airport Access Taxis (e.g. Hybrids or Electric vehicles) Inhibiting Factors to Carbon annually) 0.63 17,400 Alternatively Fueled Taxis Convert Taxi Fleet to Hybrid [Control through MWAA

  15. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  16. Elucidating Nucleation and Growth Behavior of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes obtained via Catalyzed Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos Beltran, Juan Carlos

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    view for the monohydrated surface. Four directions indicated by solid blue arrows. The dashed blue arrow indicates parallel positions along x: [100](2) and y: [010](1) axes. C. Top view for di-hydrated surface. D. Three finite length nanotubes...] direction. .......................................................................................................... 116 8.4 Adsorption energy per carbon atom in contact with the surface for three different nanotubes on the di-hydrated surface...

  17. Hidden features of the catalyst nanoparticles favorable for single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    nanotube growth by using chemical vapor deposition synthesis augmented by an attached mass spectrometer MS,16 Fig. 1 a , a widely debated issue in the literature.710 Based on the cal- culated FeC liquidus lines to mention that in our studies we use methane gas. Unlike methane, the dehydrogenation reactions of other

  18. Nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at a very rapid and constant rate 100 nm/s that decreases sharply after the catalyst Co particles become. Experi- ments performed, mostly on individual nanotubes, show that they have extraordinary electrical conditions such as substrate, catalyst, feed gas, and temperature, the growth model proposed by several

  19. Growth and Structure of Carbon Nanotube Kassiopeia Smith, Anqi Qui, David Bahr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    grow in all different directions and vary in length. Analysis: From these load-depth curves you can see is required to better evaluate the load-depth curve. Processing/Growth The first step in processing.871(10-2) m Mats 1.066 m 5.935(10-2) m 0 2 4 6 8 10 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 Load (um) Load(um) Depth (nm) CNT

  20. Poland-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergy InternationalInformationPlacerPlexusPoland-Low Carbon

  1. Developing microbe-plant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation, and carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.H.; Bernard, S.; Andersen, G.L.; Chen, W.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactions between plants and microbes are an integral part of our terrestrial ecosystem. Microbe-plant interactions are being applied in many areas. In this review, we present recent reports of applications in the areas of plant-growth promotion, biocontrol, bioactive compound and biomaterial production, remediation and carbon sequestration. Challenges, limitations and future outlook for each field are discussed.

  2. Effect of hydrogen plasma irradiation of catalyst films on growth of carbon nanotubes filled with iron nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Hideki, E-mail: sato@elec.mie-u.ac.jp; Kubonaka, Nobuo; Nagata, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Yuji [Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurima-machiya-cho, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes filled with iron (Fe-filled CNTs) show shape anisotropy on account of the high aspect ratio of magnetic nanowires, and are promising candidates for various applications, such as magnetic recording media, probes for scanning force microscopy, and medical treatment for cancer. The ability to appropriately control the magnetic properties of CNTs for those applications is desirable. In this study, the authors investigated magnetic properties of Fe-filled CNTs synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition for the purpose of tuning their coercivity. Here, the authors implemented hydrogen plasma irradiation of catalyst film that was previously deposited on a substrate as a catalyst layer. This treatment activates the catalyst film and thus enhances the growth of the Fe-filled CNTs. It was confirmed that the H{sub 2} plasma irradiation enhances the growth of the CNTs in terms of increasing their length and diameter compared to CNTs without irradiation. On the other hand, the coercivity of Fe-filled CNTs dropped to approximately half of those without H{sub 2} plasma irradiation. This is probably due to a decrease in the aspect ratio of the Fe nanowires, which results from the increase in their diameter. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Fe nanowires may affect the coercivity.

  3. Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin ZhongdiantouLichuanInformationLoremo AGInformation Growth

  4. Effect of low po? on growth of bacteria and on loss of soluble carbon from maize roots under hydroponic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coker, Dennis Lee

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - ~ -. 16 Analysis of soluble sugars and total organic carbon (TOC) in root extracts and in the nutrient solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 vii Page RESULTS. 19 Effect of p02 on soluble total organic carbon (TOC) in roots and solution (2 kpa... on root and shoot dry matter (2 kPa vs. 20. 9 kPa 02). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ . . . . . . . . . 49 Effect of p02 on soluble total organic carbon (TOC) in roots snd solution (0 kPa vs. 20. 9 kPa 02...

  5. Organic carbon release by Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) under different growth conditions of CO[sub 2], nitrogen, and salinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, M.; Davis, J.S.; Bowes, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two strains of Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod., UTEX 1644 and UTEX 200, were cultured under different growth regimes, (10 mM NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  6. Seismic facies and growth history of Miocene carbonate platforms, Wonocolo Formation, North Madura area, East Java Basin, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adhyaksawan, Rahadian

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Miocene Wonocolo Formation in the North Madura area, East Java Basin, contains numerous isolated carbonate platforms that are broadly distributed across a ~3000 sq km area of the Indonesian back-arc region. The Wonocolo platforms provide...

  7. Role of Co-W Interaction in the Selective Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from CO Disproportionation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resasco, Daniel

    studies and the TPR data it is shown that a carefully chosen reduction pretreatment is critical partial reduction pretreatment. 1. Introduction Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) can be considered

  8. Growth of Large-Area Single- and Bi-Layer Graphene by Controlled Carbon Precipitation on Polycrystalline Ni Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reina, Alfonso

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report graphene films composed mostly of one or two layers of graphene grown by controlled carbon precipitation on the surface of polycrystalline Ni thin films during atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Controlling ...

  9. Developing microbe-plant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation, and carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remediation, and Carbon Sequestration References Anderson,Remediation, and Carbon Sequestration rhizosphere byRemediation, and Carbon Sequestration Figure 1. Examples of

  10. Upscaling calcium carbonate precipitation rates from pore to continuum scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noiriel, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and detachment of calcium and carbonate ions. Crystal Growthdue to consumption of calcium and carbonate. In general, new1971. Crytallization of calcium carbonate 2. Calcite growth

  11. Prevention of in vivo lung tumor growth by prolonged local delivery of hydroxycamptothecin using poly(ester-carbonate)-collagen composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevention of in vivo lung tumor growth by prolonged local delivery of hydroxycamptothecin using February 2010 Available online 22 February 2010 Keywords: Prevention Lung tumors Recurrence Films Local treatment of most cancers, and this is especially true with lung cancer. Consequently, methods to deliver

  12. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  13. The use of stored carbon reserves in growth of temperate tree roots and leaf buds: Analyses using radiocarbon measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Riley, W.J.; Swanston, C.; Trumbore, S.E.; Joslin, J.D.; Majdi, H.; Dawson, T.E.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing the use of carbon (C) reserves in trees is important for understanding regional and global C cycles, stress responses, asynchrony between photosynthetic activity and growth demand, and isotopic exchanges in studies of tree physiology and ecosystem C cycling. Using an inadvertent, whole-ecosystem radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) release in a temperate deciduous oak forest and numerical modeling, we estimated that the mean age of stored C used to grow both leaf buds and new roots is 0.7 years and about 55% of new-root growth annually comes from stored C. Therefore, the calculated mean age of C used to grow new-root tissue is {approx}0.4 years. In short, new roots contain a lot of stored C but it is young in age. Additionally, the type of structure used to model stored C input is important. Model structures that did not include storage, or that assumed stored and new C mixed well (within root or shoot tissues) before being used for root growth, did not fit the data nearly as well as when a distinct storage pool was used. Consistent with these whole-ecosystem labeling results, the mean age of C in new-root tissues determined using 'bomb-{sup 14}C' in three additional forest sites in North America and Europe (one deciduous, two coniferous) was less than 1-2 years. The effect of stored reserves on estimated ages of fine roots is unlikely to be large in most natural abundance isotope studies. However, models of root C dynamics should take stored reserves into account, particularly for pulse-labeling studies and fast-cycling roots (<1 years).

  14. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  15. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  16. Growth of single-crystal {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Key Laboratory of Tropic Biological Resources, MOE, Hainan University, 58 Renmin Road, Haikou 570228 (China); Liu Chenguang; Liu Chang [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Lu Gaoqing [ARC Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Cheng Huiming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail: cheng@imr.ac.cn

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystal {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were grown on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The morphology and microstructure of the composites were examined by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} single-crystal nanorods with a mean diameter of 15 nm were densely grown on the surface of MWNTs. Those MWNTs/MnO{sub 2} composites were used as an electrode material for supercapacitors, and it was found that the supercapacitor performance using MWNTs/MnO{sub 2} composites was improved largely compared to that using pure MWNTs and {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorod mechanically mixed with MWNTs.

  17. CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

  18. Growth of Dome-Shaped Carbon Nanoislands on Ir(111): The Intermediate between Carbidic Clusters and Quasi-Free-Standing Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alf, Dario

    and Quasi-Free-Standing Graphene Paolo Lacovig,1 Monica Pozzo,2 Dario Alfe`,2 Paolo Vilmercati,3 of a long-range ordered graphene layer on Ir(111) assume a peculiar domelike shape. The understanding coupled carbidic carbon and a quasi-free-standing graphene layer, can provide information for a rational

  19. Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated2] and suppressed by elevated [O3] in aspen (Populus tremuloides). a r t i c l e i n f o Article Populus tremuloides (aspen) canopy. This work was done at the Aspen FACE experiment where aspen clones

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake Surface Water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada (X) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water16. Notwithstanding high X, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface

  1. Incorporating Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Incorporating Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models J. R. Mc carbon capture and storage, 2) a natural gas combined cycle technology with carbon capture and storage 1 emissions growth. Both the magnitude and rate of technological change toward low- or no-carbon emitting

  2. Complex structure of carbon nanotubes and their implications for formation mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    phenomena and the amorphous carbon residue inside the hollow core of carbon nanotubes, a two-step growth of carbon nano- tubes prepared by an arc discharge has been the subject of some controversy, particularly observations of open-ended nano- tubes, Iijima et al.10 proposed an open-ended growth model in which carbon

  3. CaRbON FibeR Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    for manufacturing carbon fiber and carbon-fiber-reinforced composite structures tend to be slow and energy intensive the development and growth of existing and new US carbon fiber and composites · Job Growth Seed regionalCaRbON FibeR TeChNOLOGy FaCiLiTy Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy

  4. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  5. Regional Workshop on Opportunities and Priorities for Low Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Asia Pacific Region Inside the Low Carbon Green Growth: Innovations in Green Energy Supply Demand Side Energy Efficiency Solutions: A Low Hanging Fruit Managing the...

  6. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  7. An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of the transition-metal particles and onto the surface of carbon nanotubes, carbon atom attachment to the growing. Carbon nanotubes are generally processed by laser ablation of carbon rods e.g. [7], a direct current arc

  8. Alcohol CVD growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes and their optical properties Shigeo Maruyama, maruyama@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    of single-walled carbon nanotubes and their optical properties 2007/02/24http://oasys2.confex.com/acs/232nm

  9. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic properties of graphene. Reviews of Modernand E.A. Sutter, Epitaxial graphene on ruthenium. Natureopening in epitaxial graphene. Nature Materials, 2007. 6(

  10. Carbon and nitrogen allocation in trees R.E. Dickson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Carbon and nitrogen allocation in trees R.E. Dickson USDA-Forest Service, NCFES, Rhinelander, WI, U.S.A. Introduction Growth of trees and all plants depends up- on maintaining a positive carbon balance despite to multiple environ- mental stresses (Chapin et aL, 1987; Osmond et al., 1987). Light, carbon, water

  11. Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames Issued on March 31, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Ryo

    Carbon nanotubes grow in combustion flames Issued on March 31, 2014 Quantum chemical simulations reveal an unprecedented relationship between the mechanism of carbon nanotube growth and hydrocarbon of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth and hydrocarbon combustion actually share many similarities. In studies

  12. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  13. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  14. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient ozone growth Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate and Environment (Climate) Impacts of ozone on trees and crops Summary: and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and...

  16. Lemniscate growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    May 8, 2012 ... [8], (mem)Brane theory [3], elliptic growth [11], and non-Newtonian Hele-Shaw flows [5]. ...... a loose connection to non-Newtonian fluids.

  17. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

  18. Capturing carbon | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon Released: October 02, 2011 New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

  19. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  20. Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon (a-C) films grown on silicon using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is correlated to both growth energetic and film thickness. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity probe both the topological nature of 3- and 4-fold coordinated carbon atom bonding and the topographical clustering of their distributions within a given film. In general, increasing the energetic of PLD growth results in films becoming more ``diamondlike'', i.e. increasing mass density and decreasing optical absorbance. However, these same properties decrease appreciably with thickness. The topology of carbon atom bonding is different for material near the substrate interface compared to material within the bulk portion of an a-C film. A simple model balancing the energy of residual stress and the free energies of resulting carbon topologies is proposed to provide an explanation of the evolution of topographical bonding clusters in a growing a-C film.

  1. Growth of individual carbon nanotubes on an array of TiN/Ni nanodots patterned by e-beam lithography and defined by dry etching for field emission application.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    or nanoimprint lithography 11 with lift-off. After realizing holes in a resin layer, a TiN film (acting is critical in particular for sputtered layers. Moreover, the deposited TiN film contains carbon and oxygen was employed to etch hal-00880711,version1-8Nov2013 #12;Ni and TiN layers. Following the stripping of HSQ

  2. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  3. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

  4. Future Yield Growth: What Evidence from Historical Data?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gitiaux, Xavier

    The potential future role of biofuels has become an important topic in energy legislation as it is seen as a potential low carbon alternative to conventional fuels. Hence, future yield growth is an important topic from ...

  5. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNLs Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the carbon footprint. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  6. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. For

  7. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle plants, possibly with carbon capture and storage (CCS)natural gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology

  8. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology werewith carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, to replace

  9. Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

  10. R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Stefan

    R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests Geertje for carbon storage and sequestration. Lianas reduce tree growth, survival, and leaf productivity; however liana carbon stocks are unlikely to compensate for liana-induced losses in net carbon sequestration

  11. VOLUME 76, NUMBER 14 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 1 APRIL 1996 Polyyne Ring Nucleus Growth Model for Single-Layer Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    ,11]. They are found only on the cold chamber walls (together with fullerenes) and ap- pear to grow in the gas phase,6,911]. An understanding of the nano- tube formation mechanism is crucial to design procedures for controlling growth

  12. Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

  13. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

  14. Heteroepitaxial Nucleation and Oriented Growth of Manganese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heteroepitaxial Nucleation and Oriented Growth of Manganese Oxide Islands on Carbonate Minerals-limit. Our results provide an improved basis both for the development of predictive models of contaminant Manganese oxide minerals in surface and groundwaters dissolve as Mn2+ (aq) and precipitate as manganese

  15. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  16. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  17. Developing microbeplant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation and carbon sequestration Cindy H. Wu,1-growth promotion, biocontrol, bioactive compound and biomaterial production, remediation and carbon sequestration economical (Anderson et al., 1993). Carbon sequestration through plantrhizosphere processes is a potentially

  18. Temperature dependence of d7 Ca and Li/Ca during growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temperature dependence of d7 Li, d44 Ca and Li/Ca during growth of calcium carbonate Caedmon S; calcium isotopes; calcium carbonate 1. Introduction The trace element and isotope chemistry of calci- um variable, in controlling the fraction- ation of three such potential proxies in calcium carbonates

  19. Dynamic method to measure calcium carbonate scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidovec, D. [Ashland Chemical, Boonton, NJ (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to measure scaling rate and the effect of scale control agents are discussed. It is based on calcium carbonate growth under controlled conditions in a capillary stainless steel column. The efficacy of blended compositions can be predicted when the response of individual components is known.

  20. Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Klaus

    Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford + Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component fossil fuel requirement of CO2 sequestration, and the growth rate of carbon taxes. In this analytical

  1. Few Graphene layer/Carbon-Nanotube composite Grown at CMOS-compatible Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the growth of the recently demonstrated composite material composed of vertically aligned carbon nanotubesFew Graphene layer/Carbon-Nanotube composite Grown at CMOS-compatible Temperature V. Jousseaume1 materials and technologies for the next-generation of Integrated Circuits (ICs). Carbon nanomaterials

  2. Biomimetic Synthesis of Macroscopic-Scale Calcium Carbonate Thin Films. Evidence for a Multistep Assembly Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Biomimetic Synthesis of Macroscopic-Scale Calcium Carbonate Thin Films. Evidence for a Multistep growth modification and cessation, and so on. Highly ordered calcium carbonate lamellae formed have synthesized macroscopic and continuous calcium carbonate thin films with thickness ranging from 0

  3. CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

  4. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  5. Bonding topologies in diamondlike amorphous-carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; KLEINSORGE,B.; MILNE,W.I.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The carbon ion energy used during filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition determines the bonding topologies of amorphous-carbon (a-C) films. Regions of relatively low density occur near the substrate/film and film/surface interfaces and their thicknesses increase with increasing deposition energy. The ion subplantation growth results in mass density gradients in the bulk portion of a-C in the growth direction; density decreases with distance from the substrate for films grown using ion energies < 60 eV and increases for films grown using ion energies > 160 eV. Films grown between these energies are the most diamondlike with relatively uniform bulk density and the highest optical transparencies. Bonding topologies evolve with increasing growth energy consistent with the propagation of subplanted carbon ions inducing a partial transformation of 4-fold to 3-fold coordinated carbon atoms.

  6. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  7. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

  8. Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel-Doped Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, R; Baumann, T F; Cronin, S; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M; Satcher, Jr., J H

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion-exchange with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (where M = Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}), supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and carbonization at temperatures between 400 C and 1050 C under an N{sub 2} atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 C and 450 C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are {approx}4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15 to 30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is about 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro and mesoporic region.

  9. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  10. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Carbon Fiber Technology Facility is relevant in proving the scale- up of low-cost carbon fiber precursor materials and advanced manufacturing technologies * Significant...

  11. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  12. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  14. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  15. Research Summary Carbon Additionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the quality assurance of emissions reduction and carbon sequestration activities, but remains a source of muchResearch Summary Carbon Additionality Additionality is widely considered to be a core aspect controversy in national carbon accounting, international regulatory frameworks and carbon markets. A review

  16. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  18. The Woodland Carbon Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

  19. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  20. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dedyulin, Sergey N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca; Goncharova, Lyudmila V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450650?C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  1. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham, E-mail: phamtha@fundp.ac.be; Joucken, Frdric; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Robert, Sporken [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Electrical Engineering (ELEN), Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Universit catholique de Louvain UCL, 3 place du Levant, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hackens, Benot; Santos, Cristiane N. [Nanoscopic physics (NAPS), Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universit catholique de Louvain UCL, 2 chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  2. Florida Growth Fund (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

  3. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

  4. Effect of mineralogy, salinity, and temperature on Li/Ca and Li isotope composition of calcium carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    during growth of calcium carbonate. This study improves such understanding with two sets of new). This suggests little biological control during Li incorporation into biogenic calcium carbonates. The difference15 www.elsevier.com/locate/chemgeo #12;1. Introduction Natural calcium carbonate may provide an archive

  5. JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES & LIFE SCIENCES EDUCATION VOLUME 38 2009 87 exceeds the harvesting rate, forest carbon uptake during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions to the atmosphere because most carbon released during the harvesting rate, forest carbon uptake during growth of new trees in the harvested forest or woodlot offsets have relied heavily on wood fuel from local forests (Keddy, 1993). Given the widespread abandonment

  6. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon cycling to improve climate modeling and carbon...

  7. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  8. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  9. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Australian terrestrial carbon budget Open Access 3 , G. P.The Australian terrestrial carbon budget Luo, C. , Mahowald,terrestrial carbon budget Richards, G. P. , Borough, C. ,

  10. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  12. SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates Project Objectives Build and demonstrate a pilot facility#12;SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES Quarterly Report to the Department of Energy, May 19 #12;DOE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates Phase I Technology Development

  13. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh: Homework (1 for each week @10%): 40% Personal carbon account (report): 30% Final exam: 30% Course schedule Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major

  14. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  15. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  16. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  17. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  18. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

  19. Nanoporous films for epitaxial growth of single crystal semiconductor materials : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowen, Adam M.; Koleske, Daniel David; Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Burckel, David Bruce; Williams, John Dalton; Arrington, Christian L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This senior council Tier 1 LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, photolithographically patterned SU-8 and carbonized SU-8 structures. Use of photolithographically defined growth templates represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

  20. Thermogravimetry-Mass Spectrometry for Carbon Nanotube Detection in Complex Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plata, Desiree Louise

    In spite of the growth of the carbon nanotube (CNT) industry, there are no established analytical methods with which to detect or quantify CNTs in environmental matrices. Given that CNTs have relatively high thermal ...

  1. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  2. Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

  3. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green buildingconstruction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage...

  4. Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

  5. ULTRA-HIGH SURFACE AREA SINGLE AND MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE 3-DIMENSIONAL HYBRID STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    flexible electronic devices, membranes, sensors, and energy storage devices, the primary reason being surface area 3-dimensional hybrid nanostructure by combining carbon nanotube growth on two templates. This novel hybrid carbon nanostructure demonstrates an enhanced conductive surface area that paves the way

  6. Structure in Nascent Carbon Nanotubes Revealed by Spatially Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or filtration [1], supercapacitors [2], composite materials [3,4]. They are mainly prepared by CVD (Chemical1 Structure in Nascent Carbon Nanotubes Revealed by Spatially Resolved Raman Spectroscopy Périne: The understanding of carbon nanotubes (CNT) growth is crucial for the control of their production. In particular

  7. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  8. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  9. Population growth, distribution, and size in Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    timber harvesting oil exploration/extraction population growth? degradation of lands in source areas history in Amazonia Early extractive uses Rubber Forestry #12;Development history in Amazonia forests in the world 2) 45% of all the fresh water on the Earth 3) the planet's largest carbon sink 4

  10. Variable amplitude fatigue crack growth, experimental results and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a,*, F. Bumbieler b a Laboratory of Mechanics and Technology Cachan, 61, Avenue du Pres. Wilson method. This identification was performed for a 0.48%C carbon steel. Then various fatigue crack growth) is required so as to capture the very details of the elasticplastic cyclic deformation of the mate- rial

  11. Decelerating growth in tropical forest trees Kenneth J. Feeley,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    significantly at both forests regardless of initial size or organizational level (species, community or stand poorly understood. We examined changes in tree growth rates over the past two decades for all species productivity caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and carbon fertilization (Melillo et al. 1993

  12. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Abstract: Carbonation of formation...

  13. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  14. Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

  15. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  16. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

  17. Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes** D. Bruce Burckel Polsky* The special nature of the CC bond can lead to various polymorphic forms of carbon such as graphite, glassy-carbon, fullerenes (such as buckyballs), carbon nanotubes, and diamond. Electrodes made

  18. Alignment Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    , Illinois 61801, Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 117528, Singapore, Department and Engineering, University of Illinois. Institute of High Performance Computing. | Department of M

  19. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency,...

  20. Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency,...

  1. Malaysia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency,...

  2. CVD Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    SWNTs with small diameter and narrow diameter distribution using acetonitrile (AcN)-mixed ethanol (Et mode predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. By using 15 N isotope of acetonitrile, the catalytic decomposition of acetonitrile in the initial reaction step can be studied [5]. On the other hand, the initial

  3. Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSLInformationMissouri:Catalyst RegenerationOpen

  4. ARM - Lesson Plans: Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMakingPast Sea Level

  5. Policies for Low Carbon Growth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergy InternationalInformationPlacerPlexusPoland-LowPolarfor

  6. Indonesia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia,IDGWPIndiantown, Florida: EnergyStudy Jump to:Developing

  7. Philippines-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompanyPCNInformation USPerseus|Energy

  8. Ghana-Supporting Low Carbon Growth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting Jump to: navigation, search

  9. Malaysia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez Pueblo Area (DOEMak-Ban /Management

  10. Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎SolarCityInformationStopwattchStratton Middle

  11. Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin ZhongdiantouLichuanInformationLoremo AGInformationCountry

  12. Indonesia-Low Carbon Growth Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua NewSmallholder

  13. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  14. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  15. 2 Bainitic Ferrite The growth of pearlite occurs at a common transformation front with the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    2 Bainitic Ferrite The growth of pearlite occurs at a common transformation front with the austenite. The growth of the ferrite and cementite phases is coupled and their compositions are complementary since the carbon which cannot be accommodated by the ferrite is incorporated into the cementite

  16. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  17. Carbon Fiber SMC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ACC932 Materials and Processes Technology Development Carbon Fiber SMC 5-20-09 Charles Knakal USCAR C. S. Wang General Motors...

  18. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  19. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  20. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conventional and alternative precursors to carbon fiber Advance high-volume composite design and manufacturing capabilities Transition technology to industry partners...

  1. EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer Jared C. Carbone Thomas F. Rutherford Revised: August 2013 Abstract Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in trade -- an idea popularized by countries seeking to extend the reach of domestic carbon regu- lations. We

  2. The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H. Qi, and R. F. Hicksa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Lian

    The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H, California 90095 Received 26 June 1997; accepted for publication 30 December 1997 Carbon tetrachloride of steps during the vapor-phase epitaxial growth of III­V compound semiconductors.3,4 Carbon tetrachloride

  3. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

  4. Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances James R. McDonough,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    growth rather than CNT growth see supplementary information Fig. S1 .10 Carbon aerogels CAs have also with nanosized MnO2 loaded inside aerogel pores.7 Preparation of our CNF-based SC electrodes consists of two approxi- mately 1 1 0.2 cm3 is conformally coated with a 1 nm alumina layer by atomic layer deposition ALD

  5. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pearce, D. 2003. The Social Cost Of Carbon And Its PolicyR.S.J. 2008. The Social Cost of Carbon: Trends, Outliers and

  6. Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park

  7. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  8. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  9. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  10. CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, John, E.

    2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of the new materials, highly porous carbide-derived carbons (CDC), is the subject of an add-on to this grant awarded to myself and Taner Yildirim (NIST). Results from the add-on led eventually to a new 3-year award DE-FG02-08ER46522 From Fundamental Understanding to Predicting New Nanomaterials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage, $1000K, (05/31/2008 - 05/01/2011) with Taner Yildirim and myself as co-PIs.

  11. Career Growth | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruary 26,ComputersTrinity / NERSC-8CarbonTheGrowth |

  12. Sorghum Growth and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

  13. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  14. CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

  15. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaiduk, P. I., E-mail: gaiduk@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Belarusian State University, prosp. Nezavisimosti 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lundsgaard Hansen, J., E-mail: johnlh@phys.au.dk; Nylandsted Larsen, A., E-mail: anl@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bregolin, F. L., E-mail: f.lipp-bregolin@hzdr.de; Skorupa, W., E-mail: W.Skorupa@hzdr.de [Department of Semiconductor Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrae 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumulation of carbon in the SiSn layers after high temperature carbon implantation and high temperature thermal treatment. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects and formation of dopant-defect complexes are suggested to be responsible for the effects. The possibility for carbon assisted segregation-free high temperature growth of heteroepitaxial SiSn/Si and GeSn/Si structures is argued.

  16. advanced carbon-carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: CARBON-CARBON...

  17. Assessment of carbon sequestration and timber production of Scots pine across Scotland using the process-based model 3-PGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xenakis, Georgios

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    detailed eco-physiological interpretation of the environmental factors affecting Scots pine growth and it provided an assessment of carbon sequestration under the scenario of sustainable, normal production and its effects from the environment. Finally...

  18. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (18). Plantations typi- cally combine

  19. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract statistic, called cumulative carbon. This statistic is the aggregate amount ofcarbon emitted in theform such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions

  20. International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

  1. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCTs 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies, the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  2. Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkelsen, David R. [PPPL; Tanaka, K. [NIFS; Nunami, M. [NIFS; Watanabe, T-H. [Nagoya University; Sugama, H. [NIFS; Yoshinuma, M. [NIFS; Suzuki, Y. [NIFS; Goto, M. [NIFS; Morita, S. [NIFS; Wieland, B. [NIFS; Yamada, I. [NIFS; Yashura, R. [NIFS; Akiyama, T. [NIFS; Pablant, Novimir A. [PPPL

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive electrostatic gyrokinetic linear stability calculations for ion-scale microinstabilities in an LHD plasma with an ion-ITB and carbon "impurity hole" are used to make quasilinear estimates of particle flux to explore whether microturbulence can explain the observed outward carbon fluxes that flow "up" the impurity density gradient. The ion temperature is not stationary in the ion-ITB phase of the simulated discharge, during which the core carbon density decreases continuously. To fully sample these varying conditions the calculations are carried out at three radial locations and four times. The plasma parameter inputs are based on experimentally measured profiles of electron and ion temperature, as well as electron and carbon density. The spectroscopic line-average ratio of hydrogen and helium densities is used to set the density of these species. Three ion species (H,He,C) and the electrons are treated kinetically, including collisions. Electron instability drive does enhance the growth rate significantly, but the most unstable modes have characteristics of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in all cases. As the carbon density gradient is scanned between the measured value and zero, the quasilinear carbon flux is invariably inward when the carbon density profile is hollow, so turbulent transport due to the instabilities considered here does not explain the observed outward flux of impurities in impurity hole plasmas. The stiffness of the quasilinear ion heat flux is found to be 1.7-2.3, which is lower than several estimates in tokamaks.

  3. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  4. Black Carbons Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon has a high carbon sequestration potential due to itsin soil can lead to sustainable carbon sequestration.process takes carbon sequestration from afforestation a step

  5. Carbon nanotube growth on challenging substrates : applications for carbon-fiber composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Stephen Alan, III

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoengineered hierarchal fiber architectures are promising approaches towards improving the inter- and intralaminar mechanical properties (e.g., toughness and strength) and non-mechanical properties of advanced fiber-reinforced ...

  6. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  7. GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO MARKET BREAKING THE DEADLOCK Report of a Science: Carbon Capture and Storage OECD/IEA 2009, fig. 1, p. 6 Figures 2 and 3 reprinted with permission from `UK Carbon storage and capture, where is it?' by Stuart Haszeldine, Professor of Carbon Capture

  8. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FCResearch Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry

  9. 4, 1367, 2007 Modelling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    BGD 4, 1367, 2007 Modelling carbon overconsumption and extracellular POC formation M. Schartau et carbon overconsumption and the formation of extracellular particulate organic carbon M. Schartau1 , A Correspondence to: M. Schartau (markus.schartau@gkss.de) 13 #12;BGD 4, 1367, 2007 Modelling carbon

  10. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  11. Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealths utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

  12. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  13. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  14. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  15. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO) [ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO; Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager) [ATK, Program Manager

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  17. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  18. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  19. Effects of salt formulations, carbon sources, cytokinins, and auxin on shoot organogenesis from cotyledons of Pinus pinea L.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korban, Schuyler S.

    -1 Effects of salt formulations, carbon sources, cytokinins, and auxin on shoot organogenesis from July 2004 Key words: Carbon sources, Growth regulators, Italian stone pine, Organogenesis, Salt formulations Abstract Adventitious shoots were induced on cotyledons of Pinus pinea. Among seven salt

  20. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Youngs modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  1. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Chen, Jin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Energy Plant Research Lab., Dept. of Computer Science; Anozie, Fransisca C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Morales, Alejandro [Wageningen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Center for Crop Systems Analysis; Weise, Sean E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  2. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  3. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  4. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  5. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  6. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious...

  7. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  8. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  9. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  10. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  11. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  12. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  13. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  14. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  15. activated carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  16. ammonium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  17. a537 carbon steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  18. americium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  19. affecting carbon tetrachloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  20. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,"and A. Izumi. "Carbon contamination of EL'V mask: filmEffect of Carbon Contamination on the Printing Performance

  1. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. , 2005, IPCC: Carbon Capture and Storage: Technical05CH11231. INTRODUCTION Carbon capture and storage (CCS)Development Mechanism CCS: Carbon Capture and Storage C02e:

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture & Storage High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies On February 21, 2013, in Carbon Capture, Carbon Capture &...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Americanhouseholdcarbonfootprint. Ecologicaland limitations)ofcarbonfootprintestimatestowardoftheartincarbonfootprintanalysesforCalifornia,

  4. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On carbon footprints and growing energy use Curtis M.reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organizationhis own organization's carbon footprint and answers this

  5. Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deck, Christian Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

  6. Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

  7. Carbon Chemistry in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryvonne Gerin; David Fosse; Evelyne Roueff

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss new developments of interstellar chemistry, with particular emphasis on the carbon chemistry. We confirm that carbon chains and cycles are ubiquitous in the ISM and closely chemically related to ea ch other, and to carbon. Investigation of the carbon budget in shielded and UV illuminated gas shows that the inventory of interstellar molecules is not complete and more complex molecules with 4 or more carbon atoms must be present. Finally we discuss the consequences for the evolution of clouds and conclude that the ubiquitous presence of carbon chains and cycles is not a necessary consequence of a very young age for interstellar clouds.

  8. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  9. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  10. Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S., E-mail: michael.fuhrer@monash.edu [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111, USA and School of Physics, Monash University, 3800 Victoria (Australia)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (?8000?cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

  11. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  12. ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION examines biological carbon sequestration using a grassland restoration as a model system. Chapter 1 for biological carbon sequestration. In this analysis, we found that significantly greater soil carbon

  13. Effect of Langmuir monolayer of bovine serum albumin protein on the morphology of calcium carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Zhong-Hui; Hu, Bin-Bin; Du, Zu-Liang; 10.1016/j.msec.2009.03.016

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Langmuir monolayer, as a model of biomineralization-associated proteins, was used to study its effect on regulated biomineralization of calcium carbonate. The effects of the BSA Langmuir monolayer and the concentration of the subphase solution on the nucleation and growth processes and morphology of the calcium carbonate crystal were investigated. The morphology and polymorphic phase of the resulting calcium carbonate crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Moreover, the interaction mechanisms of the subphase solution with the BSA Langmuir monolayer were discussed. It was found that BSA Langmuir monolayer could be used as a template to successfully manipulate the polymorphic phase and crystal morphology of calcium carbonate and had obvious influence on the oriented crystallization and growth. The final morphology or aggregation mode of the calcite crystal was closely dependent on the concentration of calcium bicarbonate...

  14. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  15. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able associated with both the manufacture of carbon fibers themselves as well as their composites. Traditional

  16. Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion ...

  17. Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushfeldt, Scott I

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

  18. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to...

  19. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  20. Carbon nanotubes: synthesis and functionalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Robert

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions were then used as the basis of several comparative CVD experiments showing that the quality of nanotubes and the yield of carbon depended on the availability of carbon to react. The availability could be controlled by the varying concentration...

  1. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts...

  2. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

  3. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmoreanalysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.less

  4. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  5. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  6. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  7. Carbon-Fuelled Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The authors work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  8. Carbon Footprint Calculator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

  9. Carbon smackdown: smart windows

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Delia Milliron

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  10. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  11. CARBON -14 PHYSICAL DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    CARBON - 14 [14C] PHYSICAL DATA Beta Energy: 156 keV (maximum) 49 keV (average) (100% abundance on wipes. #12;RADIATION MONITORING DOSIMETERS Not needed (beta energy too low). 14C Beta Dose Rate: 6) Effective Half-Life: 40 days (unbound) Specific Activity: 4460 mCi/gram Maximum Beta Range in Air: 24

  12. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  13. A physiological and morphological analysis of the effects of nitrogen supply on the relative growth rates of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, Corey Michael

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of nitrogen supply on relationships of relative growth rate (RGR) to leaf physiology, structural and non-structural carbon partitioning, and nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies were examined in loblolly pine ...

  14. 4, 99123, 2007 Amazon carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , suggested much larger estimates for tropical forest carbon sequestration in the Ama- zon BasinBGD 4, 99123, 2007 Amazon carbon balanc J. Lloyd et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences An airborne regional carbon balance

  15. 3, 409447, 2006 Modeling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 3, 409447, 2006 Modeling carbon dynamics in farmland of China F. Zhang et al. Title Page impacts of management alternatives on soil carbon storage of farmland in Northwest China F. Zhang1,3 , C-term losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) have been observed in many agricul- ture lands in Northwest China

  16. 7, 405428, 2007 SCIAMACHY carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    with an increasing energy demand and inherent fuel consump- tion such as China. Carbon monoxide (CO) contributesACPD 7, 405428, 2007 SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide M. Buchwitz et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Three years of global carbon monoxide from SCIAMACHY: comparison with MOPITT and first results

  17. 4, 21112145, 2007 Enhanced carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    are generally low in productivity and carbon (C) storage. We report, however, large increases in C sequestration . Carbon sequestration following afforestation was associated with increased N use efficiency as reflected of terrestrial ecosystems that leads to increased carbon (C) sequestration. One of those means is afforestation

  18. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  19. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Report Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management #12;#12;Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management Gregory Valatin Forestry Commission: Edinburgh-0-85538-815-7 Valatin, G. (2010). Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management. Forestry Commission

  20. 1, 167193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    BGD 1, 167193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title Page Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences The carbon budget.janssens@ua.ac.be) 167 #12;BGD 1, 167193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title

  1. Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, or Carbon Black?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Switzerland *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Superhydrophobic surfaces resisting water penetration fabrication of highly electrically conductive, polymer-based superhydrophobic coatings, with impressive

  2. CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY By: Yasser Dessouky #12;Carbon Footprint Supply Chain Carbon Trust defines carbon footprint of a supply chain as follows: "The carbon footprint of a product is the carbon dioxide emitted across the supply chain for a single

  3. 6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencser Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencser Title Page

  4. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  5. Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received June 11, 1999 The nickel alkyne complexes (dippe)Ni(Me3Si, and nickel phosphine complexes.3 Milstein and co-workers reported the cata- lytic hydrogenolysis

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  8. Use of plasma treatment to grow carbon nanotube forests on TiN substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esconjauregui, S.; Bayer, B. C.; Fouquet, M.; Wirth, C. T.; Yan, F.; Xie, R.; Hofmann, S.; Robertson, J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Ducati, C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baehtz, C. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf e.V., P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Castellarin-Cudia, C. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Strada Statale, 14 km 163.4, I-34149, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Bhardwaj, S.; Cepek, C. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen plasma pretreatment is used to enforce the growth of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forests on TiN substrates. The evolution of the substrate, catalyst, and nanotubes are studied by in situ and ex-situ photoemission and X-ray diffraction in order to understand the growth mechanism. We find that TiN retains its crystallographic structure and its conductivity during plasma pretreatment and nanotube growth, which is confirmed by electrical measurements. Plasma pretreatment is found to favor the growth of nanotube forests by root growth, as it binds the catalyst nanoparticles more strongly to the substrate than thermal pretreatment. We find that plasma pretreatment time should be limited, otherwise poor or no growth is found.

  9. Eco-Growth: A Framework for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Edgar E.

    Growth is imperative for corporate success and yet the environmental impact of this growth is not sustainable. In this paper we offer a framework for thinking about the stages of tackling the environmental sustainability ...

  10. EB2012-MS-43 ADVANCES IN THE MODELLING OF CARBON/CARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the Carbon-Carbon composites (C/C) are materials frequently used in industrial applications such as planeEB2012-MS-43 ADVANCES IN THE MODELLING OF CARBON/CARBON COMPOSITE UNDER TRIBOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS 1, homogenization, carbon ABSTRACT Thermo mechanical properties of Carbon-Carbon composite (C/C) allow them

  11. Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrington, Emily

    Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle. Carbon is one is without carbon. Where else is carbon on our Earth? In rocks, living organisms, the atmosphere, oceans Does carbon stay in one place? What processes include moving carbon? Introduce residence time: How long does

  12. Lithium in LMC carbon stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Hatzidimitriou; D. H. Morgan; R. D. Cannon; B. F. W. Croke

    2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nineteen carbon stars that show lithium enrichment in their atmospheres have been discovered among a sample of 674 carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Six of the Li-rich carbon stars are of J-type, i.e. with strong 13C isotopic features. No super-Li-rich carbon stars were found. The incidence of lithium enrichment among carbon stars in the LMC is much rarer than in the Galaxy, and about five times more frequent among J-type than among N-type carbon stars. The bolometric magnitudes of the Li-rich carbon stars range between -3.3 and -5.7. Existing models of Li-enrichment via the hot bottom burning process fail to account for all of the observed properties of the Li-enriched stars studied here.

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  14. Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Tracey Muttoo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B v + B d ) C T = Total carbon B v = biomass contained indevelopment through carbon sequestration: experiences in2000) Rural livelihoods and carbon management, IIED Natural

  15. Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

  16. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  17. Geometry of Valley Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  18. Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakajin, O

    2006-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to measure transport through CNTs and study effects of confinement at molecular scale. This work is motivated by several simulation papers in high profile journals that predict significantly higher transport rates of gases and liquids through carbon nanotubes as compared with similarly-sized nanomaterials (e.g. zeolites). The predictions are based on the effects of confinement, atomically smooth pore walls and high pore density. Our work will provide the first measurements that would compare to and hopefully validate the simulations. Gas flux is predicted to be >1000X greater for SWNTs versus zeolitesi. A high flux of 6-30 H2O/NT/ns {approx} 8-40 L/min for a 1cm{sup 2} membrane is also predicted. Neutron diffraction measurements indicate existence of a 1D water chain within a cylindrical ice sheet inside carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with gaps between nanotubes filled so that the transport occurs through the nanotubes. The major challenges of this project included: (1) Growth of CNTs in the suitable vertically aligned configuration, especially the single wall carbon nanotubes; (2) Development of a process for void-free filling gaps between CNTs; and (3) Design of the experiments that will probe the small amounts of analyte that go through. Knowledge of the behavior of water upon nanometer-scale confinement is key to understanding many biological processes. For example, the protein folding process is believed to involve water confined in a hydrophobic environment. In transmembrane proteins such as aquaporins, water transport occurs under similar conditions. And in fields as far removed as oil recovery and catalysis, an understanding of the nanoscale molecular transport occurring within the nanomaterials used (e.g. zeolites) is the key to process optimization. Furthermore, advancement of many emerging nanotechnologies in chemistry and biology will undoubtedly be aided by an understanding confined water transport, particularly the details of hydrogen bonding and solvation that become crucial on this length scale. We can envision several practical applications for our devices, including desalination, gas separations, dialysis, and semipermeable fabrics for protection against CW agents etc. The single wall carbon nanotube membranes will be the key platform for applications because they will allow high transport rates of small molecules such as water and eliminate solvated ions or CW agents.

  19. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  20. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Geologic Carbon Sequestration. International of Energy. Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the Water Extracted from Carbon Sequestration Projects."

  1. activated carbon electrodes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes** Materials Science Websites Summary: Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined...

  2. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

  3. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

  4. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Task 3: Mechanical behaviors of carbonated minerals. - Task 4: Modeling of CO2- reservoir rock interactions. - Task 5: Preparation of report covering the four tasks previous task,...

  5. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  6. Howell, R.A., 2012 Living with a carbon allowance 1 Living with a carbon allowance: the experiences of Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, R.A., 2012 Living with a carbon allowance 1 Living with a carbon allowance: the experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy Rachel A. Howell Environmental Change with a carbon allowance: the experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy. Energy

  7. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OUs advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the proteins biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  8. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes five states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah) and contiguous areas from three adjacent states (west Texas, south Wyoming, and west Kansas). This energy-rich region exhibits some of the largest growth rates in the nation, and it contains two major CO{sub 2} pipeline networks that presently tap natural subsurface CO{sub 2} reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery at a rate of 30 million tons per year. The ten largest coal-fired power plants in the region produce 50% (140 million tons CO{sub 2}/y) of the total CO{sub 2} from power-plant fossil fuel combustion, with power plant emissions close to half the total CO{sub 2} emissions. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, the five major electric utility industries, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs including the Western Governors Association, and data sharing agreements with four other surrounding states. The Partnership is developing action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region, as well as the non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. The establishment of a website network to facilitate data storage and information sharing, decision-making, and future management of carbon sequestration in the region is a priority. The Southwest Partnership's approach includes (1) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, (2) assessing and initiating public acceptance of possible sequestration approaches, and (3) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. The Partnership will also identify potential gaps in monitoring and verification approaches needed to validate long-term storage efforts.

  9. Carbon/Ternary Alloy/Carbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CarbonTernary AlloyCarbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical Data Storage Medium to Potentially Replace Magnetic Tape. CarbonTernary AlloyCarbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an...

  10. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  11. Abstract.-Stable nitrogen (/ll5Nl and carbon (/ll3CI isotope measure-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and growth rate, an isotopic enrichment of+3.4 1 GulfofMexico and South Atlantic Fishery Management Councils for nitrogen isotopes (Minagawa and Wada, 1984). Macko et al. (1984) also demonstrated that stepwise enrichment540 Abstract.-Stable nitrogen (/ll5Nl and carbon (/ll3CI isotope measure- ments were used

  12. Climate, Water, and Carbon Program A PROPOSAL IN RESPONSE TO THE PROVOST'S CALL FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    of our daily lives necessitate a deeper understanding of Earth's climate system, which sustains all life and is now threatened and compromised by human activities (population growth, economic development of drastic perturbations in the global carbon cycle. The impact on water resources of this sudden shift

  13. Introduction The formation of solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hell, Stefan W.

    Introduction The formation of solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is an important process in biological the nucleation and growth of solid CaCO3. Insoluble Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface provide crystallisation of silver propionate [8]. A new approach in the investigation of CaCO3 formation at interfaces

  14. Geologic Carbon Storage Archived Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corporation 9302005 Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale Western Research Institute 1012005 Carbon Sequestration for Existing Power Plants...

  15. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Paisley, Dennis L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

  16. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  17. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  18. Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this statute, the Director of Natural Resources will document and quantify carbon sequestration and greenhouse emissions reductions associated with agricultural practices, management systems,...

  19. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Processing (IT) Lignin-Based Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors * Structural Materials for Vehicles (VT) * Graphite Electrodes for Arc Furnaces (IT) * Nanoporous CF for...

  20. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2011 to accelerate the development and deployment of new, lower cost carbon fiber composite materials. The Consortium draws on the broad experience that the Oak Ridge National...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Carbon Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SO2), nitrous oxides (NOx), mercury, and fine particulate matter. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is always a byproduct of combustion. ... Geomechanics Laboratory On April 7, 2011,...

  2. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  3. University of Dundee Carbon Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Fordyce A.

    Carbon Management Strategy 2.1 Our low carbon vision 6 2.2 Context and drivers for Carbon Management 6 2 and sources of funding 18 6 Actions to Embed Carbon Management in Your Organisation 19 6.1 Corporate Strategy Appendix A: Carbon Management Matrix - Embedding 23 Appendix B: Energy Prices 24 #12;3 FOREWORD FROM

  4. University of Aberdeen Carbon Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    of Aberdeen is committed to reducing its carbon footprint and to playing its part in limiting the worstUniversity of Aberdeen Carbon Management Plan Higher Education Carbon Management Programme working with Page 1 The University of Aberdeen Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP

  5. Carbon Management Plan 1. Executive summary 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Carbon Management Plan June 2011 #12;2 #12;3 CONTENTS 1. Executive summary 5 2. Introduction 15 3. Background and context 16 4. Carbon management strategy 18 5. Carbon emissions baseline and projections 22 6. Past actions and achievements 30 7. Carbon Management Plan implementation 33 8. Carbon Management Plan

  6. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  7. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  8. ARM - Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492air Comments? We would love to heargovInstrumentstdma Comments? WeairgovInstrumentswsiCampaignCarbon

  9. Sandia Energy - Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCapture Home Carbon Capture The

  10. Sandia Energy - Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCapture Home Carbon

  11. Carbon Capture FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.05CarBen Version 3 Prototype:carbon

  12. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l aNanocomposites, and DevicesCarbonProgram

  13. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries BatteriesCAESMissionMetal-OrganicCarbon Bearing

  14. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirst Report to the PrimePilot Plant andCarbon

  15. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed- Deep Vadose ZonescheduleGrowth,

  16. Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunstall, M.G. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Graeber, G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO{sub 2} concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse heating offers a further opportunity for utilization of the carbon dioxide present in the fluid. The main difficulty is that plants react adversely to hydrogen sulphide which is invariably mixed, at some concentration, with the CO{sub 2} from geothermal fluids. Even very low H{sub 2}S concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg can have negative effects on the growth of plants (National Research Council, 1979). Therefore, an appropriate purification process for the CO{sub 2} must be used to avoid elevated H{sub 2}S levels in the greenhouses. The use of adsorption and absorption processes is proposed. Two purification processes have been modelled using the ASOEN PLUS software package, using the Geothermal Greenhouses Ltd. Operation Kawerau New Zealand and an example. A greenhouse area of 8,000 m{sup 2}, which would create a demand for approximately 20 kg CO{sub 2} per hour, was chosen based on a proposed expansion at Kawerau. The Kawerau operation currently takes geothermal steam (and gas) from a high temperature 2-phase well to heat an area of 1650 m{sup 2}. Bottled carbon dioxide is utilized at a rate of about 50 kg per day, to provide CO{sub 2} levels of 800 mg/kg when the greenhouse is closed and 300 to 350 mg/kg whilst venting. In England and the Netherlands, CO{sub 2} levels of 1000 mg/kg are often used (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989) and similar concentrations are desired at Kawerau, but current costs of 0.60 NZ$/kg for bottled CO{sub 2} are too high (Foster, 1995).

  17. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250C, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  19. Intermediate Temperature Carbon - Carbon Composite Structures. CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Synterials, Inc. (the "Participant") was to demonstrate promising processing methods, which can lead to producing Carbon-Carbon Composites (CCC), with tensile and interlaminar properties comparable to those of organic matrix composites and environmental stability at 1200 F for long periods of time. The participant synthesized carbon-carbon composites with two different fiber coatings and three different matrices. Both parties evaluated the tensile and interlaminar properties of these materials and characterized the microstructure of the matrices and interfaces. It was found that fiber coatings of carbon and boron carbide provided the best environmental protection and resulted in composites with high tensile strength.

  20. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  1. Growth, physiology, and [delta] 13C of loblolly and shortleaf pine as affected by ozone and soil water deficit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsik, Christine Golemboski

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    44 48 CHAPTER Page VI STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE COMPOSITION AND LEAF INTERNAL CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION OF LOBLOLLY AND SHORTLEAF PINE AS AFFECTED BY OZONE AND WATER STRESS Introduction Experimental Methods Results . Discussion Summary..., ) and two water regimes (well-watered and water- stressed) during one growing in season open-top field chambers equipped with fixed raincaps. Conventional methods were used to measure growth, biomass allocation, foliar chlorophyll concentration...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  3. Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular A Dissertation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular Structures ____________________________________ A Dissertation and honeycombs. However, for weight sensitive, ambient temperature applications, carbon fiber composites have emerged as a promising material due to its high specific strength and low density. Carbon fiber reinforced

  4. A synthesis of carbon in international trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, G. P; Davis, S. J; Andrew, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Peters, G. P. : Carbon Footprint of Nations: A Global,analysis for na- tional carbon footprint accounting, Eco.study of the UKs carbon footprint, Eco. Syst. Res. , 22,

  5. Carbon Nanotubes: Bearing Stress Like Never Before

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limaye, Aditya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube polymercomposites. Carbon, 44. 1624 1652 doi: 10.1016/j.R.H. , & Hart, A.J. (2013). Carbon Nanotubes: Present and

  6. CARBON MARKETS AROUND THE WORLD Ashley Lawson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    CARBON MARKETS AROUND THE WORLD Ashley Lawson Senior Analyst, Thomson Reuters Point Carbon only pilot trading carbon 6 #12;Shenzhen Policy Intensity-based ETS started June 18, 2013

  7. Who Pays a Price on Carbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on a per-capita basis a carbon price is much more regressiveadverse distributional effects of a carbon emissions policy.Distributional incidence Carbon tax Tradable permits Q52

  8. 2013 Carbon Management Research Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . BACKGROUND As a first step towards developing risk assessment strategies for carbon sequestration projects2013 Carbon Management Research Symposium Effects of Formation Heterogeneity on CO2 Gas Phase Attenuation in the Shallow Subsurface During Possible Leakage from Geologic Sequestration Sites Michael

  9. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmorethis review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.less

  10. LOW CARBON & 570 million GVA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrigley, Stuart

    LOW CARBON & RENEWABLES #12;570 million GVA THE SECTOR COMPRISES 326 COMPANIES EMPLOYING 12- tor comprises 326 companies, employing approximately 12,240 people and contributing 570 million nuclear, wind, solar, geo-thermal and tidal power. The total market value of the low carbon environmental

  11. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  12. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  13. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  14. Improvement in the Mechanical Properties of B-Staged Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Based Thin Film Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Kevin

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    in the amount of composite materials used in aircraft. However, the growth has been significantly slower than expected due to the development of lightweight alloys, advanced joining _______________ This thesis follows the style of Carbon. 2 techniques... materials using carbon nanotubes as a reinforcing agent within a polymer matrix. Multifunctional composite materials promise to simultaneously decrease weight, increase strength, and allow for improved performance over a range of mechanical, thermal...

  15. atomics international aqueous carbonate procelladonna: Topics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROGRAM ON ENERGY AND Geosciences Websites Summary: and storage, 6) adaptation of wholesale electricity markets to support a low-carbon future, 7) global power carbon policy...

  16. Carbon Storage Atlas, Employee Newsletter Earn International...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NETL's Carbon Storage Atlas IV and FE's internal employee newsletter, inTouch, earned 2013 National Association of Government Communicators awards. NETL's Carbon Storage Atlas IV...

  17. Who Pays a Price on Carbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that a fully auctioned emissions trading program (with aof a carbon tax or emissions trading system (Fullertona carbon tax or emissions trading system may have exemptions

  18. New Zealand Joins International Carbon Storage Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum today announced that New Zealand has become the newest member of the international carbon storage body.

  19. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  20. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  2. GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA to extend our thanks to the authors of various West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

  3. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:May 2015 All Issues submit Greening up fossil fuels with carbon...

  4. Carbonic Acid Shows Promise in Geology, Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23,...

  5. Electrical Transport in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Gang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Single wallCarbon nanotubes and graphene are the most popular Carbonin the Normal Metal Graphene Superconductor Junctions

  6. Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname Carbon Fiber Facilities Materials Carbon Fiber Research Facility Type Production Fiber Types Tow Size Tensioning Line...

  7. Structure and Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate: A Solid-State 43Ca NMR and Computational Molecular Dynamics Structure and Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate: A...

  8. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...

  9. Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on carbon dioxide Released: March 26, 2014 Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

  10. UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis Final Issue Date: March 21, 2010 #12;Carbon Footprint Analysis Background This chapter of the Sustainability Assessment focuses on UCSF

  11. A chemistry tale of two carbons | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A chemistry tale of two carbons A chemistry tale of two carbons Released: September 03, 2012 Comprehensive field study of urban, natural emissions interacting to affect climate...

  12. Electrochemical implications of defects in carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoefer, Mark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conducting polymer hybrid supercapacitors. Journal of Thestudies of carbon-carbon supercapacitors. Journal of TheHigh-voltage asymmetric supercapacitors operating in aqueous

  13. Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction. Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable...

  14. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  15. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing applications. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing applications. Abstract: This review summarizes the recent...

  16. CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BTRIC CNMS CSMB CFTF Working with CFTF HFIR MDF NTRC OLCF SNS Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Home | User Facilities | CFTF CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility SHARE Oak...

  17. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiohon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  18. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiochon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  19. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  20. Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  1. Closing the Carbon Balance for Fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Lucas D [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Holwerda, Evert K [ORNL; Hogsett, David [Mascoma Corporation; Rogers, Steve [ORNL; Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Thorne, Phil [Mascoma Corporation; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our lab and most others have not been able to close a carbon balance for fermentation by the thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe, Clostridium thermocellum. We undertook a detailed accounting of product formation in C. thermocellum ATCC 27405. Elemental analysis revealed that for both cellulose (Avicel) and cellobiose, {>=}92% of the substrate carbon utilized could be accounted for in the pellet, supernatant and off-gas when including sampling. However, 11.1% of the original substrate carbon was found in the liquid phase and not in the form of commonly-measured fermentation products - ethanol, acetate, lactate, and formate. Further detailed analysis revealed all the products to be <720 da and have not usually been associated with C. thermocellum fermentation, including malate, pyruvate, uracil, soluble glucans, and extracellular free amino acids. By accounting for these products, 92.9% and 93.2% of the final product carbon was identified during growth on cellobiose and Avicel, respectively.

  2. Mesoporous carbon -Cr2O3 composite as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous carbon-Cr2O3 (M-C-Cr2O3) composite was prepared by co-assembly of in-situ formed phenolic resin, chromium precursor, and Pluronic block copolymer under acidic conditions, followed by carbonization at 750oC under Argon. The TEM results confirmed that the Cr2O3 nanoparticles, ranging from 10 to 20 nm, were well dispersed in the matrix of mesoporous carbon. The composite exhibited an initial reversible capacity of 710 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability, which is mainly due to the synergic effects of carbons within the composites, i.e. confining the crystal growth of Cr2O3 during the high temperature treatment step and buffering the volume change of Cr2O3 during the cycling step. This composite material is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  3. Graphene as a surfactant for metal growth on solid surfaces: Fe on graphene/SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhou-jun; Dong, Aiyi; Wei, Mingming; Fu, Qiang, E-mail: qfu@dicp.ac.cn; Bao, Xinhe [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and scanning tunneling microscopic results demonstrate that annealing of Fe/carbon-rich 6H-SiC(0001) surface between 650 and 750?C leads to Fe intercalation under the surface carbon layer. Accompanied with the metal intercalation, the carbon nanomesh surface was transformed into a graphene surface. Moreover, the formed graphene layers always float out to the topmost surface even after deposition of more than 10 monolayer Fe, acting as a surfactant. Using graphene as the surfactant may not only promote the 2D growth but also can improve the film performance considering that graphene is stable and robust.

  4. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  5. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  6. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  7. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  8. Building Energy in China: Forward to Low-Carbon Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiding, L.

    International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 - Interrlational Status and Trends of Building Energy in China Contents Status and Trends of GHG Mitigation in China On-going Projects for Low-Carbon Building..., Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 Growth of urbanization rate of China 3 50 45 40 35 30 25 27.628.1 28 26.4 20 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 ESL-IC-08-10-06 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference...

  9. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  10. Carbon foam characterization tensile evaluation of carbon foam ligaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdugo Rodriguez, Rogelio Alberto

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for ligament isolation and specimen preparation for tensile testing of single ligaments from the unit cell of open-cell carbon foams has been successfully developed and implemented. Results are presented for ...

  11. Carbon dioxide hydrate particles for ocean carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, A.C.

    This paper presents strategies for producing negatively buoyant CO[subscript 2] hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration. Our study is based on recent field observations showing that a continuous-jet ...

  12. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  13. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the focus in the life-cycle assessment (LCA) and carbonclosely related to life-cycle assessment (LCA). The existingsupply chains, and on life-cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon

  14. Measuring supply chain carbon efficiency : a carbon label framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Anthony (Anthony J.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the near term, efficiency improvements represent a key option for reducing the impacts of climate change. The growing awareness of climate change has increased the attention regarding the carbon emissions "embedded" in ...

  15. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  16. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  17. Carbon Markets and Technological Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, T A; Neuhoff, Karsten

    www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R N O N -T E C H N IC A L S U M M A R Y Carbon Markets and Technological Innovation EPRG Working Paper 0917 Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 0932 Thomas A. Weber... and Karsten Neuhoff This paper examines how considering firm-level innovation in carbon-abatement technologies influences the optimal design choice for carbon pricing. It builds on Weitzmans model (1974) that shows in what instances cap and trade...

  18. Rapid oxidation/stabilization technique for carbon foams, carbon fibers and C/C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Seng; Tan, Cher-Dip

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An enhanced method for the post processing, i.e. oxidation or stabilization, of carbon materials including, but not limited to, carbon foams, carbon fibers, dense carbon-carbon composites, carbon/ceramic and carbon/metal composites, which method requires relatively very short and more effective such processing steps. The introduction of an "oxygen spill over catalyst" into the carbon precursor by blending with the carbon starting material or exposure of the carbon precursor to such a material supplies required oxygen at the atomic level and permits oxidation/stabilization of carbon materials in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the energy normally required to accomplish such carbon processing steps. Carbon based foams, solids, composites and fiber products made utilizing this method are also described.

  19. Purification and Processing of Graphitic Carbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worsley, Kimberly Anne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of Petroleum Asphaltenes. Liq. Fuels Tech. 1985,fibers, 2, petroleum asphaltenes, 4 carbon xerogels, 5

  20. Ultimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates Thermo Scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lachniet, Matthew S.

    Ultimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates Thermo Scientific KIEL IV Carbonate Device Part of Thermo integration cycle Ultimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates The Thermo Scientific KIEL IV Carbonate DeviceV Thermo Scientific MAT 253 or the 3-kV DELTA V isotope ratio mass spectrometer meets the requirements

  1. March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Tamsin A.

    March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (CCS) As part of the government's global strategy. This POSTnote discusses the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), a method of carbon sequestration2 and will be included in the forthcoming Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Carbon Abatement Technology Strategy

  2. Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East of England #12;Low Carbon Innovation Centre Report for EEDA Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective 20/04/2009 ii Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a biologist at the California State Univer- sity San Marcos, with expertise in the effects of carbon dioxideCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

  4. Mesoporous carbonates and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen; Liu, Jun; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous metal carbonate structures are formed by providing a solution containing a non-ionic surfactant and a calcium acetate salt, adding sufficient base to react with the acidic byproducts to be formed by the addition of carbon dioxide, and adding carbon dioxide, thereby forming a mesoporous metal carbonate structure containing the metal from said metal salt.

  5. INTRODUCTION Pedogenic (secondary) calcium carbonate is,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    INTRODUCTION Pedogenic (secondary) calcium carbonate is, by definition, a product of soil processes of calcium for pe- dogenic calcium carbonate (Gile et al., 1979). In regard to the source of the carbonate; Cerling et al., 1989; Quade et al., 1989). Because pedogenic calcium carbonate is read- ily soluble, its

  6. 6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan #12;2009/10 Emissions MMU Carbon Footprint Trajectory Project Footprint MMU Actual Carbon Footprint Projects that Reduced the 2009/10 CO2 Footprint #12;2010/11 Emissions6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan June 2011 let's make a sustainable planet #12

  7. Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deck, Christian Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in carbon nanotube ceramic matrix composites. Actapolymeric, metallic, or ceramic matrix material. These fiber

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage Realising the potential?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Carbon Capture and Storage Realising the potential? UKERC Research Project #12;Carbon Capture Winskel University of Edinburgh Peter Pearson and Stathis Arapostathis Low Carbon Research Institute @UKERKHQ #12;UKERC Research Project: Carbon Capture and Storage: Realising the potential? 01 It is the hub

  9. Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

  10. Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Chapter 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes To appear in "Chemistry of Carbon@acclab.helsinki.fi 1 #12;2CHAPTER 1. IRRADIATION-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN CARBON NANOTUBES #12;Contents 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes 1 1.1 Introduction

  11. Carbon nanotube composites P. J. F. Harris*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Peter J F

    Carbon nanotube composites P. J. F. Harris* Carbon nanotubes are molecular-scale tubes of graphitic carbon with outstanding properties. They are among the stiffest and strongest fibres known, with Young. There is currently great interest in exploiting these properties by incorporating carbon nanotubes into some form

  12. Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford Univer- sity. Figure 1: Histogram of carbon offset prices (

  13. Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    were used in experiments, and several defect characterization techniques were applied to characterize the damage. Development of dimensional changes of carbon nanotubes in microscopes operated at accelerating voltages of 30 keV revealed that binding...

  14. Increasing carbon nanotube forest density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Alexander P

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The outstanding mechanical, electrical, thermal, and morphological properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) open up exciting potential applications in a wide range of fields. One such application is replacing the ...

  15. Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, A. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar...

  16. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share...

  17. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from fossil-fuel com- bustion, Biogeosciences, 9,re- gional and national fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbontimes more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning

  18. Method for making carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  19. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

    1994-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

  20. Carbon dynamics in arctic vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, Lorna Elizabeth

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid climate change in Arctic regions is of concern due to important feedbacks between the Arctic land surface and the global climate system. A large amount of organic carbon (C) is currently stored in Arctic soils; if ...

  1. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

  2. Emerging Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnorr, Jan Markus

    On the basis of their unique electrical and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great attention in recent years. A diverse array of methods has been developed to modify CNTs and to assemble them ...

  3. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  4. What is stopping Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage from closing the carbon loop?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dioxide as a global public good. Considering the social cost of carbon, or the net present valueWhat is stopping Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage from closing the carbon loop? The social cost of carbon is still not developed There is no global consensus on the price of reducing carbon

  5. University of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    fully in the initiatives which will help us reduce our carbon footprint and combat climate changeUniversity of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP) Albert Young, 3 November 2009 #12;University of Glasgow

  6. Endohedral Carbon Chains in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes R. K. Vadapalli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mintmire, John W.

    Endohedral Carbon Chains in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes R. K. Vadapalli and J. W. Mintmire of endohedral linear carbon chains. In these calculations, all-carbon nanowire structures were constructed by inserting cumulenic linear carbon chains inside the semiconducting (7,3) and metallic (7,4) single

  7. Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product? Simone Submitted on December 21, 2007 Reviewed April 1, 2008 Abstract Black carbon (BC) is a very oxidation, charcoal, and soot. Due to its high recalcitrance, black carbon might act as a long-term carbon sink

  8. Protein carbon content evolves in response to carbon availability and may influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Andreas

    Protein carbon content evolves in response to carbon availability and may influence the fate that ancestral yeast strains preferentially express proteins with low carbon content during carbon limitation, relative to strains selected in the laboratory under carbon limitation. The likely reason

  9. Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical August 2003) Activated carbon fiber/carbon aerogel (ACF/CA) composites were fabricated by gelling. The ACFs can reinforce the related carbon aerogels when they originally have low mass density and are weak

  10. Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

  11. Effect of Langmuir monolayer of bovine serum albumin protein on the morphology of calcium carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong-Hui Xue; Shu-Xi Dai; Bin-Bin Hu; Zu-Liang Du

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Langmuir monolayer, as a model of biomineralization-associated proteins, was used to study its effect on regulated biomineralization of calcium carbonate. The effects of the BSA Langmuir monolayer and the concentration of the subphase solution on the nucleation and growth processes and morphology of the calcium carbonate crystal were investigated. The morphology and polymorphic phase of the resulting calcium carbonate crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Moreover, the interaction mechanisms of the subphase solution with the BSA Langmuir monolayer were discussed. It was found that BSA Langmuir monolayer could be used as a template to successfully manipulate the polymorphic phase and crystal morphology of calcium carbonate and had obvious influence on the oriented crystallization and growth. The final morphology or aggregation mode of the calcite crystal was closely dependent on the concentration of calcium bicarbonate solution. It is expected that this research would help to better understand the mechanism of biomineralization by revealing the interactions between protein matrices and crystallization of calcium carbonate crystal.

  12. Lithographically defined microporous carbon structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Polsky, Ronen; Brozik, Susan M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithographic method is used to fabricate porous carbon structures that can provide electrochemical electrodes having high surface area with uniform and controllable dimensions, providing enormous flexibility to tailor the electrodes toward specific applications. Metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the porous carbon electrodes exhibit ultra small dimensions with uniform size distribution. The resulting electrodes are rugged, electrically conductive and show excellent electrochemical behavior.

  13. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  14. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic...

  15. Trophic cycling and carbon export relationships in the California Current Ecosystem Michael R. Stukel,a,*,1 Michael R. Landry,a Claudia R. Benitez-Nelson,b and Ralf Goerickea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    and tested its predictions of mesozooplankton fecal-pellet export against vertical carbon-flux measurements measured 14C-primary production and chlorophyll-based rate estimates of phytoplankton growth coastal upwelling to offshore oligotrophic conditions. E-ratios (carbon export : 14C-primary production

  16. Synthesis of few-layered graphene by ion implantation of carbon in nickel thin films This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Synthesis of few-layered graphene by ion implantation of carbon in nickel thin films This article.1088/0957-4484/22/8/085601 Synthesis of few-layered graphene by ion implantation of carbon in nickel thin films Laurent Baraton1 SiC substrates [6]. More recently, the epitaxial growth of graphene films on monocrystalline

  17. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  18. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  19. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  20. Normal Growth of Range Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

    1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of surplus stock unless home-grown supplemental feed is cheap and abundant or the price to be obtained for the cattle the following spring is much higher per pound than can be had in the fall. Fall sale also lessens the danger of over-grazing in the late... of growth. Naturally the feed supply is the first thing considered as a cause of growth and it is the cause which is usually most nearly under control. Diseases or minor differences in health are just as obvious in controlling growth as are changes...

  1. Bertrand's postulate and subgroup growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Rabee, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we investigate the L^1-norm of certain functions on groups called divisibility functions. Using these functions, their connection to residual finiteness, and integration theory on profinite groups, we define the residual average of a finitely generated group. One of the main results in this article is the finiteness of residual averages on finitely generated linear groups. Whether or not the residual average is finite depends on growth rates of indices of finite index subgroups. Our results on index growth rates are analogous to results on gaps between primes, and provide a variant of the subgroup growth function, which may be of independent interest.

  2. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  3. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  4. Growth and properties of SiNCO nanocones and graphitic nanofibers synthesized using three-nanometer diameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    were minimized had the "stacked-cup" structure, and well-defined voids could be observed within aligned carbon nano- fibers (VACNFs) is interesting for fundamental under- standing of nanomaterial growth diameter of 3 (±1) nm. The nanocones were produced on laterally widely dispersed catalyst particles

  5. CARBON ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY AND DIAGENESIS OF PENNSYLVANIAN (DESMOINESIAN-MISSOURIAN) CARBONATES IN EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephanie

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon isotope stratigraphy of carbonate sediments is instrumental in examining major perturbations in the global carbon cycle and in correlating strata. However, the primary isotopic signal recorded in these sediments can vary with depositional...

  6. A study of the remineralization of organic carbon in nearshore sediments using carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNichol, Ann P., 1956-

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the remineralization of organic carbon was conducted in the organic-rich sediments of Buzzards Bay, MA. Major processes affecting the carbon chemistry in sediments are reflected by changes in the stable carbon ...

  7. Extraneous Carbon Assessments in Radiocarbon Measurements of Black Carbon in Environmental Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppola, Alysha; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments usingbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and oceanMWI, Noack AG. 2000. Black carbon in soils and sediments:

  8. Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith 1 Simple Models Bacteria are the dominant form of life on the planet the concentration of the nutrient in the media (grams/liter) and N(t) de

  9. Vermont Employment Growth Incentive (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Employment Growth Incentive (VEGI) is to encourage job creation in Vermont by a Vermont company, a Vermont division of a company that plans to grow and expand in Vermont, a...

  10. Inequality and Growth: Why Differential Fertility Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Croix, David; Doepke, Matthias

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barro, Robert J. 2000. Inequality and Growth in a Panel of125. Benabou, Roland. 1996. Inequality and Growth. NBER1996. Measuring Income Inequality: A New Database.

  11. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111) H. S. Mok, A. Ebnonnasir, Y. Murata, S. Nie, K. F. McCarty, C. V. Ciobanu, and S. Kodambaka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciobanu, Cristian

    Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111) H. S. Mok, A. Ebnonnasir, Y. Murata://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to IP: 198.206.219.39 On: Sat, 22 Mar 2014 00:48:06 #12;Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate

  12. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  13. A Distinctive Energy Policy for Scotland? The Impact of Low Carbon Generation on the Future Price of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    A Distinctive Energy Policy for Scotland? The Impact of Low Carbon Generation on the Future Price climate change, improved security of supply, affordable energy prices and a stimulus to economic growth of Allander Institute, supported by PricewaterhouseCoopers and published 19th June 2008 explore current energy

  14. Sustainable Development (20 credits) The carbon cycle, its impact on climate, and the need to change this by introducing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miall, Chris

    Sustainable Development (20 credits) The carbon cycle, its impact on climate, and the need of Government legislation on technology and the growth of sustainable businesses will be emphasised and building sustainable hydrogen industries. Metals recycling. Mass and energy balances on human

  15. Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13/50. Please quote this reference when applying.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    IAPETUS Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13 Henrik Stahl, Scottish Association for Marine Science Key Words 1. Blue carbon 2. Carbonate 3. Coralline is referred to as `blue carbon' to differentiate it from terrestrial carbon stores. Known blue carbon sinks

  16. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Lee, Sam (Gardena, CA); Shepherd, Gary (Los Alamitos, CA); Pruett, Gary J. (Cypress, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  17. Ion Beam Deposition of Thin Films: Growth Processes and Nanostructure Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofsaess, Hans C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion beam deposition is a process far from thermodynamic equilibrium and is in particular suited to grow metastable thin films with diamond-like properties, such as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and cubic boron nitride (c-BN). In this contribution the atomistic description of the deposition and growth processes are reviewed and compared to experimental results, obtained from mass selected ion beam deposition. The focus will be set to the nucleation and growth processes of boron nitride as a model system for ion based thin film formation. Furthermore, recent examples for nanostructure formation in ion deposited compound thin films will be presented. Ion beam deposited metal-carbon nano-composite thin films exhibit a variety of different morphologies such as rather homogeneous nanocluster distributions embedded in an a-C matrix, but also the self-organized formation of nanoscale multilayer structures.

  18. Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites. Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites. Abstract: Multiwall carbon...

  19. Carbon calculator tracks the climate benefits of managed private forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, William C; Sharma, Benktesh D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    forests provide more carbon sequestration benefits than let-the relative carbon sequestration benefits of let-growlife cycle carbon sequestration benefits, averaged over 120,

  20. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Prach, Thomas F. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.