Sample records for affects subsequent fragmentation

  1. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3 Outlook forSDPPP IndividualDept of Energy,

  2. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3 Outlook forSDPPP IndividualDept of

  3. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkleSingin' in theCleanup SiteSiteSite5

  4. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkleSingin' in theCleanup

  5. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkleSingin' in theCleanupSite-Selective

  6. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkleSingin' in

  7. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkleSingin' inSite-Selective Ionization in

  8. Factors Affecting the Fragmentation of Peptide Ions: Metal Cationization and Fragmentation Timescale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kmiec, Kevin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    cation and in assessing differences in the fragmentation pattern as a result of this binding site. An interesting observation from these studies reveals abundant x-type fragment ions occurring from the fragmentation of alkali-metal cationized peptides...

  9. How fragmentation and corridors affect wind dynamics and seed dispersal in open habitats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orrock, John

    Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; c Movement Ecology Laboratory, Department widespread human-induced changes such as habitat loss, landscape fragmentation, and climate instability measurements, and seed releases in a large-scale experimental landscape to show that habitat corridors affect

  10. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research facilities investigated...

  11. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  12. Gibbs fragmentation trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullagh, Peter; Winkel, Matthias

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study fragmentation trees of Gibbs type. In the binary case, we identify the most general Gibbs type fragmentation tree with Aldous's beta-splitting model, which has an extended parameter range $\\beta>-2$ with respect to the ${\\rm Beta}(\\beta+1,\\beta+1)$ probability distributions on which it is based. In the multifurcating case, we show that Gibbs fragmentation trees are associated with the two-parameter Poisson-Dirichlet models for exchangeable random partitions of $\\bN$, with an extended parameter range $0\\le\\alpha\\le 1$, $\\theta\\ge -2\\alpha$ and $\\alpha<0$, $\\theta=-m\\alpha$, $m\\in\\bN$.

  13. Fragment capture device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Lloyd R. (Los Lunas, NM); Cole, David L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  14. Fragments, Combustion and Earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Sotolongo-Costa; Antonio Posadas

    2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to show the advantages of introducing a geometric viewpoint and a non extensive formulation in the description of apparently unrelated phenomena: combustion and earthquakes. Here, it is shown how the introduction of a fragmentation analysis based on that formulation leads to find a common point for description of these phenomena

  15. Threat Facilitates Subsequent Executive Control During Anxious Mood Jeffrey L. Birk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    Threat Facilitates Subsequent Executive Control During Anxious Mood Jeffrey L. Birk Tufts) posits that low-level threat may facilitate behavioral performance by influencing executive control functions. Anxiety is thought to strengthen this effect by enhancing threat's affective significance

  16. Emission Characteristics of the Projectile Fragments at Relativistic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. K. Singh; A. K. Soma; Ramji Pathak; V. Singh

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A projectile (84^Kr_36) having kinetic energy around 1 A GeV was used to expose NIKFI BR-2 emulsion target. A total of 700 inelastic events are used in the present studies on projectile fragments. The emission angle of the projectile fragments are strongly affected by charge of the other projectile fragments emitted at same time with different emission angle is observed. The angular distribution studies show symmetrical nature for lighter charge projectile fragments. The symmetrical nature decreased with the charge of projectile fragments. At ~4o of emission angle for double charge projectile fragments, the momentum transfer during interaction is similar for various target species of emulsion were observed. We also observed a small but significant amplitude peaks on both side of the big peak for almost all light charge projectile fragments having different delta angle values. It reflects that there are few percent of projectile fragments that are coming from the decay of heavy projectile fragments or any other process.

  17. Fragmentation inside an identified jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Procura, Massimiliano

    Using Soft?Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive factorization formulae for semi?inclusive processes where a light hadron h fragments from a jet whose invariant mass is measured. Our analysis yields a novel “fragmenting ...

  18. Fragmentation-inactivation binary model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Batiment 510, Universite Paris-Sud, Centre d'Orsay, F-91405 (France) Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, BP 5027, F-14021 Caen CEDEX (France))

    1992-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a novel fragmentation model in which the fragmentation cascade is randomly inactivated according to the homogeneous inactivation probability function. For the multiplicative breakup kernel [ital scrF][sub [ital i],][ital j]=([ital ij])[sup [alpha

  19. The critical temperature of nuclear matter and fragment distributions in multifragmentation of finite nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ogul; A. S. Botvina

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fragment production in multifragmentation of finite nuclei is affected by the critical temperature of nuclear matter. We show that this temperature can be determined on the basis of the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) by analyzing the evolution of fragment distributions with the excitation energy. This method can reveal a decrease of the critical temperature that, e.g., is expected for neutron-rich matter. The influence of isospin on fragment distributions is also discussed.

  20. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  1. Source shape determination with directional fragment-fragment velocity correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefèvre, A; Auger, G; Begemann-Blaich, M L; Bellaize, N; Bittiger, R; Bocage, F; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bouriquet, B; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Gourio, D; Guinet, D; Hudan, S; Lautesse, P; Lavaud, F; Legrain, R; López, O; Lukasik, J; Lynen, U; Müller, W F J; Nalpas, L; Orth, H; Plagnol, E; Rosato, E; Saija, A; Sfienti, C; Tamain, B; Trautmann, W; Trzcinski, A; Turzó, K; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Zwieglinski, B

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlation functions, constructed from directional projections of the relative velocities of fragments, are used to determine the shape of the breakup volume in coordinate space. For central collisions of 129Xe + natSn at 50 MeV per nucleon incident energy, measured with the 4pi multi-detector INDRA at GSI, a prolate shape aligned along the beam direction with an axis ratio of 1:0.7 is deduced. The sensitivity of the method is discussed in comparison with conventional fragment-fragment velocity correlations.

  2. 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta -Fragmentation to probe transversity 41 Two-pion fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 41 Two-pion fragmentation M -- -- ++ 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 42 Interference Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 43 Asymmetry for interference

  3. A model for projectile fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, G; Gupta, S Das

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for projectile fragmentation is developed whose origin can be traced back to the Bevalac era. The model positions itself between the phenomenological EPAX parametrization and microscopic transport models like "Heavy Ion Phase Space Exploration" (HIPSE) model and antisymmetrised molecular dynamics (AMD) model. A very simple impact parameter dependence of input temperature is incorporated in the model which helps to analyze the more peripheral collisions. The model is applied to calculate the charge, isotopic distributions, average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of largest cluster at different $Z_{bound}$ of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies.

  4. Beyond usability -- affect in web browsing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Liqiong

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This research concentrates on the visual aesthetics of a website, investigating the web user's affective/emotional reactions to different designs of web homepage aesthetics and their influence on subsequent behaviors of web users. Drawing...

  5. Fragment-based structure-guided drug discovery: strategy, process, and lessons from human protein kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burley, Stephen K.; Hirst, Gavin; Sprengeler, Paul; Reich, Siegfried

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental roots of fragment-based drug discovery can be found in the work of Petsko, Ringe, and coworkers, who were the first to report flooding of protein crystals with small organic solutes (e.g., compounds such as benzene with ten or fewer nonhydrogen atoms) to identify bound functional groups that might ultimately be transformed into targeted ligands. The concept of linking fragments together to increase binding affinity was described as early as 1992 by Verlinde et al. Computational screening of fragments, using tools such as DOCK or MCSS, was also described in the early 1990s. Pharmaceutical industry application of fragment screening began at Abbott Laboratories, where Fesik and coworkers pioneered 'SAR by NMR' (structure/activity relationship by nuclear magnetic resonance). In this spectroscopic approach, bound fragments are detected by NMR screening and subsequently linked together to increase affinity, as envisaged by Verlinde and coworkers. Application of x-ray crystallography to detect and identify fragment hits was also pursued at Abbott. Fragment-based drug discovery has now been under way for more than a decade. Although Fesik and coworkers popularized the notion of linking fragments (as in their highly successful BCL-2 program), tactical emphasis appears to have largely shifted from fragment condensation to fragment engineering (or growing the fragment) to increase binding affinity and selectivity. Various biotechnology companies, including SGX Pharmaceuticals, Astex, and Plexxikon, have recently demonstrated that fragment-based approaches can indeed produce development candidates suitable for Phase I studies of safety and tolerability in patients (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  6. Fast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search Kanishka Bhaduri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    search algorithm capable of subsequence search on any subset of variables. Moreover, MTS subsequence approach" may include searching on parameters such as speed, descent rate, vertical flight pathFast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search Kanishka Bhaduri MCT Inc., NASA ARC

  7. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Li; S. R. Souza; M. B. Tsang; Feng-Shou Zhang

    2015-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy released by splitting Uranium and Thorium isotopes into two, three, four, up to eight fragments with nearly equal size are studied. We found that the energy released come from equally splitting the $^{235,238}$U and $^{230,232}$Th nuclei into to three fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model is employed to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for the excited nuclei. Weighing the the probability distributions of fragments multiplicity at different excitation energies for the $^{238}$U nucleus, we found that an excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u is optimal for the $^{235}$U, $^{238}$U, $^{230}$Th and $^{232}$Th nuclei to release nuclear energy of about 0.7-0.75 MeV/u.

  8. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Cheng; Tsang, M B; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy released by splitting Uranium and Thorium isotopes into two, three, four, up to eight fragments with nearly equal size are studied. We found that the energy released come from equally splitting the $^{235,238}$U and $^{230,232}$Th nuclei into to three fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model is employed to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for the excited nuclei. Weighing the the probability distributions of fragments multiplicity at different excitation energies for the $^{238}$U nucleus, we found that an excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u is optimal for the $^{235}$U, $^{238}$U, $^{230}$Th and $^{232}$Th nuclei to release nuclear energy of about 0.7-0.75 MeV/u.

  9. FRAGMENTATION IN THE FIRST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljevic, Milos [Department of Astronomy and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by recent simulations of galaxy formation in which protogalaxies acquire their baryonic content through cold accretion, we study the gravitational fragmentation of cold streams flowing into a typical first galaxy. We use a one-zone hydrodynamical model to examine the thermal evolution of the gas flowing into a 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} dark matter halo at redshift z = 10. The goal is to gain an understanding of the expected fragmentation mass scale and thus the characteristic mass of the first population of stars to form by shock fragmentation. Our model accurately describes the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas as we are specifically concerned with how the chemical abundances and initial conditions of the low-density, metal-enriched, cold accretion streams that pass an accretion shock alter the cooling properties and tendency to fragment in the post-shock gas. Cold accretion flows are not shock heated at the virial radius but instead flow along high-baryonic-density filaments of the cosmic web and penetrate deep into the host halo of the protogalaxy. In this physical regime, if molecular cooling is absent because of a strong Lyman-Werner background, we find there to be a sharp drop in the fragmentation mass at a metallicity of Z {approx} 10{sup -4} Z{sub sun}. If, however, H{sub 2} and HD molecules are present, they dominate the cooling at T < 10{sup 4} K, and metallicity then has no effect on the fragmentation properties of the cold stream. For a solar abundance pattern of metallicity, O is the most effective metal coolant throughout the evolution, while for a pair instability supernova (PISN) metallicity yield, Si{sup +} is the most effective coolant. PISN abundance patterns also exhibit a slightly smaller critical metallicity. Dust grains are not included in our chemical model, but we argue that their inclusion would not significantly alter the results. We also find that this physical scenario allows for the formation of stellar clusters and large, 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} bound fragments, possibly the precursors to globular clusters and supermassive black holes. Finally, we conclude that the usual assumption of isobaricity for galactic shocks breaks down in gas of a sufficiently high metallicity, suggesting that metal cooling leads to thermal instabilities.

  10. Cumulative Probability of Blast Fragmentation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Mazonka

    2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents formulae for calculation of cumulative probability of effect made by blast fragments. Analysis with Mott distribution, discrete fragment enumeration, spatial non-uniformity, numerical issues, and a generalisation for a set of effects are also discussed.

  11. Cumulative Probability of Blast Fragmentation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazonka, Oleg

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents formulae for calculation of cumulative probability of effect made by blast fragments. Analysis with Mott distribution, discrete fragment enumeration, spatial non-uniformity, numerical issues, and a generalisation for a set of effects are also discussed.

  12. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

  13. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Greg L. Bryan; Michael L. Norman

    1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 0.5 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~100,000 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of 100,000/cm^3 are found. We find that less than 1% of the primordial gas in such small scale structures cools and collapses to sufficiently high densities to be available for primordial star formation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the formation of very massive objects, massive black holes, fragmentation of a large fraction of baryons into brown dwars or Jupiter size fragments seems, in contrast to various claims in the literature, very unlikely. The expected escape fraction of UV photons with (h nu) > 11eV is very small.

  14. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McArthur, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Tollefsrud, Philip B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  15. Is protostellar heating sufficient to halt fragmentation? A case study of the massive protocluster G8.68-0.37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longmore, Steven N; Keto, Eric; Zhang, Qizhou; Qiu, Keping

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If star formation proceeds by thermal fragmentation and the subsequent gravitational collapse of the individual fragments, how is it possible to form fragments massive enough for O and B stars in a typical star-forming molecular cloud where the Jeans mass is about 1Msun at the typical densities (10^4 cm^-3) and temperatures (10K)? We test the hypothesis that a first generation of low-mass stars may heat the gas enough that subsequent thermal fragmentation results in fragments >=10Msun, sufficient to form B stars. We combine ATCA and SMA observations of the massive star-forming region G8.68-0.37 with radiative transfer modeling to derive the present-day conditions in the region and use this to infer the conditions in the past, at the time of core formation. Assuming the current mass/separation of the observed cores equals the fragmentation Jeans mass/length and the region's average density has not changed, requires the gas temperature to have been 100K at the time of fragmentation. The postulated first-generat...

  16. Cooling Dynamics in Multi-fragmentation processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. X. Liu; W. G. Lynch; M. J. van Goethem; X. D. Liu; R. Shomin; W. P. Tan; M. B. Tsang; G. Verde; A. Wagner; H. F. Xi; H. S. Xu; W. A. Friedman; S. R. Souza; R. Donangelo; L. Beaulieu; B. Davin; Y. Larochelle; T. Lefort; R. T. de Souza; R. Yanez; V. E. Viola; R. J. Charity; L. G. Sobotka

    2006-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragment energy spectra of neutron deficient isotopes are significantly more energetic than those of neutron rich isotopes of the same element. This trend is well beyond what can be expected for the bulk multi-fragmentation of an equilibrated system. It can be explained, however, if some of these fragments are emitted earlier through the surface of the system while it is expanding and cooling.

  17. An Experimental Study Of Hydromagmatic Fragmentation Through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on fragments produced by melt-jet experiments are dull in reflected light and, in scanning electron images, exhibit ubiquitous discontinuous skins ("rinds") that are flaked,...

  18. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Abstract: The exact mechanisms by...

  19. CLP-based protein fragment assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palu', Alessandro Dal; Fogolari, Federico; Pontelli, Enrico; 10.1017/S1471068410000372

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper investigates a novel approach, based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), to predict the 3D conformation of a protein via fragments assembly. The fragments are extracted by a preprocessor-also developed for this work- from a database of known protein structures that clusters and classifies the fragments according to similarity and frequency. The problem of assembling fragments into a complete conformation is mapped to a constraint solving problem and solved using CLP. The constraint-based model uses a medium discretization degree Ca-side chain centroid protein model that offers efficiency and a good approximation for space filling. The approach adapts existing energy models to the protein representation used and applies a large neighboring search strategy. The results shows the feasibility and efficiency of the method. The declarative nature of the solution allows to include future extensions, e.g., different size fragments for better accuracy.

  20. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, T; Norman, M L; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 0.5 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~100,000 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of 11eV is very small.

  1. Fragmenting protostellar disks: properties and observational signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vorobyov, Eduard; Dunham, Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we study the gravitational fragmentation of an unstable protostellar disc formed during the collapse of a pre-stellar core with a mass of 1.2 M_sun. The forming fragments span a mass range from about a Jupiter mass to very-low-mass protostars and are located at distances from a few tens to a thousand AU, with a dearth of objects at < 100 AU. We explore the possibility of observational detection of the fragments in discs viewed through the outflow cavity at a distance of 250 pc. We demonstrate that one hour of integration time with the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) is sufficient to detect the fragments with masses as low as 1.5 M_Jup at orbital distances up to 800 AU from the protostar. The ALMA resolution sets the limit on the minimum orbital distance of detectable fragments. For the adopted resolution of our simulated ALMA images of 0.1", the fragments can be detected at distances down to 50 AU. At smaller distances, the fragments usually me...

  2. Nondetectability of restriction fragments and independence of DNA fragment sizes within and between loci in RFLP typing of DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, R.; Zhong, Y.; Jin, L. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Budowle, B. (FBI Academy, Quantico, VA (United States))

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors provide experimental evidence showing that, during the restriction-enzyme digestion of DNA samples, some of the HaeIII-digested DNA fragments are small enough to prevent their reliable sizing on a Southern gel. As a result of such nondetectability of DNA fragments, individuals who show a single-band DNA profile at a VNTR locus may not necessarily be true homozygotes. In a population database, when the presence of such nondetectable alleles is ignored, they show that a pseudodependence of alleles within as well as across loci may occur. Using a known statistical method, under the hypothesis of independence of alleles within loci, they derive an efficient estimate of null allele frequency, which may be subsequently used for testing allelic independence within and across loci. The estimates of null allele frequencies, thus derived, are shown to agree with direct experimental data on the frequencies of HaeIII-null alleles. Incorporation of null alleles into the analysis of the forensic VNTR database suggests that the assumptions of allelic independence within and between loci are appropriate. In contrast, a failure to incorporate the occurrence of null alleles would provide a wrong inference regarding the independence of alleles within and between loci. 47 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Fragmented Economy, Stratified Society, and the Shattered Dream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordechay, Kfir; Orfield, Gary

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future of the California Economy is on the Coast, FebruaryMarch 17, 2010. Fragmented Economy, Stratified Society, andFragmented Economy, Stratified Society, and the Shattered

  4. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates."Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics 11(2):86-95. doi:10.1016j.gpb.2012.11.004 Authors: D...

  5. Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Sümmerer; B. Blank

    1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

  6. Jet fragmentation and gauge/string duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshitaka Hatta; Toshihiro Matsuo

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider an analog of e^+e^- annihilation in gauge theories which have a dual string description in asymptotically AdS_5 space and discuss the nature of jet fragmentation. We construct the timelike anomalous dimension which governs the scale dependence of the fragmentation function. In the limit of infinite 't Hooft coupling, the average multiplicity rises linearly with the energy and the inclusive spectrum is peaked at the kinematical boundary.

  7. Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Shahbaba, Babak; Pruessner, Jens C; Head, Kevin; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    279–289. 17. Entringer S, Buss C, Wadhwa PD (2010) Prenatal18. Sandman CA, Davis EP, Buss C, Glynn LM (2011) Exposuredehydrogenase types Buss et al. Buss et al. PNAS | Published

  8. Preubiquitinated chimeric ErbB2 is constitutively endocytosed and subsequently degraded in lysosomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vuong, Tram Thu [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway)] [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Berger, Christian [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Bertelsen, Vibeke; Rødland, Marianne Skeie [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway)] [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Stang, Espen [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Madshus, Inger Helene, E-mail: i.h.madshus@medisin.uio.no [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oncoprotein ErbB2 is endocytosis-deficient, probably due to its interaction with Heat shock protein 90. We previously demonstrated that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2 is induced upon incubation of cells with Ansamycin derivatives, such as geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that a preubiquitinated chimeric EGFR (EGFR-Ub{sub 4}) is constitutively endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that also an ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} chimera is endocytosed constitutively and clathrin-dependently. Upon expression, the ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was further ubiquitinated, and by Western blotting, we demonstrated the formation of both Lys48-linked and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was constitutively internalized and eventually sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes where the fusion protein was degraded. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was not cleaved prior to internalization. Interestingly, over-expression of Ubiquitin Interaction Motif-containing dominant negative fragments of the clathrin adaptor proteins epsin1 and Eps15 negatively affected endocytosis of ErbB2. Altogether, this argues that ubiquitination is sufficient to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the otherwise plasma membrane localized ErbB2. Also, it appears that C-terminal cleavage is not required for endocytosis. -- Highlights: ? A chimera containing ErbB2 and a tetra-Ubiquitin chain internalizes constitutively. ? Receptor fragmentation is not required for endocytosis of ErbB2. ? Ubiquitination is sufficient to induce endocytosis and degradation of ErbB2. ? ErbB2-Ub4 is internalized clathrin-dependently.

  9. Dynamical effects in the Coulomb expansion following nuclear fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, K.C.; Donangelo, R.; Schechter, H.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of the Coulomb expansion on the fragment kinetic energy spectrum for a fragmentating hot nuclear system is investigated. In particular, /sup 12/C-fragment spectra are calculated and compared with those predicted by the uniform expansion approximation. The results indicate that the energy spectra of fragments are quite sensitive to the details of the Coulomb expansion treatment.

  10. DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

  11. Fragments' internal and kinetic temperatures in the framework of a Nuclear Statistical Multifragmentation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Souza; B. V. Carlson; R. Donangelo; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The agreement between the fragments' internal and kinetic temperatures with the breakup temperature is investigated using a Statistical Multifragmentation Model which makes no a priori as- sumption on the relationship between them. We thus examine the conditions for obtaining such agreement and find that, in the framework of our model, this holds only in a relatively narrow range of excitation energy. The role played by the qualitative shape of the fragments' state densities is also examined. Our results suggest that the internal temperature of the light fragments may be affected by this quantity, whose behavior may lead to constant internal temperatures over a wide excitation energy range. It thus suggests that the nuclear thermometry may provide valuable information on the nuclear state density.

  12. New information on photon fragmentation functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Klasen; F. König

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this paper, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow to extract new information on this fragmentation process. While existing data do not yet convincingly favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO), the data sets recorded by PHENIX and STAR at BNL RHIC in 2013 with tenfold higher statistics should allow for such an analysis.

  13. Parton-to-Pion Fragmentation Reloaded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. de Florian; R. Sassot; M. Epele; R. J. Hernandez-Pinto; M. Stratmann

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new, comprehensive global analysis of parton-to-pion fragmentation functions at next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD. The obtained results are based on the latest experimental information on single-inclusive pion production in electron-positron annihilation, lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering, and proton-proton collisions. An excellent description of all data sets is achieved, and the remaining uncertainties in parton-to-pion fragmentation functions are estimated based on the Hessian method. Extensive comparisons to the results from our previous global analysis are performed.

  14. R CrA SMM 1A: FRAGMENTATION IN A PRESTELLAR CORE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of multiple condensations in the prestellar core candidate SMM 1A in the R Corona Australis cloud, which may represent the earliest phase of core fragmentation observed thus far. The separation between the condensations is between 1000 and 2100 AU, and their masses range from about 0.1 to 0.2 M {sub sun}. We find that the three condensations have extremely low bolometric luminosities (<0.1 L {sub sun}) and temperatures (<20 K), indicating that these are young sources that have yet to form protostars. We suggest that these sources were formed through the fragmentation of an elongated prestellar core. Our results, in concert with other observed protostellar binary systems with separations in the scale of 1000 AU, support the scenario that prompt fragmentation in the isothermal collapse phase is an efficient mechanism for wide binary star formation, while the fragmentation in the subsequent adiabatic phase may be an additional mechanism for close ({<=}100 AU) binary star formation.

  15. Automated main-chain model building by template matching and iterative fragment extension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for automated macromolecular main-chain model building is described. An algorithm for the automated macromolecular model building of polypeptide backbones is described. The procedure is hierarchical. In the initial stages, many overlapping polypeptide fragments are built. In subsequent stages, the fragments are extended and then connected. Identification of the locations of helical and ?-strand regions is carried out by FFT-based template matching. Fragment libraries of helices and ?-strands from refined protein structures are then positioned at the potential locations of helices and strands and the longest segments that fit the electron-density map are chosen. The helices and strands are then extended using fragment libraries consisting of sequences three amino acids long derived from refined protein structures. The resulting segments of polypeptide chain are then connected by choosing those which overlap at two or more C{sup ?} positions. The fully automated procedure has been implemented in RESOLVE and is capable of model building at resolutions as low as 3.5 Å. The algorithm is useful for building a preliminary main-chain model that can serve as a basis for refinement and side-chain addition.

  16. 1999 vadose zone monitoring plan and guidance for subsequent years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, D.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Last, G.V.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive waste in the US. The majority of the liquid waste was disposed to the soil column where much of it remains today. This document provides the rationale and general framework for vadose zone monitoring at cribs, ditches, trenches and other disposal facilities to detect new sources of contamination and track the movement of existing contamination in the vadose zone for the protection of groundwater. The document provides guidance for subsequent site-specific vadose zone monitoring plans and includes a brief description of past vadose monitoring activities (Chapter 3); the results of the Data Quality Objective process used for this plan (Chapter 4); a prioritization of liquid waste disposal sites for vadose monitoring (Chapter 5 and Appendix B); a general Monitoring and Analysis Plan (Chapter 6); a general Quality Assurance Project Plan (Appendix A), and a description of vadose monitoring activities planned for FY 1999 (Appendix C).

  17. Particle Production and Fragmentation at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. H. Saxon

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results from HERA are presented on a range of topics: charged multiplicities, production of non-strange mesons and strange particles, charm fragmentation, baryons decaying to strange particles, antideuteron production, Bose-Einstein correlations, and new interpretations of results on prompt photon production in DIS.

  18. Char particle fragmentation and its effects on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Quarterly report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, R.E.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the tenth quarterly status report of work on a project concerned with the fragmentation of char particles during pulverized coal combustion that is being conducted at the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. The project is intended to satisfy, in part, PETC`s research efforts to understand the chemical and physical processes that govern coal combustion. The work is pertinent to the char oxidation phase of coal combustion and focuses on how the fragmentation of coal char particles affects overall mass loss rates and how char fragmentation phenomena influence coal conversion efficiency. The knowledge and information obtained will allow the development of engineering models that can be used to predict accurately char particle temperatures and total mass loss rates during pulverized coal combustion. The overall objectives of the project are: (1) to characterize fragmentation events as a function of combustion environment, (2) to characterize fragmentation with respect to particle porosity and mineral loadings, (3) to assess overall mass loss rates with respect to particle fragmentation, and (4) to quantify the impact of fragmentation on unburned carbon in ash. The knowledge obtained during the course of this project will be used to predict accurately the overall mass loss rates of coals based on the mineral content and porosity of their chars. The work will provide a means of assessing reasons for unburned carbon in the ash of coal fired boilers and furnaces. Accomplishments for this period are presented for Task 3, char fragmentation studies and Task 4, fragmentation modelling.

  19. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Greg L. Bryan; Michael L. Norman

    2000-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three--dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 1 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~10^5 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of ~10^-4. As the subclumps merge cooling lowers the temperature to ~200 Kelvin in a `cold pocket' at the center of the halo. Within this cold pocket, a quasi-hydrostatically contracting core with ~200 solar mass and number densities > 10^5 cm^-3 is found. We find that less than 1% of the primordial gas in such small scale structures cools and collapses to sufficiently high densities to be available for primordial star formation. Furthermore, it is worthwhile to note that this study achieved the highest dynamic range covered by structured adaptive mesh techniques in cosmological hydrodynamics to date.

  20. Characterizing Social Fragmentation over Social Networks: An Axiomatic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Characterizing Social Fragmentation over Social Networks: An Axiomatic Approach Neelanjan Sircar fragmentation over social networks: generalized fractionalization and proclivity. Many traditional measures discussed in this paper do not require researchers to define groups a priori if a social network can

  1. Charge-Remote Fragmentation of Odd-Electron Peptide Ions. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge-Remote Fragmentation of Odd-Electron Peptide Ions. Charge-Remote Fragmentation of Odd-Electron Peptide Ions. Abstract: Comparison between gas-phase fragmentation of...

  2. Molecular electrostatic potentials by systematic molecular fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, David M.; Collins, Michael A. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple method is presented for estimating the molecular electrostatic potential in and around molecules using systematic molecular fragmentation. This approach estimates the potential directly from the electron density. The accuracy of the method is established for a set of organic molecules and ions. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by estimating the binding energy of a water molecule in an internal cavity in the protein ubiquitin.

  3. Jet Fragmentation via Recombination of Parton Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyong Chol Han; Rainer J Fries; Che Ming Ko

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study hadron production in jets by applying quark recombination to jet shower partons. With the jet showers obtained from PYTHIA and augmented by additional non-perturbative effects, we compute hadron spectra in e+ + e-collisions at sqrt(s)=200 GeV. Including contributions from resonance decays, we find that the resulting transverse momentum spectra for pions, kaons, and protons reproduce reasonably those from the string fragmentation as implemented in PYTHIA.

  4. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should consider the distances at which impacts occur in the vicinity of the forest ecosystem, and these considerations should include the impacts on forest vegetation and bird species. Impacts can be mitigated by considering the distances at which these influences occur. In particular, this paper presents an integrated environmental impact assessment system to be applied in the SEIA process. The integrated assessment system permits the assessment of the cumulative impacts of land development on multiple scales. -- Highlights: • The model is to assess the impact of forest fragmentation across multiple scales. • The paper suggests the type of forest fragmentation on a regional scale. • The type can be used to evaluate the location and size of a land development. • The paper shows the influence distance of land development on a local scale. • The distance can be used to mitigate the impact at an EIA process.

  5. Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is included.

  6. The effect of affect in advertising: can product preference be conditioned by background music? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Katrina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present experiment provides a recent replication of Gorn’ (1982) affective conditioning study, investigating the role of music-induced mood in advertising and its subsequent effect on product choice. As an extension ...

  7. Improvements to model of projectile fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mallik; G. Chaudhuri; S. Das Gupta

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. C 044612 (2011)] we proposed a model for calculating cross-sections of various reaction products which arise from disintegration of projectile like fragment resulting from heavy ion collisions at intermediate or higher energy. The model has three parts: (1) abrasion, (2) disintegration of the hot abraded projectile like fragment (PLF) into nucleons and primary composites using a model of equilibrium statistical mechanics and (3) possible evaporation of hot primary composites. It was assumed that the PLF resulting from abrasion has one temperature T. Data suggested that while just one value of T seemed adequate for most cross-sections calculations, it failed when dealing with very peripheral collisions. We have now introduced a variable T=T(b) where b is the impact parameter of the collision. We argue there are data which not only show that T must be a function of b but, in addition, also point to an approximate value of T for a given b. We propose a very simple formula: T(b)=D_0+D_1(A_s(b)/A_0) where A_s(b) is the mass of the abraded PLF and A_0 is the mass of the projectile; D_0 and D_1 are constants. Using this model we compute cross-sections for several collisions and compare with data.

  8. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  9. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

  10. Energetics and Dynamics of Peptide Fragmentation from Multiple...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of peptides containing the LDIFSDF motif. Citation: Laskin J.2004."Energetics and Dynamics of Peptide Fragmentation from Multiple-Collision Activation and Surface-Induced...

  11. In-Source Fragmentation and the Sources of Partially Tryptic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using three biological samples, including a standard protein mixture, a mouse brain tissue homogenate, and a mouse plasma sample. Since the in-source fragments of a...

  12. andmodified fragmentation functions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    situation in an unambiguous way. In the context of light-cone quantisation the leading twist fragmentation functions have an intuitive probabilistic interpretation. Rainer...

  13. Energetics and Dynamics of Peptide Fragmentation from Multiple...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Citation: Laskin J.2004."Energetics and Dynamics of Peptide Fragmentation from Multiple-Collision Activation and Surface-Induced Dissociation Studies."European Journal of Mass...

  14. aflp amplified fragment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NOTE Shannon L. Datwyler,1,2 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: in Hemp and Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) According to Amplified Fragment Length...

  15. The fragmentation of expanding shells III: Oligarchic accretion and the mass spectrum of fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, James E; Smith, Rowan J; Whitworth, Anthony; Palous, Jan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use SPH simulations to investigate the gravitational fragmentation of expanding shells through the linear and non--linear regimes. The results are analysed using spherical harmonic decomposition to capture the initiation of structure during the linear regime; the potential-based method of Smith et al. (2009) to follow the development of clumps in the mildly non-linear regime; and sink particles to capture the properties of the final bound objects during the highly non-linear regime. In the early, mildly non--linear phase of fragmentation, we find that the clump mass function still agrees quite well with the mass function predicted by the analytic model. However, the sink mass function is quite different, in the sense of being skewed towards high-mass objects. This is because, once the growth of a condensation becomes non-linear, it tends to be growing non-competitively from its own essentially separate reservoir; we call this Oligarchic Accretion.

  16. Partition of the total excitation energy between complementary fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manailescu, C; Hambsch, F -J; Morariu, C; Oberstedt, S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods of the total excitation energy (TXE) partition between complementary fission fragments (FF) are compared: one based on the "classical" hypothesis of prompt neutron emission from fully accelerated FF with both fragments having the same residual nuclear temperature distribution,the second one on the systematic behavior of the experimental multiplicity ratio {\

  17. Optimizing cRNA fragmentation for microarray experiments using the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steve Kemp

    attached to the array. Labeled cRNA makes a better tar- get for oligo arrays once it has been fragmented to an optimal size of 50­200 bases long. The structures of the fragmented tar- gets are less complex, which-denaturing conditions on Reliant 1 % agarose precast gels from Amresco (Solon, OH) stained with SYBR Gold nucleic acid

  18. Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roslaniec, Mary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Cram, L. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments. The present invention includes the optical selection and collection of large (>.mu.g) quantities of clonable, chromosome-specific DNA from a sample of chromosomes. Chromosome selection is based on selective, irreversible photoinactivation of unwanted chromosomal DNA. Although more general procedures may be envisioned, the invention is demonstrated by processing chromosomes in a conventional flow cytometry apparatus, but where no droplets are generated. All chromosomes in the sample are first stained with at least one fluorescent analytic dye and bonded to a photochemically active species which can render chromosomal DNA unclonable if activated. After passing through analyzing light beam(s), unwanted chromosomes are irradiated using light which is absorbed by the photochemically active species, thereby causing photoinactivation. As desired chromosomes pass this photoinactivation point, the inactivating light source is deflected by an optical modulator; hence, desired chromosomes are not photoinactivated and remain clonable. The selection and photoinactivation processes take place on a microsecond timescale. By eliminating droplet formation, chromosome selection rates 50 times greater than those possible with conventional chromosome sorters may be obtained. Thus, usable quantities of clonable DNA from any source thereof may be collected.

  19. Molecule fragmentation at the Dresden EBIS-A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreller, M.; Zschornack, G.; Kentsch, U.; Heller, R. [Institute of Applied Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany); DREEBIT GmbH, 01109 Dresden (Germany); FZ Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion-Beam Physics and Materials Research, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on molecule fragmentation measurements of propane in high dense electron beams of a room-temperature electron beam ion source, the so-called Dresden EBIS-A. After fragmentation of propane molecules in the electron beam the fragments were continuously extracted and q/A separated by a bifocal dipole magnet. Fragmentation spectra were measured at working gas pressures of 10{sup -9} mbar up to 10{sup -8} mbar, electron currents of 29 mA up to 75 mA, and electron energies of 11 keV up to 15 keV. Thereby all possible stoichiometric ratios of propane fragments were detected. At low electron beam currents the ion current output of the CH{sub x}{sup +} (x=0-3) and the C{sub 2}H{sub x}{sup +} (x=0-5) fragments is nearly identically. At higher electron currents the CH{sub x}{sup +} (x=0-3) peaks dominate the spectra and the ratio between the C{sup +} peak and CH{sub x}{sup +} (x=0-3) peaks increases from 2:1 to 3:1. It was shown that the working gas pressure has no significant influence on the fragment distribution but on the total ion current.

  20. REVISING FOR CLARITY SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ON SENTENCES, AND PARALLELISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonstra, Rudy

    writing include sentence fragments, run-on sentences, non-parallel sentence construction, and poor word of words is incomprehensible. Fragment: Went to class. Sentence: Lisa installs her exhibit. Fragment: Lisa

  1. The expansion of woody riparian vegetation, and subsequent stream restoration, influences the metabolism of prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodds, Walter

    The expansion of woody riparian vegetation, and subsequent stream restoration, influences, the restoration allowed recovery of some features of open-canopy prairie streams. Woody expansion apparently. Keywords: macroalgae, microalgae, primary production, restoration, streams Introduction North American

  2. Hydrodynamic Shear Rate Regulates Melanoma-Leukocyte Aggregation, Melanoma Adhesion to the Endothelium, and Subsequent Extravasation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Cheng

    Hydrodynamic Shear Rate Regulates Melanoma-Leukocyte Aggregation, Melanoma Adhesion that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) may enhance melanoma adhesion to the endothelium (EC) and subsequent microenvironment within the microcirculation. In this study, effects of hydrodynamic flow on regulating melanoma

  3. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-Rich Fission Fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Kumar Jain; Deepika Choudhury; Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    On the occasion of the $75^{th}$ anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavy-ion reactions $^{238}$U($^{18}$O,f) and $^{208}$Pb($^{18}$O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction $^{245}$Cm(n$^{th}$,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  4. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.

  5. Cell-to-cell variability and culture conditions during self-renewal reversibly affect subsequent differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Jit Hin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cell-to-cell variability in clonal populations is reflected in a distribution of mRNA and protein levels among individual cells, including those of key transcription factors governing embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency ...

  6. Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

  7. Effect of long-term underfeeding and subsequent refeeding on hay digestibility in sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of long-term underfeeding and subsequent refeeding on hay digestibility in sheep R Perrier Decreasing the level of intake generally increases diet digestibility, mainly because of an increase in particle retention time in the rumen (Galyean and Owens, 1991, in Physiological Aspects of Digestion

  8. Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    ]. Espe- cially, polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD, and their fabrication is easy and economical. Polycrystalline diamond film has a rough surface and a lot of defectsEffects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea

  9. thors added dashed lines to indicate the subsequent liquid phase composition with reducing relative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    disappear entirely through the absorption or release of aqueous phase material with an associated crysthors added dashed lines to indicate the subsequent liquid phase composition with reducing relative to change the aqueous composition. The two cases are respectively distinguished by a local minimum

  10. Research Report Effects of ethanol consumption by adult female rats on subsequent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Research Report Effects of ethanol consumption by adult female rats on subsequent consumption January 2004 Abstract We used a two-bottle choice test to measure voluntary ethanol consumption by adolescent rats that had lived with ethanol-consuming or water-consuming adult conspecifics. We found

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment in Proximity to the Gallbladder Without Subsequent Acute Cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patti, Jay W.; Neeman, Ziv, E-mail: zneeman@cc.hih.gov; Wood, Bradford J. [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 1C641, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2003-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial reports have suggested that proximity of liver tumors to the gallbladder may increase the risk for cholecystitis after radiofrequency ablation. A colon adenocarcinoma metastasis to the liver in contact with the gallbladder was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation without subsequent cholecystitis.

  12. Method of freezing living cells and tissues with improved subsequent survival

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hirsch, Gerald P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to an improved method for freezing red blood cells, ther living cells, or tissues with improved subsequent survival, wherein constant-volume freezing is utilized that results in significantly improved survival compared with constant-pressure freezing; optimization is attainable through the use of different vessel geometries, cooling baths and warming baths, and sample concentrations.

  13. Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs Lauren in human lungs. J Appl Physiol 96: 1808­1814, 2004. First published February 6, 2004; 10.1152/japplphysiol reactivity in healthy lungs by prohibiting DI for an extended period. The present study had two goals. First

  14. Survival of Bundleless Hair Cells and Subsequent Bundle Replacement in the Bullfrog's Saccule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Survival of Bundleless Hair Cells and Subsequent Bundle Replacement in the Bullfrog's Saccule and balance depend upon hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. Millions of people suffer from hearing and balance deficits caused by damage to hair cells as a result of exposure to noise

  15. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  16. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  18. Sputtering yield of Pu bombarded by fission Fragments from Cf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danagoulian, Areg [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcneil, Wendy V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yuan, Vincent W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results on the yield of sputtering of Pu atoms from a Pu foil, bombarded by fission fragments from a {sup 252}Cf source in transmission geometry. We have found the number of Pu atoms/incoming fission fragments ejected to be 63 {+-} 1. In addition, we show measurements of the sputtering yield as a function of distance from the central axis, which can be understood as an angular distribution of the yield. The results are quite surprising in light of the fact that the Pu foil is several times the thickness of the range of fission fragment particles in Pu. This indicates that models like the binary collision model are not sufficient to explain this behavior.

  19. Apparatus and method for producing fragment-free openings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for explosively penetrating hardened containers such as steel drums without producing metal fragmentation is disclosed. The apparatus can be used singularly or in combination with water disrupters and other disablement tools. The apparatus is mounted in close proximity to the target and features a main sheet explosive that is initiated at least three equidistant points along the sheet's periphery. A buffer material is placed between the sheet explosive and the target. As a result, the metallic fragments generated from the detonation of the detonator are attenuated so that no fragments from the detonator are transferred to the target. As a result, an opening can be created in containers such as steel drums through which access to the IED is obtained to defuse it with projectiles or fluids.

  20. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission of complex fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, D.R.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex fragment emission (Z{gt}2) has been studied in the reactions of 50, 80, and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C, and 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au. Charge, angle, and energy distributions were measured inclusively and in coincidence with other complex fragments, and were used to extract the source rapidities, velocity distributions, and cross sections. The experimental emission velocity distributions, charge loss distributions, and cross sections have been compared with calculations based on statistical compound nucleus decay. The binary signature of the coincidence events and the sharpness of the velocity distributions illustrate the primarily 2-body nature of the {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reaction mechanism between 50 and 100 MeV/u. The emission velocities, angular distributions, and absolute cross sections of fragments of 20{le}Z{le}35 at 50 MeV/u, 19{le}Z{le}28 at 80 MeV/u, and 17{le}Z{le}21 at 100 MeV/u indicate that these fragments arise solely from the binary decay of compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions in which the {sup 139}La projectile picks up about one-half of the {sup 12}C target. In the 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions, the disappearance of the binary signature in the total charge and velocity distributions suggests and increase in the complex fragment and light charged particle multiplicity with increasing target mass. As in the 80 and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reactions, the lighter complex fragments exhibit anisotropic angular distributions and cross sections that are too large to be explained exclusively by statistical emission. 143 refs., 67 figs.

  1. ANALYSIS OF A FRAGMENTING SUNSPOT USING HINODE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Mathew, Shibu K.; Raja Bayanna, A.; Venkatakrishnan, P. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory Dewali, Badi Road, Udaipur, Rajasthan 313004 (India); Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangla, Bangalore 560034 (India); Bellot Rubio, Luis R., E-mail: rlouis@aip.de [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ high-resolution filtergrams and polarimetric measurements from Hinode to follow the evolution of a sunspot for eight days starting on 2007 June 28. The imaging data were corrected for intensity gradients, projection effects, and instrumental stray light prior to the analysis. The observations show the formation of a light bridge at one corner of the sunspot by a slow intrusion of neighboring penumbral filaments. This divided the umbra into two individual umbral cores. During the light bridge formation, there was a steep increase in its intensity from 0.28 to 0.7 I{sub QS} in nearly 4 hr, followed by a gradual increase to quiet-Sun (QS) values in 13 hr. This increase in intensity was accompanied by a large reduction in the field strength from 1800 G to 300 G. The smaller umbral core gradually broke away from the parent sunspot nearly two days after the formation of the light bridge, rendering the parent spot without a penumbra at the location of fragmentation. The penumbra in the fragment disappeared first within 34 hr, followed by the fragment whose area decayed exponentially with a time constant of 22 hr. In comparison, the parent sunspot area followed a linear decay rate of 0.94 Mm{sup 2} hr{sup -1}. The depleted penumbra in the parent sunspot regenerated when the inclination of the magnetic field at the penumbra-QS boundary became within 40 Degree-Sign from being completely horizontal and this occurred near the end of the fragment's lifetime. After the disappearance of the fragment, another light bridge formed in the parent which had similar properties as the fragmenting one, but did not divide the sunspot. The significant weakening in field strength in the light bridge along with the presence of granulation is suggestive of strong convection in the sunspot, which might have triggered the expulsion and fragmentation of the smaller spot. Although the presence of QS photospheric conditions in sunspot umbrae could be a necessary condition for fragmentation, it is not a sufficient one.

  2. Fragment transition density method to calculate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voityuk, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander.voityuk@icrea.cat [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona, Spain and Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC), Universitat de Girona 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A general approach, the Fragment Transition Density (FTD) scheme, is introduced to estimate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer in a molecular system. Within this method, the excitation energies and transition densities of the system are used to derive the coupling matrix element. The scheme allows one to treat systems where exciton donor and acceptor are close together and their exchange interaction and orbital overlap are significant. The FTD method can be applied in combination with any quantum mechanical approach to treat excited states of general nature including single-, double-, and higher excitations. Using FTD approach, we derive excitonic couplings for several systems computed with the CIS, TD DFT and MS-CASPT2 methods. In particular, it is shown that the estimated coupling values in DNA ?-stacks are strongly affected by the short-range electronic interaction of adjacent nucleobases.

  3. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewenstein, Moshe

    Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman Department of Computer Science--We present effective off-path DNS cache poisoning attacks, circumventing all widely-used defenses against poison- ing, based on echoing of random challenges from request to response, e.g., port randomisation

  4. Hadron production from quark coalescence and jet fragmentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, V.; Ko, Che Ming; Vitev, I.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, protons, and antiprotons in Au+Au collisions at intermediate RHIC energy root s(NN)=62 GeV are studied in a model that includes both quark coalescence from the dense partonic matter and fragmentation...

  5. Phenotypic Characterization of Self- Assembling Protein Fragments Using Negative Dominance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zweifel, Adrienne Elizabeth

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -FtsN............................................. 75 3.10 recA Dependence of the Chaining Phenotype.......................................... 78 3.11 Effect of lexA3 on the ParC333-485 Chaining Phenotype........................ 80 4.1 Proposed Targets for Self-Assembling Fragments...

  6. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function based on a soil fragmentation process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function based on a soil fragmentation process Shmuel Assouline-parameter expression for relative hydraulic conductivity (RHC) of partially saturated soils. It is based on the premise. This assumption allows us to derive hydraulic properties of soils (water retention curves and unsaturated

  7. Hierarchical Protein Folding Pathways: A Computational Study of Protein Fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haspel, Nurit

    Hierarchical Protein Folding Pathways: A Computational Study of Protein Fragments Nurit Haspel,1 folding model. The model postulates that protein folding is a hierarchical top-down pro- cess. The basic words: protein folding; building blocks; pro- tein structure prediction; hierarchical folding; protein

  8. A theoretical model of the explosive fragmentation of vesicular magma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    fire fountaining to vigorous Vulcanian and Plinian eruptions. The range of different types of explosiveA theoretical model of the explosive fragmentation of vesicular magma A. C. Fowler, MACSI explosion can occur, and is motivated by the corresponding phenomenon of magmatic explosion during Vulcanian

  9. Isoscaling and the symmetry energy in spectator fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Trautmann; A. S. Botvina; J. Brzychczyk; A. Le Fevre; P. Pawlowski; C. Sfienti; the ALADIN; INDRA collaborations

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Isoscaling and its relation to the symmetry energy in the fragmentation of excited residues produced at relativistic energies were studied in two experiments conducted at the GSI laboratory. The INDRA multidetector has been used to detect and identify light particles and fragments with Z <= 5 in collisions of 12C on 112,124Sn at incident energies of 300 and 600 MeV per nucleon. Isoscaling is observed, and the deduced parameters decrease with increasing centrality. Symmetry term coefficients, deduced within the statistical description of isotopic scaling, are near gamma = 25 MeV for peripheral and gamma < 15 MeV for central collisions. In a very recent experiment with the ALADIN spectrometer, the possibility of using secondary beams for reaction studies at relativistic energies has been explored. Beams of 107Sn, 124Sn, 124La, and 197Au were used to investigate the mass and isospin dependence of projectile fragmentation at 600 MeV per nucleon. The decrease of the isoscaling parameters is confirmed and extended over the full fragmentation regime covered in these reactions.

  10. How intimacy affects resource conceptualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Allison L

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research regarding Foa and Foa's Resource Theory does not address whether the level of intimacy shared between the actors affects their resource conceptualization. Furthermore, siblings have not been utilized as a separate intimacy group...

  11. Factors Affecting Option Premium Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

  12. How intimacy affects resource conceptualization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Allison L

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research regarding Foa and Foa's Resource Theory does not address whether the level of intimacy shared between the actors affects their resource conceptualization. Furthermore, siblings have not been utilized as a separate intimacy group...

  13. OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE AND FRACTURE PERMEABILITY IN A FRACTURED RESERVOIR are in integrated reservoir study, reservoir charac- terization, naturally fractured reservoirs, waterflooding in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs." His research areas include experimental analysis

  14. Right Ventricular Migration of a Recovery IVC Filter's Fractured Wire with Subsequent Pericardial Tamponade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeed, Imran [Christiana Hospital, MAP 2, Suite 2121 (United States)], E-mail: isaeed@christianacare.org; Garcia, Mark [Christiana Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); McNicholas, Kathleen [Christiana Hospital, MAP 1, Suite 205 (United States)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Recovery filter (C.R. Bard, Tempe, AZ, USA) is a device for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. There have been few case reports involving the migration of this particular filter or of a broken wire migrating to the heart. We report a case of right ventricular migration of a fractured wire from this filter in a patient who subsequently developed pericardial tamponade and required open heart surgery to extract the fractured wire. We discuss the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved nonpermanent inferior vena cava filters and their reported complications. These complications can be life-threatening and may require immediate surgical intervention.

  15. The relationship between ownership fragmentation and landscape structure in Bastrop County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engle, Jason Allen

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few formalized studies have documented the relationships between land ownership fragmentation and landscape structure. The increasing demand for rural land, especially near urban areas, is causing ownership fragmentation. Several parts of Texas...

  16. Immunolocalization of an Amino-Terminal Fragment of Apolipoprotein E in the Pick's Disease Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (2003) Carboxyl- terminal-truncated apolipoprotein E4of an amino- terminal fragment of apolipoprotein E4 thatof an Amino-Terminal Fragment of Apolipoprotein E in the

  17. CCM0128 -Computac~ao II -2012 Exercicio Programa 1a -Subsequ^encia de Soma Maxima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Walter Figueiredo

    CCM0128 - Computa¸c~ao II - 2012 Exerc´icio Programa 1a - Subsequ^encia de Soma M´axima E-mail do

  18. Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudzevich, O. T., E-mail: ogrudzevich@ippe.ru; Klinov, D. A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of {sup 235}U nuclei.

  19. Transformation between statistical ensembles in the modelling of nuclear fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, G; Mallik, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the conditions under which the particle number conservation constraint deforms the predictions of fragmentation observables as calculated in the grand canonical ensemble. We derive an analytical formula allowing to extract canonical results from a grand canonical calculation and vice versa. This formula shows that exact canonical results can be recovered for observables varying linearly or quadratically with the number of particles, independent of the grand canonical particle number fluctuations. We explore the validity of such grand canonical extrapolation for different fragmentation observables in the framework of the analytical Grand Canonical or Canonical Thermodynamical Model [(G)CTM] of nuclear multifragmentation. It is found that corrections to the grand canonical expectations can be evaluated with high precision, provided the system does not experience a first order phase transition. In particular, because of the Coulomb quenching of the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter, we fin...

  20. Temperature of projectile like fragments in heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, S Das; Chaudhuri, G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model in which a projectile like fragment can be simply regarded as a remnant after removal of some part of the projectile leads to an excited fragment. This excitation energy can be calculated with a Hamiltonian that gives correct nuclear matter binding, compressibility and density distribution in finite nuclei. In heavy ion collisions the model produces a dependence of excitation energy on impact parameter which appears to be correct but the magnitude of the excitation energy falls short. It is argued that dynamic effects left out in the model will increase this magnitude. The model can be directly extended to include dynamics but at the expense of increased computation. For many calculations for observables, a temperature is an easier tool to use rather than an excitation energy. Hence temperature dependences on impact parameter in heavy ion collisions are displayed.

  1. Temperature of projectile like fragments in heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Das Gupta; S. Mallik; G. Chaudhuri

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A model in which a projectile like fragment can be simply regarded as a remnant after removal of some part of the projectile leads to an excited fragment. This excitation energy can be calculated with a Hamiltonian that gives correct nuclear matter binding, compressibility and density distribution in finite nuclei. In heavy ion collisions the model produces a dependence of excitation energy on impact parameter which appears to be correct but the magnitude of the excitation energy falls short. It is argued that dynamic effects left out in the model will increase this magnitude. The model can be directly extended to include dynamics but at the expense of increased computation. For many calculations for observables, a temperature is an easier tool to use rather than an excitation energy. Hence temperature dependences on impact parameter in heavy ion collisions are displayed.

  2. Isotopic Scaling and the Symmetry Energy in Spectator Fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auger, G; Begemann-Blaich, M L; Bellaize, N; Bittiger, R; Bocage, F; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bouriquet, B; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Gourio, D; Guinet, D; Hudan, S; Imme, G; Lautesse, P; Lavaud, F; Legrain, R; López, O; Lynen, U; Müller, W F J; Nalpas, L; Orth, H; Plagnol, E; Raciti, G; Rosato, E; Saija, A; Schwarz, C; Seidel, W; Sfienti, C; Tamain, B; Trautmann, W; Trzcinski, A; Turzó, K; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Zwieglinski, B; Botvina, A S; The INDRA Collaboration

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopic effects in the fragmentation of excited target residues following collisions of $^{12}$C on $^{112,124}$Sn at incident energies of 300 and 600 MeV per nucleon were studied with the INDRA 4$\\pi$ detector. The measured yield ratios for light particles and fragments with atomic number $Z \\leq$ 5 obey the exponential law of isotopic scaling. The deduced scaling parameters decrease with increasing centrality to values as low as $\\alpha = 0.25 \\pm 0.02$ for the central event group at 600 MeV per nucleon. Symmetry term coefficients, deduced from these data within the statistical description of isotopic scaling, are near $\\gamma =$ 25 MeV for peripheral and $\\gamma <$ 10 MeV for central collisions.

  3. EJECTA KNOT FLICKERING, MASS ABLATION, AND FRAGMENTATION IN CASSIOPEIA A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Zastrow, Jordan A.; Hammell, Molly C. [6127 Wilder Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Shull, J. Michael; Silvia, Devin W. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ejecta knot flickering, ablation tails, and fragmentation are expected signatures associated with the gradual dissolution of high-velocity supernova (SN) ejecta caused by their passage through an inhomogeneous circumstellar medium or interstellar medium (ISM). Such phenomena mark the initial stages of the gradual merger of SN ejecta with and the enrichment of the surrounding ISM. Here we report on an investigation of this process through changes in the optical flux and morphology of several high-velocity ejecta knots located in the outskirts of the young core-collapse SN remnant Cassiopeia A using Hubble Space Telescope images. Examination of WFPC2 F675W and combined ACS F625W + F775W images taken between 1999 June and 2004 December of several dozen debris fragments in the remnant's northeast ejecta stream and along the remnant's eastern limb reveal substantial emission variations ('flickering') over timescales as short as nine months. Such widespread and rapid variability indicates knot scale lengths {approx_equal} 10{sup 15} cm and a highly inhomogeneous surrounding medium. We also identify a small percentage of ejecta knots located all around the remnant's outer periphery which show trailing emissions typically 0.''2-0.''7 in length aligned along the knot's direction of motion suggestive of knot ablation tails. We discuss the nature of these trailing emissions as they pertain to ablation cooling, knot disruption, and fragmentation, and draw comparisons to the emission 'strings' seen in {eta} Car. Finally, we identify several tight clusters of small ejecta knots which resemble models of shock-induced fragmentation of larger SN ejecta knots caused by a high-velocity interaction with a lower density ambient medium.

  4. Study of fragmentation using clusterization algorithm with realistic binding energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogesh K. Vermani; Jatinder K. Dhawan; Supriya Goyal; Rajeev K. Puri; J. Aichelin

    2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We here study fragmentation using \\emph{simulated annealing clusterization algorithm} (SACA) with binding energy at a microscopic level. In an earlier version, a constant binding energy (4 MeV/nucleon) was used. We improve this binding energy criterion by calculating the binding energy of different clusters using modified Bethe-Weizs\\"{a}cker mass (BWM) formula. We also compare our calculations with experimental data of ALADiN group. Nearly no effect is visible of this modification.

  5. Breakup of the SF6 photoion revealed by momentum correlation between fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bapat, Bhas

    Breakup of the SF6 3+ photoion revealed by momentum correlation between fragments S. Sunil Kumar 2008 Fragmentation of SF6 3+ , formed from SF6 by absorption of soft x-ray photons, has been ejecta inferred in this manner allows us to discern the fragmentation sequence of SF6 3+ . The proposed

  6. Recursive tilings and space-filling curves with little fragmentation Herman Haverkort, TU Eindhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverkort, Herman

    Recursive tilings and space-filling curves with little fragmentation Herman Haverkort, TU Eindhoven-filling curves with little fragmentation Herman Haverkort, TU Eindhoven Circular range query: report all points;Recursive tilings and space-filling curves with little fragmentation Herman Haverkort, TU Eindhoven Circular

  7. HumanWildlife Interactions 4(2):257265, Fall 2010 Bullet fragmentation and lead deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human­Wildlife Interactions 4(2):257­265, Fall 2010 Bullet fragmentation and lead deposition to North Dakota's program. Therefore, we analyzed fragmentation patterns and lead deposition in carcasses fragments and lead deposits throughout the entire abdominal cavity of carcasses. We also used 2 types

  8. ccsd00000995 The genealogy of self-similar fragmentations with negative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00000995 (version 1) : 5 Jan 2004 The genealogy of self-similar fragmentations with negative of the self-similar fragmentation. A genealogy is naturally associated to such fragmentation processes, one guesses that there should be a natural way to de#12;ne a genealogy tree, rooted at the initial

  9. The fragmentation of expanding shells II: Thickness matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Richard; Palous, Jan; Whitworth, Anthony P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study analytically the development of gravitational instability in an expanding shell having finite thickness. We consider three models for the radial density profile of the shell: (i) an analytic uniform-density model, (ii) a semi-analytic model obtained by numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, and (iii) a 3D hydrodynamic simulation. We show that all three profiles are in close agreement, and this allows us to use the first model to describe fragments in the radial direction of the shell. We then use non-linear equations describing the time-evolution of a uniform oblate spheroid to derive the growth rates of shell fragments having different sizes. This yields a dispersion relation which depends on the shell thickness, and hence on the pressure confining the shell. We compare this dispersion relation with the dispersion relation obtained using the standard thin-shell analysis, and show that, if the confining pressure is low, only large fragments are unstable. On the other hand, if the...

  10. LIMITING ACCRETION ONTO MASSIVE STARS BY FRAGMENTATION-INDUCED STARVATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Banerjee, Robi [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac, E-mail: thomas.peters@ita.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform and analyze simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive-mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  11. Protostellar fragmentation in a power-law density distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Burkert; M. Bate; P. Bodenheimer

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrodynamical calculations in three space dimensions of the collapse of an isothermal, rotating 1 M\\sol protostellar cloud are presented. The initial density stratification is a power law with density $\\rho \\propto r^{-p}$, with $p=1$. The case of the singular isothermal sphere ($p=2$) is not considered; however $p=1$ has been shown observationally to be a good representation of the density distribution in molecular cloud cores just before the beginning of collapse. The collapse is studied with two independent numerical methods, an SPH code with 200,000 particles, and a finite-difference code with nested grids which give high spatial resolution in the inner regions. Although previous numerical studies have indicated that such a power-law distribution would not result in fragmentation into a binary system, both codes show, in contrast, that multiple fragmentation does occur in the central regions of the protostar. Thus the process of binary formation by fragmentation is shown to be consistent with the fact that a large fraction of young stars are observed to be in binary or multiple systems.

  12. Coordination of dibensothiophenes and corannulenes to organometallic ruthenium (II) fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vecchi, Paul Anthony

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation contains five papers in the format required for journal publication which describe (in part) my research accomplishments as a graduate student at Iowa State University. This work can be broadly categorized as the binding of weakly-coordinating ligands to cationic organometallic ruthenium fragments, and consists of two main areas of study. Chapters 2-4 are investigations into factors that influence the binding of dibenzothiophenes to {l_brace}Cp'Ru(CO){sub 2}{r_brace}{sup +} fragments, where Cp' = {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5} (Cp) and {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 5} (Cp*). Chapters 5 and 6 present the synthesis and structural characterization of complexes containing corannulene buckybowls that are {eta}{sup 6}-coordinated to {l_brace}Cp*Ru{r_brace}{sup +} fragments. The first chapter contains a brief description of the difficulty in lowering sulfur levels in diesel fuel along with a review of corannulene derivatives and their metal complexes. After the final paper is a short summary of the work herein (Chapter 7). Each chapter is independent, and all equations, schemes, figures, tables, references, and appendices in this dissertation pertain only to the chapter in which they appear.

  13. The role of Spectator Fragments at an electron Ion collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian White; Mark Strikman

    2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient detection of spectator fragments is key to the main topics at an electron-ion collider (eIC). Any process which leads to emission of fragments or $\\gamma$'s breaks coherence in diffractive processes. Therefore this is equivalent to non-detection of rapidity gaps in pp collisions. For example, in coherent photoproduction of vector mesons their 4-momentum transfer distribution would image the "gluon charge" in the nucleus in the same way that Hofstadter measured its charge structure using elastic scattering of $\\sim$100 MeV electrons. Whereas he could measure the $\\sim$4 MeV energy loss by the electron due to excitation of nuclear energy levels (Figure 1), even the energy spread of the incident beam would prevent such an inclusive selection of quasielastic events at an eIC. The only available tool is fragment detection. Since, in our example, one finds that $\\sim100$ of deexcitations go through $\\gamma$'s or 1 neutron, rarely to 2 neutron and never to protons(due to Coulomb barrier suppression), the eIC design should emphasize their detection.

  14. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  15. Fragmentation of Negative ions from N-Linked Glycans: Use of Nitrate Adducts to induce Antenna-Specific Fragmentation David J. Harvey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    identification of underivatized N-linked glycans is normally performed with positive ions whose fragmentation fragmentation spectra were found to contain ions defining specific details of the glycan structure. Materials and Methods Materials N-linked glycans were released with hydrazine from the well-characterised glycoproteins

  16. Overwintering survival and role of moisture in diapause termination and subsequent emergence of sorghum midge, (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mott, Dale Allen

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time of emergence from overwintering and abundance of sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola (Coquillett), that initiate the first spring generation dictate the seasonal abundance and subsequent severity of damage the insect causes later...

  17. An evaluation of some innovative fragmentation systems for oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieta, M.; Hustrulid, W.A. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a large-scale underground mining method, large-hole stoping, using some innovative fragmentation systems (buffer blasting, continuous loading/hauling, and mechanical miners for development). This study includes a literature review and an experimental study of one of the key design factors--buffer blasting. The purpose of the buffer-blasting experiments is to examine the swell that is necessary to achieve satisfactory fragmentation results. The study also includes a technical and economic evaluation of the new mining method compared with conventional room and pillar mining. The purpose of this study is to examine innovative methods that exist today and may provide a more efficient mining system than that currently used. Note that this is a conceptual study, and that the mining for the two mine designs were compared using a daily production rate of 75,000 tones per day. This amount was chosen because it is the maximum amount possible for a rubber-tired room and pillar operation with only a one-shaft complex.

  18. Direct fission fragment energy converter - Magnetic collimator option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsvetkov, P. V.; Hart, R. R. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas AandM Univ., 129 Zachry Engineering Center, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. In addition to the extensive computational effort, the scaled prototype experimental proof-of-principle program was conducted to validate basic physics of the concept. The program was focused on electromagnetic components and experimental demonstration of performance. This paper summarizes the final results of the 6-years research program including both computational and experimental efforts. Potential future research and development and anticipated applications are discussed. (authors)

  19. Magnetically-Regulated Fragmentation Induced by Nonlinear Flows and Ambipolar Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shantanu Basu; Glenn E. Ciolek; Wolf Dapp; James Wurster

    2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a parameter study of simulations of fragmentation regulated by gravity, magnetic fields, ambipolar diffusion, and nonlinear flows. The thin-sheet approximation is employed with periodic lateral boundary conditions, and the nonlinear flow field ("turbulence") is allowed to freely decay. In agreement with previous results in the literature, our results show that the onset of runaway collapse (formation of the first star) in subcritical clouds is significantly accelerated by nonlinear flows in which a large-scale wave mode dominates the power spectrum. In addition, we find that a power spectrum with equal energy on all scales also accelerates collapse, but by a lesser amount. For a highly super-Alfvenic initial velocity field with most power on the largest scales, the collapse occurs promptly during the initial compression wave. However, for trans-Alfvenic perturbations, a subcritical magnetic field causes a rebound from the initial compression, and the system undergoes several oscillations before runaway collapse occurs. Models that undergo prompt collapse have highly supersonic infall motions at the core boundaries. Cores in magnetically subcritical models with trans-Alfvenic initial perturbations also pick up significant systematic speeds by inheriting motions associated with magnetically-driven oscillations. Core mass distributions are much broader than in models with small-amplitude initial perturbations, although the disturbed structure of cores that form due to nonlinear flows does not guarantee subsequent monolithic collapse. Our simulations also demonstrate that significant power can (if present initially) be maintained with negligible dissipation in large-scale compressive modes of a magnetic thin sheet, in the limit of perfect flux freezing.

  20. Subsequent Malignancies in Children Treated for Hodgkin's Disease: Associations With Gender and Radiation Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Department of Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)], E-mail: louis_constine@urmc.rochester.edu; Tarbell, Nancy [Department of Pediatric Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hudson, Melissa M. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Schwartz, Cindy [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fisher, Susan G. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Muhs, Ann G. B.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Basu, Swati K. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Ng, Andrea; Mauch, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sandhu, Ajay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Medical Center-San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Culakova, Eva [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Lyman, Gary [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality in children treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD). We evaluated select demographic and therapeutic factors associated with SMNs, specifically gender and radiation dose. Methods and Materials: A total of 930 children treated for HD at five institutions between 1960 and 1990 were studied. Mean age at diagnosis was 13.6 years, and mean follow-up was 16.8 years (maximum, 39.4 years). Treatment included radiation alone (43%), chemotherapy alone (9%), or both (48%). Results: We found that SMNs occurred in 102 (11%) patients, with a 25-year actuarial rate of 19%. With 15,154 patient years of follow-up, only 7.18 cancers were expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 14.2; absolute excess risk [AER] = 63 cases/10,000 years). The SIR for female subjects, 19.93, was significantly greater than for males, 8.41 (p < 0.0001). After excluding breast cancer, the SIR for female patients was 15.4, still significantly greater than for male patients (p = 0.0012). Increasing radiation dose was associated with an increasing SIR (p = 0.0085). On univariate analysis, an increased risk was associated with female gender, increasing radiation dose, and age at treatment (12-16 years). Using logistic regression, mantle radiation dose increased risk, and this was 2.5-fold for female patients treated with more than 35 Gy primarily because of breast cancer. Conclusions: Survivors of childhood HD are at risk for SMNs, and this risk is greater for female individuals even after accounting for breast cancer. Although SMNs occur in the absence of radiation therapy, the risk increases with RT dose.

  1. Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theophilou, Iris, E-mail: i.theophilou@fz-juelich.de [Peter Grunberg Institut (PGI) Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)] [Peter Grunberg Institut (PGI) Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tassi, M.; Thanos, S. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems, ‘Demokritos’ National Center for Scientific Research, 15310 Athens (Greece)] [Institute for Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems, ‘Demokritos’ National Center for Scientific Research, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations.

  2. A Planning Tool for Estimating Waste Generated by a Radiological Incident and Subsequent Decontamination Efforts - 13569

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boe, Timothy [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Lemieux, Paul [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)] [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hayes, Colin [Eastern Research Group, Inc, Morrisville, NC 26560 (United States)] [Eastern Research Group, Inc, Morrisville, NC 26560 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management of debris and waste from a wide-area radiological incident would probably constitute a significant percentage of the total remediation cost and effort. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a unique planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. The WEST was developed to support planners and decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident. The tool then allows the user to evaluate the impact of various decontamination/demolition strategies on the waste types and volumes generated. WEST consists of a suite of standalone applications and Esri{sup R} ArcGIS{sup R} scripts for rapidly estimating waste inventories and levels of radioactivity generated from a radiological contamination incident as a function of user-defined decontamination and demolition approaches. WEST accepts Geographic Information System (GIS) shape-files defining contaminated areas and extent of contamination. Building stock information, including square footage, building counts, and building composition estimates are then generated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Hazus{sup R}-MH software. WEST then identifies outdoor surfaces based on the application of pattern recognition to overhead aerial imagery. The results from the GIS calculations are then fed into a Microsoft Excel{sup R} 2007 spreadsheet with a custom graphical user interface where the user can examine the impact of various decontamination/demolition scenarios on the quantity, characteristics, and residual radioactivity of the resulting waste streams. (authors)

  3. Spectroscopy of {Beta}-Delayed Charged Particles at Projectile Fragment Separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janas, Zenon

    2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of projectile fragmentation reactions and in-flight separation has proved to be a powerful tool to produce nuclei at the limits of stability. Decay studies of very neutron-deficient projectile fragments led to the discovery of several new {beta}-delayed particle emitters. Basic principles of the method are described and various aspects of extracting interesting spectroscopic information from {beta}-delayed particle studies at projectile fragment separators are discussed.

  4. V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to be dropped. Additionally, if the Cisco ASA with a Cisco IPS SSP software module running an affected version of software is configured in High-Availability mode (HA), a...

  5. Characterization of fragment emission in ^{20}Ne (7 - 10 MeV/nucleon) + ^{12}C reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aparajita Dey; C. Bhattacharya; S. Bhattacharya; S. Kundu; K. Banerjee; S. Mukhopadhyay; D. Gupta; T. Bhattacharjee; S. R. Banerjee; S. Bhattacharyya; T. K. Rana; S. K. Basu; R. Saha; K. Krishan; A. Mukherjee; D. Bandopadhyay; C. Beck

    2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The inclusive energy distributions of the complex fragments (3 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 7) emitted from the bombardment of ^{12}C by ^{20}Ne beams with incident energies between 145 and 200 MeV have been measured in the angular range 10$^{o} \\leq \\theta_{lab} \\leq$ 50^{o}. Damped fragment yields in all the cases have been found to be the characteristic of emission from fully energy equilibrated composites. The binary fragment yields are compared with the standard statistical model predictions. Enhanced yields of entrance channel fragments (5 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 7) indicate the survival of orbiting-like process in ^{20}Ne + ^{12}C system at these energies.

  6. Partial proteolytic digestion of the mammary prolactin receptor: Identification of smaller prolactin binding fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Djiane, J. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Jouy-en-Josas (France))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partial proteolytic digestion of the mammary prolactin (PRL) receptor was used to generate receptor fragments and analyze their immunoreactivity and PRL binding properties. Tryptic digestion of the PRL receptor produced two immunoreactive fragments (Mr approximately 30,000 and approximately 15,000) that reacted with a monoclonal anti-PRL receptor antibody and still specifically bound PRL, while the complete immunoreactive PRL binding unit (Mr approximately 42,000) disappeared. Neither chymotrypsin nor V8 protease were able to generate any immunoreactive receptor fragments. These receptor fragments may represent smaller PRL binding receptor form(s) of biological significance.

  7. Dependence of fragmentation in self-gravitating accretion discs on small scale structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Matthew D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a framework for understanding the fragmentation criterion for self-gravitating discs which, in contrast to studies that emphasise the `gravoturbulent' nature of such discs, instead focuses on the properties of their quasi-regular spiral structures. Within this framework there are two evolutionary paths to fragmentation: i) collapse on the free-fall time, which requires that the ratio of cooling time to dynamical time ($\\beta$) $disc. We perform 2D grid simulations which demonstrate numerically converged fragmentation at $\\beta disc. Such simulations thus only allow fragmentation via route i) above...

  8. amplified-fragment length polymorphism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NOTE Shannon L. Datwyler,1,2 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: in Hemp and Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) According to Amplified Fragment Length...

  9. Jet Fragmentation in Medium and Vacuum with the PHENIX Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Nguyen for the PHENIX Collaboration

    2010-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most active areas of investigation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is the study of the jet quenching phenomenon whereby hard partons lose their energy as they traverse the hot, dense matter created in such collisions. Strong parton energy loss has been observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions as evidenced by the a large suppression of the yield of high pT hadrons as compared to the expected yield based on measurements in p+p collisions. Moreover, measurements of back-to-back correlations of charged hadrons suggest that jet shapes are strongly modified modified by the medium. The quantitative interpretation of single and di-hadron measurements is, however, complicated by the fact that the initial parton energy is unknown. A more informative measurement would be one in which the initial parton energy is known, allowing the determination of the fragmentation function, which may be effectively modified from its vacuum form by the presence of the medium. Two measurements in which the initial parton energy may be estimated are discussed in these proceedings: jet reconstruction and two- particle correlations using direct photons. Jet reconstruction in nuclear collisions is challenging due to the large background of soft particles, fluctuations of which give rise to fake jets. Direct photons can be used to estimate the initial parton energy of the recoil jet without recourse to jet reconstruction algorithms. However, such studies suffer from a smaller rate and the direct photon signal must be disentangled from a large background of decay photons. We present jet reconstruction results which use an algorithm suitable for a high multiplicity environment. We also present results of two-particle correlations using direct photons. These results are discussed in the context of medium modification to the fragmentation function.

  10. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Kiet A., E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Pachter, Ruth, E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  11. 4, 30553085, 2007 Winter climate affects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 4, 3055­3085, 2007 Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de and Earth System Sciences Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de Wit et al. Title Page Abstract

  12. 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta -Fragmentation to probe transversity 31 Hadron pair azimuthal angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 31 Hadron pair azimuthal angle 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 32 Center of mass angle hadron decay plane Center of mass direction in lab frame Center of mass frame R #12;2 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta

  13. 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta -Fragmentation to probe transversity 21 Azymuthal asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 21 Azymuthal asymmetry factors in the evolution of the asymmetry. D. Boer, NPB 603 (2000) 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta quark with mass mq q #12;2 29 Nov 2001 A. Bacchetta - Fragmentation to probe transversity 23 Model

  14. An Eulerian path approach to DNA fragment assembly Pavel A. Pevzner*, Haixu Tang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    Angeles, CA Contributed by Michael S. Waterman, June 7, 2001 For the last 20 years, fragment assembly-free fragment assembler today (by errors we mean incorrect assemblies rather than unavoidable base­ layout­consensus'' paradigm. However, even for error-free SBH data, the corresponding layout problem

  15. Dual random fragmentation and coagulation and an application to the genealogy of Yule processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Dual random fragmentation and coagulation and an application to the genealogy of Yule processes in the description of the genealogy of Yule processes. 1 Introduction At a naive level, fragmentation and coagulation-Sznitman coalescent [7], and also has a natural interpretation in terms of the genealogy of a remarkable branching

  16. In-Source Fragmentation and the Sources of Partially Tryptic Peptides in Shotgun Proteomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jong Seo; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partially tryptic peptides are often identified in shotgun proteomics using trypsin as the proteolytic enzyme; however, it has been controversial regarding the sources of such partially tryptic peptides. Herein we investigate the impact of in-source fragmentation on shotgun proteomics using three biological samples, including a standard protein mixture, a mouse brain tissue homogenate, and a mouse plasma sample. Since the in-source fragments of a peptide retain the same elution time with its parent fully tryptic peptide, the partially tryptic peptides from in-source fragmentation can be distinguished from the other partially tryptic peptides by plotting the observed retention times against the computationally predicted retention times. Most partially tryptic in-source fragmentation artifacts were misaligned from the linear distribution of fully tryptic peptides. The impact of in-source fragmentation on peptide identifications was clearly significant in a less complex sample such as a standard protein digest, where ~60 % of unique peptides were observed as partially tryptic peptides from in-source fragmentation. In mouse brain or mouse plasma samples, in-source fragmentation contributed to 1-3 % of all identified peptides. The other major source of partially tryptic peptides in complex biological samples is presumably proteolytic processing by endogenous proteases in the samples. By filtering out the in-source fragmentation artifacts from the identified partially tryptic or non-tryptic peptides, it is possible to directly survey in-vivo proteolytic processing in biological samples such as blood plasma. ?

  17. Phase-space analysis of fragments formed in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Preeti Bansal

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of momentum-dependent interactions and a broader Gaussian on multifragmentation. We also look into the details of the fragment structure for a broader Gaussian and momentum-dependent interactions. We find that nucleons forming the fragments belong to same region of the phase space.

  18. DNA fragment assembly: an application of graph theory in molecular biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willems, Wolfgang

    DNA fragment assembly: an application of graph theory in molecular biology Martin Mascher Leibniz Technology Since the central importance of the DNA in storing biological informa- tion had been recognised limitations permit scientists only to obtain contigu- ous DNA fragments whose lengths range from a few dozen

  19. A `resource allocator' for transcription based on a highly fragmented T7 RNA polymerase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    . However, they can exhibit toxicity and lack accessory proteins (r factors and activators) that enable (inactivated) r fragment, respectively. The a fragment can be fused to recombinant proteins to make promoters for the difference in copy number of two plasmids. Keywords genetic circuit; resource allocation; split protein

  20. Absence of Fragmentation in Two-Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullin, William J.

    ); moreover, a mean-field analysis of a homogeneous three-dimensional Bose gas with repulsive interactions5Absence of Fragmentation in Two-Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensation Juan Pablo Fern-dimensional finite trapped systems consist of fragmented condensates. We derive and diagonalize the one-body density

  1. Ultrafast dynamics and fragmentation of C60 in intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zheng-Zhe

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation-induced fragmentation of the C60 fullerene was investigated by the tight-binding electron-ion dynamics simulations. In intense laser field, the breathing vibrational mode is much more strongly excited than the pentagonal-pinch mode. The fragmentation effect was found more remarkable at long wavelength lambda>800 nm rather than the resonant wavelengths due to the internal laser-induced dipole force, and the production ratio of C and C2 rapidly grows with increasing wavelength. By such fragmentation law, C atoms, C2 dimers or large Cn fragments could be selectively obtained by changing the laser wavelength. And the fragmentation of C60 by two laser pulses like the multi-step atomic photoionization was investigated.

  2. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  3. Beacon Training in a Water Maze Can Facilitate and Compete With Subsequent Room Cue Learning in Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Beacon Training in a Water Maze Can Facilitate and Compete With Subsequent Room Cue Learning experiments in which rats completed a water-maze blocking procedure, experimental groups were trained to use location. A Room Test (landmarks and background cues only) showed that Stage 1 training with a fixed

  4. A case study of a Greenland lee cyclogenesis event and the subsequent spawning of a tip jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickart, Robert S.

    A case study of a Greenland lee cyclogenesis event and the subsequent spawning of a tip jet Carling: With elevations exceeding 2000m in height, Greenland's southern tip acts as a large barrier to storm systems traversing the North Atlantic. As a result of the interaction with Greenland, low-pressure systems located

  5. Investigation of the reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f): Fragment spins and phenomenological analysis of the angular anisotropy of fission fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusanov, A. Ya. [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: rusanov@inp.kz; Adeev, G. D. [Omsk State University (Russian Federation); Itkis, M. G.; Karpov, A. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Nadtochy, P. N. [Omsk State University (Russian Federation); Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Chubarian, G. G. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The average multiplicity of gamma rays emitted by fragments originating from the fission of {sup 226}Th nuclei formed via a complete fusion of {sup 18}O and {sup 208}Pb nuclei at laboratory energies of {sup 18}O projectile ions in the range E{sub lab} = 78-198.5 MeV is measured and analyzed. The total spins of fission fragments are found and used in an empirical analysis of the energy dependence of the anisotropy of these fragments under the assumption that their angular distributions are formed in the vicinity of the scission point. The average temperature of compound nuclei at the scission point and their average angular momenta in the entrance channel are found for this analysis. Also, the moments of inertia are calculated for this purpose for the chain of fissile thorium nuclei at the scission point. All of these parameters are determined at the scission point by means of three-dimensional dynamical calculations based on Langevin equations. A strong alignment of fragment spins is assumed in analyzing the anisotropy in question. In that case, the energy dependence of the anisotropy of fission fragments is faithfully reproduced at energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier (E{sub c.m.} - E{sub B} {>=} 30 MeV). It is assumed that, as the excitation energy and the angular momentum of a fissile nucleus are increased, the region where the angular distributions of fragments are formed is gradually shifted from the region of nuclear deformations in the vicinity of the saddle point to the region of nuclear deformations in the vicinity of the scission point, the total angular momentum of the nucleus undergoing fission being split into the orbital component, which is responsible for the anisotropy of fragments, and the spin component. This conclusion can be qualitatively explained on the basis of linear-response theory.

  6. Analysis of fragment yield ratios in the nuclear phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Tripathi; A. Bonasera; S. Wuenschel; L. W. May; Z. Kohley; G. A. Souliotis; S. Galanopoulos; K. Hagel; D. V. Shetty; K. Huseman; S. N. Soisson; B. C. Stein; S. J. Yennello

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The critical phenomena of the liquid-gas phase transition has been investigated in the reactions 78,86Kr+58,64Ni at beam energy of 35 MeV/nucleon using the Landau free energy approach with isospin asymmetry as an order parameter. Fits to the free energy of fragments showed three minima suggesting the system to be in the regime of a first order phase transition. The relation m =-{\\partial}F/{\\partial}H, which defines the order parameter and its conjugate field H, has been experimentally verified from the linear dependence of the mirror nuclei yield ratio data, on the isospin asymmetry of the source. The slope parameter, which is a measure of the distance from a critical temperature, showed a systematic decrease with increasing excitation energy of the source. Within the framework of the Landau free energy approach, isoscaling provided similar results as obtained from the analysis of mirror nuclei yield ratio data. We show that the external field is primarily related to the minimum of the free energy, which implies a modification of the source concentration \\Delta used in isospin studies.

  7. On the deceleration of cometary fragments in aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. G. Coulson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Determining the thermal history of the cometary grains captured by the Stardust mission presents a difficult problem. We consider two simplified models for the deceleration of hypervelocity particles captured in aerogel; both models assume a velocity squared drag force. The first model assumes that the mass of the particle remains constant during capture and the second that mass is lost due to ablation of the particle through interactions with the aerogel. It is found that the constant mass model adequately reproduces the track lengths, found from experiments by Ho¨rz et al. in 2008, that impacted aluminium oxide spheres into aerogel at hypervelocities y6 kmsx1. Deceleration in aerogel heats volatile particles such as organic ices to high temperatures greater than 1,000 K, for durations of y1 ms: more than sufficient to completely ablate the particle. Refractory particles also experience significant heating greater than 2500 K, greater than the particle’s melting point, over similar timescales. This suggests that the fragments recovered to Earth by the Stardust mission were considerably altered by hypersonic capture by aerogel, and so limits the amount of information that can be obtained regarding the formation of mineral and organic particles within Kuiper Belt comets.

  8. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, T; Norman, M L; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of theintergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to beintimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. Inparticular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMFare of special interest. We present results from high resolutionthree--dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow thecollapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentationwithin a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpcdown to 1 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics andall relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followedself-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model.Primordial molecular clouds with ~10^5 solar masses are assembled by mergers ofmultiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with afractional abundance of ~10^-4. As the subclumps merge cooling ...

  9. The spark counting of etched fission-fragment tracks in polycarbonate for a personal neutron dosimetry system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, K G; Holt, P D; Wylie, J W

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spark counting of etched fission-fragment tracks in polycarbonate for a personal neutron dosimetry system

  10. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results J. Cotrell, T. Stehly, J. Johnson, J. O. Roberts, Z....

  11. ccsd-00000995(version1):5Jan2004 The genealogy of self-similar fragmentations with negative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00000995(version1):5Jan2004 The genealogy of self-similar fragmentations with negative index power, called the index of the self-similar fragmentation. A genealogy is naturally associated of the fragments, one guesses that there should be a natural way to define a genealogy tree, rooted at the initial

  12. Extrapolation of neutron-rich isotope cross-sections from projectile fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mocko; M. B. Tsang; Z. Y. Sun; L. Andronenko; M. Andronenko; F. Delaunay; M. Famiano; W. A. Friedman; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; H. Hui; X. D. Liu; S. Lukyanov; W. G. Lynch; A. M. Rogers; M. S. Wallace

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the measured fragmentation cross sections produced from the 48Ca and 64Ni beams at 140 MeV per nucleon on 9Be and 181Ta targets, we find that the cross sections of unmeasured neutron rich nuclei can be extrapolated using a systematic trend involving the average binding energy. The extrapolated cross-sections will be very useful in planning experiments with neutron rich isotopes produced from projectile fragmentation. The proposed method is general and could be applied to other fragmentation systems including those used in other radioactive ion beam facilities.

  13. Modeling experiments that simulate fragment attacks on cased munitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roberts and Field (1993) have conducted experiments to observe the behavior of a cased high explosive (HE) charge subject to fragment attack at impact velocities below those needed for shock initiation. Two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations have been done to model these experiments. Questions about the degree of confinement of the HE and about the condition of the HE during the impact were addressed. The calculations indicate that the HE was not strongly confined in this experiment, primarily due to the lateral expansion of polycarbonate blocks on the sides of the target during the impact. HE was not ejected from the hole in the casing made by the projectile up to 30 {micro}s after the impact. There are hints from these calculations of how initiation of a homogeneous sample of HE might occur in the experiment. The first involves the reshock of a small amount of HE at {approximately} 20 {micro}s as a result of the impact of the sabot on the target. The second involves the heating of the HE from plastic work during the impact. The maximum temperature rise of the HE (exclusive of the small region that was reshocked) was {approximately} 80 k. However, this is the average temperature of a region the size of a computational cell, and phenomena such as shear bands or cracks could result in higher temperatures on a smaller scale than the cell size. The third involves heating of the HE from contact with the casing material. The maximum temperature rise of the casing material from plastic work is {approximately} 870 k. This temperature occurs at the edge of a plug of casing material sheared off by the projectile. Other parts of the casing are shock heated to higher energies but may not contact the HE.

  14. Characterization of a Stochastic Procedure for the Generation and Transport of Fission Fragments within Nuclear Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hackemack, Michael Wayne

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , for generating individual fission event result channels and analyzing their specific response in the fuel. We utilized the nuclear reaction simulation tool, TALYS, to generate energy-dependent fission fragment yield distributions for different fissile/fissionable...

  15. TWO-STAGE FRAGMENTATION FOR CLUSTER FORMATION: ANALYTICAL MODEL AND OBSERVATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu, E-mail: nwityk@uwo.ca, E-mail: basu@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear analysis of the formation of protostellar cores in planar magnetic interstellar clouds shows that molecular clouds exhibit a preferred length scale for collapse that depends on the mass-to-flux ratio and neutral-ion collision time within the cloud. We extend this linear analysis to the context of clustered star formation. By combining the results of the linear analysis with a realistic ionization profile for the cloud, we find that a molecular cloud may evolve through two fragmentation events in the evolution toward the formation of stars. Our model suggests that the initial fragmentation into clumps occurs for a transcritical cloud on parsec scales while the second fragmentation can occur for transcritical and supercritical cores on subparsec scales. Comparison of our results with several star-forming regions (Perseus, Taurus, Pipe Nebula) shows support for a two-stage fragmentation model.

  16. Size matters: Origin of binomial scaling in nuclear fragmentation experiments Wolfgang Bauer and Scott Pratt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    ­16 , in particular if one wants to understand why particular molecular dynamics codes produce fragments conducted at the GSI, a measurement of the tem- perature as a function of excitation energy found possible

  17. Bounded-Variable Fragments of Hybrid Logics Thomas Schwentick and Volker Weber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwentick, Thomas

    Bounded-Variable Fragments of Hybrid Logics Thomas Schwentick and Volker Weber Fachbereich Informatik, Universit¨at Dortmund, Germany {thomas.schwentick,volker.weber}@udo.edu Abstract. Hybrid logics

  18. The Use of Fragment-Based Lead Discovery Towards the Design and Development of Metalloenzyme Inhibitors /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sardo, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 1. B. 1 Fragment Based Lead Discovery A Strategy for5 1. B. 3. Hit to Leadenzyme’s metal ion cofactor may lead to advancements in 5-LO

  19. Orientation and alignment effects in ion-induced fragmentation of water: A triple coincidence study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajput, Jyoti, E-mail: jyotirajput2803@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Safvan, C. P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy is employed to determine the complete momentum vectors for three fragment dissociation channels, [D{sub 2}O]{sup (q+2)} ? (D{sup +} + D{sup +} + O{sup q+}) with q = 1, 2, or 3 formed in collisions of isolated water molecules with 450 keV Xe{sup 9+} ions. The kinetic energy released in each of these dissociation channels is measured and angular correlations between the fragment momenta are determined. From the angular correlations of the three fragment ions with the direction of the incoming beam, a strong anisotropy in the emission of recoil fragments is reported. It is inferred that the molecular plane prefers to lie orthogonal to the incoming beam direction with certain orientations being more preferred than others and a clear signature of non-coplanar dissociation is also observed.

  20. Jet fragmentation in STAR going from p+p to Au+Au

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Bruna; for the STAR Collaboration

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Jet fragmentation functions provide insight into jet structure and are expected to be modified by the nuclear medium in A+A collisions with respect to p+p reference measurements. If jet reconstruction is unbiased then a softening of the fragmentation functions is expected and should be observed in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. In these proceedings we present measurements of fragmentation functions in p+p for charged particles for different jet finding algorithms; these measurements are understood and therefore can be used as a reference for comparison with Au+Au results. We report the effect of background and its fluctuations on jet reconstruction in Au+Au collisions, estimated by using the jet algorithms on simulated Pythia jets embedded in real Au+Au events. Finally, measurements of fragmentation functions for jets reconstructed in Au+Au events and their comparison to the p+p baseline are presented and discussed.

  1. Femtosecond spectroscopy probes the folding quality of antibody fragments expressed as GFP fusions in the cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didier, P. [Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR 7175, 74, route du Rhin, 67412 Illkirch (France); Weiss, E.; Sibler, A.-P. [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, UMR 7175, Boulevard Sebastien Brant, F-67412 Illkirch (France); Philibert, P.; Martineau, P. [Centre de recherche en cancerologie de Montpellier, UMR 5160, Val d'Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Bigot, J.-Y. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Guidoni, L. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Batiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)], E-mail: luca.guidoni@univ-paris-diderot.fr

    2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-resolved femtosecond spectroscopy can improve the application of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) as protein-folding reporters. The study of ultrafast excited-state dynamics (ESD) of GFP fused to single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody fragments, allowed us to define and measure an empirical parameter that only depends on the folding quality (FQ) of the fusion. This method has been applied to the analysis of genetic fusions expressed in the bacterial cytoplasm and allowed us to distinguish folded and thus functional antibody fragments (high FQ) with respect to misfolded antibody fragments. Moreover, these findings were strongly correlated to the behavior of the same scFvs expressed in animal cells. This method is based on the sensitivity of the ESD to the modifications in the tertiary structure of the GFP induced by the aggregation state of the fusion partner. This approach may be applicable to the study of the FQ of polypeptides over-expressed under reducing conditions.

  2. Probing the druggability of the Notch1 ankyrin domain using a fragment-based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Rahman, Noha

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    .12 Examples of protein-protein inhibitors………………………………………….13 1.13 Fragment-based approach…………………………………………………………15 1.14 Properties of protein-protein inhibitors…………………………………………17 1.15 Targeting protein-protein interfaces using fragment... by PICCOLO between the ankyrin domain (maroon) with MAML (light blue) from the complex crystal structure (PDB 2F8Y). Ionic interactions are depicted in dashed red lines, hydrogen-bond interactions in cyan, pi-cation in magenta and hydrophobic interactions...

  3. Test of the Universality of Naive-time-reversal-odd Fragmentation Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer; Zhong-Bo Kang; Werner Vogelsang; Feng Yuan

    2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the ''spontaneous'' hyperon transverse polarization in $e^+e^-$ annihilation and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes as a test of the universality of the naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. We find that universality implies definite sign relations among various observables. This provides a unique opportunity to study initial/final state interaction effects in the fragmentation process and test the associated factorization.

  4. Fission Fragment Distributions and Delayed Neutron Yields from Photon-Induced-Fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, J.-C.; Dore, D.; Giacri-Mauborgne, M.-L.; Ridikas, D.; Lauwe, A. van [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Fission fragment distributions and delayed neutron yields for 235U and 238U are provided by a complete modelization of the photofission process below 25 MeV. The absorption cross-section parameterization and the fission fragment distributions are given and compared to experimental data. The delayed neutron yields and the half-lives in terms of six groups are presented and compared to data obtained with a bremsstrahlung spectrum of 15 MeV.

  5. Properties of the largest fragment in multifragmentation: a canonical thermodynamic calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Chaudhuri; S. Das Gupta

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Many calculations for the production of light and intermediate particles resulting from heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies exist. Calculations of properties of the largest fragment resulting from multifragmentation are rare. In this paper we compute these properties and compare them with the data for the case of gold on carbon. We use the canonical thermodynamic model. The model also gives a bimodal distribution for the largest fragment in a narrow energy range.

  6. Two source emission behavior of projectile fragments alpha in 84^Kr interactions at around 1 GeV per nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. K. Singh; Ramji Pathak; V. Singh

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission of projectile fragments alpha has been studied in 84^Kr interactions with nuclei of the nuclear emulsion detector composition at relativistic energy below 2 GeV per nucleon. The angular distribution of projectile fragments alpha in terms of transverse momentum could not be explained by a straight and clean-cut collision geometry hypothesis of Participant - Spectator (PS) Model. Therefore, it is assumed that projectile fragments alpha were produced from two separate sources that belong to the projectile spectator region differing drastically in their temperatures. It has been clearly observed that the emission of projectile fragments alpha are from two different sources. The contribution of projectile fragments alpha from contact layer or hot source is a few percent of the total emission of projectile fragments alphas. Most of the projectile fragments alphas are emitted from the cold source.

  7. Two source emission behaviour of alpha fragments of projectile having energy around 1 GeV per nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Singh; M. K. Singh; Ramji Pathak

    2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission of projectile fragments alpha has been studied in ^{84}Kr interactions with nuclei of the nuclear emulsion detector composition at relativistic energy below 2 GeV per nucleon. The angular distribution of projectile fragments alpha in terms of transverse momentum could not be explained by a straight and clean-cut collision geometry hypothesis of Participant - Spectator (PS) Model. Therefore, it is assumed that projectile fragments alpha were produced from two separate sources that belong to the projectile spectator region differing drastically in their temperatures. It has been clearly observed that the emission of projectile fragments alpha are from two different sources. The contribution of projectile fragments alpha from contact layer or hot source is a few percent of the total emission of projectile fragments alphas. Most of the projectile fragments alphas are emitted from the cold source. It has been noticed that the temperature of hot and cold regions are dependent on the projectile mass number.

  8. Reconstructed primary fragments and symmetry energy, temperature and density of the fragmenting source in $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Liu; W. Lin; R. Wada; M. Huang; S. Zhang; P. Ren; Z. Chen; J. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; R. Han; J. Liu; F. Shi; M. R. D. Rodrigues; S. Kowalski; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; M. Barbui; H. Zheng; A. Bonasera; J. B. Natowitz

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Symmetry energy, temperature and density at the time of the intermediate mass fragment formation are determined in a self-consistent manner, using the experimentally reconstructed primary hot isotope yields and anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The yields of primary hot fragments are experimentally reconstructed for multifragmentation events in the reaction system $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon. Using the reconstructed hot isotope yields and an improved method, based on the modified Fisher model, symmetry energy values relative to the apparent temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted. The extracted values are compared with those of the AMD simulations, extracted in the same way as that for the experiment, with the Gogny interaction with three different density-dependent symmetry energy terms. $a_{sym}/T$ values change according to the density-dependent symmetry energy terms used. Using this relation, the density of the fragmenting system is extracted first. Then symmetry energy and apparent temperature are determined in a self consistent manner in the AMD model simulations. Comparing the calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values and those of the experimental values from the reconstructed yields, $\\rho /\\rho_{0} = 0.65 \\pm 0.02 $, $a_{sym} = 23.1 \\pm 0.6$ MeV and $T= 5.0 \\pm 0.4$ MeV are evaluated for the fragmenting system experimentally observed in the reaction studied.

  9. Maerz, N. H., and Palangio, T. C. WipFrag System II -Online fragmentation analysis. FRAGBLAST 6, Sixth International Symposium For Rock Fragmentation By Blasting, Johannesburg, South Africa,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    , Sixth International Symposium For Rock Fragmentation By Blasting, Johannesburg, South Africa, Aug. 8 Professor, Rock Mechanics and Explosives Research Center, University of Missouri-Rolla, MO, USA, (573) 341 . By far the most significant source of error is sampling, whether the source is a result of: 1. Poor

  10. Previous miscarriage and the subsequent risk of preterm birth in Scotland, 1980–2008: a historical cohort study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver-Williams, C.; Fleming, M.; Wood, A. M.; Smith, G. C. S.

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    /253936: ‘Treatment of preterm neo- nates’) for a novel treatment for preterm infants currently entering national phase in the USA, Canada, EU, Japan, Australia, and China pending. Contribution to authorship GS formed the hypothesis. MF obtained the data. CO per... , Morriss FH. Abortion and the risk of subsequent preterm birth: a systematic review with meta-analyses. J Reprod Med [Internet] 2009;54:95–108 [www .ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19301572]. Accessed 14 November 2013. 3 World Health Organisation. Born Too Soon...

  11. Pesticide Properties that Affect Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Douglas; Baumann, Paul A.; Jackman, John A.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to keep our water supplies safe from pesticide contamination, we must understand which pesticide properties affect water quality, and how. The subject is complex, as properties such as pesticide class, formulation, toxicity, dose, effective...

  12. Pesticide Properties that Affect Water Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Douglas; Baumann, Paul A.; Jackman, John A.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to keep our water supplies safe from pesticide contamination, we must understand which pesticide properties affect water quality, and how. The subject is complex, as properties such as pesticide class, formulation, toxicity, dose, effective...

  13. affects glut4 expression: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    terms: Design, Human Factors. Keywords: Haptic interface, affective touch, human-robot interaction, physiological sensing. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Affective touch...

  14. affect cd1 expression: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    terms: Design, Human Factors. Keywords: Haptic interface, affective touch, human-robot interaction, physiological sensing. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Affective touch...

  15. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  16. Lindstr\\"om theorems for fragments of first-order logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Benthem, Johan; Väänänen, Jouko

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lindstr\\"om theorems characterize logics in terms of model-theoretic conditions such as Compactness and the L\\"owenheim-Skolem property. Most existing characterizations of this kind concern extensions of first-order logic. But on the other hand, many logics relevant to computer science are fragments or extensions of fragments of first-order logic, e.g., k-variable logics and various modal logics. Finding Lindstr\\"om theorems for these languages can be challenging, as most known techniques rely on coding arguments that seem to require the full expressive power of first-order logic. In this paper, we provide Lindstr\\"om theorems for several fragments of first-order logic, including the k-variable fragments for k>2, Tarski's relation algebra, graded modal logic, and the binary guarded fragment. We use two different proof techniques. One is a modification of the original Lindstr\\"om proof. The other involves the modal concepts of bisimulation, tree unraveling, and finite depth. Our results also imply semantic pre...

  17. Heavy Residue Isoscaling as a Probe of the Symmetry Energy of Hot Fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. Souliotis; D. V. Shetty; A. Keksis; E. Bell; M. Jandel; M. Veselsky; S. J. Yennello

    2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The isoscaling properties of isotopically resolved projectile residues from peripheral collisions of 86Kr (25 MeV/nucleon), 64Ni (25 MeV/nucleon) and 136Xe (20 MeV/nucleon) beams on various target pairs are employed to probe the symmetry energy coefficient of the nuclear binding energy. The present study focuses on heavy projectile fragments produced in peripheral and semiperipheral collisions near the onset of multifragment emission E*/A = 2-3 MeV). For these fragments, the measured average velocities are used to extract excitation energies. The excitation energies, in turn, are used to estimate the temperatures of the fragmenting quasiprojectiles in the framework the Fermi gas model. The isoscaling analysis of the fragment yields provided the isoscaling parameters "alpha" which, in combination with temperatures and isospin asymmetries provided the symmetry energy coefficient of the nuclear binding energy of the hot fragmenting quasiprojectiles. The extracted values of the symmetry energy coefficient at this excitation energy range (2-3 MeV/nucleon) are lower than the typical liquid-drop model value ~25 MeV corresponding to ground-state nuclei and show a monotonic decrease with increasing excitation energy. This result is of importance in the formation of hot nuclei in heavy-ion reactions and in hot stellar environments such as supernova.

  18. The effect of rock fragments on the hydraulic properties of soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many soils contain rock fragments the sizes of which are much larger than the average pore size of the sieved soil. Due to the fact that these fragments are often fairly large in relation to the soil testing apparatus, it is common to remove them before performing hydrologic tests on the soil. The question then arises as to whether or not there is a simple way to correct the laboratory-measured values to account for the fragments, so as to arrive at property values that can apply to the soil in situ. This question has arisen in the surface infiltration studies that are part of the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain, where accurate values of the hydraulic conductivities of near-surface soils are needed in order to accurately estimate infiltration rates. Although this problem has been recognized for some time, and numerous review articles have been written there are as yet no proven models to account for the effect of rock fragments on hydraulic conductivity and water retention. In this report we will develop some simple physically-based models to account for the effects of rock fragments on gross hydrological properties, and apply the resulting equations to experimental data taken from the literature. These models are intended for application to data that is currently being collected by scientists from the USGS on near-surface soils from Yucca Mountain.

  19. Hydro-gravitational fragmentation, diffusion and condensation of the primordial plasma, dark-matter and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl H. Gibson

    2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first structures were proto-voids formed in the primordial plasma. Viscous and weak turbulence forces balanced gravitational forces when the scale of causal connection at time 30,000 years matched the viscous and turbulent Schwarz scales of hydro-gravitational theory (Gibson 1996). The photon viscosity allows only weak turbulence from the Reynolds number Re = 200, with fragmentation to give proto-supercluster voids, buoyancy forces, fossil vorticity turbulence, and strong sonic damping. The expanding, cooling, plasma continued fragmentation to proto-galaxy-mass with the density and rate-of-strain preserved as fossils of the weak turbulence and first structure. Turbulence fossilization by self-gravitational buoyancy explains the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations, not sonic oscillations in cold-dark-matter fragments. After plasma to gas transition at 300,000 years, gas fragmentation occurred within the proto-galaxies to form proto-globular-star-cluster (PGCs) clouds of small-planetary-mass primordial-fog-particles (PFPs). Dark PGC clumps of frozen PFPs persist as the inner-galaxy-halo dark matter, supporting Schild's 1996 quasar-microlensing interpretation. Non-baryonic dark matter diffused into the plasma proto-cluster-voids and later fragmented as outer-galaxy-halos at diffusive Schwarz scales, indicating light, weakly-collisional fluid particles (possibly neutrinos). Observations support the theory (Gibson and Schild 2003).

  20. Differences in Electrostatic Potential Around DNA Fragments Containing Guanine and 8-oxo-Guanine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hanges of electrostatic potential (EP) around the DNA molecule resulting from chemical modifications of nucleotides may play a role in enzymatic recognition of damaged sites. Effects of chemical modifications of nucleotides on the structure of DNA have been characterized through large scale density functional theory computations. Quantum mechanical structural optimizations of DNA fragments with three pairs of nucleotoides and accompanying counteractions were performed with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and 6-31G** basis sets. The “intact” DNA fragment contained guanine in the middle layer, while the “damaged” fragment had the guanine replaced with 8-oxo-guanine. The electrostatic potential around these DNA fragments was projected on a surface around the double helix. The 2D maps of EP of intact and damaged DNA fragments were analyzed to identify these modifications of EP that result from the occurrence of 8-oxo-guanine. It was found that distortions of the phosphate groups and displacements of the accompanying countercations are clearly reflected in the EP maps.

  1. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  2. The fragmentation of expanding shells I: Limitations of the thin--shell approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, James E; Whitworth, Anthony; Palous, Jan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the gravitational fragmentation of expanding shells in the context of the linear thin--shell analysis. We make use of two very different numerical schemes; the FLASH Adaptive Mesh Refinement code and a version of the Benz Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. We find that the agreement between the two codes is excellent. We use our numerical results to test the thin--shell approximation and we find that the external pressure applied to the shell has a strong effect on the fragmentation process. In cases where shells are not pressure--confined, the shells thicken as they expand and hydrodynamic flows perpendicular to the plane of the shell suppress fragmentation at short wavelengths. If the shells are pressure--confined internally and externally, so that their thickness remains approximately constant during their expansion, the agreement with the analytical solution is better.

  3. Production of cold fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the Fermi-energy domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Veselsky; G. A. Souliotis

    2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions at projectile energies around the Fermi energy is investigated with emphasis on the production of fragmentation-like residues. The results of simulations are compared to experimental mass distributions of elements with Z = 21 - 29 observed in the reactions 86Kr+124,112Sn at 25 AMeV. The model of incomplete fusion is modified and a component of excitation energy of the cold fragment dependent on isospin asymmetry is introduced. The modifications in the model of incomplete fusion appear consistent with both overall model framework and available experimental data. A prediction is provided for the production of very neutron-rich nuclei using a secondary beam of 132Sn where e.g. the reaction 132Sn+238U at 28 AMeV appears as a possible alternative to the use of fragmentation reactions at higher energies.

  4. Complex particle and light fragment emission in the cascade-excitation model of nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Sierk, A. J. (Arnold J.); Gudima, K. K. (Konstantin K.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief description of our improvements and refinements that led from the CEM95 version of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) code to CEM97 and to CEM2k is given. The increased accuracy and predictive power of the code CEM2k are shown by several examples. To describe fission and light-fragment (heavier than {sup 4}He) production, the CEM2k code has been merged with the GEM2 code of Furihata. We present some results on proton-induced fragmentation and fission reactios predicted by this extended version of CEM2k. We show that merging CEM2k with GEM2 allows us to describe many fission and fragmentation reactions in addition to the spallation reactions which are already relatively well described.

  5. Production of cold fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the Fermi-energy domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veselsky, M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions at projectile energies around the Fermi energy is investigated with emphasis on the production of fragmentation-like residues. The results of simulations are compared to experimental mass distributions of elements with Z = 21 - 29 observed in the reactions 86Kr+124,112Sn at 25 AMeV. The model of incomplete fusion is modified and a component of excitation energy of the cold fragment dependent on isospin asymmetry is introduced. The modifications in the model of incomplete fusion appear consistent with both overall model framework and available experimental data. A prediction is provided for the production of very neutron-rich nuclei using a secondary beam of 132Sn where e.g. the reaction 132Sn+238U at 28 AMeV appears as a possible alternative to the use of fragmentation reactions at higher energies.

  6. Limits of complete equilibration of fragments produced in central Au on Au collisions at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Neubert; A. S. Botvina

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data related to fragment production in central Au on Au collisions were analyzed in the framework of a modified statistical model which considers cluster production both prior and at the equilibrated stage. The analysis provides limits to the number of nucleons and to the temperature of the equilibrated source. The rather moderate temperatures obtained from experimental double-yield ratios of d,t,3He and 4He are in agreement with the model calculations. A phenomenological relation was established between the collective flow and the chemical temperature in these reactions. It was shown that dynamical mechanisms of fragment production, e.g. coalescence, dominate at high energies. It is demonstrated that coalescence may be consistent with chemical equilibrium between the produced fragments. The different meaning of chemical and kinetic temperatures is discussed.

  7. THE BURST MODE OF ACCRETION AND DISK FRAGMENTATION IN THE EARLY EMBEDDED STAGES OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada); Basu, Shantanu, E-mail: vorobyov@ap.smu.c, E-mail: basu@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit our original papers on the burst mode of accretion by incorporating a detailed energy balance equation into a thin-disk model for the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks around low-mass protostars. Our model includes the effect of radiative cooling, viscous and shock heating, and heating due to stellar and background irradiation. Following the collapse from the prestellar phase allows us to model the early embedded phase of disk formation and evolution. During this time, the disk is susceptible to fragmentation, depending upon the properties of the initial prestellar core. Globally, we find that higher initial core angular momentum and mass content favors more fragmentation, but higher levels of background radiation can moderate the tendency to fragment. A higher rate of mass infall onto the disk than that onto the star is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for disk fragmentation. More locally, both the Toomre Q-parameter needs to be below a critical value and the local cooling time needs to be shorter than a few times the local dynamical time. Fragments that form during the early embedded phase tend to be driven into the inner disk regions and likely trigger mass accretion and luminosity bursts that are similar in magnitude to FU-Orionis-type or EX-Lupi-like events. Disk accretion is shown to be an intrinsically variable process, thanks to disk fragmentation, nonaxisymmetric structure, and the effect of gravitational torques. The additional effect of a generic {alpha}-type viscosity acts to reduce burst frequency and accretion variability, and is likely to not be viable for values of {alpha} significantly greater than 0.01.

  8. Even-odd effects and Coulomb effects on minimal excitation energy of fragments from low energy fission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modesto Montoya

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is focused on even-odd effects on the minimal total fragment excitation energy in thermal neutron induced fission of 233U and 235U as well as in spontaneous fission of 252Cf. In a scission model, taking into account the fragment deformation properties and Coulomb interaction between fragments, the expression of the difference between Q-values referred to even/even and odd/odd charge splits, respectively, on the corresponding difference between the minimal total fragment excitation energy is studied.

  9. The Carina Flare: What can fragments in the wall tell us?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Richard; Sidorin, Vojtech; Ehlerova, Sona; Palous, Jan; Dale, James; Dawson, Joanne R; Fukui, Yasuo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $^{13}$CO(J=2--1) and C$^{18}$O(J=2--1) observations of the molecular cloud G285.90+4.53 (Cloud~16) in the Carina Flare supershell (GSH287+04-17) with the APEX telescope are presented. With an algorithm DENDROFIND we identify 51 fragments and compute their sizes and masses. We discuss their mass spectrum and interpret it as being the result of the shell fragmentation process described by the pressure assisted gravitational instability - PAGI. We conclude that the explanation of the clump mass function needs a combination of gravity with pressure external to the shell.

  10. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Facolta di Ingegneria ed Architettura, Universita' 'Kore'' di Enna, Enna (Italy); Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina and INFN-Gruppo Collegato, Messina (Italy); Berceanu, I. [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  11. Time-Resolved Imaging and Manipulation of H{sub 2} Fragmentation in Intense Laser Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ergler, Th.; Rudenko, A.; Feuerstein, B.; Zrost, K.; Schroeter, C.D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the experimental realization of time-resolved coincident Coulomb explosion imaging of H{sub 2} fragmentation in 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} laser fields. Combining a high-resolution 'reaction microscope' and a fs pump-probe setup, we map the motion of wave packets dissociating via one- or two-photon channels, respectively, and observe a new region of enhanced ionization. The long-term interferometric stability of our system allows us to extend pump-probe experiments into the region of overlapping pulses, which offers new possibilities for the manipulation of ultrafast molecular fragmentation dynamics.

  12. Interplay between compound and fragments aspects of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwamoto, A [JAPAN; Ichikawa, I [JAPAN

    2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The scission point in nuclear fission plays a special role where one-body system changes to two-body system. Inverse of this situation is realized in heavy-ion fusion reaction where two-body system changes to one body system. Among several peculiar phenomena expected to occur during this change, we focus our attention to the behavior of compound and fragments shell effects. Some aspects of the interplay between compound and fragments shell effect are discussed related to the topics of the fission valleys in the potential energy surface of actinide nuclei and the fusion-like trajectory found in the cold fusion reaction leading to superheavy nuclei.

  13. The Role of Phase Space in Complex Fragment Emission from Low to Intermediate Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. G. Moretto; R. Ghetti; K. X. Jing; L. Phair; K. Tso; G. J. Wozniak

    1996-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental emission probabilities of complex fragments by low energy compound nuclei and their dependence upon energy and atomic number are compared to the transition state rates. Intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for a variety of reactions at intermediate energies are shown to be binomial and thus reducible at all measured transverse energies. From these distributions a single binary event probability can be extracted which has a thermal dependence. A strong thermal signature is also found in the charge distributions. The n-fold charge distributions are reducible to the 1-fold charge distributions through a simple scaling dictated by fold number and charge conservation.

  14. Reexamination of fission fragment angular distributions and the fission process: Formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, P.D.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of fission fragment angular distributions is examined and the universally used expression is found to be valid only under restrictive assumptions. A more general angular distribution formula is derived and applied to recent data of high spin systems. At the same time it is shown that the strong anisotropies observed from such systems can be understood without changing the essential basis of standard fission theory. The effects of reaction mechanisms other than complete fusion on fission fragment angular distributions are discussed and possible angular distribution signatures of noncompound nucleus formation are mentioned.

  15. Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deen, Sophia 1988-

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the effect of changes in accident pattern due to Daylight Savings Time (DST). The extension of the DST in 2007 provides a natural experiment to determine whether the number of traffic accidents is affected by shifts in hours...

  16. Environmental Triggers that Affect Children's Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Triggers that Affect Children's Health A Clean Environment Can Lead to Better Health! An online course for child care providers and parents, presented by the Texas AgriLife Extension Service Children's Health Course developed by Janie L. Harris, M.Ed. Extension Housing and Environment Specialist

  17. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  18. LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 43 LOGO, LISTES ET AFFECTATIONS LOGO, LISTES ET AFFECTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    65 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 43 LOGO, LISTES ET AFFECTATIONS LOGO, LISTES ET AFFECTATIONS Danielle et listes en LOGO. MISE EN SITUATION SANS ORDINATEUR. 1. Décodage Situation matérielle De grandes. Exemple d'univers possibles : Course au Trésor, Tintin enquête... #12;67 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI LOGO, LISTES

  19. FragKB: Structural and Literature Annotation Resource of Conserved Peptide Fragments and Residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivalingam, Krishna M.

    and function, integrating biological descriptions derived from multiple existing resources and text mining PDB. Literature annotations are extracted from more than 1,700 articles and are available for over 12,000 fragments. The underlying systematic annotation workflow of FragKB ensures efficient update and maintenance

  20. Are global trade negotiations behind a fragmented world of "gated globalization"?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Are global trade negotiations behind a fragmented world of "gated globalization"? James Lake In a very simple three country model where global trade negotiations precede a sequential Free Trade. Even though sequential FTA for- mation may lead to global free trade if governments have not previously

  1. On the origin of high- spin states in nuclear fission fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Mouze; C. Ythier; S. Hachem

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the "nucleon-phase" model of binary fission, the transfer of nucleons between an A =126 {\\guillemotleft} nucleon core {\\guillemotright} and the primordial "cluster" can explain both the formation of high- spin states and the saw-tooth behavior of the variation, as a function of fragment mass, of the average angular momentum.

  2. Breathing coherent phonons and caps fragmentation in carbon nanotubes following ultrafast laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrica,Traian

    driven by ultrafast laser pulses.1­3 The necessary conditions for generating such coherent phonons are i is larger than the duration of currently available ultrafast pulses. ii Measurements4­7 determinedBreathing coherent phonons and caps fragmentation in carbon nanotubes following ultrafast laser

  3. CONVERGENCE OF A FINITE VOLUME SCHEME FOR COAGULATION-FRAGMENTATION EQUATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filbet, Francis

    by Cx the clusters of size x 1 #12;2 JEAN-PIERRE BOURGADE AND FRANCIS FILBET with x R+ = (0, ), the basic reactions taken into account herein are (1) Cx + Cx a(x, x ) - Cx+x , (binary coagulation) and (2) Cx b(x - x , x ) - Cx-x + Cx , (binary fragmentation), where a and b denote the coagulation

  4. Detailed characterization of jets in heavy ion collisions using jet fragmentation functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Frank Teng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis the jet fragmentation function of inclusive jets with transverse momentum PT > 100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions is measured for reconstructed charged particles with PT > 1 GeV/c within the jet cone. A data sample ...

  5. Modeling the age of tropical moist forest fragments in heavily-cleared lowland landscapes of Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queensland, University of

    of Colombia Andres Etter a,b,c,*, Clive McAlpine a,b , David Pullar b , Hugh Possingham a a The Ecology Centre-00, Bogota´, Colombia Received 31 August 2004; received in revised form 7 December 2004; accepted 7 December deforestation; Forest fragment age; Land use drivers; Colombia www.elsevier.com/locate/foreco Forest Ecology

  6. Creating Enriched YouTube Media Fragments With NERD Using Timed-Text

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartly, Graham

    Introduction New W3C standards such as HTML5, Media Fragment URI and the Ontology for Media Resources have their closed captions [4]. The captions are ana- lyzed by 3 web services (AlchemyAPI, OpenCalais and Zemanta) The system first extracts the metadata and the subtitles if available using the YouTube API: GET api

  7. Photoalignment of nematic liquid crystal on polyamic-acid-based soluble polyimide with no side fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    Photoalignment of nematic liquid crystal on polyamic-acid-based soluble polyimide with no side of newly synthesized UV-sensitive polyimide without side fragments is reported. The photoaligning polymer, are not worse than those of rubbed polyimides. At the same time, the new material possesses all the advantages

  8. Immunolocalization of an Amino-Terminal Fragment of Apolipoprotein E in the Pick's Disease Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this fragment was observed in PiD cases harboring the APOENPD Braak and Braak Plaque Stage F N/A PiD Stage 0 NoneM N/A PiD Stage 0 None F PiD Stage 0 None M PiD Stage 0 None

  9. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Encoding of Movement Fragments in the Motor Cortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amit, Yali

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Encoding of Movement Fragments in the Motor Cortex Nicholas G be elicited by electrical stimulation of the motor cortex. Most recording studies in the motor cortex, however, position, or force. Here, we show that single motor cortical neurons encode temporally evolving movement

  10. Estimates for temperature in projectile like fragment in geometric and transport models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallik, S; Chaudhuri, G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projectile like fragments emerging from heavy ion collision have an excitation energy which is often labeled by a temperature. This temperature was recently calculated using a geometric model. We expand the geometric model to include also dynamic effects using a transport model. The temperatures so deduced agree quite well with values of temperature needed to fit experimental data.

  11. Peatland fragments of southern Quebec: recent evolution of their vegetation structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    within an agricultural plain for more than 100 years may explain the afforestation process (drainage animaux. Est-ce que ces fragments sont de véritables refuges? Maintiennent-ils leurs caractéristiques'expliquer par l'isolement des tourbières au sein d'une plaine agricole depuis plus de 100 ans (drainage). De

  12. Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (<1 eV) Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy ( of Chemistry, UniVersity of Gdansk ul. Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland Received January 8, 2004; E-mail: simons@chemistry.utah.edu Abstract: Although electrons having enough energy to ionize or electronically

  13. Fragmentation and Dispersion of Reactive Metal Systems Amy Adams, University of Florida, IREP 2010 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    of this study. Each setup used Aluminum rings with dimensions of 30mm o.d by 22 mm i.d by 4 mm thickness the detonator holder at known heights, and a Perspex (PMMA) spacer between the Al ring and the explosive, and used an opaque acetal cap instead of a spacer, wax instead of sand for softcatching of fragments

  14. Sieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    ; accepted 18 June 2006 Abstract Measurement of the soil fragment size distribution has been found.g. wind and water erosion, infiltration and aeration) crop establishment and productivity (Skidmore et al is inversely related to the amount of applied energy, and does not necessarily reflect the size of aggregates

  15. Engineering antibody fragments for use in an assay to capture Escherichia coli O157:H7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanitpun, Reka

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fragment (scFv) molecules from hybridoma clones that produce immunoglobulins specific for the LPS and flagella antigen of E.coli O157:H7 using phage display technology. The soluble scFvs were characterized for specificity by ELISA, and by inhibition...

  16. Scale dependence in multitemporal mapping of forest fragmentation in Bolivia: implications for explaining temporal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale dependence in multitemporal mapping of forest fragmentation in Bolivia: implications, Bolivia Received 8 April 2002; accepted 21 October 2002 Abstract Landsat TM and ETM data were used building, agricultural colonisation and hydrocarbon exploration in Chapare (Bolivia) since the 1980s were

  17. Ambient Airborne Solids Concentrations Including Volcanic Ash at Hanford, Washington Sampling Sites Subsequent to the Mount St. Helens Eruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major eruption of Mount St. Helens occurred on May 18, 1980. Subsequently, airborne solid concentrations were measured as a function of time at two sites within the southern edge of the fallout plume about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. This ash was a source for investigating area-wide resuspension. Rain had a variable effect on decreasing airborne concentrations from resuspension. From 0.5 to 1.5 cm of rain were required to significantly reduce airborne solid concentrations through July. For a more aged resuspension source in September, a rain of 2.0 cm had a negligible effect. A monthly average threshold-wind speed for resuspension was defined as 3.6 m/s. For monthly-average wind speeds less than the threshold wind speed, monthly-average airborne concentrations tended to decrease with time. A decrease was recorded between September and October. For this 4-month time period, the half-life was on the order of 50 days, corresponding to a weathering rate of 5.1 year/sup -1/.

  18. Incidental Noticing and EFL Students’ Subsequent Second Language Learning in Synchronous Text-based Discussion: An Investigation of Both NES-NNES and NNES-NNES Dyads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kung, Wan-Tsai

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation investigated Taiwanese English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' incidental noticing and their subsequent language learning in relation to learner proficiency level and dyadic type in a text-based computer-mediated communication...

  19. Origin and significance of clay-coated fractures in mudrock fragments of the SAFOD borehole (Parkfield, California)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Origin and significance of clay-coated fractures in mudrock fragments of the SAFOD borehole Received 4 April 2006; revised 26 June 2006; accepted 12 July 2006; published 24 August 2006. [1] The clay. Warr (2006), Origin and significance of clay-coated fractures in mudrock fragments of the SAFOD

  20. I. Standard Configuration The Radio Frequency Fragment Separator (RFFS) is a filtering device intended to enhance the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to stop the ions in the last detector, so that gamma-rays emitted shortly after implantation canI. Standard Configuration A. General The Radio Frequency Fragment Separator (RFFS) is a filtering device intended to enhance the purity of radioactive beams produced via projectile fragmentation

  1. Factors affecting mother-child play

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Jennifer Colleen

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , factors that affect parents' ability to play with their children have not been widely addressed in the literature. As Webster-Stratton (1990) points out, little effort has been made to understand "the factors that influence parents' perceptions... support of competent parenting" (p. 215). Although there is not sufficient evidence to date to support this claim, it is clear that marital satisfaction and marital conflict should not be overlooked when researching parenting (e. g. , Brody, Pellegrini...

  2. Modelling of post-fragmentation waste stream processing within UK shredder facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, Gareth [Centre for Sustainable Manufacturing and Reuse/Recycling Technologies (SMART), Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: G.Coates@lboro.ac.uk; Rahimifard, Shahin [Centre for Sustainable Manufacturing and Reuse/Recycling Technologies (SMART), Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With the introduction of producer responsibility legislation within the UK (i.e., waste electrical and electronic equipment directive and end-of-life vehicles directive), specific recycling and recovery targets have been imposed to improve the sustainability of end-of-life products. With the introduction of these targets, and the increased investment in post-fragmentation facilities, automated material separation technologies are playing an integral role within the UK's end-of-life waste management strategy. Post-fragmentation facilities utilise a range of purification technologies that target certain material attributes (e.g., density, magnetism, volume) to isolate materials from the shredded waste stream. High ferrous prices have historically meant that UK facilities have been primarily interested in recovering iron and steel, establishing processing routes that are very effective at removing these material types, but as a consequence are extremely rigid and inflexible. With the proliferation of more exotic materials within end-of-life products, combined with more stringent recycling targets, there is therefore a need to optimise the current waste reclamation processes to better realise effort-to-value returns. This paper provides a background as to the current post-fragmentation processing adopted within the UK, and describes the development of a post-fragmentation modelling approach, capable of simulating the value-added processing that a piece of automated separation equipment can have on a fragmented waste stream. These include the modelling of the inefficiencies of the technology, the effects of material entanglement on separation, determination of typical material sizing and an appreciation for compositional value. The implementation of this approach within a software decision-support system is described, before the limitations, calibration and further validation of the approach are discussed.

  3. Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials. Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials....

  4. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004...

  5. affect synaptic distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pulse arrival at low rates have Richardson, Magnus 3 Factors affecting wild turkey distribution and numbers Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: FACTORS AFFECTING...

  6. affecting critical factors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    social responsibility implementation: an emphasis on values 5 Factors affecting wild turkey distribution and numbers Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: FACTORS AFFECTING...

  7. EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I am requiring that...

  8. attribute affects perception: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    approaches demonstrates that plant attributes can affect Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: attributes can affect herbivores, natural enemies of herbivores,...

  9. Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy...

  10. Agents That Talk Back (Sometimes): Filter Programs for Affective Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bari, Università degli Studi di

    Agents That Talk Back (Sometimes): Filter Programs for Affective Communication Helmut Prendinger- action that supports basic features of affective conver- sation. As essential requirements for animated

  11. affects vegf distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application: n Enderton, Herbert B. 87 Gas Phase Processes Affecting Galactic Evolution Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: Gas processes affecting star formation are...

  12. affect colonization parameters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 'Tejada, M., A. 1. Borderfas, and F. Jimenez 3 Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape by Anton Bergant1 Engineering Websites Summary: Parameters Affecting...

  13. Study of jet fragmentation in p+p collisions at 200 GeV in the STAR experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Bruna; for the STAR Collaboration

    2009-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of jet fragmentation functions in p+p collisions at 200 GeV is of great interest because it provides a baseline to study jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions. It is expected that jet quenching in nuclear matter modifies the jet energy and multiplicity distributions, as well as the jet hadrochemical composition. Therefore, a systematic study of the fragmentation functions for charged hadrons and identified particles is a goal both in p+p and Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Studying fragmentation functions for identified particles is interesting in p+p by itself because it provides a test of NLO calculations at RHIC energies. We present a systematic comparison of jet energy spectra and fragment distributions using different jet-finding algorithms in p+p collisions in STAR. Fragmentation functions of charged and neutral strange particles are also reported for different jet energies.

  14. Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wootan, Charley V.; McNeely, John G.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs Texas Summary and Conclusions T THE TIME THE DATA for this study were collected A there were 178 livestock auctions operating in Texas; 140 were included in this analysis. They ranyed in size... from just over 5,000 animal units per year to alinost 350,000. It has been sl~own that opera- - tional efficiency, measured in terms of average cost per unit marketed, increases directly with firm size and that efficiency gains were most marked...

  15. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  16. Symmetry energy and the isoscaling properties of the fragments in multifragmentation of 40Ca+58Ni, 40Ar+58Ni, and 40Ar+58Fe reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglio, Jennifer Ann

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    . The isoscaling parameter, �± from the hot primary and cold secondary fragment yield distributions, was studied as a function of the excitation energy, isospin (neutronto- proton asymmetry), and fragment symmetry energy. Through changing the symmetry energy...

  17. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: jie.wang2@osumc.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)] [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Osei, Kwame [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)] [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} Primary proinsulin maturation disorder is inherent in Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells. {yields} A consequence is the inefficient conversion of proinsulin to insulin. {yields} Post-translational defects occur as well in the involved PC1/3 and PC2 convertases. {yields} Proinsulin maturation chaos results in defects in the following conversion process. {yields} A link of the proinsulin maturation disorder and hyperproinsulinemia is suggested. -- Abstract: Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia is an indicator of {beta}-cell dysfunction in diabetes and the basis underlying this abnormality remains obscure. Recently, we have found proinsulin is an aggregation-prone molecule inherent with a low relative folding rate and maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO) in normal {beta}-cells as a result of the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to environmental and genetic influences. Perturbation of PIHO produces a number of toxic consequences with known association to {beta}-cell failure in diabetes. To explore whether the perturbation of PIHO has a link to disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia, we investigated proinsulin conversion and the involved prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) in mouse Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells that preserve a primary PIHO disorder due to a mutation (C96Y) in the insulin 2 (Ins2) gene. Our metabolic-labeling studies found an increased ratio of proinsulin to insulin in the cellular or released proteins of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets. Histological, metabolic-labeling, and RT-PCR analyses revealed decreases of the PC1/3 and PC2 immunoreactivities in the {beta}-cells of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets in spite of no declines of these two convertases at the transcriptional and translational levels. Immunoblot analyses in cloned Ins2{sup +/Akita} {beta}-cells further confirmed the increased ratio of proinsulin to insulin despite the levels of PC1/3 and PC2 proteins were not reduced somehow. The findings demonstrate that the perturbation of PIHO results in defects in the subsequent conversion process of proinsulin and is a contributor to the occurrence of disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia in diabetes.

  18. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Warda; A. Zdeb

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov model with the effective Gogny D1S density-dependent interaction. The method has been applied for analysis of fission of Fm-256,258, Cf-252 and Hg-180 and compared with the experimental data.

  19. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warda, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov model with the effective Gogny D1S density-dependent interaction. The method has been applied for analysis of fission of Fm-256,258, Cf-252 and Hg-180 and compared with the experimental data.

  20. Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Young, C. III [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)] [Sunburst Recovery, Inc., Steamboat Springs, CO (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

  1. Corrosion/Fragmentation of Layered Composite Cathode and Related Capacity/Voltage Fading during Cycling Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Jie; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Pristine and cycled layered structure cathode of Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2 samples are characterized by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These analyses provide new insights on capacity/voltage fading mechanism of Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2. Sponge-like structure and fragment pieces were found on the surface of cathode after cycling. Mn2+ species and reduced Li content in the fragments caused significant capacity loss. These results also reveal the functional mechanism of surface coatings, e.g. AlF3, which can protect the electrode from etching by acidic species in the electrolyte, suppress cathode degradation and improve long-term cycling stability.

  2. MHD evolution of a fragment of a CME core in the outer solar corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Pagano; F. Reale; S. Orlando; G. Peres

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed hydrodynamic modeling explained several features of a fragment of the core of a Coronal Mass Ejection observed with SoHO/UVCS at 1.7 Ro on 12 December 1997, but some questions remained unsolved. We investigate the role of the magnetic fields in the thermal insulation and the expansion of an ejected fragment (cloud) traveling upwards in the outer corona. We perform MHD simulations including the effects of thermal conduction and radiative losses of a dense spherical or cylindrical cloud launched upwards in the outer corona, with various assumptions on the strength and topology of the ambient magnetic field; we also consider the case of a cylindrical cloud with an internal magnetic field component along its axis. We find that a weak ambient magnetic field (beta~20) with open topology provides both significant thermal insulation and large expansion. The cylindrical cloud expands more than the spherical one.

  3. Automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions with wide-angle acceptance for nuclear fragment detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukuda, T; Ishida, H; Kodama, K; Matsuo, T; Mikado, S; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Sudo, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear emulsion, a tracking detector with sub-micron position resolution, has played a successful role in the field of particle physics and the analysis speed has been substantially improved by the development of automated scanning systems. This paper describes a newly developed automated scanning system and its application to the analysis of nuclear fragments emitted almost isotropically in nuclear evaporation. This system is able to recognize tracks of nuclear fragments up to |tan{\\theta}|nuclear emulsion is the first trial. Furthermore the track recognition algorithm is performed by a powerful Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for the first time. This GPU has a sufficient computing power to process large area scanning data with a wide angular acceptance and enough flexibil...

  4. The response of self-graviting protostellar discs to slow reduction in cooling timescale: the fragmentation boundary revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Clarke; E. Harper-Clark; G. Lodato

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of previous studies of the fragmentation of self-gravitating protostellar discs have modeled radiative cooling with a cooling timescale (t_{cool}) parameterised as a simple multiple (beta_{cool}) of the local dynamical timescale. Such studies have delineated the `fragmentation boundary' in terms of a critical value of beta_{cool} (beta_{crit}), where the disc fragments if beta_{cool} < beta_{crit}. Such an approach however begs the question of how in reality a disc could ever be assembled with beta_{cool} < beta_{crit}. Here we adopt the more realistic approach of gradually reducing beta_{cool}, as might correspond to changes in thermal regime due to secular changes in the disc density profile. We find that when beta_{cool} is gradually reduced (on a timescale longer than t_{cool}), the disc is stabilised against fragmentation, compared with models in which beta_{cool} is reduced rapidly. We therefore conclude that a disc's ability to remain in a self-regulated, self-gravitating state (without fragmentation) is partly dependent on its thermal history, as well as its current cooling rate. Nevertheless, a slow reduction in t_{cool} appears only to lower the fragmentation boundary by about a factor two in t_{cool} and thus only permits maximum alpha values (parameterising the efficiency of angular momentum transfer in the disc) that are about a factor two higher than determined hitherto. Our results therefore do not undermine the notion of a fundamental upper limit to the heating rate that can be delivered by gravitational instabilities before the disc is subject to fragmentation. An important implication of this work, therefore, is that self-gravitating discs can enter into the regime of fragmentation via secular evolution and it is not necessary to invoke rapid (impulsive) events to trigger fragmentation.

  5. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Mullens, James A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  6. About the determination of critical exponents related to possible phase transitions in nuclear fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Elattari; J. Richert; P. Wagner

    1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a method based on the finite size scaling assumption which allows to determine numerically the critical point and critical exponents related to observables in an infinite system starting from the knowledge of the observables in finite systems. We apply the method to bond percolation in 2 dimensions and compare the results obtained when the bond probability p or the fragment multiplicity m are chosen as the relevant parameter.

  7. Reconstruction of nuclear charged fragment trajectories from a large gap sweeper magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Frank; A. Schiller; D. Bazin; W. A. Peters; M. Thoennessen

    2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to reconstruct charged fragment four-momentum vectors from measured trajectories behind an open, large gap, magnetic dispersion element (a sweeper magnet) has been developed. In addition to the position and angle behind the magnet it includes the position measurement in the dispersive direction at the target. The method improves the energy and angle resolution of the reconstruction significantly for experiments with fast rare isotopes, where the beam size at the target position is large.

  8. Monte-Carlo simulation for fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from neutron induced fission of 235U

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montoya, M; Rojas, J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from thermal neutron induced fission of 235U have been studied using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening on the standard deviation of the final fragment kinetic energy distribution $\\sigma_{e}(m)$ around the mass number m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125, that is in agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. These results are consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the variation in the primary fragment mean kinetic energy and the yield as a function of the mass.

  9. Nonlinear Evolution of Gravitational Fragmentation Regulated by Magnetic Fields and Ambipolar Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shantanu Basu; Glenn E. Ciolek; James Wurster

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from an extensive set of simulations of gravitational fragmentation in the presence of magnetic fields and ambipolar diffusion. The average fragmentation spacing in the nonlinear phase of evolution is in excellent agreement with the prediction of linear perturbation theory. The time scale for nonlinear growth and runaway of the first core is $\\approx 10$ times the calculated growth time $\\taugm$ of the eigenmode with minimum growth time, when starting from a uniform background state with small-amplitude white-noise perturbations. Subcritical and transcritical models typically evolve on a significantly longer time scale than the supercritical models. Infall motions in the nonlinear fully-developed contracting cores are subsonic on the core scale in subcritical and transcritical clouds, but are somewhat supersonic in supercritical clouds. Core mass distributions are sharply peaked with a steep decline to large masses, consistent with the existence of a preferred mass scale for each unique set of dimensionless free parameters. However, a sum total of results for various initial mass-to-flux ratios yields a broad distribution reminiscent of observed core mass distributions. Based on our results, we conclude that fragmentation spacings, magnitude of infall motions, core shapes, and, especially, the curvature of magnetic field morphology, may serve as indirect observational means of determining a cloud's ambient mass-to-flux ratio.

  10. Forward-backward emission of target evaporated evaporated fragments at high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi Zhang; Tian-Li Ma; Dong-Hai Zhang

    2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The multiplicity distribution, multiplicity moment, scaled variance, entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragment emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 12 A GeV $^{4}$He, 3.7 A GeV $^{16}$O, 60 A GeV $^{16}$O, 1.7 A GeV $^{84}$Kr and 10.7 A GeV $^{197}$Au induced emulsion heavy targets (AgBr) interactions are investigated. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution. The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment {\\em q}, and second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere respectively. The scaled variance, a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations, is close to one for all the interactions which may be said that there is a feeble correlation among the produced particles. The entropy of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres are the same within experimental errors, respectively.

  11. A representative particle approach to coagulation and fragmentation of dust aggregates and fluid droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Zsom; C. P. Dullemond

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: There is increasing need for good algorithms for modeling the aggregation and fragmentation of solid particles (dust grains, dust aggregates, boulders) in various astrophysical settings, including protoplanetary disks, planetary- and sub-stellar atmospheres and dense molecular cloud cores. Here we describe a new algorithm that combines advantages of various standard methods into one. Aims: The aim is to develop a method that 1) can solve for aggregation and fragmentation, 2) can easily include the effect and evolution of grain properties such as compactness, composition, etc., and 3) can be built as a coagulation/fragmentation module into a hydrodynamics simulations. Methods: We develop a Monte-Carlo method in which we follow the 'life' of a limited number of representative particles. Each of these particles is associated with a certain fraction of the total dust mass and thereby represents a large number of true particles which all are assumed to have the same properties as their representative particle. Under the assumption that the total number of true particles vastly exceeds the number of representative particles, the chance of a representative particle colliding with another representative particle is negligibly small, and we therefore ignore this possibility. This now makes it possible to employ a statistical approach to the evolution of the representative particles. Results: The method reproduces the known analytic solutions of simplified coagulation kernels, and compares well to numerical results for Brownian motion using other methods. For reasonably well-behaved kernels it produces good results even for moderate number of swarms.

  12. Automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions with wide-angle acceptance for nuclear fragment detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Fukuda; S. Fukunaga; H. Ishida; K. Kodama; T. Matsuo; S. Mikado; S. Ogawa; H. Shibuya; J. Sudo

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear emulsion, a tracking detector with sub-micron position resolution, has played a successful role in the field of particle physics and the analysis speed has been substantially improved by the development of automated scanning systems. This paper describes a newly developed automated scanning system and its application to the analysis of nuclear fragments emitted almost isotropically in nuclear evaporation. This system is able to recognize tracks of nuclear fragments up to |tan{\\theta}|nuclear emulsion is the first trial. Furthermore the track recognition algorithm is performed by a powerful Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for the first time. This GPU has a sufficient computing power to process large area scanning data with a wide angular acceptance and enough flexibility to allow the tuning of the recognition algorithm. This new system will in particular be applied in the framework of the OPERA experiment : the background in the sample of tau decay candidates due to hadronic interactions will be reduced by a better detection of the emitted nuclear fragments.

  13. Fragmentation and the formation of primordial protostars: the possible role of Collision Induced Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuele Ripamonti; Tom Abel

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms which could lead to chemo-thermal instabilities and fragmentation during the formation of primordial protostars are investigated analytically. We introduce approximations for H2 cooling rates bridging the optically thin and thick regimes. These allow us to discuss instabilities up to densities when protostars become optically thick to continuum radiation (n~10^16 cm^-3). During the collapse, instability arises at two different stages: at low density (n~10^8-10^11 cm^-3), it is due to fast 3-body reactions converting H into H2; at high density (n>10^13 cm^-3), it is due to Collisional Induced Emission (CIE). In agreement with the 3D simulations, we find that the instability at low densities cannot lead to fragmentation, because fluctuations do not survive turbulent mixing, and because their growth is slow. The situation at high density is similar. The CIE-induced instability is as weak as the low density one, with similar ratios of growth and dynamical time scales. Fluctuation growth time is longer than free fall time, and fragmentation seems unlikely. One then expects the first stars to be massive, not to form binaries nor harbour planets. Nevertheless, full 3D simulations are required. They could become possible using simplified estimates of radiative transfer effects, which we show to work very well in the 1D case. This indicates that the effects of radiative transfer during the initial stages of formation of primordial protostars can be treated as local corrections to cooling. (Abridged)

  14. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  15. Factors affect offshore production loss control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ash, C.S.

    1986-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Many aspects of petroleum measurement on an offshore production platform are the same as at an onshore facility, but there are some unique differences. Before going into them it should be noted that even in today's climate of low or declining oil prices that stock loss control is still important. Improving measurement of the quantity of oil transfers can help reduce the amount of stock that is ''unaccounted for'' or lost. As stock loss is reduced, the salable quantity increases, the gross revenue increases, and the net revenue increases. Even in cases where transfers are between two departments of the same company, accurate measurement and proper accountability are required because they often are the basis for determining costs and can thus affect the price that is charged on a later custody transfer. Inefficiencies in intracompany transfers can often hide real losses which may occur during intercompany transfers.

  16. affecting home blood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    recent journals Astronomical they formed and despite their subsequent histories in the solar system. CfA astrophysicists XueNing Bai Walsworth, Ronald L. 15 HOME REMEDY FOR...

  17. Next generation computational tools for extreme-scale simulation of dynamic fracture and fragmentation in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seagraves, Andrew Nathan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accurate modeling of dynamic fracture and fragmentation remains one of the most difficult challenges in computational mechanics research. As part of this thesis, a scalable algorithm for modeling dynamic fracture and ...

  18. MID-INFRARED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF FRAGMENTS B AND C OF COMET 73P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harker, David E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Woodward, Charles E. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S. E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kelley, Michael S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Sitko, Michael L. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Wooden, Diane H. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, MS 245-1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Lynch, David K. [Thule Scientific, P.O. Box 953, Topanga, CA 90290 (United States); Russell, Ray W., E-mail: dharker@ucsd.edu, E-mail: chelsea@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: diane.h.wooden@nasa.gov [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present mid-infrared spectra and images from the Gemini-N (+ Michelle) observations of fragments SW3-[B] and SW3-[C] of the ecliptic (Jupiter family) comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 pre-perihelion. We observed fragment B soon after an outburst event (between 2006 April 16-26 UT) and detected crystalline silicates. The mineralogy of both fragments was dominated by amorphous carbon and amorphous pyroxene. The grain size distribution (assuming a Hanner-modified power law) for fragment SW3-[B] has a peak grain radius of a{sub p} {approx} 0.5 {mu}m, and for fragment SW3-[C], a{sub p} {approx} 0.3 {mu}m; both values are larger than the peak grain radius of the size distribution for the dust ejected from ecliptic comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact event (a{sub p} = 0.2 {mu}m). The silicate-to-carbon ratio and the silicate crystalline mass fraction for the submicron to micron-sized portion of the grain size distribution on the nucleus of fragment SW3-[B] were 1.341{sup +0.250}{sub -0.253} and 0.335{sup +0.089}{sub -0.112}, respectively, while on the nucleus of fragment SW3-[C] they were 0.671{sup +0.076}{sub -0.076} and 0.257{sup +0.039}{sub -0.043}, respectively. The similarity in mineralogy and grain properties between the two fragments implies that 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 is homogeneous in composition. The slight differences in grain size distribution and silicate-to-carbon ratio between the two fragments likely arise because SW3-[B] was actively fragmenting throughout its passage while the activity in SW3-[C] was primarily driven by jets. The lack of diverse mineralogy in the fragments SW3-[B] and SW3-[C] of 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 along with the relatively larger peak in the coma grain size distribution suggests that the parent body of this comet may have formed in a region of the solar nebula with different environmental properties than the natal sites where comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and 9P/Tempel 1 nuclei aggregated.

  19. The threat of terrorism in our homeland became horrifically real on September 11, 2001. The shock was felt at home and around the world. The subsequent response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Preface The threat of terrorism in our homeland became horrifically real on September 11, 2001. The shock was felt at home and around the world. The subsequent response to this threat has taken many forms, and respond to threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) chartered the National Visu- alization

  20. Coulomb and even-odd effects in cold and super-asymmetric fragmentation for thermal neutron induced fission of 235U

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modesto Montoya

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coulomb effects hypothesis is used to interpret even-odd effects of maximum total kinetic energy as a function of mass and charge of fragments from thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. Assuming spherical fragments at scission, the Coulomb interaction energy between fragments (C_sph) is higher than the Q-value, the available energy. Therefore at scission the fragments must be deformed, so that the Coulomb interaction energy does not exceed the Q-value. The fact that the even-odd effects in the maximum total kinetic energy as a function of the charge and mass, respectively, are lower than the even-odd effects of Q is consistent with the assumption that odd mass fragments are softer than the even-even fragments. Even-odd effects of charge distribution in super asymmetric fragmentation also are interpreted with the Coulomb effect hypothesis. Because the difference between C_sph and Q increases with asymmetry, fragmentations require higher total deformation energy to occur. Higher deformation energy of the fragments implies lower free energy to break pairs of nucleons. This explains why in the asymmetric fragmentation region, the even-odd effects of the distribution of proton number and neutron number increases with asymmetry. Based on a similar reasoning, a prediction of a relatively high even-odd effect in symmetric fragmentations is proposed.

  1. affect postprandial factor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may influence the decision Cheng, Yvonne 2011-01-01 3 Factors affecting wild turkey distribution and numbers Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: FACTORS AFFECTING...

  2. affective physiological states: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Affective Lexical Resources CiteSeer Summary: Affective computing is advancing as a field that allows a new form of human computer interaction, in addition to the use of...

  3. Blocked and recovered memories of affective, distinctive, and neutral paragraphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbisier, Barbara Lynn

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Affective paragraphs were remembered significantly better than neutral paragraphs in free recall of paragraph titles, regardless of condition. Details of neutral paragraphs were remembered significantly better than affective paragraphs, regardless...

  4. affect functional outcome: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keywords: Growth, Indian Politicians, Information disclosure, Regression Discontinuity, India Assistant Bandyopadhyay, Antar 4 Urban neighborhood environments and adult affective...

  5. affect development motility: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protozoan Predation Is Differentially Affected by Motility Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Protozoan Predation Is Differentially...

  6. affects understorey plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affected significantly hedgerow species richness and composition. Multivariate analysis showed that, besides adjacent land use, hedgerow management, soil conditions,...

  7. abiotic factors affecting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    explanatory variables affected significantly hedgerow species richness and composition. Multivariate analysis showed that, besides adjacent land use, hedgerow management, soil...

  8. affective integration fmri: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Alcohol dependence (AD) has global effects on brain structure and function, including frontolimbic regions regulating affective...

  9. affect ecosystem metabolism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mike 9 Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: and agricultural ecosystems;...

  10. Molecular Model of a Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Fragment Determined by Small-Angle Xray Scattering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysocki, Vicki H.

    stimulates cyclase activity, the production of cGMP from substrate GTP, and the subsequent amplification of NO to the sGC heme leads to proximal histidine release and stimulation of catalytic activity. To begin, the number one cause of death in the Western world, have long been treatment goals. While some success has

  11. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-haim, Eli; /Paris U., VI-VII

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The b quark fragmentation distribution has been measured, using data registered by the DELPHI experiment at the Z pole, in the years 1994-1995. The measurement made use of 176000 inclusively reconstructed B meson candidates. The errors of this measurement are dominated by systematic effects, the principal ones being related to the energy calibration. The distribution has been established in a nine bin histogram. Its mean value has been found to be = 0.704 {+-} 0.001(stat.) {+-} 0.008(syst.). Using this measurement, and other available analyses of the b-quark fragmentation distribution in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions, the non-perturbative QCD component of the distribution has been extracted independently of any hadronic physics modeling. This distribution depends only on the way the perturbative QCD component has been defined. When the perturbative QCD component is taken from a parton shower Monte-Carlo, the non-perturbative QCD component is rather similar with those obtained from the Lund or Bowler models. When the perturbative QCD component is the result of an analytic NLL computation, the non-perturbative QCD component has to be extended in a non-physical region and thus cannot be described by any hadronic modeling. In the two examples, used to characterize these two situations, which are studied at present, it happens that the extracted non-perturbative QCD distribution has the same shape, being simply translated to higher-x values in the second approach, illustrating the ability of the analytic perturbative QCD approach to account for softer gluon radiation than with a parton shower generator. Using all the available analyses of the b-quark fragmentation distribution in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions, together with the result from DELPHI presented in this thesis, a combined world average b fragmentation distribution has been obtained. Its mean value has been found to be = 0.714 {+-} 0.002. An analysis of the B hadron production at CDF is ongoing. It makes use of {approx} 6000 B{sup {+-}} candidates, from 333 pb{sup -1} of data registered by the CDF experiment, fully reconstructed in the decay channel B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup {+-}}. Characteristics of B mesons and for accompanying tracks have been examined, in the perspective of understanding the effect of fragmentation. These studies, done in the framework of the PYTHIA event generator, also involve the contributions from different b{bar b} production mechanisms. Distributions from a fully reconstructed Monte Carlo sample have been compared to data, and the agreement has been found to be reasonable. The analysis is ongoing, and the goal is to fit the fragmentation function parameters and/or the relative contributions from different production mechanisms to improve the agreement between data and Monte Carlo. A measurement of the b quark production cross section has been obtained using the same data. The analysis is still under way, and therefore the result is preliminary.

  12. Preliminary estimation of the footprint and survivability of the Chelyabinsk Meteor fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parigini, Cristina; Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several differences between the planetary entry of space vehicles and that of asteroids. In this work we do investigate the applicability of classical methods and approaches developed for debris analysis to asteroid entry. In particular, the in-house DEBRIS tool, which has been designed and developed to address the debris problem for uncontrolled re-entry objects, is used here to predict the survivability and the ground footprint of asteroid fragments. The results obtained for the Chelyabinsk event are presented as test case. A comparison with the current available information is provided, proving the validity of the proposed approach.

  13. First measurement of interference fragmentation on a transversely polarized hydrogen target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. van der Nat; for the HERMES collaboration

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The HERMES experiment has measured for the first time single target-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive two-pion production using a transversely polarized hydrogen target. These asymmetries are related to the product of two unknowns, the transversity distribution function and the interference fragmentation function. In the invariant mass range 0.51 GeV < M_inv < 0.97 GeV the measured asymmetry deviates significantly from zero, indicating that two-pion semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering can be used to probe transversity.

  14. Evidence of microscopic effects in fragment mass distribution in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. K. Ghosh; S. Pal; K. S. Gold; P. Bhattacharya

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Our measurements of variances ($\\sigma_{m}^2$) in mass distributions of fission fragments from fusion-fission reactions of light projectiles (C, O and F) on deformed thorium targets exhibit a sharp anomalous increase with energy near the Coulomb barrier, in contrast to the smooth variation of $\\sigma_{m}^2$ for the spherical bismuth target. This departure from expectation based on a statistical description is explained in terms of microscopic effects arising from the orientational dependence in the case of deformed thorium targets.

  15. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  16. Half-life measurements of isomeric states populated in projectile fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowry, M.; Podolay, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The half-lives of excited isomeric states observed in {sup 195}Au, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 215}Rn are reported for the first time. Delayed {gamma}-rays were correlated with nuclei produced in the projectile fragmentation of relativistic {sup 238}U ions, unambiguously identified in terms of their atomic number (Z) and mass-to-charge ratio (A/Q) after traversing an in-flight separator. The observation of a long-lived isomeric state in {sup 195}Au with t{sub 1/2} = 16{sub -4}{sup +8}{mu}s is presented. Two shorter-lived isomeric states were detected in {sup 201}Tl and {sup 215}Rn with t{sub 1/2} = 95{sub -21}{sup +39} and 57{sub -12}{sup +21} ns respectively. In total 24 isomeric states were identified in different nuclei from Pt to Rn (A {approx} 200) during the current study, the majority of which were previously reported. The wealth of spectroscopic data provides the opportunity to determine the isomeric ratios over a wide range of Z, A and angular momentum (I h) of the reaction products. In particular, high-spin states with I Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 18 h provide a robust test of theoretical models of fragmentation.

  17. Two regimes of Turbulent Fragmentation and the stellar IMF from Primordial to Present Day Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Padoan; AAke Nordlund; Alexei G. Kritsuk; Michael L. Norman; Pak Shing Li

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Padoan and Nordlund model of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is derived from low order statistics of supersonic turbulence, neglecting gravity (e.g. gravitational fragmentation, accretion and merging). In this work the predictions of that model are tested using the largest numerical experiments of supersonic hydrodynamic (HD) and magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence to date (~1000^3 computational zones) and three different codes (Enzo, Zeus and the Stagger Code). The model predicts a power law distribution for large masses, related to the turbulence energy power spectrum slope, and the shock jump conditions. This power law mass distribution is confirmed by the numerical experiments. The model also predicts a sharp difference between the HD and MHD regimes, which is recovered in the experiments as well, implying that the magnetic field, even below energy equipartition on the large scale, is a crucial component of the process of turbulent fragmentation. These results suggest that the stellar IMF of primordial stars may differ from that in later epochs of star formation, due to differences in both gas temperature and magnetic field strength. In particular, we find that the IMF of primordial stars born in turbulent clouds may be narrowly peaked around a mass of order 10 solar masses, as long as the column density of such clouds is not much in excess of 10^22 cm^-2.

  18. Fragment Approach to Constrained Density Functional Theory Calculations using Daubechies Wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratcliff, Laura E; Mohr, Stephan; Deutsch, Thierry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper we presented a linear scaling Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) code based on Daubechies wavelets, where a minimal set of localized support functions is optimized in situ and therefore adapted to the chemical properties of the molecular system. Thanks to the systematically controllable accuracy of the underlying basis set, this approach is able to provide an optimal contracted basis for a given system: accuracies for ground state energies and atomic forces are of the same quality as an uncontracted, cubic scaling approach. This basis set offers, by construction, a natural subset where the density matrix of the system can be projected. In this paper we demonstrate the flexibility of this minimal basis formalism in providing a basis set that can be reused as-is, i.e. without reoptimization, for charge-constrained DFT calculations within a fragment approach. Support functions, represented in the underlying wavelet grid, of the template fragments are roto-translated with high numerical p...

  19. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of mouse UPR responsive protein P58(IPK) TPR fragment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Jiahui; Wu, Yunkun [Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Ron, David [Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Sha, Bingdong, E-mail: bdsha@uab.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the mechanism by which P58(IPK) functions to promote protein folding within the ER, a P58(IPK) TPR fragment without the C-terminal J-domain has been crystallized. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), which can promote protein folding and misfolded protein degradation and attenuate protein translation and protein translocation into the ER. P58(IPK) has been proposed to function as a molecular chaperone to maintain protein-folding homeostasis in the ER under normal and stressed conditions. P58(IPK) contains nine TPR motifs and a C-terminal J-domain within its primary sequence. To investigate the mechanism by which P58(IPK) functions to promote protein folding within the ER, a P58(IPK) TPR fragment without the C-terminal J-domain was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 2.5 Å resolution using a synchrotron X-ray source. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.53, b = 92.75, c = 84.32 Å, ? = 90.00, ? = 119.36, ? = 90.00°. There are two P58(IPK) molecules in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 60%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  20. Isoscaling of fragments with Z=1-17 from reconstructed quasiprojectiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuenschel, S.; Kohley, Z.; May, L. W.; Soisson, S. N.; Stein, B. C.; Yennello, S. J. [Chemistry Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Dienhoffer, R. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Physics, State University of New York at Oswego, New York 13126 (United States); Souliotis, G. A.; Galanopoulos, S.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D. V.; Huseman, K. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Caraley, A. L. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Oswego, New York 13126 (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In heavy-ion collisions, isoscaling provides a method for studying the evolution of nuclear symmetry energy as a function of excitation energy. One challenge in using isoscaling is to accurately determine the neutron-to-proton ratio (N/Z) of the fragmenting source. Isoscaling results are presented for the reactions of {sup 86,78}Kr+{sup 64,58}Ni at 35 MeV/nucleon taken on the NIMROD-ISiS array at Texas A and M University. The N/Z of the source was calculated from the isotopically identified fragments and experimentally measured neutrons emitted from reconstructed quasiprojectiles. These data exhibit isoscaling for elements with Z=1-17 over a broad range of isotopes. The isoscaling parameter {alpha} is shown to increase with increasing difference in the neutron composition ({delta}) of the compared sources. For a selected {delta}, the ratio {alpha}/{delta} is also shown to decrease with increasing excitation energy. This may reflect a corresponding decrease in the nuclear symmetry energy.

  1. Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaghloul, Aziz; Kim, Dogyun; Kim, Jangyoul; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Myeongjin; Yun, Chongcheoul; Kim, Jongwon [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed.

  2. Stability of the fragments and thermalization at peak center-of-mass energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood; Sukhjit Kaur

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We simulate the central reactions of nearly symmetric, and asymmetric systems, for the energies at which the maximum production of IMFs occurs (E$_{c.m.}^{peak}$).This study is carried out by using hard EOS along with cugnon cross section and employing MSTB method for clusterization. We study the various properties of fragments. The stability of fragments is checked through persistence coefficient and gain term. The information about the thermalization and stopping in heavy-ion collisions is obtained via relative momentum, anisotropy ratio, and rapidity distribution. We find that for a complete stopping of incoming nuclei very heavy systems are required. The mass dependence of various quantities (such as average and maximum central density, collision dynamics as well as the time zone for hot and dense nuclear matter) is also presented. In all cases (i.e., average and maximum central density, collision dynamics as well as the time zone for hot and dense nuclear matter) a power law dependence is obtained.

  3. The effects of Moloney Sarcoma Virus infection and subsequent thymosin administration on the functional thymus-dependent lymphocyte populations of BALB/C and congenitally athymic nude mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Gailen Daughterty

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Congenitally athymic nude mice were kindly suppli. ed by Dr Gary B. Thurman, Galveston, Texas. BALB/c and Swiss?Webster mice were maintained on laboratory chow and water ad libitum until use. Virus. The virus used was Moloney Sarcoma Virus, originally...THE EFFECTS OF MOLONEY SARCOMA VIRUS INFECTION AND SUBSEQUENT THYMOSIN ADMINISTRATION ON THE FUNCTIONAL THYMUS-DEPENDENT LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS OF BALB/C AND CONGENITALLY ATHYMIC NUDE MICE A Thesis by GAILEN DAUGHERTY MARSHALL, JR. Submitted...

  4. Influence of the density of states on the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution of the emitted fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. L. Calleya; S. R. Souza; B. V. Carlson; R. Donangelo; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang; J. R. Winkelbauer

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The fragmentation of thermalized sources is studied using a version of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model which employs state densities that take the pairing gap in the nuclear levels into account. Attention is focused on the properties of the charge distributions observed in the breakup of the source. Since the microcanonical version of the model used in this study provides the primary fragment excitation energy distribution, one may correlate the reduction of the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution with the increasing occupation of high energy states. Thus, in the frame- work of this model, such staggering tends to disappear as a function of the total excitation energy of the source, although the energy per particle may be small for large systems. We also find that, although the deexcitation of the primary fragments should, in principle, blur these odd-even effects as the fragments follow their decay chains, the consistent treatment of pairing may significantly enhance these staggering effects on the final yields. In the framework of this model, we find that odd-even effects in the charge distributions should be observed in the fragmentation of relatively light systems at very low excitation energies. Our results also suggest that the odd-even staggering may provide useful information on the nuclear state density.

  5. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  6. Influence of complete energy sorting on the characteristics of the odd-even effect in fission-fragment element distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beatriz Jurado; Karl-Heinz Schmidt

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of the odd-even effect in fission-fragment Z distributions are compared to a model based on statistical mechanics. Special care is taken for using a consistent description for the influence of pairing correlations on the nuclear level density. The variation of the odd-even effect with the mass of the fissioning nucleus and with fission asymmetry is explained by the important statistical weight of configurations where the light nascent fission fragment populates the lowest energy state of an even-even nucleus. This implies that entropy drives excitation energy and unpaired nucleons predominantly to the heavy fragment. Therefore, within our model, the odd-even effect appears as an additional signature of the recently discovered energy-sorting process in nuclear fission.

  7. affect postimplant perceptions: Topics by E-print Network

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    Boston College; Paula M. Niedenthal, National Center Barrett, Lisa Feldman 14 Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: the role of affect, imagery, and values...

  8. affects lysosomal distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Key factors affecting voltage oscillations of distribution networks with distributed generation and induction motor loads Engineering Websites Summary: and induction motor loads...

  9. affecting morbidity mortality: Topics by E-print Network

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    Affective value and associative processing Barrett, Lisa Feldman 77 Association Between Gout and All-Cause as well as Cardiovascular Mortality: A Systematic Review CiteSeer...

  10. affects neutrophil apoptosis: Topics by E-print Network

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    Trap Formation Is Associated with IL-1b and Autophagy-Related Signaling in Gout CiteSeer Summary: Background: Gout is a prevalent inflammatory arthritis affecting 12...

  11. Global climate change will affect air, water in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weare, Bryan C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, UC Davis. Hechange will affect air, water in California Bryan C. Wearelikely to include reduced water availability and quality,

  12. affecting species diversity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ecoregions, and geomorphology affect fish species composition in streams of eastern Oklahoma, USA Geosciences Websites Summary: in a New York stream system as a result of species...

  13. Examining How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle Characteristics Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights...

  14. affect receptor clustering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior between near-neighbor receptor molecules; the properties of this cooperative process clearly affects the signal transduction. Recent investigations have revealed the...

  15. affecting body size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Body size and reserve protection affect flight initiation Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , is an important component of antipredator behavior and a...

  16. agents affect morphophysiological: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    animated pedagogical agents 19 may provide Lester, James C. 11 From Gretas mind to her face: Modelling the dynamics of affective states in a conversational embodied...

  17. affecting reactor accident: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    METEOROLOGY; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; P CODES; PWR TYPE REACTORS; RADIATION 2 Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents? Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: This...

  18. affects social development: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Sport for Development (SFD) uses the power of sport to support international development initiatives that affect social change...

  19. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Natural Source Slf Electromagnetic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Geothermal Wells Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Analysis Of Factors Affecting Natural Source Slf Electromagnetic...

  20. affect patient satisfaction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of - Research Archive Summary: Objectives: Previous literature suggests that dyslexia affects self-esteem and self-concept in school children (Humphrey & Mullins, 2004)....

  1. assisted conception affect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of - Research Archive Summary: Objectives: Previous literature suggests that dyslexia affects self-esteem and self-concept in school children (Humphrey & Mullins, 2004)....

  2. affecting conception rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of - Research Archive Summary: Objectives: Previous literature suggests that dyslexia affects self-esteem and self-concept in school children (Humphrey & Mullins, 2004)....

  3. affecting energy capacity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organization of Santiago affects its capacity to design and apply urban energy initiatives MIT - DSpace Summary: The need for greater levels of energy efficiency has never...

  4. affected children independent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Espaces et Socits Boyer, Edmond 3 Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  5. affect study design: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Paton, Benjamin 2011-01-01 6 Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  6. affects diverse aspects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the phytochrome-signaling path- ways Tobin, Elaine 242 Societal demand for increasing mineral resources continue to affect societythrough aspects as varied as Biology and...

  7. affecting rhomboid-3 function: Topics by E-print Network

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    Seungtaek Ryoo 39 Understanding thought disorder in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders : exploring the relation and implications of affect. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  8. affect patient adherence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    infusion. A Randomized Comparison 10 Influence of Traits, Coping, Affect, and Illness Knowledge on Adherence among Patients in Cardiac Rehabilitation. Open Access Theses and...

  9. adversely affect neurological: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of microtubules, as is whether paclitaxel is released Walter, Nils G. 77 Does the knowledge of unaudited account balances adversely affect the performance of substantive...

  10. affecting proton exchange: Topics by E-print Network

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    stress applied to the electrode area of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is known to significantly affect power output. In practice, electrode stress arises...

  11. affecting chemical indices: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2012 Abstract Root herbivores can affect plant fitness, and roots often of root chemical defense have been little investigated. Here, we investigated...

  12. affects genome stability: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physiological (more) Johnson, Elizabeth Lauren 2014-01-01 7 Mining the Structural Genomics Pipeline: Identification of Protein Properties that Affect Biotechnology Websites...

  13. affect organic matter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition? University of California...

  14. affecting metal concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy 2 Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou leadzinc mine spill (Hunan, China) Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  15. affect gonadal fate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites...

  16. affects perceived health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Last Page Topic Index 1 Does Perceived Discrimination Affect Patient Assessments of their Health Care? CiteSeer Summary: Objective: Discrimination based on raceethnicity or on...

  17. affecting taskforce productivity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weight gain or loss Disturbed sleep Kalueff, Allan V. 168 AS AFFECTED BY ROTATION CROP, CULTIVATION, CiteSeer Summary: Reduction of dependence on herbicides in potato...

  18. affecting carcass quality: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weight gain or loss Disturbed sleep Kalueff, Allan V. 416 AS AFFECTED BY ROTATION CROP, CULTIVATION, CiteSeer Summary: Reduction of dependence on herbicides in potato...

  19. affecting sperm quality: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weight gain or loss Disturbed sleep Kalueff, Allan V. 488 AS AFFECTED BY ROTATION CROP, CULTIVATION, CiteSeer Summary: Reduction of dependence on herbicides in potato...

  20. affect postoperative quality: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weight gain or loss Disturbed sleep Kalueff, Allan V. 308 AS AFFECTED BY ROTATION CROP, CULTIVATION, CiteSeer Summary: Reduction of dependence on herbicides in potato...

  1. affecting eggshell quality: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weight gain or loss Disturbed sleep Kalueff, Allan V. 296 AS AFFECTED BY ROTATION CROP, CULTIVATION, CiteSeer Summary: Reduction of dependence on herbicides in potato...

  2. Fragmentation cross sections of Fe^{26+}, Si^{14+} and C^{6+} ions of 0.3-10 A GeV on polyethylene, CR39 and aluminum targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Cecchini; T. Chiarusi; G. Giacomelli; M. Giorgini; A. Kumar; G. Mandrioli; S. Manzoor; A. R. Margiotta; E. Medinaceli; L. Patrizii; V. Popa; I. E. Qureshi; G. Sirri; M. Spurio; V. Togo

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new measurements of the total and partial fragmentation cross sections in the energy range 0.3-10 A GeV of 56Fe, 28Si and 12C beams on polyethylene, CR39 and aluminum targets. The exposures were made at BNL, USA and HIMAC, Japan. The CR39 nuclear track detectors were used to identify the incident and survived beams and their fragments. The total fragmentation cross sections for all targets are almost energy independent while they depend on the target mass. The measured partial fragmentation cross sections are also discussed.

  3. Fragmentation cross sections of Fe^{26+}, Si^{14+} and C^{6+} ions of 0.3-10 A GeV on CR39, polyethylene and aluminum targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriam Giorgini

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New measurements of the total and partial fragmentation cross sections in the energy range 0.3-10 A GeV of Fe^{26+}, Si^{14+} and C^{6+} beams on polyethylene, CR39 and aluminum targets are presented. The exposures were made at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), USA, and Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), Japan. The CR39 nuclear track detectors were used to identify the incident and survived beams and their fragments. The total fragmentation cross sections for all targets are almost energy independent while they depend on the target mass. The measured partial fragmentation cross sections are also discussed.

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of molecular cloud fragmentation regulated by magnetic fields and ambipolar diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Kudoh; Shantanu Basu; Youichi Ogata; Takashi Yabe

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ the first fully three-dimensional simulation to study the role of magnetic fields and ion-neutral friction in regulating gravitationally-driven fragmentation of molecular clouds. The cores in an initially subcritical cloud develop gradually over an ambipolar diffusion time while the cores in an initially supercritical cloud develop in a dynamical time. The infall speeds on to cores are subsonic in the case of an initially subcritical cloud, while an extended (\\ga 0.1 pc) region of supersonic infall exists in the case of an initially supercritical cloud. These results are consistent with previous two-dimensional simulations. We also found that a snapshot of the relation between density (rho) and the strength of the magnetic field (B) at different spatial points of the cloud coincides with the evolutionary track of an individual core. When the density becomes large, both relations tend to B \\propto \\rho^{0.5}.

  5. Study of near-stability nuclei populated as fission fragments in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotiades, N.; Nelson, R. O.; Devlin, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cizewski, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Kruecken, R. [Physik Department E12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Becker, J. A.; Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples are presented to illustrate the power of prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments from compound nuclei with A{approx}200 formed in fusion-evaporation reactions in experiments using the Gammasphere Ge-detector array. Complementary methods, such as Coulomb excitation and deep-inelastic processes, are also discussed. In other cases (n,xn{gamma}) reactions on stable isotopes have been used to establish neutron excitation functions for {gamma}-rays using a pulsed 'white'-neutron source, coupled to a high-energy-resolution germanium-detector array. The excitation functions can unambiguously assign {gamma}-rays to a specific reaction product. Results from all these methods bridge the gaps in the systematics of high-spin states between the neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei. Results near shell closures should motivate new shell model calculations.

  6. Study of near-stability nuclei populated as fission fragments in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ronald O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cizewski, Jolie A [RUTGERS UNIV.; Krucken, Reiner [TECHNICAL UNIV OF MUNICH; Clark, R M [LBNL; Fallon, Paul [LBNL; Lee, I Yang [LBNL; Macchiavelli, Agusto O [LBNL; Becker, John A [LLNL; Younes, Walid [LLNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples are presented to illustrate the power of prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments from compound nuclei with A {approx} 200 formed in fusion-evaporation reactions in experiments using the Gammasphere Ge-detector array. Complementary methods, such as Coulomb excitation and deep-inelastic processes, are also discussed. In other cases (n, xn{gamma}) reactions on stable isotopes have been used to establish neutron excitation functions for {gamma}-rays using a pulsed 'white'-neutron source, coupled to a high-energy-resolution germanium-detector array. The excitation functions can unambiguously assign {gamma}-rays to a specific reaction product. Results from all these methods bridge the gaps in the systematics of high-spin states between the neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei. Results near shell closures should motivate new shell model calculations.

  7. Extraction of Quark Transversity Distribution and Collins Fragmentation Functions with QCD Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Sun, Peng; Yuan, Feng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution of the Collins azimuthal asymmetries in $e^+e^-$ annihilations and semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. All the relevant coefficients are calculated up to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order accuracy. By applying the TMD evolution at the approximate NLL order in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism, we extract transversity distributions for $u$ and $d$ quarks and Collins fragmentation functions from current experimental data by a global analysis of the Collins asymmetries in back-to-back di-hadron productions in $e^+e^-$ annihilations measured by BELLE and BABAR Collaborations and SIDIS data from HERMES, COMPASS, and JLab HALL A experiments. The impact of the evolution effects and the relevant theoretical uncertainties are discussed. We further discuss the TMD interpretation for our results, and illustrate the unpolarized quark distribution, transversity distribution, unpolarized quark fragmenta...

  8. Efficient Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Multiple Radical Center Systems Based on the Fragment Molecular Orbital Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakata, Hiroya [Tokyo Institute of Technology; Schmidt, Michael W [Ames Laboratory; Fedorov, Dmitri G [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Kitaura, Kazuo [Kobe University; Nakamura, Shinichiro [Nakamura Lab; Gordon, Mark S [Ames Laboratory

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The fully analytic energy gradient has been developed and implemented for the restricted open-shell Hartree–Fock (ROHF) method based on the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) theory for systems that have multiple open-shell molecules. The accuracy of the analytic ROHF energy gradient is compared with the corresponding numerical gradient, illustrating the accuracy of the analytic gradient. The ROHF analytic gradient is used to perform molecular dynamics simulations of an unusual open-shell system, liquid oxygen, and mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen. These molecular dynamics simulations provide some insight about how triplet oxygen molecules interact with each other. Timings reveal that the method can calculate the energy gradient for a system containing 4000 atoms in only 6 h. Therefore, it is concluded that the FMO-ROHF method will be useful for investigating systems with multiple open shells.

  9. Fission Fragments Produced from Proton Irradiation of Thorium Between 40 and 200 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engle, Jonathan W; Weidner, John W; Fassbender, Michael E; Bach, Hong T; Ullmann, John L; Couture, Aaron J; Bitteker, Leo J; Gulley, Mark S; John, Kevin D; Birnbaum, Eva R; Nortier, Francois M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross sections for the formation of five residual radionuclides (72Se, 97Zr, 112Pd, 125Sb, and 147Nb) from 40- to 200-MeV proton irradiation of thorium have been measured and are reported. The atomic masses of these fragments span the expected mass distribution of radionuclides formed by fission of the target nucleus. Especially in mass regions corresponding to transitions between different relaxation mechanisms employed by available models, these data are expected to be useful to the improvement of high-energy transport codes. The predictions of the event generators incorporated into the latest release of the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP6) are compared with data measured in this work in the hope that these results may be useful to the continued process of code verification and validation in MCNP6.

  10. Fission Fragments Produced from Proton Irradiation of Thorium Between 40 and 200 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan W. Engle; Stepan G. Mashnik; John W. Weidner; Michael E. Fassbender; Hong T. Bach; John L. Ullmann; Aaron J. Couture; Leo J. Bitteker; Mark S. Gulley; Kevin D. John; Eva R. Birnbaum; Francois M. Nortier

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross sections for the formation of five residual radionuclides (72Se, 97Zr, 112Pd, 125Sb, and 147Nb) from 40- to 200-MeV proton irradiation of thorium have been measured and are reported. The atomic masses of these fragments span the expected mass distribution of radionuclides formed by fission of the target nucleus. Especially in mass regions corresponding to transitions between different relaxation mechanisms employed by available models, these data are expected to be useful to the improvement of high-energy transport codes. The predictions of the event generators incorporated into the latest release of the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP6) are compared with data measured in this work in the hope that these results may be useful to the continued process of code verification and validation in MCNP6.

  11. Modeling theta-theta Interactions with the Effective Fragment Potential Method: The Benzene Dimer and Substituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Smithl; Lyudmila V. Slipchenko; Mark S. Gordon

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This study compares the results of the general effective fragment potential (EFP2) method to the results of a previous combined coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) study [Sinnokrot and Sherrill, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 7690] on substituent effects in {pi}-{pi} interactions. EFP2 is found to accurately model the binding energies of the benzene-benzene, benzene-phenol, benzene-toluene, benzene-fluorobenzene, and benzene-benzonitrile dimers, as compared with high-level methods [Sinnokrot and Sherrill, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 7690], but at a fraction of the computational cost of CCSD(T). In addition, an EFP-based Monte Carlo/simulated annealing study was undertaken to examine the potential energy surface of the substituted dimers.

  12. Unpolarised Transverse Momentum Dependent Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from SIDIS Multiplicities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prokudin, Alexey [JLAB; Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; Melis, Stefano; Gonzalez, J. O.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of SIDIS multiplicities for charged hadron production. The data are grouped into independent bins of the kinematical variables, in which the TMD factorisation is expected to hold. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape. HERMES data do not need any normalisation correction, while fits of the COMPASS data much improve with a y-dependent overall normalisation factor. A comparison of the extracted TMDs with previous EMC and JLab data confirms the adequacy of the simple gaussian distributions. The possible role of the TMD evolution is briefly considered.

  13. Measurement of the Relative Fragmentation Fractions of B-bar Hadrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Karen Ruth

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the first Run II measurement of b quark fragmentation into {bar B}{sup 0}, B{sup -}, and {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} baryons using semileptonic B decays. The result is based on 360 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1,960 GeV at the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab. The fragmentation fractions are measured for an effective {bar B} hadron p{sub T} threshold of 7 GeV/c to be f{sub u}/f{sub d} = 1.054 {+-} 0.018(stat){sub -0.045}{sup +0.025}(syst) {+-} 0.058(BR), f{sub s}/(f{sub u} + f{sub d}) = 0.160 {+-} 0.005(stat){sub -0.010}{sup +0.011}(syst){sub -0.034}{sup +0.057}(BR), and f{sub {Lambda}{sub b}}/(f{sub u} + f{sub d}) = 0.281 {+-} 0.012(stat){sub -0.056}{sup +0.058}(syst){sub -0.086}{sup +0.128}(BR). f{sub s}/(f{sub u} + f{sub d}) agrees both with previous CDF measurements and the world averages, dominated by the LEP measurements, with {approx} 1{sigma}. However, f{sub {Lambda}{sub b}}/(f{sub u} + f{sub d}) is approximately twice the value which has been measured at LEP and in CDF Run I and disagrees with the LEP results by approximately 2 {sigma}.

  14. Affect and Engagement in Game-Based Learning Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, R. Michael

    at regulating their affective experiences during learning [6]. For example, students who are focused on learning Abstract--The link between affect and student learning has been the subject of increasing attention with learning while negative states such as boredom and frustration have the opposite effect. Student engagement

  15. HEART SMART NUTRITION What Affects Your Cholesterol Levels?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesson 2 HEART SMART NUTRITION What Affects Your Cholesterol Levels? Several things affect cholesterol level, thus reducing your risk of heart disease. Weight ~ Being overweight tends to increase your cholesterol and is a risk factor for heart disease. Lose weight to help lower low density lipoproteins

  16. Affect Editing in Speech Tal Sobol Shikler and Peter Robinson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Peter

    of transformations and effects. In the following sections we outline the method, show examples of subtle J. Tao, T with users and listeners. 2 Affect Editor The affect editor, shown schematically in Figure 1, takes an input speech signal X, and allows the user to modify its conveyed expression, in order to produce an output

  17. Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zi-wei

    Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations Why do we need to study? Conclusions Zi-Wei Lin University of Alabama in Huntsville/ NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MSFC #12

  18. Reshaping the contours of Northern Irish drama: Didactic Fragmentation in Owen McCafferty's Scenes from the Big Picture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Reshaping the contours of Northern Irish drama: Didactic Fragmentation in Owen Mc and pieces of a whole picture. But more than being epic, it is didactic. The audience is called to learn a dialectical dimension that enables it to become didactic. Yet, this didactic dimension could not be completely

  19. Predicting the Velocity and Azimuth of Fragments Generated by the Range Destruction or Random Failure of Rocket Casings and Tankage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The details of a predictive analytical modeling process as well as the development of normalized relations for momentum partition as a function of SRM burn time and initial geometry are discussed in this paper. Methods for applying similar modeling techniques to liquid-tankage-over-pressure failures are also discussed. These methods have been calibrated against observed SRM ascent failures and on-orbit tankage failures. Casing-quadrant sized fragments with velocities exceeding 100 m/s resulted from Titan 34D-SRM range destruct actions at 10 sec mission elapsed time (MET). Casing-quadrant sized fragments with velocities of approximately 200 m/s resulted from STS-SRM range destruct actions at 110 sec MET. Similar sized fragments for Ariane third stage and Delta second stage tankage were predicted to have maximum velocities of 260 m/s and 480 m/s respectively. Good agreement was found between the predictions and observations for five specific events and it was concluded that the methods developed have good potential for use in predicting the fragmentation process of a number of generically similar casing and tankage systems. There are three copies in the file, one of these is loose.

  20. Hansen et al. Edge effects across ecosystem types Ecosystem Biomass as a Framework for Predicting Habitat Fragmentation Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Hansen et al. Edge effects across ecosystem types 1 Ecosystem Biomass as a Framework for Predicting Habitat Fragmentation Effects Running Head: Edge effects across ecosystem types Key Words: biomass 59717-3460. hansen@montana.edu 25 February 2008 #12;Hansen et al. Edge effects across ecosystem types 2

  1. Development of Fragmented Low-Z Ion Beams for the NA61 Experiment at the CERN SPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Bohl, T; Breuker, H; Calviani, M; Manglunki, D; Mataguez, S; Maury, S; Valderanis, C; Cornelis, K; Spanggaard, J; Cettour-Cave, S; Gazdzicki, M; Seyboth, P; Guber, F; Ivashkin, A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NA61 experiment, aims to study the properties of the onset of deconfinement at low SPS energies and to find signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. A broad range in T-?B phase diagram will be covered by performing an energy (13A-158AGeV/c) and system size (p+p, Be+Be, Ar+Ca, Xe+La) scan. In a first phase, fragmented ion beams of 7Be or 11C produced as secondaries with the same momentum per nucleon when the incident primary Pb-ion beam hits a thin Be target will be used. The H2 beam line that transports the beam to the experiment acts as a double spectrometer which combined with a new thin target (degrader) where fragments loose energy proportional to the square of their charge allows the separation of the wanted A/Z fragments. Thin scintillators and TOF measurement for the low energy points are used as particle identification devices. In this paper results from the first test of the fragmented ion beam done in 2010 will be presented showing that a pure Be beam can be obtained sa...

  2. Many-Body Expansion with Overlapping Fragments: Analysis of Two Ryan M. Richard and John M. Herbert*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, John

    a system's energy is expressed in terms of the energies of its constituent monomers, dimers, trimers, etc, 064113 (2012)] is more robust, with respect to the choice of fragments, as compared to an alternative,2 in which the energy of a large molecule or cluster is approximated in terms of numerous, smaller

  3. Unpolarised TMD Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from recent HERMES and COMPASS Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering Multiplicities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokudin, Alexey; Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; Melis, Stefano; Gonzalez, J. O.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of semi- inclusive deep inelastic scattering multiplicities for charged hadron production. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape.

  4. Jet fragmentation functions in PbPb and pp collisions at 2.76 TeV with CMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Frank

    The jet fragmentation function of inclusive jets with p[subscript T] > 100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions is measured for reconstructed charged particles with p[subscript T] > 1 GeV/c within the jet cone. A data sample of PbPb ...

  5. 288 December 2012 Ecological REstoRation 30:4 Bailey, S. 2007 Increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    of Fragmented Populations. conservation Biology 8:50­59. Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 2010. guide to natural the establishment of protected areas and some small functional corridors between them in high priority areas and Management 238:7­23. Bradley, K. A. 2005. Delineation and organization of natural forest communities of Miami

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 014607 (2010) Fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    , and Nuclear Engineering, NES 1-25, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180, USA 2 Los Alamos National Lab, Los; published 19 January 2010) A new method of measuring fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy are necessary for accurate, detailed neutronics calculations for new

  7. affects life-history traits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are affected by natural selection Affect the overall "program" of the organism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1 Life history traits are affected by...

  8. Symmetry energy and the isoscaling properties of the fragments produced in $^{40}$Ar, $^{40}$Ca + $^{58}$Fe, $^{58}$Ni reactions at 25 $-$ 53 MeV/nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Iglio; D. V. Shetty; S. J. Yennello; G. A. Souliotis; M. Jandel; A. Keksis; S. Soisson; B. Stein; S. Wuenschel; A. S. Botvina

    2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The symmetry energy and the isoscaling properties of the fragments produced in the multifragmentation of $^{40}$Ar, $^{40}$Ca + $^{58}$Fe, $^{58}$Ni reactions at 25 - 53 MeV/nucleon were investigated within the framework of statistical multifragmentation model. The isoscaling parameters $\\alpha$, from the primary (hot) and secondary (cold) fragment yield distributions, were studied as a function of excitation energy, isospin (neutron-to-proton asymmetry) and fragment symmetry energy. It is observed that the isoscaling parameter $\\alpha$ decreases with increasing excitation energy and decreasing symmetry energy. The parameter $\\alpha$ is also observed to increase with increasing difference in the isospin of the fragmenting system. The sequential decay of the primary fragments into secondary fragments, when studied as a function of excitation energy and isospin of the fragmenting system, show very little influence on the isoscaling parameter. The symmetry energy however, has a strong influence on the isospin properties of the hot fragments. The experimentally observed scaling parameters can be explained by symmetry energy that is significantly lower than that for the ground state nuclei near saturation density. The results indicate that the properties of hot nuclei at excitation energies, densities and isospin away from the normal ground state nuclei could be significantly different.

  9. Coulomb and even-odd effects in cold and super-asymmetric fragmentation for thermal neutron induced fission of 235U

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montoya, Modesto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coulomb effects hypothesis is used to interpret even-odd effects of maximum total kinetic energy as a function of mass and charge of fragments from thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. Assuming spherical fragments at scission, the Coulomb interaction energy between fragments (C_sph) is higher than the Q-value, the available energy. Therefore at scission the fragments must be deformed, so that the Coulomb interaction energy does not exceed the Q-value. The fact that the even-odd effects in the maximum total kinetic energy as a function of the charge and mass, respectively, are lower than the even-odd effects of Q is consistent with the assumption that odd mass fragments are softer than the even-even fragments. Even-odd effects of charge distribution in super asymmetric fragmentation also are interpreted with the Coulomb effect hypothesis. Because the difference between C_sph and Q increases with asymmetry, fragmentations require higher total deformation energy to occur. Higher deformation energy of the...

  10. atlantic shore affected: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    end... Inhere yougo,inviting my eyes... Bonds, M. 1991-01-01 2 Implications of climate change on flow regime affecting Atlantic salmon Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 11271143,...

  11. affects protein metabolism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chad J. Johnson a; Allen Herbst; Camilo Duque-velasquez; Joshua P. V; Phil Bochsler; Debbie Mckenzie 2011-01-01 31 Systematic Variation of Prosthetic Foot Spring Affects...

  12. How the Koontz Decision May Affect Climate Change Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Please join us for a Sept. 10 webinar to discuss the Supreme Court's controversial decision in Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District and explore how the decision may affect the...

  13. affecting helicobacter pylori: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting helicobacter pylori First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 ??? ???...

  14. Eliciting and detecting affect in covert and ethically sensitive situations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Philip Charles

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest in creating systems that can sense the affective state of a user for a variety of applications. As a result, a large number of studies have been conducted with the goals of eliciting specific ...

  15. Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic transformation? S. Chatterjee and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels contain a small quantity of carbon enriched retained austenite, which transforms into martensite during

  16. Traits Affecting Household Livestock Marketing Decisions in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traits Affecting Household Livestock Marketing Decisions in Rural Kenya Katherine L. Baldwin community of Central Kenya, we regressed household offtake rate of both cattle and smallstock against in Kenya. Because pastoralist economies depend almost exclusively upon livestock production, most recent

  17. affects acid production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    role of affect. They have posited that choices Gross, James J. 150 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

  18. Weather conditions affecting VTOL airbus operations in the Northeast Corridor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, R. W.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study of hourly weather observations in the Northeast Corridor during the periods 0600-2400 for a ten year period 1944-1958 was made to study the implications of weather affecting the operations of a VSTOL Airbus ...

  19. When Does Information Asymmetry Affect the Cost of Capital?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Christopher S.

    This paper examines when information asymmetry among investors affects the cost of capital in excess of standard risk factors. When equity markets are perfectly competitive, information asymmetry has no separate effect on ...

  20. Understanding 'It': Affective Authenticity, Space, and the Phish Scene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeager, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    "Understanding It: Affective Authenticity, Space, and the Phish Scene" is an ethnographic study of "scene identity" around the contemporary rock band Phish. Utilizing data generated from six years of ethnographic fieldwork, ...

  1. affect plants animals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is related to the isotopic anomalies of carbon. The first J. Chela-flores; M. E. Montenegro; N. Pugliese 14 Emergent Properties of Patch Shapes Affect Edge Permeability to...

  2. Metastatic potential of melanoma cells is not affected by electrochemotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubljana, University of

    Metastatic potential of melanoma cells is not affected by electrochemotherapy Vesna Todorovica in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, the effect of electrochemotherapy on the metastatic potential of human malignant melanoma cells. Cells treated by electrochemotherapy with cisplatin were tested

  3. affect social learning: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    positive or negative affect from upward and downward comparisons. In Study 1, cancer patients low in self-esteem and with low perceived control over their symptoms and illness...

  4. Introduction Dust aerosols affect visibility, perturb the radiative energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jun

    Sunphotometer and air temperature from ground observations. Model Flow Chart GOES-8 06/28/00 1145 UTC -90 -80Introduction Dust aerosols affect visibility, perturb the radiative energy balance of the earth

  5. Exclosure size affects young blue oak seedling growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Ralph L.; McDougald, Neil K.; Atwill, Edward R.; McCreary, Doug

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in?uences rodent damage to blue oaks. Oaks ’N Folks tat.Exclosure size affects young blue oak seedling growth byR. Atwill and Doug McCreary Blue oak, a tree native only to

  6. Factors affecting the selling prices of small firms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somervuo, Timo J. (Timo Juhani)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    58 percent of the jobs in the United Stated are created by firms with fewer than 500 employees (Davis, et al. [1998]). Yet, there is only limited research done on the industry trends and conditions affecting small company ...

  7. acidification affects marine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the burning of fossil fuels accumulates in the atmosphere, where it causes global warming. But it also affects our oceans. As carbon dioxide enters the ocean, it reacts...

  8. affect early growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors affecting the direction of growth of tree roots M.P. Coutts Forestry Commission, Northern of the main roots of a tree is an important determinant of the form of the root...

  9. affect root stele: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is an important determinant of the form of the root system. It affects the way and for cultivation systems which can influence tree growth and anchorage. This review discusses...

  10. affects root growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is an important determinant of the form of the root system. It affects the way and for cultivation systems which can influence tree growth and anchorage. This review discusses...

  11. affects cluster root: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is an important determinant of the form of the root system. It affects the way and for cultivation systems which can influence tree growth and anchorage. This review discusses...

  12. Radiation Measurements at the Campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Subsequent Nuclear Power Plant crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of "Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and "Human and Natural Sciences". Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak v...

  13. On the structure and the behaviour of Collatz 3n + 1 sequences - Finite subsequences and the role of the Fibonacci sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Winkler

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that every Collatz sequence $C(s)$ consists only of same structured finite subsequences $C^h(s)$ for $s\\equiv9\\ (mod\\ 12)$ or $C^t(s)$ for $s\\equiv3,7\\ (mod\\ 12)$. For starting numbers of specific residue classes ($mod\\ 12\\cdot2^h$) or ($mod\\ 12\\cdot2^{t+1}$) the finite subsequences have the same length $h,t$. It is conjectured that for each $h,t\\geq2$ the number of all admissible residue classes is given exactly by the Fibonacci sequence. This has been proved for $2\\leq h,t\\leq50$. Collatz's conjecture is equivalent to the conjecture that for each $s\\in\\mathbb{N},s>1$, there exists $k\\in\\mathbb{N}$ such that $T^k(s)

  14. Academic programs and services that affect student athlete success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rode, Cheryl Rebecca

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ACADEMIC PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THAT AFFECT STUDENT ATHLETE SUCCESS A Thesis by CHERYL REBECCA RODE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008 Major Subject: Kinesiology ACADEMIC PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THAT AFFECT STUDENT ATHLETE SUCCESS A Thesis by CHERYL REBECCA RODE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

  15. Memory blocking and recovery for affect word lists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moynan, Sarah Catherine

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMORY BLOCKING AND RECOVERY FOR AFFECT WORD LISTS A Senior Honors Thesis by SARAH CATHERINE MOYNAN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs k, Academic Scholarships Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2004 Major: Psychology MEMORY BLOCKING AND RECOVERY FOR AFFECT WORD LISTS A Senior Honors Thesis by SARAH CATHERINE MOYNAN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Acadenuc Scholarships Texas A...

  16. Factors affecting attitudinal patterns toward education in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Edwin Hugh

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FACTORS AF'FECTING ATTITUDINAL PATTERNS TOWARD EDUCATION IN THE DOHINICAN REPUBLIC A Thesi. s by EDWIN HUGH CARPENTER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Major Sub)sot: Sociology FACTORS AFFECTING ATTITUDINAL PATTERNS TOWARD EDUCATION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC A Thesis by EDWIN HUGH CARPENTER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman gf Commit tee) (Head...

  17. An economic analysis of factors affecting the Texas potato market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asgill, Oladimagi Winsome

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEXAS POTATO MARKET A Thesis OLADIMAGI WINSOME ASGILL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OP FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEXAS POTATO MARKET A Thesis OLADIMAGI WINSOME ASGILL Approved as to style and content by: H. L. Goodwin (Chair of Committee) S. W. Fuller (Member...

  18. Interpretation of the Stephan Quintet Galaxy Cluster using Hydro-Gravitational-Dynamics: Viscosity and Fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl H. Gibson; Rudolph E. Schild

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is a compact group of galaxies that has been well studied since its discovery in 1877 but is mysterious using cold dark matter hierarchical clustering cosmology (CDMHCC). Anomalous red shifts $z = (0.0027,0.019, 0.022, 0.022, 0.022)$ among galaxies in SQ either reduce it to a Trio with two highly improbable intruders from CDMHCC or support the Arp (1973) hypothesis that its red shifts are intrinsic. An alternative is provided by the Gibson 1996-2006 hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) theory where superclusters, clusters and galaxies all originate by gravitational fragmentation in the super-viscous plasma epoch and at planetary and star cluster mass scales in the primordial gas of the expanding universe. By this fluid-mechanical cosmology, the SQ galaxies gently separate and remain precisely along a line of sight because of perspective and the small transverse velocities permitted by their sticky viscous-gravitational beginnings. Star and gas bridges and young-globular-star-cluster (YGC) trails observed by the Hubble Space Telescope are triggered as SQ galaxies separate through viscous baryonic-dark-matter halos of dark proto-globular-cluster (PGC) clumps of frozen Earth-mass primordial-fog-particles (PFPs).

  19. Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J P; Rubin, M B; Block, G I; Bonner, M P

    2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both rock motion along preexisting interfaces and fracture of the intact rock mass itself. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model these types of problems, we have implemented Cosserat point theory and cohesive element formulations into the current version of LDEC, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture and combined finite element/discrete element simulations. Results of a large-scale LLNL simulation of an explosive shock wave impacting an elaborate underground facility are also discussed. It is confirmed that persistent joints lead to an underestimation of the impact energy needed to fill the tunnel systems with rubble. Non-persistent joint patterns, which are typical of real geologies, inhibit shear within the surrounding rock mass and significantly increase the load required to collapse a tunnel.

  20. Fragmentation and monomer lengthening of rod-like polymers, a relevant model for prion proliferation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciuperca, Ionel Sorin; Palade, Liviu Iulian; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greer, Pujo-Menjouet andWebb model [Greer et al., J. Theoret. Biol., 242 (2006), 598-606] for prion dynamics was found to be in good agreement with experimental observations under no-flow conditions. The objective of this work is to generalize the problem to the framework of general polymerization-fragmentation under flow motion, motivated by the fact that laboratory work often involves prion dynamics under flow conditions in order to observe faster processes. Moreover, understanding and modelling the microstructure influence of macroscopically monitored non-Newtonian behaviour is crucial for sensor design, with the goal to provide practical information about ongoing molecular evolution. This paper's results can then be considered as one step in the mathematical understanding of such models, namely the proof of positivity and existence of solutions in suitable functional spaces. To that purpose, we introduce a new model based on the rigid-rod polymer theory to account for the polymer dynamics under flow c...

  1. Prestellar Core Formation, Evolution, and Accretion from Gravitational Fragmentation in Turbulent Converging Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Munan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate prestellar core formation and accretion based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Our simulations represent local $\\sim 1$pc regions within giant molecular clouds where a supersonic turbulent flow converges, triggering star formation in the post-shock layer. We include turbulence and self-gravity, applying sink particle techniques, and explore a range of inflow Mach number ${\\cal M}=2-16$. Two sets of cores are identified and compared: $t_1$-cores are identified of a time snapshot in each simulation, representing dense structures in a single cloud map; $t_\\mathrm{coll}$-cores are identified at their individual time of collapse, representing the initial mass reservoir for accretion. We find that cores and filaments form and evolve at the same time. At the stage of core collapse, there is a well-defined, converged characteristic mass for isothermal fragmentation that is comparable to the critical Bonner-Ebert mass at the post-shock pressure. The core mass functions (CMFs) of $t_\\mathrm...

  2. Automated ligand fitting by core-fragment fitting and extensioninto density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Klei, Herbert; Adams, Paul D.; Moriarty,Nigel W.; Cohn, Judith D.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure for fitting of ligands to electron- density mapsby first fitting a core fragment of the ligand to density and thenextending the remainder of the ligand into density is presented. Theapproach was tested by fitting 9327 ligands over a wide range ofresolutions ( most are in the range 0.8-4.8 angstrom) from the ProteinData Bank (PDB) into (F-o - F-c) exp(i phi(c)) difference densitycalculated using entries from the PDB without these ligands. Theprocedure was able to place 58 percent of these 9327 ligands within 2angstrom (r.m. s.d.) of the coordinates of the atoms in the original PDBentry for that ligand. The success of the fitting procedure wasrelatively insensitive to the size of the ligand in the range 10 -100non-H atoms and was only moderately sensitive to resolution, with thepercentage of ligands placed near the coordinates of the original PDBentry for fits in the range 58 - 73 percent over all resolution rangestested.

  3. Automated ligand fitting by core-fragment fitting and extension into density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Klei, Herbert [Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, PO Box 4000, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000 (United States); Adams, Paul D.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cohn, Judith D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated ligand-fitting procedure has been developed and tested on 9327 ligands and (F{sub o} ? F{sub c})exp(i?{sub c}) difference density from macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank. A procedure for fitting of ligands to electron-density maps by first fitting a core fragment of the ligand to density and then extending the remainder of the ligand into density is presented. The approach was tested by fitting 9327 ligands over a wide range of resolutions (most are in the range 0.8-4.8 Å) from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) into (F{sub o} ? F{sub c})exp(i?{sub c}) difference density calculated using entries from the PDB without these ligands. The procedure was able to place 58% of these 9327 ligands within 2 Å (r.m.s.d.) of the coordinates of the atoms in the original PDB entry for that ligand. The success of the fitting procedure was relatively insensitive to the size of the ligand in the range 10–100 non-H atoms and was only moderately sensitive to resolution, with the percentage of ligands placed near the coordinates of the original PDB entry for fits in the range 58–73% over all resolution ranges tested.

  4. Design Optimisation of a High Intensity Beam Facility and Feasibility Experiment of a Solid Fragmented Target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present PhD thesis describes the design, execution and results of the HRMT-10 experiment performed at the HiRadMat facility of the CERN/SPS complex. The ?rst part of the thesis covers the design optimization studies of the HiRadMat facility, focusing in particular on the radiation protection issues. A detailed Monte-Carlo model of the facility has been developed and validated through comparison with measurements. A very satisfactory agreement between the simulation and the experimental data is observed. In the second part of this thesis, a novel feasibility experiment of a fragmented solid target for a future Neutrino Factory or a Super Beam facility, able to support high beam powers ( 1 MW) is presented in detail. A solid granular target has been proposed as an interesting alternative to an open Hg jet target, presently considered as the baseline for such facilities, but posing considerable technical challenges. The HRMT-10 experiment seeks to address the lack of experimental data of the feasibility of...

  5. Ultrafast probing of ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buenermann, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg; Neumark, Daniel M. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Haxton, Daniel J.; Gessner, Oliver [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets are studied with time-resolved extreme ultraviolet ion imaging spectroscopy. At excitation energies of 23.6 {+-} 0.2 eV, Rydberg atoms in n= 3 and n= 4 states are ejected on different time scales and with significantly different kinetic energy distributions. Specifically, n= 3 Rydberg atoms are ejected with kinetic energies as high as 0.85 eV, but their appearance is delayed by approximately 200 fs. In contrast, n= 4 Rydberg atoms appear within the time resolution of the experiment with considerably lower kinetic energies. Major features in the Rydberg atom kinetic energy distributions for both principal quantum numbers can be described within a simple elastic scattering model of localized perturbed atomic Rydberg atoms that are expelled from the droplet due to their repulsive interaction with the surrounding helium bath. Time-dependent kinetic energy distributions of He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 3}{sup +} ions are presented that support the formation of molecular ions in an indirect droplet ionization process and the ejection of neutral Rydberg dimers on a similar time scale as the n= 3 Rydberg atoms.

  6. Recombinant GDNF: Tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein produced from insect cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianhong; Chian, Ru-Ju; Ay, Ilknur; Celia, Samuel A.; Kashi, Brenda B.; Tamrazian, Eric; Matthews, Jonathan C. [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)] [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Remington, Mary P. [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Pepinsky, R. Blake [BiogenIdec, Inc., 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States)] [BiogenIdec, Inc., 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Fishman, Paul S. [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Brown, Robert H. [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)] [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Francis, Jonathan W., E-mail: jwfrancisby@gmail.com [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival-promoting effects on CNS motor neurons in experimental animals. Its therapeutic efficacy in humans, however, may have been limited by poor bioavailability to the brain and spinal cord. With a view toward improving delivery of GDNF to CNS motor neurons in vivo, we generated a recombinant fusion protein comprised of rat GDNF linked to the non-toxic, neuron-binding fragment of tetanus toxin. Recombinant GDNF:TTC produced from insect cells was a soluble homodimer like wild-type GDNF and was bi-functional with respect to GDNF and TTC activity. Like recombinant rat GDNF, the fusion protein increased levels of immunoreactive phosphoAkt in treated NB41A3-hGFR{alpha}-1 neuroblastoma cells. Like TTC, GDNF:TTC bound to immobilized ganglioside GT1b in vitro with high affinity and selectivity. These results support further testing of recombinant GDNF:TTC as a non-viral vector to improve delivery of GDNF to brain and spinal cord in vivo.

  7. Intermediate DNA at low added salt: DNA bubbles slow the diffusion of short DNA fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomislav Vuletic; Sanja Dolanski Babic; Ticijana Ban; Joachim Raedler; Francoise Livolant; Silvia Tomic

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a study of DNA (150 bp fragments) conformations in very low added salt $DNA concentration range $0.0015\\leq c \\leq 8$~mM (bp). We found an intermediate DNA conformation in the region $0.05 DNA has the diffusion coefficient, $D_p$ reduced below the values for both ssDNA coils and native dsDNA helices of similar polymerization degree $N$. Thus, this DNA population can not be a simple mix of dsDNA and of ssDNA which results from DNA melting. Here, melting occurs due to a reduction in screening concomitant with DNA concentration being reduced, in already very low salt conditions. The intermediate DNA is rationalized through the well known concept of fluctuational openings (DNA bubbles) which we postulate to form in AT-rich portions of the sequence, without the strands coming apart. Within the bubbles, DNA is locally stretched, while the whole molecule remains rod-like due to very low salt environment. Therefore, such intermediate DNA is elongated, in comparison to dsDNA, which accounts for its reduced $D_p$.

  8. A short Id2 protein fragment containing the nuclear export signal forms amyloid-like fibrils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, Noemi [Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Pharmazie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Schroeder, Josef [Institut fuer Pathologie, Zentrales EM-Labor, Fakultaet fuer Medizin, Universitaet Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Cabrele, Chiara [Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Pharmazie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: chiara.cabrele@chemie.uni-regensburg.de

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The negative regulator of DNA-binding/cell-differentiation Id2 is a small protein containing a central helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif and a C-terminal nuclear export signal (NES). Whereas the former is essential for Id2 dimerization and nuclear localization, the latter is responsible for the transport of Id2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the isolated Id2 HLH motif is highly helical, large C-terminal Id2 fragments including the NES sequence are either unordered or aggregation-prone. To study the conformational properties of the isolated NES region, we synthesized the Id2 segment 103-124. The latter was insoluble in water and only temporarily soluble in water/alcohol mixtures, where it formed quickly precipitating {beta}-sheets. Introduction of a positively charged N-terminal tail prevented aggressive precipitation and led to aggregates consisting of long fibrils that bound thioflavin T. These results show an interesting structural aspect of the Id2 NES region, which might be of significance for both protein folding and function.

  9. Isomers in Neutron-Rich A ?? 190 NNuclides from 208Pb Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caamano, M. [University of Surrey, UK; Walker, P. M. [University of Surrey, UK; Regan, P. H. [University of Surrey, UK; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Podolyak, Zs. [University of Surrey, UK; Gerl, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Hellstrom, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Mayet, P. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Mineva, M. N. [Lund University, Sweden; Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Benlliure, J. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Bruce, A. M. [University of Brighton, UK; Butler, P. A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK; Cortina Gil, D. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Cullen, D. M. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK; Doring, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Enqvist, T. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Fox, C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK; Garces Narro, J. [University of Surrey, UK; Geissel, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Gelletly, W. [University of Surrey, UK; Giovinazzo, J. [CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan/CNRS, France; Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Grawe, H. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kleinbohl, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Korten, W. [CEA, Saclay, France; Lewitowicz, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Lucas, R. [CEA, Saclay, France; Mach, H. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; O'Leary, C. D. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK; De Oliveira, F. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Pearson, C. J. [University of Surrey, UK; Rejmund, F. [IPN, Cedex, France; Rejmund, M. [IPN, Cedex, France; Sawicka, M. [University of Warsaw; Schaffner, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schlegel, C. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schmidt, K. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schmidt, K.-H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Stevenson, P. D. [University of Surrey, UK; Theisen, Ch. [CEA, Saclay, France; Vives, F. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Warner, D. D. [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Wheldon, C. [University of Surrey, UK; Wollersheim, H. J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Wooding, S. [University of Surrey, UK; Xu, F. [University of Surrey, UK; Yordanov, O. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of {sup 208}Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A {approx} 190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of gamma-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in {sup 188}Ta, {sup 190}W, {sup 192}Re, {sup 193}Re, {sup 195}Os, {sup 197}Ir, {sup 198}Ir, {sup 200}Pt, {sup 201}Pt, {sup 202}Pt and {sup 203}Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for {sup 174}Er, {sup 175}Er, {sup 185}Hf, {sup 191}Re, {sup 194}Re and {sup 199}Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles gamma-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In {sup 200}Pt and {sup 201}Pt, the assignments are supported by gamma-gamma coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics.

  10. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caparanga, Alvin R. [School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila 1002 (Philippines); School of Graduate Studies, Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila 1002 (Philippines)], E-mail: arcaparanga@mapua.edu.ph; Basilia, Blessie A. [School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila 1002 (Philippines); School of Graduate Studies, Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Dagbay, Kevin B. [School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Salvacion, Jonathan W.L. [School of Graduate Studies, Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila 1002 (Philippines)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  11. Fragmentation mechanisms for methane induced by 55 eV, 75 eV, and 100 eV electron impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X., E-mail: xinchengwang@fudan.edu.cn; Lu, D.; Lu, G. C.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China) [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, B. H.; Tang, Y. J. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The fragmentation of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} dications following 55 eV, 75 eV, and 100 eV electron impact double ionization of methane was studied using a cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. From the measured momentum of each recoil ion, the momentum of the neutral particles has been deduced and the kinetic energy release distribution for the different fragmentation channels has been obtained. The doubly charged molecular ions break up into three or more fragments in one or two-step processes, resulting in different signatures in the data. We observed the fragmentation of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} dications through different mechanisms according to the momentum of the neutral particles. For example, our result shows that there are three reaction channels to form CH{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sup +}, and H, one synchronous concerted reaction channel and two two-step reaction channels. For even more complicated fragmentation processes of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} dications, the fragmentation mechanism can still be identified in the present measurements. The slopes of the peak in the ion-ion coincidence spectra were also estimated here, as they are also related to the fragmentation mechanism.

  12. Medium modifications of photon-tagged jet fragmentation function in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-Liang Ma

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a multiphase transport model, medium modifications of prompt photon-tagged jet fragmentation function are investigated by comparing prompt photon-tagged hadron azimuthal correlation in Au+Au collisions (0-40\\%) with that in p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The measured modification factor, $I_{AA}$, increases with the increasing integration range of the away side, which reveals a medium-modified jet shape in which the medium enhancement of soft particles is preferentially located far away from the jet axis. The $I_{AA}$ largely results from strong interactions between jets and partonic matter. However, both hadronization of coalescence and hadronic rescatterings play certain roles to modify the $I_{AA}$. These behaviors reflect a dynamical evolution of modifications of the prompt photon-tagged jet fragmentation function in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Effect of beta-electron capture to a bound state on delayed-neutron emission from fission fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangrsky, Yu. P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Karpeshin, F. F. [St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Trzhaskovskaya, M. B., E-mail: trzhask@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ionization of the atomic electron shell on beta decay is investigated. The change in the beta-decay probability is due primarily to the appearance of the channel involving beta-electron capture to a bound state. It is shown that the effect may be significant at low beta-transition energies. The magnitude of the effect was studied in the case of the emission of one to three delayed neutrons following the beta decay of fission fragments. In the calculations, use was made of the beta-decay strength function with allowance for the population of isobaric resonances in daughter nuclei. The effect proved to be maximal for fragments where the numbers of protons and neutrons approach those in closed shells and subshells, thereby illustrating the role of the shell structure of the nucleus in fission.

  14. Interaction of toluene with two-color asymmetric laser fields: Controlling the directional emission of molecular hydrogen fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaziannis, S.; Kotsina, N.; Kosmidis, C. [Department of Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina, University Campus, Ioannina GR-45110 (Greece)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of toluene with strong asymmetric two-color laser irradiation of 40 fs duration is studied by means of Time of flight mass spectrometry. Highly energetic H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ions are produced through an isomerization process taking place within transient multiply charged parent ions. Comparative study of deuterium labeled toluene isotopes enables the discrimination between molecular hydrogen fragments formed exclusively within the CH{sub 3}- part from those that require hydrogen atom exchange between the former and the phenyl moiety. It is demonstrated that by manipulating the relative phase of the ?/2? field components the selective ionization of oriented toluene molecules can be used as a tool to control the directional emission of the H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} species.

  15. FRAGMENTATION AND EVOLUTION OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS. III. THE EFFECT OF DUST AND GAS ENERGETICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Hugo [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Urban, Andrea [Sapling Learning, Inc., 2815 Exposition Blvd, Austin, TX 78703 (United States); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust and gas energetics are incorporated into a cluster-scale simulation of star formation in order to study the effect of heating and cooling on the star formation process. We build on our previous work by calculating separately the dust and gas temperatures. The dust temperature is set by radiative equilibrium between heating by embedded stars and radiation from dust. The gas temperature is determined using an energy-rate balance algorithm which includes molecular cooling, dust-gas collisional energy transfer, and cosmic-ray ionization. The fragmentation proceeds roughly similarly to simulations in which the gas temperature is set to the dust temperature, but there are differences. The structure of regions around sink particles has properties similar to those of Class 0 objects, but the infall speeds and mass accretion rates are, on average, higher than those seen for regions forming only low-mass stars. The gas and dust temperature have complex distributions not well modeled by approximations that ignore the detailed thermal physics. There is no simple relationship between density and kinetic temperature. In particular, high-density regions have a large range of temperatures, determined by their location relative to heating sources. The total luminosity underestimates the star formation rate at these early stages, before ionizing sources are included, by an order of magnitude. As predicted in our previous work, a larger number of intermediate-mass objects form when improved thermal physics is included, but the resulting initial mass function (IMF) still has too few low-mass stars. However, if we consider recent evidence on core-to-star efficiencies, the match to the IMF is improved.

  16. Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

  17. Primary Isotope Yields and Characteristic Properties of the Fragmenting Source in Heavy-ion Reactions near the Fermi Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Liu; W. Lin; R. Wada; M. Huang; Z. Chen; G. Q. Xiao; S. Zhang; X. Jin; J. Liu; F. Shi; P. Ren; H. Zheng; J. B. Natowitz; A. Bonasera

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    For central collisions of $^{40}$Ca $+ ^{40}$Ca at 35 MeV/nucleon, the density and temperature of a fragmenting source have been evaluated in a self-consistent manner using the ratio of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, extracted from the yields of primary isotopes produced in antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The $a_{sym}/T$ values are extracted from all isotope yields using an improved method based on the Modified Fisher Model (MFM). The values of $a_{sym}/T$ obtained, using different interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term, are correlated with the values of the symmetry energies at the density of fragment formation. Using this correlation, the fragment formation density is found to be $\\rho/\\rho_0 = 0.67 \\pm 0.02$. Using the input symmetry energy value for each interaction temperature values are extracted as a function of isotope mass $A$. The extracted temperature values are compared with those evaluated from the fluctuation thermometer with a radial flow correction.

  18. Description of Induced Nuclear Fission with Skyrme Energy Functionals: I. Static Potential Energy Surfaces and Fission Fragment Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Schunck; D. Duke; H. Carr; A. Knoll

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty years after its experimental discovery, a microscopic description of induced nuclear fission based solely on the interactions between neutrons and protons and quantum many-body methods still poses formidable challenges. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the development of a predictive microscopic framework for the accurate calculation of static properties of fission fragments for hot fission and thermal or slow neutrons. To this end, we focus on the 239Pu(n,f) reaction and employ nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy densities. Potential energy surfaces are computed at the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation with up to five collective variables. We find that the triaxial degree of freedom plays an important role, both near the fission barrier and at scission. The impact of the parameterization of the Skyrme energy density on deformation properties from the ground-state up to scission is also quantified. We introduce a general template for the detailed description of fission fragment properties. It is based on the careful analysis of the scission point, using both advanced topological methods and recently proposed quantum many-body techniques. We conclude that an accurate prediction of fission fragment properties at low incident neutron energies, although technologically demanding, should be within the reach of current nuclear density functional theory.

  19. Temperature and Scaling Studies from Projectile Fragmentation of 86,78Kr+64,58Ni at 35 MeV/A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wuenschel, Sara K.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    reconstruction in both charge and mass. A new thermometer for nuclear fragmentation studies has been derived and is presented here. In this thermometer, the temperature is obtained from fluctuations of the transverse momentum. The proton transverse momentum...

  20. Application of diazene-directed fragment assembly to the total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine and related heterodimeric alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Stephen P.

    We describe the first application of our methodology for heterodimerization via diazene fragmentation towards the total synthesis of (?)-calycanthidine, meso-chimonanthine, and (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine. Our syntheses ...

  1. Three-dimensional Simulation of Magnetized Cloud Fragmentation Induced by Nonlinear Flows and Ambipolar Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Kudoh; Shantanu Basu

    2008-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that the formation of collapsing cores in subcritical clouds is accelerated by nonlinear flows, by performing three-dimensional non-ideal MHD simulations. An initial random supersonic (and trans-Alfvenic) turbulent-like flow is input into a self-gravitating gas layer that is threaded by a uniform magnetic field (perpendicular to the layer) such that the initial mass-to-flux ratio is subcritical. Magnetic ambipolar diffusion occurs very rapidly initially due to the sharp gradients introduced by the turbulent flow. It subsequently occurs more slowly in the traditional near-quasistatic manner, but in regions of greater mean density than present in the initial state. The overall timescale for runaway growth of the first core(s) is several times, 10^6 yr, even though previous studies have found a timescale of several times, 10^7 yr when starting with linear perturbations and similar physical parameters. Large-scale supersonic flows exist in the cloud and provide an observationally testable distinguishing characteristic from core formation due to linear initial perturbations. However, the nonlinear flows have decayed sufficiently that the relative infall motions onto the first core are subsonic, as in the case of starting from linear initial perturbations. The ion infall motions are very similar to those of neutrals; however, they lag the neutral infall in directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field direction and lead the neutral infall in the direction parallel to the mean magnetic field.

  2. DYNAMICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE T PYXIDIS NOVA SHELL DURING RECURRENT ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toraskar, Jayashree; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David R., E-mail: toraskar@amnh.org, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org, E-mail: dzurek@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hubble Space Telescope images of the ejecta surrounding the nova T Pyxidis resolve the emission into more than 2000 bright knots. We simulate the dynamical evolution of the ejecta from T Pyxidis during its multiple eruptions over the last 150 years using the adaptive mesh refinement code Ramses. We demonstrate that the observed knots are the result of Richtmyer-Meshkov gas dynamical instabilities (the equivalent of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in an accelerated medium). These instabilities are caused by the overrunning of the ejecta from the classical nova of 1866 by fast-moving ejecta from the six subsequent recurrent nova outbursts. Magnetic fields may play a role in determining knot scale and preventing their conductive evaporation. The model correctly predicts the observed expansion and dimming of the T Pyx ejecta as well as the knotty morphology. The model also predicts that deeper, high-resolution imagery will show filamentary structure connecting the knots. We show reprocessed Hubble Space Telescope imagery that shows the first hints of such a structure.

  3. affecting thermal infrared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting thermal infrared First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Thermal Infrared Remote...

  4. affecting fish passage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting fish passage First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK...

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Tropical Cyclone Power Dissipation KERRY EMANUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    - son 1974; Webster et al. 2005), and the Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index (Bell et al. 2000, the PDI is also accumulated over each year. Annually accumulated integral metrics such as ACE and PDI showEnvironmental Factors Affecting Tropical Cyclone Power Dissipation KERRY EMANUEL Program

  6. affecting recruitment dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting recruitment dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dispersal, settlement...

  7. affects population dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affects population dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Costs, benefits, and loss...

  8. affect microtubule dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affect microtubule dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Polymorphic Dynamics of...

  9. affecting clean coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting clean coal First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL...

  10. Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures D.A. Neher a,*, J. Wu b understanding of performance among major ecosystem types is necessary before nematode community indices can and agricultural ecosystems; (2) compare nematode community composition among and within ecosystem types and report

  11. U.S. Agricultural Production Affected by Mexican Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Agricultural Production Affected by Mexican Tariffs CNAS Issue Brief 2011-02 March 17, 2011 was eliminated. Mexico retaliated on March 18, 2009 by imposing tariffs on selected U.S. agricultural exports 17, 2010, with agricultural goods representing 71 percent of all products under tariff. Tariffs

  12. Is My Operation Affected By This New Regulation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Is My Operation Affected By This New Regulation? This provision applies to all livestock operations that feed ruminants. The regulation applies to "establishments and individuals that are responsible operations, are subject to the regulation. ! Examples include dairies, cattle feedlots, calf and lamb raising

  13. Faculty & Staff Email (Server) Upgrade How does this affect me?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    Faculty & Staff Email (Server) Upgrade How does this affect me? PC Users: No effect server to the Exchange 2010 server. Mobile phones, tablets and email clients (Microsoft Outlook? Upgrading to Exchange 2010 requires us to replace the server to which you connect to retrieve Email

  14. Pre-Employment Screening: How New EEOC Guidance Affects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    Pre-Employment Screening: How New EEOC Guidance Affects Criminal Background Checks & Potentially Increases Employer Risks An HRWebAdvisor Webinar by Mark A. de Bernardo, Esq. Jackson Lewis LLP #12;HRWebAdvisor Webinar: Pre-Employment Screening 2 Our webinars are designed to be accurate

  15. Lighting affects appearance LightSource emits photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 LightSource emits photons Photons travel in a straight line). And then some reach the eye/camera. #12;3 Basic fact: Light is linear Double intensity of sources, double photons reaching eye. Turn on two lights, and photons reaching eye are same as sum of number when each

  16. Lighting affects appearance LightSource emits photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 LightSource emits photons Photons travel in a straight line). And then some reach the eye/camera. #12;3 Reflectance Model how objects reflect light. Model light sources Algorithms for computing Shading: computing intensities within polygons Determine what light strikes what

  17. affects brain activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affects brain activity First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Brain Research, 347(1985)85-93...

  18. Statistical Affect Detection in Collaborative Chat Michael Brooks1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    Statistical Affect Detection in Collaborative Chat Michael Brooks1 , Katie Kuksenok2 , Megan K , Paul Harris1 , Cecilia R. Aragon1 1 Human Centered Design & Engineering, 2 Computer Science. We present a pipeline of natural language processing and machine learning techniques that can be used

  19. affecting corrosion resistance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting corrosion resistance First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Corrosion resistance of...

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Does wild boar rooting affect livestock grazing areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Does wild boar rooting affect livestock grazing areas in alpine grasslands? C the summer rangelands in the Spanish Central Pyrenees, where rooting by wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a large dis impact of wild boar rooting on Pyrenean grasslands. It quantified the extent of wild boar rooting

  1. How ISO-Standards Affect Graphic-Arts Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zanibbi, Richard

    How ISO-Standards Affect Graphic-Arts Work Andreas Kraushaar Head, Prepress Division Fogra Munich, Germany 4pm, Wed., Jan. 10, 2007 Auditorium of the Center for Imaging Science ISO TC 130 (graphic. Important standards with respect to the printing industry such as the ISO 2846 and ISO 12647-X

  2. affect intestinal absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affect intestinal absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Intestinal Absorption and...

  3. p888, which contains a Bam HI to Not I fragment encoding a full-length profilin cDNA (16); p989,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Gregory

    p888, which contains a Bam HI to Not I fragment encoding a full-length profilin cDNA (16); p989, which encodes a mutant form of profilin, Pfy1p-3, lacking the last three amino acids (18); p890, which contains the Bgl II to Stu I fragment from p182 (26), encoding Bni1p(1227­1397); p813, which con- tains

  4. From ground state to fission fragments: A complex, multi-dimensional multi-path problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Nix, J.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Swiatecki, W.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to {sup 264}Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus {sup 258}Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 235 MeV whereas {sup 256}Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes have been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric-fission products close to {sup 132}Sn. Here we present a quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fusion occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. We base our study on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. We use the three-quadratic-surface parameterization to generate the shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. Since these shapes are thought to correspond to the scission shapes for the high-kinetic-energy events it is of crucial importance that a continuous sequence of shapes leading from the nuclear ground state to these configurations can be studied within the framework of the model. We present the results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. They clearly show the appearance of a second fission valley, which leads to scission configurations close to tow touching spheres, for fissioning systems in the vicinity of {sup 264}Fm.

  5. From ground state to fission fragments: A complex, multi-dimensional multi-path problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nix, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Swiatecki, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to {sup 264}Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus {sup 258}Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 235 MeV whereas {sup 256}Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes have been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric-fission products close to {sup 132}Sn. Here we present a quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fusion occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. We base our study on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. We use the three-quadratic-surface parameterization to generate the shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. Since these shapes are thought to correspond to the scission shapes for the high-kinetic-energy events it is of crucial importance that a continuous sequence of shapes leading from the nuclear ground state to these configurations can be studied within the framework of the model. We present the results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. They clearly show the appearance of a second fission valley, which leads to scission configurations close to tow touching spheres, for fissioning systems in the vicinity of {sup 264}Fm.

  6. Scaling violations of quark and gluon jet fragmentation functions in $e^{+}e{-}$ annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 91.2 and 183-209 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J A; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e+e- annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results are obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e+e- experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and to the p...

  7. Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, William M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PP was added to all samples, with the samples subsequently being incubated at 25C . Samples were again extracted and analyzed at 2, 6, 18, and 36 days. Phosphorous was extracted from all samples by the method of Gilliam and Sample (1968... Temperature 5 C 25 C 35 C Time 0 Days 2 Days 6 Days 18 Days 36 Days ppm 1. 8 a -1. 8 b 4. 3 a -4. 3 b 6. 8 a -2. 7 b -4. 1 b 4. 2 -2. 5 b -1. 7 b 1. 8 a -0. 8 b -1. 0 b o. o a O. 4 a O. s a -o. e a -0. 3 a t Means within a factor...

  8. A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Rhodes Jr., Olin E.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence ofmore »Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but repeated treatments may be needed to achieve sufficient uptake to eradicate disease.« less

  9. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil B. Lovett; Matthew Everitt; Robert M. Heath; Viv Kendon

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that, as well as the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. In addition, we also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.

  10. THE USE OF VAPOR EXTRACTION SYSTEM AND ITS SUBSEQUENT REDUCTION OF WORKER EXPOSURE TO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE DURING RETRIEVAL OF HANFORDS LEGACY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PITTS DA

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear productions complex located in south eastern Washington and is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), used in mixtures with other organic compounds, was used to recover plutonium from aqueous streams at Z Plant located on the Hanford Site. The aqueous and organic liquid waste that remained at the end of this process was discharged to soil columns in waste cribs located near Z Plant. Included in this waste slurry along with CCl{sub 4} were tributyl phosphate, dibutyl butyl phosphate, and lard oil. (Truex et al., 2001). In the mid 1980's, CCl{sub 4} was found in the unconfined aquifer below the 200 West Area and subsequent ground water monitoring indicated that the plume was widespread and that the concentrations were increasing. It has been estimated that approximately 750,000 kg (826.7 tons) of CCl{sub 4} was discharged to the soil from 1955 to 1973. (Truex et al., 2001). With initial concentration readings of approximately 30,000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in one well field alone, soil vapor extraction began in 1992 in an effort to remove the CCl{sub 4} from the soil. (Rohay, 1999). Since 1992, approximately 78,607.6 kg (86.65 tons) of CCl{sub 4} have been extracted from the soil through the process of soil vapor extraction and 9,409.8 kg (10.37 tons) have been removed from the groundwater. (EPA, 2006). The success of this environmental cleanup process benefited not only the environment but also workers who were later involved in the retrieval of solid waste from trenches that were in or near the CCl{sub 4} plume. Solid waste was buried in trenches near Z Plant from 1967 to 1990. The solid waste, some of which was chemically and/or radioactively contaminated, was buried in trenches in steel or fiber drums, fiberboard boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood boxes, and steel, concrete, or wooden boxes. Much of this waste was buried with the intention of retrieving it later for permanent disposal and storage. Removal of this solid waste would disturb the soil that was potentially contaminated with CC4 and thereby pose a risk to workers involved in the retrieval effort. However, with the success of the VES, worker exposure did not occur.

  11. On the simulation of enzymatic digest patterns: the fragmentation of oligomeric and polymeric galacturonides by endo-polygalacturonase II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, J J; Williams, M A K; Hunt, Jonathan J; Cameron, Randall G; Williams, Martin A.K.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation methodology for predicting the time-course of enzymatic digestions is described. The model is based solely on the enzyme's subsite architecture and concomitant binding energies. This allows subsite binding energies to be used to predict the evolution of the relative amounts of different products during the digestion of arbitrary mixtures of oligomeric or polymeric substrates. The methodology has been specifically demonstrated by studying the fragmentation of a population of oligogalacturonides of varying degrees of polymerization, when digested by endo-polygalacturonase II (endo-PG II) from Aspergillus niger.

  12. Position reconstruction in fission fragment detection using the low pressure MWPC technique for the JLab experiment E02-017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi-Yu, Qiu [Lanzhou U.; Tang, Liguang [JLAB; Margaryan, Amur T. [Yerevan; Jin-Zhang, Xu [Lanzhou; Bi-Tao, Hu [Lanzhou; Xi-Meng, Chen [Lanzhou

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a lambda hyperon was embedded in a nucleus, it can form a hypernucleus. The lifetime and its mass dependence of stable hypernuclei provide information about the weak decay of lambda hyperon inside nuclear medium. This work will introduce the Jefferson Lab experiment (E02-017) which aims to study the lifetime of the heavy hypernuclei using a specially developed fission fragment detection technique, a multi-wire proportional chamber operated under low gas pressure (LPMWPC). Presented here are the method and performance of the reconstruction of fission position on the target foil, the separation of target materials at different regions and the comparison and verification with the Mote Carlo simulation.

  13. Manning free counterions fraction for a rod-like polyion - short DNA fragments in very low salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomislav Vuletic; Sanja Dolanski Babic; Danijel Grgicin; Damir Aumiler; Joachim Raedler; Francoise Livolant; Silvia Tomic

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We quantified the Manning free (uncondensed) counterions fraction $\\theta$ for dilute solutions of rod-like polyions - 150bp DNA fragments, in very low salt $salt environment, with the decrease in DNA concentration itself. The extremes of the experimental $\\theta(c)$ range occur towards the highest, above 1 mM and the lowest, below 0.05 mM, DNA concentrations, and correspond to the theoretical $\\theta$ values for dsDNA and ssDNA, respectively. Therefore, we confirmed Manning condensation and conductivity models to be valuable in description of dilute solutions of rod-like polyions.

  14. Negative heat capacity in the critical region of nuclear fragmentation: an experimental evidence of the liquid-gas phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D'Agostino; F. Gulminelli; Ph. Chomaz; M. Bruno; F. Cannata; R. Bougault; N. Colonna; F. Gramegna; I. Iori; N. Le Neindre; G. V. Margagliotti; P. F. Mastinu; P. M. Milazzo; A. Moroni; G. Vannini

    1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental indication of negative heat capacity in excited nuclear systems is inferred from the event by event study of energy fluctuations in $Au$ quasi-projectile sources formed in $Au+Au$ collisions at 35 A.MeV. The excited source configuration is reconstructed through a calorimetric analysis of its de-excitation products. Fragment partitions show signs of a critical behavior at about 5 A.MeV excitation energy. In the same energy range the heat capacity shows a negative branch providing a direct evidence of a first order liquid gas phase transition.

  15. Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felak, R. P.

    UTILITY & REGULATORY FACTORS AFFECTiNG COGENERATION & INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT DESIGN & OPERATION Richard P. Felak General Electric Company Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT In specifying a cogeneration or independent power plant, the owner... should be especially aware of the influences which electric utilities and regulatory bodies will have on key parameters such as size, efficiency, design. reliability/ availabilitY, operating capabilities and modes, etc. This paper will note examples...

  16. Natural Attenuation of Zinc Pollution in Smelter-Affected Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Attenuation of Zinc Pollution in Smelter-Affected Soil M . V E S P A , M . L A N S O N structural character- ization of the two types of Zn-containing phyllosilicate in slightly basic smelter to the smelter and wind direction, is ferruginous with an average Fe/Al atomic ratio of 1.1 ( 0.5. The Zn2

  17. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  18. Dynamical description of the moments of the energy distribution of fission fragments and scission of a fissile nucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borunov, M. V., E-mail: bmv@opsb.ru; Nadtochy, P. N.; Adeev, G. D. [Omsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multidimensional stochastic approach to fission dynamics on the basis of three-dimensional Langevin equations is applied systematically to calculating the first four moments of the energy distribution of fission fragments over a broad range of Coulomb parameter values (700 < Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} < 1700). For the scission of a fissile nucleus into fragments, use was made of various criteria traditional in modern fission theory: the vanishing of the neck radius at the scission instant and the equality of the neck radius to about 0.3R{sub 0} at this instant. In calculating the energy distribution, both of the criteria used lead to a fairly good description of experimental data on the first two moments and to a satisfactory description of data on the third and fourth moments of the distribution. However, the quality of the description of available experimental data is insufficiently good for giving preference to any of these criteria. Within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics, it is shown that the vanishing-radius criterion leads to unexpectably good agreement with experimental data on the first four moments of the energy distribution. A modified version of one-body dissipation where the coefficient that takes into account the reduction of the wall-formula contribution was set to k{sub s} = 0.25 was used in the calculations.

  19. FRAGMENTATION AND EVOLUTION OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE EFFECT OF DUST HEATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Andrea; Evans, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Martel, Hugo [Departement de Physique, genie physique et optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of heating by luminosity sources in a simulation of clustered star formation. Our heating method involves a simplified continuum radiative transfer method that calculates the dust temperature. The gas temperature is set by the dust temperature. We present the results of four simulations; two simulations assume an isothermal equation of state and the two other simulations include dust heating. We investigate two mass regimes, i.e., 84 M{sub sun} and 671 M{sub sun}, using these two different energetics algorithms. The mass functions for the isothermal simulations and simulations that include dust heating are drastically different. In the isothermal simulation, we do not form any objects with masses above 1 M{sub sun}. However, the simulation with dust heating, while missing some of the low-mass objects, forms high-mass objects ({approx}20 M{sub sun}) which have a distribution similar to the Salpeter initial mass function. The envelope density profiles around the stars formed in our simulation match observed values around isolated, low-mass star-forming cores. We find the accretion rates to be highly variable and, on average, increasing with final stellar mass. By including radiative feedback from stars in a cluster-scale simulation, we have determined that it is a very important effect which drastically affects the mass function and yields important insights into the formation of massive stars.

  20. Parameters affecting the fate of metals in various soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covar, Andrew Prescott

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters Affecting the Fate of Metals in Various Soils. (December 1975) Andrew Prescott Covar, B. S. , University of Texas at E1 Paso Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Calvin Woods In this study, the fate of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc... DETERMINATION OF WATER SOLUBLE, EXCHANGEABLE, ORGANIC BOUND, AND MINERAL ASSOCIATED METALS ? SPLIT I I PAGE 18 19 3 CADMIUM UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 4 COPPER UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 5 LEAD UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 6 NICKEL UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 7 ZINC UPTAKE BY SOIL...

  1. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  2. Communication Factors Affecting African Policymakers' Decisions about Agricultural Biotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Begashaw, Belay Ejigu

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    , unlike the current practice of using their home-grown seeds. Many observers also worry that promoters of genetic engineering seek to eliminate any possible competition from non-GM crops. In particular, non-GM crops affect traditional crops... on the issue. Modernist: There is far too much wooly, antiscientific thinking flying around. Prove to me that GM technologies pose any more risk than do traveling in a car or flying in a plane. The risks posed by GM crops are dwarfed by the risks we face...

  3. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartmentEnergy Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs

  4. Psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and affective response to exercise in adolescents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Margaret L.; Kwan, Bethany M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Step 1 Predictor Summary of regression analyses examining unique contributions of psychological needs and affective response

  5. Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liebner, Susanne [University of Tromso, Norway; Wilhelm, Ronald [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Wagner, Dirk [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

  6. Note: The content of this report is premised on industry interviews that were conducted prior to September 2011 and do not reflect discussions, initiatives, activities, or developments that are subsequently taking place within the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The majority of the standards work beyond 2015 will center on the home market and corresponding grid that are subsequently taking place within the SGIP or other stakeholder forums. Appendices Appendix A: Smart Grid 2015) will be complete. As the fifth year of the national smart grid effort begins, a significant amount of deployment

  7. On the Nature of the Response of the General Purpose Heat Source to the Impact of Large Solid Rocket Motor Casing Fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After the Challenger (STS-51L)accident new tests were performed to assess the response of the GPHS module to large fragment impacts. The subject of this paper is the analytical process used to perform macro calibrations of the analytical methods and their application to predict the GPHS modules' response to serially increasing levels of test environment complexity. Sensitivity studies were performed to generate a fueled-clad-distortion-response statistical database for use in a Monte Carlo based fuel release analysis. The analyses showed that the iridium fueled clads in the GPHS-RTG have high resistance to distortion induced by the impact of large, high velocity (>200 m/s), SRM casing fragments. It was concluded that the impact of large SRM fragments will cause little clad disruption at early Mission Elapsed Time (MET), and that the effects of these impacts will be less severe than had initially been believe. There are three copies in the file.

  8. Transition from participant to spectator fragmentation in Au+Au reaction between 60 AMeV and 150 AMeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zbiri, K; Aichelin, J; Reisdorf, W; Gulminelli, F; Lynen, U; Müller, W F J; Orth, H; Schwarz, C; Sfienti, C; Trautmann, W; Turzó, K; Zwieglinski, B; Auger, G; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Legrain, R; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Nalpas, L; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the quantum molecular dynamics approach, we analyze the results of the recent INDRA Au+Au experiments at GSI in the energy range between 60 AMeV and 150 AMeV. It turns out that in this energy region the transition toward a participant-spectator scenario takes place. The large Au+Au system displays in the simulations as in the experiment simultaneously dynamical and statistical behavior which we analyze in detail: The composition of fragments close to midrapidity follows statistical laws and the system shows bi-modality, i.e. a sudden transition between different fragmentation pattern as a function of the centrality as expected for a phase transition. The fragment spectra at small and large rapidities, on the other hand, are determined by dynamics and the system as a whole does not come to equilibrium, an observation which is confirmed by FOPI experiments for the same system.

  9. Alkali gabbronorite, ultra-KREEPy melt rock and the diverse suite of clasts in North Ray crater feldspathic fragmental breccia 67975

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, M.M.

    1984-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lunar breccia 67975 is a feldspathic fragmental breccia from North Ray crater, Apollo 16. It contains clasts of alkali gabbronorite and ultra-KREEPy mafic fragment-laden melt breccias, which are unique among Apollo 16 samples. Both are alkali- and iron-rich rocks with moderate to high REE concentrations. They more strongly resemble Apollo 14 gabbronorites and alkali anorthosites and KREEP-rich rocks than they do other Apollo 16 samples. The other clasts in 67975 are the ferroan anorthosites, feldspathic melt rocks, and magnesian granulites, which are typical of other feldspathic fragmental breccias. Examination of bulk and mineral compositions of other breccias and melt rocks suggests that alkali gabbronorite may be a minor component in other North Ray crater breccias and feldspathic melt rocks. This implies that alkali gabbronorite was a fairly early (4.0 b.y.) crustal component in the North Ray crater region.

  10. Power law and exponential ejecta size distributions from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded Cu and Sn metals under melt conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study and to model the ejecta production from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals under melt conditions. A generic 3D crystal in contact with vacuum containing about 10{sup 8} atoms and with a sinusoidal free surface roughness is shock loaded so as to undergo a solid-liquid phase change on shock. The reflection of the shock wave at the interface metal/vacuum gives rise to the ejection of 2D jets/sheets of atoms (Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in the continuum limit), which develop and break up, forming ejecta (fragments) of different volumes (or mass). The fragmentation process is investigated by analyzing the evolution of the resulting volume distribution of the ejecta as a function of time. Two metals are studied (Cu and Sn) and the amplitude of the roughness is varied. The simulations show that the associated distributions exhibit a generic behavior with the sum of two distinct terms of varying weight, following the expansion rate of the jets: in the small size limit, the distribution obeys a power law dependence with an exponent equal to 1.15?±?0.08; and in the large size limit, it obeys an exponential form. These two components are interpreted, with the help of additional simple simulations, as the signature of two different basic mechanisms of fragmentation. The power law dependence results from the fragmentation of a 2D network of ligaments arranged following a fractal (scale free) geometry and generated when the sheets of liquid metal expand and tear. The exponential distribution results from a 1D Poisson fragmentation process of the largest ligaments previously generated. Unlike the power law distribution, it is governed by a characteristic length scale, which may be provided by energy balance principle.

  11. A method based on transverse energy balance of jets for selection of direct photons and fragmentation photons in high energy pp collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mriganka Mouli Mondal; Subhasis Chattopadhyay

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct photons are important probes in high energy collisions. They play an important role in determining the parton distribution function directly inside a proton as well as the nature of the matter formed in heavy ion collisions. However fragmentation photons play the role of prominent background in identifying the direct photons. In the present work we developed a new method based on the transverse energy balance of jets for enrichment of direct photon candidates in pp collisions. This method can reject 35% of the background photons (fragmentation) which can not be suppressed by isolation. Efficiency of detection of direct photon decrease by 10% in the method.

  12. Verification of Monte Carlo transport codes against measured small angle p-, d-, and t-emission in carbon fragmentation at 600 MeV/nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Abramov; P. N. Alexeev; Yu. A. Borodin; S. A. Bulychjov; I. A. Dukhovskoy; A. P. Krutenkova; V. V. Kulikov; M. A. Martemianov; M. A. Matsyuk; E. N. Turdakina; A. I. Khanov; S. G. Mashnik

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Momentum spectra of hydrogen isotopes have been measured at 3.5 deg from C12 fragmentation on a Be target. Momentum spectra cover both the region of fragmentation maximum and the cumulative region. Differential cross sections span five orders of magnitude. The data are compared to predictions of four Monte Carlo codes: QMD, LAQGSM, BC, and INCL++. There are large differences between the data and predictions of some models in the high momentum region. The INCL++ code gives the best and almost perfect description of the data.

  13. Brownian shape motion on five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces: Nuclear fission-fragment mass distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorgen Randrup; Peter Moller

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Although nuclear fission can be understood qualitatively as an evolution of the nuclear shape, a quantitative description has proven to be very elusive. In particular, until now, there exists no model with demonstrated predictive power for the fission fragment mass yields. Exploiting the expected strongly damped character of nuclear dynamics, we treat the nuclear shape evolution in analogy with Brownian motion and perform random walks on five-dimensional fission potential-energy surfaces which were calculated previously and are the most comprehensive available. Test applications give good reproduction of highly variable experimental mass yields. This novel general approach requires only a single new global parameter, namely the critical neck size at which the mass split is frozen in, and the results are remarkably insensitive to its specific value.

  14. Velocity map imaging as a tool for gaining mechanistic insight from closed-loop control studies of molecular fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochim, Bethany; Averin, R.; Gregerson, Neal; Wells, E. [Department of Physics, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57197 (United States); McKenna, J.; De, S.; Ray, D.; Zohrabi, M.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Bergues, B. [Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Hans-Kopfermann Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kling, M. F. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Hans-Kopfermann Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong-field closed-loop control schemes using shaped ultrafast laser pulses have been used to selectively fragment a variety of molecules in recent years. The resulting pulses are often complex and resist an easy mechanistic interpretation. We report on the use of velocity map imaging to study the dissociative ionization of CO molecules by optimally-shaped ultrafast laser pulses. Using this technique, a mechanism is identified for the optimized CO{sup +} {yields} C + O{sup +} dissociation, and some of the observed control over the CO{sup +} dissociation branching ratio is ascribed to an angular discrimination effect. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the acquisition of two-dimensional velocity map images is rapid enough to incorporate directly into the adaptive control loop.

  15. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charnoz, S; Chaumard, N; Baillie, K; Tallifet, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1.9, which translates into cumulative size exponent between -2.5 and -2.8 after correction for sectioning. To explain these observations, numerical simulations were run to explore the growth of CAIs from micrometer to centimeter sizes, in a hot and turbulent protoplanetary disk through the competition of coagulation and fragmentation. We show that the size distributions obtained in growth simulations are in agreement with CAIs size distributions in meteorites. We explain the CAI sharp cut-off of their size distribution at ...

  16. ISLAND OF THE HIGH YIELDS OF 252Cf(sf) COLLINEAR TRIPARTITION IN THE FRAGMENT MASS SPACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. V. Pyatkov; D. V. Kamanin; W. H. Trzaska; W. Von Oertzen; Yu. E. Peinionzhkevich

    Abstract. Results of three independent experiments aimed at searching for collinear cluster tripartition (CCT) of the 252Cf (sf) are reported. They confirm previously proposed kinematical scheme let to distinguish two CCT partners flying almost in the same direction. A new island of the CCT manifestation in the mass-mass distribution of the decay fragments was revealed. A total yield of the CCT originated events in the island is not less 4*10-3 per binary fission. Presumably, the ternary decay of nuclear molecules based on heavy magic clusters such as isotopes of Ni, Ge, Sn, Te gives rise to the effect observed. Key words: clustering, multibody decays, shell effects, fission 1.

  17. Multiplicity correlations of intermediate-mass fragments with pions and fast protons in $^{12}C + ^{197}Au$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turzó, K; Begemann-Blaich, M L; Bellaize, N; Bittiger, R; Bocage, F; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bouriquet, B; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Gourio, D; Guinet, D; Hudan, S; Imme, G; Lautesse, P; Lavaud, F; Lefèvre, A; Legrain, R; López, O; Lukasik, J; Lynen, U; Müller, W F J; Nalpas, L; Orth, H; Plagnol, E; Raciti, G; Rosato, E; Saija, A; Schwarz, C; Seidel, W; Sfienti, C; Tamain, B; Trautmann, W; Trzcinski, A; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Zwieglinski, B; Botvina, A S

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-energy pi+ (E 150 MeV) with intermediate-mass fragments were determined from the measured coincidence data. The deduced correlation functions 1 + R \\approx 1.3 for inclusive event samples reflect the strong correlations evident from the common impact-parameter dependence of the considered multiplicities. For narrow impact-parameter bins (based on charged-particle multiplicity), the correlation functions are close to unity and do not indicate strong additional correlations. Only for pions at high particle multiplicities (central collisions) a weak anticorrelation is observed, probably due to a limited competition between these emissions. Overall, the results are consistent with the equilibrium assumption made in statistical multifragmentation scenarios. Predictions obtained with intranuclear cascade models coupled to the Statistical Multifragmentation Model are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Efficient implementation of the three-dimensional reference interaction site model method in the fragment molecular orbital method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Norio, E-mail: noriwo@chem.kyushu-univ.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) method was efficiently implemented in the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. The method is referred to as the FMO/3D-RISM method, and allows us to treat electronic structure of the whole of a macromolecule, such as a protein, as well as the solvent distribution around a solute macromolecule. The formalism of the FMO/3D-RISM method, for the computationally available form and variational expressions, are proposed in detail. A major concern leading to the implementation of the method was decreasing the computational costs involved in calculating the electrostatic potential, because the electrostatic potential is calculated on numerous grid points in three-dimensional real space in the 3D-RISM method. In this article, we propose a procedure for decreasing the computational costs involved in calculating the electrostatic potential in the FMO method framework. The strategy involved in this procedure is to evaluate the electrostatic potential and the solvated Fock matrix in different manners, depending on the distance between the solute and the solvent. The electrostatic potential is evaluated directly in the vicinity of the solute molecule by integrating the molecular orbitals of monomer fragments of the solute molecule, whereas the electrostatic potential is described as the sum of multipole interactions when an analog of the fast multipole method is used. The efficiency of our method was demonstrated by applying it to a water trimer system and three biomolecular systems. The FMO/3D-RISM calculation can be performed within a reasonable computational time, retaining the accuracy of some physical properties.

  19. Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  20. An analysis of parameters affecting slapdown of transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergmann, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several parameters affecting the accelerations experienced by packages for the transport of nuclear material during eccentric impact are evaluated. Eccentric impact on one end of a cask causes rotation leading to secondary impact, referred to as slapdown, at the other end. In a slapdown event, the rotational acceleration during the primary impact can cause accelerations at the nose and tail which are greater than those during a side-on impact. Slapdown can also cause acceleration at the tail during the secondary impact to be more severe than at the nose during primary impact. Both of these effects are investigated for two casks geometries. Other parameters evaluated are the characteristics of impact limiters and friction between the impact limiter the impacted surface. Results were obtained using SLAPDOWN, a code which models the impact response of deformable bodies. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Microscale Confinement features in microfluidic devices can affect biofilm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Aloke [ORNL] [ORNL; Karig, David K [ORNL] [ORNL; Neethirajan, Suresh [University of Guelph] [University of Guelph; Acharya, Rajesh K [ORNL] [ORNL; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofilms are aggregations of microbes that are encased by extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and adhere to surfaces and interfaces. Biofilm development on abiotic surfaces is a dynamic process, which typically proceeds through an initial phase of adhesion of plankntonic microbes to the substrate, followed by events such as growth, maturation and EPS secretion. However, the coupling of hydrodynamics, microbial adhesion and biofilm growth remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of semiconfined features on biofilm formation. Using a microfluidic device and fluorescent time-lapse microscopy, we establish that confinement features can significantly affect biofilm formation. Biofilm dynamics change not only as a function of confinement features, but also of the total fluid flow rate, and our combination of experimental results and numerical simulations reveal insights into the link between hydrodynamics and biofilm formation.

  2. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  3. Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: calin@pme.nthu.edu.t [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

  4. Tetramerization domain mutations in KCNA5 Identified in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients affect channel kinetics and cause abnormal subcellular localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burg, Elyssa D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients affect channelin Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients Affect Channelin Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients Causes

  5. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. The model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, O.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  6. The EMBO Journal vol.5 no.11 pp.3045-3049, 1986 Localization of two chymotryptic fragments in the structure of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the structure of renatured bacteriorhodopsin by neutron diffraction Jill Trewhelial, Jean-Luc Popot2, Giuseppe frag- ments has been studied by neutron diffraction. In one of the samples studied, the fragment C-2 Press Limited, Oxford, England ferent assignment models predict the changes in the neutron diffraction

  7. AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July 3, 2013 AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July 3, 2013 Document details the Assisting...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting plasmid production Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plus an insert in the MCS) affected bacterial fit- ness in a selective... in minimal media did not affect copy number in plasmids of any size tested, and (iii) any growth...

  9. The social potency of affect: Identification and power in the immanent structuring of practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark; Willmott, Hugh

    2015-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ), ‘collective affects’ (Anderson, 2009: 78), or contagious affect (Thrift, 2008). These observations may be casually termed ‘subjective’, but consistent with the conceptual framing of this paper, they are arguably inter- subjective in their embodied sociality...

  10. An analysis of parameters affecting slapdown of transportation packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergmann, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the certification of packages for transport of radioactive material, the issue of slapdown must be addressed. Slapdown is a secondary impact of the body caused by rotational accelerations induced during eccentric primary impact. In this report, several parameters are evaluated that affect slapdown severity of packages for the transport of nuclear material. The nose and tail accelerations in a slapdown event are compared to those experienced by the same cask in a side-drop configuration, in which there is no rotation, for a range of initial impact angles, impact limiter models, and friction coefficients for two existing cask geometries. In some cases, the rotation induced during a shallow-angle impact is sufficient to cause accelerations at the tail during secondary impact to be greater than those at the nose during initial impact. Furthermore, both nose and tail accelerations are often greater than the side-on accelerations. The results described here have been calculated using the code SLAPDOWN, which approximates the impact response of deformable bodies. Finally, SLAPDOWN has been used to estimate the coefficient of friction acting at the nose and tail for one particular cask during one specific slapdown drop test by comparison of results with experimental data. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhammad Sohail; Abdur Rashid Khan

    2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as a knowledge learning tool. This tool may be used as a standard document for selection and promotion of employees.

  12. Experimental reconstruction of primary hot isotopes and characteristic properties of the fragmenting source in the heavy ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Lin; X. Liu; M. R. D. Rodrigues; S. Kowalski; R. Wada; M. Huang; S. Zhang; Z. Chen; J. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; R. Han; Z. Jin; J. Liu; P. Ren; F. Shi; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; M. Barbui; C. Bottosso; A. Bonasera; J. B. Natowitz; T. Materna; L. Qin; P. K. Sahu; H. Zheng

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristic properties of the hot nuclear matter existing at the time of fragment formation in the multifragmentation events produced in the reaction $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon are studied. A kinematical focusing method is employed to determine the multiplicities of evaporated light particles, associated with isotopically identified detected fragments. From these data the primary isotopic yield distributions are reconstructed using a Monte Carlo method. The reconstructed yield distributions are in good agreement with the primary isotope distributions obtained from AMD transport model simulations. Utilizing the reconstructed yields, power distribution, Landau free energy, characteristic properties of the emitting source are examined. The primary mass distributions exhibit a power law distribution with the critical exponent, $A^{-2.3}$, for $A \\geq 15$ isotopes, but significantly deviates from that for the lighter isotopes. Landau free energy plots show no strong signature of the first order phase transition. Based on the Modified Fisher Model, the ratios of the Coulomb and symmetry energy coefficients relative to the temperature, $a_{c}/T$ and $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted as a function of A. The extracted $a_{sym}/T$ values are compared with results of the AMD simulations using Gogny interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term. The calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values show a close relation to the symmetry energy at the density at the time of the fragment formation. From this relation the density of the fragmenting source is determined to be $\\rho /\\rho_{0} = (0.63 \\pm 0.03 )$. Using this density, the symmetry energy coefficient and the temperature of fragmenting source are determined in a self-consistent manner as $a_{sym} = (24.7 \\pm 3.4) MeV$ and $T=(4.9 \\pm 0.2)$ MeV.

  13. TARGET FRAGMENT ENERGIES AND MOMENTA IN THE REACTION OF 4.8 GeV {sup 12}C AND 5.0 GeV {sup 20}Ne WITH {sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loveland, W.; Luo, Cheng; McGaughey, P. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Seaborg, G. T.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target fragment recoil properties were measured using the thick target-thick catcher technique for the interaction of 4.8 GeV {sup 12}C and 5.0 GeV {sup 20}Ne with {sup 238}U. The target fragment energies and momenta are very similar for the reaction of 4.8 GeV (400 MeV/A) {sup 12}C and 5.0 GeV (250 MeV/A) {sup 20}Ne with {sup 238}U. In the complex variation of fragment momenta with their N/Z ratio, one finds evidence suggesting the existence of several mechanisms leading to the formation of the target fragments. Comparison of these results with the predictions of the intranuclear cascade model of Yariv and Fraenkel and the firestreak model shows that both model predictions grossly overestimate the target fragment momenta.

  14. How the Second Amendment to China's Patent Law Affects Firms' Patenting Behavior In this study, we examine how the second amendment to China's patent law affects the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    How the Second Amendment to China's Patent Law Affects Firms' Patenting Behavior Abstract In this study, we examine how the second amendment to China's patent law affects the patenting behavior passed a second amendment to its patent system in 2000 in accordance with the Trade-Related Aspects

  15. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United states and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A brief summary of public utility regulatory programs, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority is presented in this report to identify how such programs and authority may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  16. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  17. Tyrosine kinase activity of a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II catalytic fragment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, Yasunori [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 2393, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Ishida, Atsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Sueyoshi, Noriyuki [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 2393, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Kameshita, Isamu [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 2393, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan)], E-mail: kamesita@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A 30-kDa fragment of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (30K-CaMKII) is a constitutively active protein Ser/Thr kinase devoid of autophosphorylation activity. We have produced a chimeric enzyme of 30K-CaMKII (designated CX{sub 40}-30K-CaMKII), in which the N-terminal 40 amino acids of Xenopus Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CX{sub 40}) were fused to the N-terminal end of 30K-CaMKII. Although CX{sub 40}-30K-CaMKII exhibited essentially the same substrate specificity as 30K-CaMKII, it underwent significant autophosphorylation. Surprisingly, its autophosphorylation site was found to be Tyr-18 within the N-terminal CX{sub 40} region of the fusion protein, although it did not show any Tyr kinase activity toward exogenous substrates. Several lines of evidence suggested that the autophosphorylation occurred via an intramolecular mechanism. These data suggest that even typical Ser/Thr kinases such as 30K-CaMKII can phosphorylate Tyr residues under certain conditions. The possible mechanism of the Tyr residue autophosphorylation is discussed.

  18. Crystal structure of P58(IPK) TPR fragment reveals the mechanism for its molecular chaperone activity in UPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Jiahui; Petrova, Kseniya; Ron, David; Sha, Bingdong (UAB); (NYUSM)

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    P58(IPK) might function as an endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone to maintain protein folding homeostasis during unfolded protein responses. P58(IPK) contains nine tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs and a C-terminal J-domain within its primary sequence. To investigate the mechanism by which P58(IPK) functions to promote protein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum, we have determined the crystal structure of P58(IPK) TPR fragment to 2.5 {angstrom} resolution by the SAD method. The crystal structure of P58(IPK) revealed three domains (I-III) with similar folds and each domain contains three TPR motifs. An ELISA assay indicated that P58(IPK) acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with misfolded proteins such as luciferase and rhodanese. The P58(IPK) structure reveals a conserved hydrophobic patch located in domain I that might be involved in binding the misfolded polypeptides. Structure-based mutagenesis for the conserved hydrophobic residues located in domain I significantly reduced the molecular chaperone activity of P58(IPK).

  19. Quality Management and Job Quality: How the ISO 9001 Standard forQuality Management Systems Affects Employees and Employers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, David I.; Toffel, Michael W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Job Quality: How the ISO 9001 Standard for Qualityhave examined how the ISO 9001 Quality Management Systemcompanies in California. ISO 9001 adopters subsequently had

  20. Experimental Neutron-Induced Fission Fragment Mass Yields of 232Th and 238U at Energies from 10 to 33 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Simutkin; S. Pomp; J. Blomgren; M. Österlund; R. Bevilacqua; I. V. Ryzhov; G. A. Tutin; S. G. Yavshits; L. A. Vaishnene; M. S. Onegin; J. P. Meulders; R. Prieels

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of nuclear energy applications requires data for neutron-induced reactions for actinides in a wide neutron energy range. Here we describe measurements of pre-neutron emission fission fragment mass yields of 232Th and 238U at incident neutron energies from 10 to 33 MeV. The measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE; a multi-section twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used to detect fission fragments. For the peak neutron energies at 33, 45 and 60 MeV, the details of the data analysis and the experimental results have been published before and in this work we present data analysis in the low-energy tail of the neutron energy spectra. The preliminary measurement results are compared with available experimental data and theoretical predictions.