Sample records for affect surface water

  1. Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of the pipeline as a way to check for leaks? Do you have any specific concerns regarding oil or natural gas1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water

  2. Surface branch of the hydrologic cycle affecting Texas for water year 1959

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gargiulo, Alphonse, Jr

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to that of precipitation, the assumptions do not materially affect, balance computations. Approxi- mately 28 per cent of the average annual precipitation recorded for the United States is carried to the oceans by streams (25). Eva oration and Eva otrans iration... stations. Eva otrans iration. Since the size of Texas and the period of concern are considered to meet the criteria stated by Benton (1), values of evapotranspiration were determined from the values of (E-P), obtained from McKay (11) from L2j...

  3. Factors affecting water coning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Randy Keith

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (December 1977) Randy Keith Parker, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. Richard A. Morse The production of oil that is underlain by water, through a partially penetrating well at a production rate greater than a certain... of well, reservoir, and fluid parameters, it was found that equivalent systems could be determined that had the same water and oil production characteristics. Most of the we' ll, reservoir, and fluid relationships are based on two equations which were...

  4. Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux-Michollet, Dad; Dudal, Yves; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Czarnes, Sonia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organic components Water extraction was performed by shakingresulting from hot water extraction, as measured by Sparlingboiling soil in water resulted in the extraction of both

  5. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  6. Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux-Michollet, Dad; Dudal, Yves; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Czarnes, Sonia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the newly released carbon. Steam treatment showed strong but010-0468-6 ORIGINAL PAPER Steam treatment of surface soil:at Springerlink.com Abstract Steam soil disinfestation is

  7. Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

  8. Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act states regulations for the quality of surface water in the state. It also states designated uses of classified surface waters, surface water quality criteria and an antidegradation policy...

  9. Pesticide Properties that Affect Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Douglas; Baumann, Paul A.; Jackman, John A.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to keep our water supplies safe from pesticide contamination, we must understand which pesticide properties affect water quality, and how. The subject is complex, as properties such as pesticide class, formulation, toxicity, dose, effective...

  10. Pesticide Properties that Affect Water Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Douglas; Baumann, Paul A.; Jackman, John A.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to keep our water supplies safe from pesticide contamination, we must understand which pesticide properties affect water quality, and how. The subject is complex, as properties such as pesticide class, formulation, toxicity, dose, effective...

  11. Work Affecting Public Waters (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier sections of chapter 103G describe the process of delineating public waters; this section describes the responsibility of contractors and property owners when construction or other activity...

  12. Surface Water Quality Standards (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain surface water quality standards, stream classifications, discussion of lakes and impounded basins, and water...

  13. Global climate change will affect air, water in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weare, Bryan C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, UC Davis. Hechange will affect air, water in California Bryan C. Wearelikely to include reduced water availability and quality,

  14. Surface Water Quality Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recreational uses. ?The Commission will seek substantial additional public comment on any proposed changes to the standards before adopting them into the state admin- istrative code,? Davenport said. ?Because of the com- plexity and regulatory importance... Conservation Board?s state watershed coordinator, said the standards for contact recreation, with only a few exceptions, are uniformly applied regardless of water body type or the actual level of recreation use. ?Because a minimum of 10 water samples over a...

  15. Surface Water Quality Standards (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These standards establish the designated uses and antidegradation categories of the State's surface waters, classify surface waters based on those uses (i.e., stream classifications), and specify...

  16. Assessing Phosphorous Loss to Protect Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Raul

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Minimizing phosphorus pollution of surface water from agricultural fields involves manage- ment practices that control both the source and transportation factors of soil. Influences that affect the source and the amount of phosphorus transported include... the type of phosphorus applied and the content in the soil itself. Transportation factors include rainfall, irrigation, erosion, and runoff. The overall aim of environmentally sound practices is to keep soil fertility levels of phos- phorus to a range...

  17. Sources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    Sources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout Kentucky's 39,486 square miles. Surface water occurs as rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, and wetlands. Ground- water occurs underlain by soluble carbonate rocks (for example, limestone). Water Supply · Approximately 49 inches

  18. Wave-Induced Mass Transport Affects Daily Escherichia coli Fluctuations in Nearshore Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sitesWave-Induced Mass Transport Affects Daily Escherichia coli Fluctuations in Nearshore Water Zhongfu to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore

  19. Management and Storage of Surface Waters (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Protection regulates the use and storage of surface waters in the state. A permit from either the Department or the local Water Management District is required for...

  20. AGENDA ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit Bi-Annual Update Public Meeting January 22, 2014 5:30-7:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center...

  1. The Metropolitan Surface Water Management Act (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Metropolitan Surface Water Management Act aims to protect, preserve, and use natural, surface, and groundwater storage and retention systems; identify and plan for means to improve and protect...

  2. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  3. Impoundment of Surface Waters (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many water withdrawal projects involve planning and engineering long before any permits are obtained. DEQ's Office of Water Supply is responsible for assisting the public with such planning and is...

  4. California's water futures: How water conservation and varying Delta exports affect water supply in the face of climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    i California's water futures: How water conservation and varying Delta exports affect water supply implications of changes in urban water conservation, Delta export capacity, and a dry form of climate warming desalination, and expanded water recycling. Results indicate that, depending on climate and Delta export

  5. Water: one molecule, two surfaces, one mistake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega, Carlos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to rigorously evaluate the energy and dipole moment of a certain configuration of molecules one needs to solve the Schr\\"odinger equation. Repeating this for many different configurations allows one to determine the potential energy surface (PES) and the dipole moment surface (DMS). Since the early days of computer simulation it has been implicitly accepted that for empirical potentials the charges used to fit the PES should also be used to describe the DMS. This is a mistake. Partial charges are not observable magnitudes. They should be regarded as adjustable fitting parameters. Optimal values used to describe the PES are not necessarily the best to describe the DMS. One could use two fits: one for the PES, and another for the DMS. This is a common practice in the quantum chemistry community, but not used so often by the community performing computer simulations. This idea affects all types of modelling of water (with the exception of ab-initio calculations) from coarse grained to non-polarizable an...

  6. Surface Water Development in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Government. Flood-control storage capacities at 26 major Texas reservoirs amounted to 17.4 million acre-feet in 1976. There is evi- dence of a changing national policy to keep economic development out of the flood plains. It appears that management... Water Development ................................. 30 Appendix Tables .......................................... 32 ......... Appendix A: Major Conservation Storage Reservoirs 40 endix B: Water Development Board Policy ............... 41 eferences...

  7. State Surface Water Discharge Permits (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules apply to the discharge of all pollutants from a point source to surface waters of the state. The rule does not apply to facilities that require both a state discharge permit and a federal...

  8. Mathematical aspects of surface water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Walter

    questions remain. These have to do with the evolution of surface water waves, their approximation by model normally being chosen. Unless we are describing waves of a global extent, such as a tsunami, for our

  9. Surface Water Monitoring and Assessment (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes criteria for three levels of credible data for a surface water quality monitoring and assessment program and establishes the necessary training and experience for persons to...

  10. Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yunwei

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregate contact due to dust particles on the aggregate surface. The rupture may occur because of the construction loads and operating traffic during construction, or could be environmentally induced by freeze-thaw cycling. Once a break in the film... design, environment and traffic, can be defined as progressive degradation of asphalt mixture material due to the presence of water. The occurrence of moisture damage in asphalt material is a rather complex phenomenon, which involves chemical, physical...

  11. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Abstract: Water reduction under two visible...

  12. MFR PAPER 1170 Water Surface Area Within

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in hectares for each subsubarea within each subarea. Conversion factor Central latllude Stallstlcal hectares the Gulf coa t. especiall y tho e concerning im- pact of energy-related development. METHODS Water surface.-Converslon factors (hectares per planimeter unit) used to convert average planimeter units to area

  13. affect water relations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY...

  14. Hydraulic "Fracking": Are Surface Water Impacts An Ecological Concern?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydraulic "Fracking": Are Surface Water Impacts An Ecological Concern? G. Allen Burton Jr; Fracking; Water-quality stressor; Ecological risk assessment Introduction The world's energy marketplace

  15. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Abstract: Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were...

  16. Water Management Plans for Surface Coal Mining Operations (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A water management plan is required for all surface coal mining operations. This plan must be submitted to the State Engineer of the State Water Commission at the same time a surface mining permit...

  17. The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and local information needs and decisions related to water-quality management and policy (httpThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality National Water-Quality

  18. affects surface photometry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ACM Classification MacIver, Malcolm A. 42 Lunar Eclipse of June, 15, 2011: Three-color umbra surface photometry CERN Preprints Summary: The paper contains the preliminary result...

  19. Estimation of precipitable water from surface observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahan, Archie Marion

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for estimating the precipitable water at Lake Charles, Louisiana. P red ic tors employed were surface vapor p re s ? sure, ceiling, cloud cover , cloud type, wind, pressure change and iv season. E rrors of estimate averaged approximately one tenth o f... of the photocells and the intense radiation of the noon sun leads one to accept the reality of a ce ll temperature greater than the ambient air temperature. The ce lls are, in effect, miniature green ? houses, The epoxy resin cylinder encasing the crysta l...

  20. affects water relations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: the potential savings by using an integrated system that heats water by desuperheating discharge gas in...

  1. Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    changes in future water use caused by increased use of renewable technologies, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and nuclear. They found that at the national level, as the...

  2. Adsorption structure of water molecules on the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yu; Li, Yanfang [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Shuangxi [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    By using density functional theory calculations, we systematically investigate the adsorption of water molecules at different coverages on the Be(0001) surface. The coverage dependence of the prototype water structures and energetics for water adlayer growth are systematically studied. The structures, energetics, and electronic properties are calculated and compared with other available studies. Through our systematic investigations, we find that water molecules form clusters or chains on the Be(0001) surface at low coverages. When increasing the water coverage, water molecules tend to form a 2?×?2 hexagonal network on the Be(0001) surface.

  3. T. R . Nisbet of Forest Research and C. D. Evans of Centre for Ecology and Hydrology March 2014 Forestry and surface water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forestry and surface water acidification Forests and forest management practices can affect surface water to have peaked in the 1970s when emissions were greatest and led to surface waters draining catchments and harvesting, and restocking also have effects. This Research Note considers each of these factors in turn

  4. Characterizing the Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Different Subsurface Geologic Environments Using Geochemical and Isotopic Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Molly

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Shallow aquifers located near streams can be affected by groundwater contamination as a result of recharge from surface water; however, stream stage variation, subsurface geology, and seasonal changes can alter the magnitude of groundwater...

  5. Regulation of Dams and Bridges Affecting Navigable Waters (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chapter 31 of the Wisconsin Statutes lays out the regulations relevant to dams and bridges on or near navigable waters. This statute establishes that the Department of Natural Resources has...

  6. Special Provisions Affecting Gas, Water, or Pipeline Companies (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation confers the rights and privileges of telegraph and telephone companies (S.C. Code 58-9) on pipeline and water companies, and contains several additional provisions pertaining to...

  7. Ground and Surface Water Protection (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation implements the New Mexico Water Quality Act. Any person intending to make a new water contaminant discharge or to alter the character or location of an existing water contaminant...

  8. acidic surface waters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    off of the north Sumatra coast to the coast of nearby Craig, Walter 106 Hydraulic "Fracking": Are Surface Water Impacts An Ecological Concern? Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  9. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  10. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  11. Surface Water and Wetland Standards (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules state the standards for classification of water supply. Each stream in North Carolina has a classification based upon its designated uses. These rules provide the Environmental...

  12. Interaction between water cluster ions and mica surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryuto, Hiromichi, E-mail: ryuto@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ohmura, Yuki; Nakagawa, Minoru; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Takaoka, Gikan H. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Water cluster ion beams were irradiated on mica surfaces to investigate the interaction between molecular cluster ions and a mica surface. The contact angle of the mica surface increased with increasing dose of the water cluster ion beam, but the increase in the contact angle was smaller than that induced by an ethanol cluster ion beam. The surface roughness also increased with increasing dose of the water cluster ion beam, whereas the intensity of K 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks decreased with increasing dose of the water cluster ion beam. The decrease in the number of potassium atoms together with the increase in the surface roughness may be the causes of the increase in the contact angle.

  13. Water accounting for conjunctive groundwater/surface water management: case of the SingkarakOmbilin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Water accounting for conjunctive groundwater/surface water management: case of the Singkarak University, 216 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701, USA b International Water Management Institute, P 2003 Abstract Because water shortages limit development in many parts of the world, a systematic

  14. Particles in Surface Waters: Coagulation and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culkin, Gerald W.; Lawler, Desmond F.

    -averaged, unsteady particle transport were developed to approximate the size-dependent particle transport processes, which included advection, dispersion, and settling. Coupled exchange of discrete particles between the water column and sediment bed was modeled using...

  15. Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison of different global data sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the spatio-temporal variations of total terrestrial water storage (the sum of ground water, soil water1 Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison mass variations monitored by GRACE, simulated surface and total water storage from WGHM, water levels

  16. New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill Permits webpage Author New...

  17. Surface Water and Groundwater Use and Protection (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Surface and Groundwater Use and Protection is to ensure that Mississippi's public resource of water is safe and used properly. It requires that any person must obtain a permit...

  18. Impervious Areas: Examining the Undermining Effects on Surface Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, De'Etra Jenra

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of the classification. The overall accuracy was 85%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.80. Additionally, field sampling and chemical analysis techniques were used to examine the relationship between impervious surfaces and water quality in a rainfall simulation parking...

  19. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, Val H.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    information, we are confident that: (1) nonpoint pollution of surface waters with P and N could be reduced by reducing surplus nutrient flows in agricultural systems and processes, reducing agricultural and urban runoff by diverse methods, and reducing N...

  20. NONPOINT POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATERS WITH PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Caraco, Nina F. M.; Correll, David L.; Howarth, Robert W.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Smith, Val H.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    information, we are confident that: (1) nonpoint pollution of surface waters with P and N could be reduced by reducing surplus nutrient flows in agricultural systems and processes, reducing agricultural and urban runoff by diverse methods, and reducing N...

  1. EA-1093: Surface Water Drainage System, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats...

  2. Anion Adsorption on Oxide Surfaces: Inclusion of the Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    Anion Adsorption on Oxide Surfaces: Inclusion of the Water Dipole in Modeling the Electrostatics of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 Adsorption of desorption of water dipoles in treating anion adsorption by ligand exchange. Taking this effect into account

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Thermal Performance of a Water Shield for a Surface Power Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Stewart, Eric T. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Reid, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Water based reactor shielding is being investigated for use on initial lunar surface power systems. A water shield may lower overall cost (as compared to development cost for other materials) and simplify operations in the setup and handling. The thermal hydraulic performance of the shield is of significant interest. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design is evaluated with 2 kW power input to the water in the Water Shield Testbed (WST) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental data from the WST is used to validate a CFD model. Performance of the water shield on the lunar surface is then predicted with a CFD model anchored to test data. The experiment had a maximum water temperature of 75 deg. C. The CFD model with 1/6-g predicts a maximum water temperature of 88 deg. C with the same heat load and external boundary conditions. This difference in maximum temperature does not greatly affect the structural design of the shield, and demonstrates that it may be possible to use water for a lunar reactor shield.

  4. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Gaurav [Ohio University, Athens; Mark, David [University at Buffalo, NY; Kolas, Dave [Raytheon BBN Technologies; Varanka, Dalia [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Romero, Boleslo E [University of California, Santa Barbara; Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Usery, Lynn [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Liebermann, Joshua [Tumbling Walls, LLC; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  5. Institutional processes affecting the provision of water resources for public recreational use in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, William Earl

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development INSTITUTIONAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE PROVISION OF WATER RESOURCES FOR PUBLIC RECREATIONAL USE IN TEXAS A Thesis by WILLIAM EARL RICHARDSON Approved... legislature for the conservation and development of the natural resources of the state. This study traced the legislative histories of legis- lation relating to the allocation of water resources for public recreational use. Additionally, the effects...

  6. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2010), The surface water and ocean topography mission:and the Surface Energy Balance with Topography Algorithm (

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site is largely developed yet its surface water system encompasses two arroyos, an engineered detention basin (Lake Haussmann), storm channels, and wetlands. Conversely, the more rural Site 300 includes approximately 7,000 acres of largely undeveloped land with many natural tributaries, riparian habitats, and wetland areas. These wetlands include vernal pools, perennial seeps, and emergent wetlands. The watersheds within which the Laboratory's sites lie provide local and community ecological functions and services which require protection. These functions and services include water supply, flood attenuation, groundwater recharge, water quality improvement, wildlife and aquatic habitats, erosion control, and (downstream) recreational opportunities. The Laboratory employs a watershed approach to protect these surface water systems. The intent of this approach, presented in this document, is to provide an integrated effort to eliminate or minimize any adverse environmental impacts of the Laboratory's operations and enhance the attributes of these surface water systems, as possible and when reasonable, to protect their value to the community and watershed. The Laboratory's watershed approach to surface water protection will use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Framework and guiding principles of geographic focus, scientifically based management and partnerships1 as a foundation. While the Laboratory's unique site characteristics result in objectives and priorities that may differ from other industrial sites, these underlying guiding principles provide a structure for surface water protection to ensure the Laboratory's role in environmental stewardship and as a community partner in watershed protection. The approach includes pollution prevention, continual environmental improvement, and supporting, as possible, community objectives (e.g., protection of the San Francisco Bay watershed).

  8. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000?Hz, with 0.5?J per pulse energy output at 25?kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  9. Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator and shadowed polar regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator (2008), Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator observations confirm a consistent solar wind-to-wake potential difference of many hundreds of volts (negative

  10. Radiolysis Concerns for Water Shielding in Fission Surface Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States); Anghaie, Samim [Innovative Space Power and Propulsion Institute, 800 SW Archer Rd. Bldg.554, P.O. Box 116502, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6502 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of radiolysis concerns with regard to water shields for fission surface power. A review of the radiolysis process is presented and key parameters and trends are identified. From this understanding of the radiolytic decomposition of water, shield pressurization and corrosion are identified as the primary concerns. Existing experimental and modeling data addressing concerns are summarized. It was found that radiolysis of pure water in a closed volume results in minimal, if any net decomposition, and therefore reduces the potential for shield pressurization and corrosion.

  11. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2008 water year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, David; Cata, Betsy; Kuyumjian, Gregory

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 69 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  12. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2002 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Shaull; D. Ortiz; M.R. Alexander; R.P. Romero

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 34 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data from 16 stations.

  13. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2009 water year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, David; McCullough, Betsy

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 73 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  14. Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies Many of the Earth's important atmospheric recovery, and emulsion stabilization. We are studying the behavior of species at the carbon tetrachloride.2 3100300029002800 pH~ 2 pH~ 4.5 pH ~ 5.5 Wavenumbers / cm-1 SFGAmp/arb.units COOH COOH COOH Emulsion Studies

  15. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  16. Bacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bodies that support oyster harvesting, called oyster waters, have four clas- sifications which determineBacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set water quality standards to ensure all uses of a water body have the ap- propriate water

  17. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  18. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  19. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  20. The Whitham Equation as a Model for Surface Water Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daulet Moldabayev; Henrik Kalisch; Denys Dutykh

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Whitham equation was proposed as an alternate model equation for the simplified description of uni-directional wave motion at the surface of an inviscid fluid. As the Whitham equation incorporates the full linear dispersion relation of the water wave problem, it is thought to provide a more faithful description of shorter waves of small amplitude than traditional long wave models such as the KdV equation. In this work, we identify a scaling regime in which the Whitham equation can be derived from the Hamiltonian theory of surface water waves. The Whitham equation is integrated numerically, and it is shown that the equation gives a close approximation of inviscid free surface dynamics as described by the Euler equations. The performance of the Whitham equation as a model for free surface dynamics is also compared to two standard free surface models: the KdV and the BBM equation. It is found that in a wide parameter range of amplitudes and wavelengths, the Whitham equation performs on par with or better than both the KdV and BBM equations.

  1. Changes in surface water regime and resources in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution in Mongolia, l/s sq.km*100 Converted from 1: 1000000 map to 0.5ox0.5o grid points Results (Continuation) Mean evapotranspiration, mm/year Converted from 1: 9000000 map to 0.5ox0.5o grid #12;3 Evaporation from open water surface, mm/year Converted from 1: 9000000 map to 0.5ox0.5o grid cells Ratio

  2. An integrable evolution equation for surface waves in deep water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Kraenkel; H. Leblond; M. A. Manna

    2011-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to describe the dynamics of monochromatic surface waves in deep water, we derive a nonlinear and dispersive system of equations for the free surface elevation and the free surface velocity from the Euler equations in infinite depth. From it, and using a multiscale perturbative methods, an asymptotic model for small-aspect-ratio waves is derived. The model is shown to be completely integrable. The Lax pair, the first conserved quantities as well as the symmetries are exhibited. Theoretical and numerical studies reveal that it supports periodic progressive Stokes waves which peak and break in finite time. Comparison between the limiting wave solution of the asymptotic model and classical irrotational results is performed.

  3. Growth, physiology, and [delta] 13C of loblolly and shortleaf pine as affected by ozone and soil water deficit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsik, Christine Golemboski

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    44 48 CHAPTER Page VI STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE COMPOSITION AND LEAF INTERNAL CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION OF LOBLOLLY AND SHORTLEAF PINE AS AFFECTED BY OZONE AND WATER STRESS Introduction Experimental Methods Results . Discussion Summary..., ) and two water regimes (well-watered and water- stressed) during one growing in season open-top field chambers equipped with fixed raincaps. Conventional methods were used to measure growth, biomass allocation, foliar chlorophyll concentration...

  4. Horizon effects with surface waves on moving water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germain Rousseaux; Philippe Maissa; Christian Mathis; Pierre Coullet; Thomas G. Philbin; Ulf Leonhardt

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface waves on a stationary flow of water are considered, in a linear model that includes the surface tension of the fluid. The resulting gravity-capillary waves experience a rich array of horizon effects when propagating against the flow. In some cases three horizons (points where the group velocity of the wave reverses) exist for waves with a single laboratory frequency. Some of these effects are familiar in fluid mechanics under the name of wave blocking, but other aspects, in particular waves with negative co-moving frequency and the Hawking effect, were overlooked until surface waves were investigated as examples of analogue gravity [Sch\\"utzhold R and Unruh W G 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 044019]. A comprehensive presentation of the various horizon effects for gravity-capillary waves is given, with emphasis on the deep water/short wavelength case kh>>1 where many analytical results can be derived. A similarity of the state space of the waves to that of a thermodynamic system is pointed out.

  5. Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery techniques is waste heat and condensation water recovery system. Waste heat and condensation water recovery system is one of the most important facilities in power plants. High efficiency waste heat

  6. Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -west France. 98 samples were analysed from 63 stations (surface water and drinking water produced from surface. The removal rate of human pharmaceutical compounds at 11 water treatment units was also determined. Only caffeine proved to be resistant to drinking water treatment processes (with a minimum rate of 5%). Other

  7. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Tritium in Surface Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget »Travel and Lodging DirectionsSurface Water

  8. Appendixes 159 160 Simulation of Ground-Water/Surface-Water Flow in the Santa ClaraCalleguas Ground-Water Basin, Ventura County, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­Calleguas Ground-Water Basin, Ventura County, California APPENDIX 1: DOCUMENTATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE DIGITAL-Water/Surface-Water Flow in the Santa Clara­Calleguas Ground-Water Basin, Ventura County, California Figure A.1.2. Location-Water Basin, Ventura County, California Figure A1.4. Location of USGS_GWMODEL coverage. PacificOcean VENTURACO

  9. Linear relationship between water wetting behavior and microscopic interactions of super-hydrophilic surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Guo, Pan [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China) [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Chunlei; Shi, Guosheng, E-mail: shiguosheng@sinap.ac.cn; Fang, Haiping [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show a fine linear relationship between surface energies and microscopic Lennard-Jones parameters of super-hydrophilic surfaces. The linear slope of the super-hydrophilic surfaces is consistent with the linear slope of the super-hydrophobic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic surfaces where stable water droplets can stand, indicating that there is a universal linear behavior of the surface energies with the water-surface van der Waals interaction that extends from the super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic surfaces. Moreover, we find that the linear relationship exists for various substrate types, and the linear slopes of these different types of substrates are dependent on the surface atom density, i.e., higher surface atom densities correspond to larger linear slopes. These results enrich our understanding of water behavior on solid surfaces, especially the water wetting behaviors on uncharged super-hydrophilic metal surfaces.

  10. affect organic matter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition? University of California...

  11. Water at the Surfaces of Aligned Phospholipid Multibilayer Model Membranes Probed with Ultrafast Vibrational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water at the Surfaces of Aligned Phospholipid Multibilayer Model Membranes Probed with Ultrafast@stanford.edu Abstract: The dynamics of water at the surface of artificial membranes composed of aligned multibilayers pump-probe spectroscopy. The experiments are performed at various hydration levels, x ) 2 - 16 water

  12. IEEE TRANSACTION ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Water Surface Modeling from A Single

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    water brings unique challenges [15]. Major difficulties include it- s lack of matchable featuresIEEE TRANSACTION ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Water Surface Modeling from A Single and Phillip Willis Abstract--We introduce a video based approach for producing water surface models. Recent

  13. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    table The water table itself may cross many layers. Extraction of water from confined and unconfinedTD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16 above and below the ground, which affect the water balance. surface features affect infiltration

  14. Endocrine Active Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, and Other Chemicals of Concern in Surface Water, Wastewater-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Wastewater- Treatment Plant Effluent, and Bed Sediment, and Biological Characteristics in Selected Streams Water, Wastewater- Treatment Plant Effluent, and Bed Sediment, and Biological Characteristics Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, and Other Chemicals of Concern in Surface Water, Wastewater- Treatment Plant

  15. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis1 of pavement surface temperature measurements2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis1 of pavement surface temperature measurements2.hendel@paris.fr)8 Abstract: Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a9 water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although11 pavement

  16. Strichartz Estimates for the Water-Wave Problem with Surface Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christianson, Hans

    Strichartz-type estimates for one-dimensional surface water-waves under surface tension are studied, based on the formulation of the problem as a nonlinear dispersive equation. We establish a family of dispersion estimates ...

  17. On a class of self-similar 2D surface water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sijue Wu

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a class of self-similar surface water waves and study its properties. This class of surface waves appears to be in very good agreement with a common type of wave crests in the ocean.

  18. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  19. agricultural surface waters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012 1 WATER ANIMAL AGRICULTURE Research Conductive cooling Sanderson, Mike 24 Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity...

  20. On Leakage andSeepage of CO2 from Geologic Storage Sites intoSurface Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Lewicki, J.L.

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture ofanthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and its storage in deep geologicformations. The processes of CO2 seepage into surface water aftermigration through water-saturated sediments are reviewed. Natural CO2 andCH4 fluxes are pervasive in surface-water environments and are goodanalogues to potential leakage and seepage of CO2. Buoyancy-driven bubblerise in surface water reaches a maximum velocity of approximately 30 cms-1. CO2 rise in saturated porous media tends to occur as channel flowrather than bubble flow. A comparison of ebullition versus dispersive gastransport for CO2 and CH4 shows that bubble flow will dominate overdispersion in surface water. Gaseous CO2 solubility in variable-salinitywaters decreases as pressure decreases leading to greater likelihood ofebullition and bubble flow in surface water as CO2 migratesupward.

  1. Dynamics of Ice Nucleation on Water Repellent Surfaces Azar Alizadeh,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    for nonicing applications. 1. INTRODUCTION Ice accretion on surfaces of aircraft, wind turbine blades, oil

  2. Enhancement of flow boiling of subcooled water on transverse ribbed surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Yasunobu; Deguchi, Hironobu

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work deals with enhancement of flow boiling heat transfer using transverse ribs of rectangular cross section attached on a flat heating surface. High flux cooling is envisioned in the field of the leading edge technology such as high power laser applications, advanced metallurgical processes, fusion reactors, integrated circuit chips and so forth. In such advanced cooling devices subcooled boiling of water at high velocity is expected as one of most efficient and convenient means for heat removal exceeding 10{sup 7}W/m{sup 2}. In the present experiment, a sheet of stainless-steel (10mm wide, 0.2mm thick and 80mm in heated length) was flush mounted on one wall of a vertical rectangular channel (a cross-section 20mm x 30 mm) and used as a heating surface by passing a direct current. Transverse-ribs made of plastic plate (0.5mm thick and 30mm in lateral length) were attached at an equal longitudinal spacing on the heating surface. Longitudinal spacing of ribs was varied from 2.5, 5, 10, 20mm to infinity (a flat surface without ribs), and the rib height was 2.5mm and 5.0mm. Experiments were conducted with water at a pressure of 0.12MPa in the range of mass velocity from 500kg/m{sup 2}s to 2,000kg/m{sup 2}s (water velocity from 0.5m/s to 2m/s) and subcooling from 20K to 50K. It was found that the ribbed structure strongly affects heat transfer both in the non-boiling and partial nucleate boiling regimes. Enhancement rate of heat transfer coefficient varied from 5% to 50% in excess compared with that for the flat heating plate. According to visual observation of boiling bubbles the circulating flow occurred in a space between each consecutive ribs and seemed to enhance heat transfer. For narrow rib spacing a large coalesced bubble filled up each rib space and impeded the exchange of vapor with liquid, leading to heat transfer deterioration. In the present experimental range of the ribs, a 50% increase of heat transfer coefficient was attained on the ribbed surface with 5mm height and a spacing of 10mm.

  3. How surface roughness affects the angular dependence of the sputtering yield , A. Hassanein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West fractal ITMC code a b s t r a c t Comprehensive model is developed to study the impact of surface

  4. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis of pavement surface temperature measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendel, Martin; Diab, Youssef; Royon, Laurent

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a promising tool for urban heat island reduction and climate change adaptation. However, possible future water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although pavement heat flux can be studied to improve pavement-watering methods (frequency and water consumption), these measurements are costly and require invasive construction work to install appropriate sensors in a dense urban environment. Therefore, we analyzed measurements of pavement surface temperatures in search of alternative information relevant to this goal. It was found that high frequency surface temperature measurements (more than every 5 minutes) made by an infrared camera can provide enough information to optimize the watering frequency. Furthermore, if the water retaining capacity of the studied pavement is known, optimization of total water consumption is possible on the sole basis of surface temperature measurements.

  5. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007), Estimating ground water storage changes in thestorage (i.e. , all of the snow, ice, surface water, soil moisture, and ground-

  6. Water Infiltration and Permeability of Selected Urban Soils as Affected by Salinity and Sodicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    water (EC of 1.4 and 2.2 dS m-1 and SAR of 6 and 11) were applied twice a week at 1.7 cm per application for a total of 27 irrigation events using 46 cm of water. No significant effect of water quality was detected in Delnorte gravelly loam (Paleorthid...

  7. A Study of Institutional Factors Affecting Water Resource Development in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trock, W. L.; Casbeer, T. J.

    efficiency in water use, rights should be made negotiable. Some trading or leasing of rights is practiced now on an informal basis. A change or clarification of water law to permit purchase and sale of rights would facilitate exchange so that water would...

  8. Role of Climate Variability in Modulating the Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Sankar

    from the ECHAM4.5 general circulation model indicate that it is possible to quantify groundwater variability; Groundwater-surface water interaction; Hydroclimatology; Forecasting. Introduction ClimateRole of Climate Variability in Modulating the Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction over

  9. The percolation transition of hydration water: from planar hydrophilic surfaces to proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alla Oleinikova; Ivan Brovchenko; Nikolai Smolin; Aliaksei Krukau; Alfons Geiger; Roland Winter

    2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of a spanning hydrogen-bonded network of hydration water is found to occur via a 2D percolation transition in various systems: smooth hydrophilic surfaces, the surface of a single protein molecule, protein powder and diluted peptide solution. The average number of water-water hydrogen bonds nH at the percolation threshold varies from 2.0 to 2.3, depending on temperature, system size and surface properties. Calculation of nH allows an easy estimation of the percolation threshold of hydration water in various systems, including biomolecules.

  10. Water adsorption on stepped ZnO surfaces from MD simulation David Raymand a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Water adsorption on stepped ZnO surfaces from MD simulation David Raymand a , Adri C.T. van Duin b Keywords: Zinc oxide Water Solid­gas interfaces Construction and use of effective interatomic interactions force-field for use in molecular dynamics simulations of the ZnO­ water system. The force

  11. Feasibility study of extracting runoff data from satellite altimetry over continental surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    the feasibility of extracting runoff data using satellite altimetry over all possible continental surface waters- ered algorithm for extracting runoff from the satellite altimetry is based on making water level. not feasible be- cause of bad quality of extracted water level time series class 4. impossible. Computed runoff

  12. Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawley, R.

    heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

  13. Prediction of postmine ground-water quality at a Texas surface lignite mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Clifton Farrell

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The predominant factors which affect spoil water quality have not been completely identified to date. Therefore, the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas was chosen as a test site to evaluate the potential factors that can affect the geochemical...

  14. Prediction of postmine ground-water quality at a Texas surface lignite mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Clifton Farrell

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The predominant factors which affect spoil water quality have not been completely identified to date. Therefore, the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas was chosen as a test site to evaluate the potential factors that can affect the geochemical...

  15. A study of some factors affecting the efficient use of irrigation water in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Edwin Lincoln

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Be Equalled or Exceeded for 75 Per Cent of Time............................... 51 18. Amount of Rainfall in Growing Season Likely to Be Equalled or Exceeded for 90 Per Cent of Time............................... 52 19. Inches Water Required per Square Foot... for Depth One Foot......................................................................................................... 66 INTRODUCTION At present much water is being wasted on the three million acres of irrigated land in Texas. The purpose...

  16. Regulatory Issues Affecting Management of Produced Water from Coal Bed Methane Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, John A.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the existing national discharge regulations, the ways in which CBM produced water is currently being managed, the current CBM discharge permitting practices, and how these options might change as the volume of produced water increases because of the many new wells being developed.

  17. Point Source Discharges to Surface Waters (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule requires permits for control of sources of water pollution by providing the requirements and procedures for application and issuance of state National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

  18. atlantic surface water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mediterranean Sea, respectively, with hits to genomes Winter, Christian 45 The effect of cold climate upon North Atlantic Deep Water formation in a simple ocean-atmosphere model...

  19. Influence of particle size and water coverage on the thermodynamic properties of water confined on the surface of SnO2 cassiterite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Ross, Dr. Nancy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Woodfield, Brian [Brigham Young University; Woodfield, K [Brigham Young University; Rytting, M [Brigham Young University; Boerio-Goates, Juliana [Brigham Young University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California, Davis

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data for SnO2 nanoparticles of three different sizes and varying hydration levels are presented. Data were recorded on five nanoparticle samples that had the following compositions: 2 nm SnO2*0.82H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.055H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.095H2O, 20 nm SnO2*0.072H2O, and 20 nm SnO2*0.092H2O. The isochoric heat capacity and vibrational entropy values at 298 K for the water confined on the surface of these nanoparticles were calculated from the vibrational density of states that were extracted from the INS data. This study has shown that the hydration level of the SnO2 nanoparticles influences the thermodynamic properties of the water layers and, most importantly, that there appears to be a critical size limit for SnO2 between 2 and 6 nm below which the particle size also affects these properties and above which it does not. These results have been compared with those for isostructural rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2*0.22H2O and TiO2*0.37H2O], which indicated that water on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles is more tightly bound and experiences a greater degree of restricted motion with respect to water on the surface of SnO2 nanoparticles. This is believed to be a consequence of the difference in chemical composition, and hence surface properties, of these metal oxide nanoparticles.

  20. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armitage, D.M.; Bacon, D.J.; Massey-Norton, J.T.; Miller, J.D.

    1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  1. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  2. A Study of Institutional Factors Affecting Water Resource Development in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trock, W. L.; Casbeer, T. J.

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite numerous studies of and plans for the use of land and water resources of the lower Rio Grande Valley for efficient agricultural production, development has lagged and the production potential has not been realized. ...

  3. How the Liquid-Liquid Transition Affects Hydrophobic Hydration in Deeply Supercooled Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Paschek

    2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the phase diagram of liquid supercooled water by extensive computer simulations using the TIP5P-E model [J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 120}, 6085 (2004)]. We find that the transformation of water into a low density liquid in the supercooled range strongly enhances the solubility of hydrophobic particles. The transformation of water into a tetrahedrally structured liquid is accompanied by a minimum in the hydration entropy and enthalpy. The corresponding change in sign of the solvation heat capacity indicates a loss of one characteristic signature of hydrophobic hydration. The observed behavior is found to be qualitatively in accordance with the predictions of the information theory model of Garde et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 77}, 4966 (1996)].

  4. South Carolina Surface Water Withdrawal, Permitting Use, and Reporting Act (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Surface water withdrawals exceeding three million gallons during any one month require a permit; a permit will only be granted if the Department of Health and Environmental Control determines that...

  5. Three-dimensional acoustic propagation through shallow water internal, surface gravity and bottom sediment waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...

  6. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at three different seepage rates reveals that ebullition and bubble flow will be the dominant form of gas transport in surface water for all but the smallest seepage fluxes or shallowest water bodies. The solubility of the gas species in water plays a fundamental role in whether ebullition occurs. We used a solubility model to examine CO{sub 2} solubility in waters with varying salinity as a function of depth below a 200 m-deep surface water body. In this system, liquid CO{sub 2} is stable between the deep regions where supercritical CO{sub 2} is stable and the shallow regions where gaseous CO{sub 2} is stable. The transition from liquid to gaseous CO{sub 2} is associated with a large change in density, with corresponding large change in bubble buoyancy. The solubility of CO{sub 2} is lower in high-salinity waters such as might be encountered in the deep subsurface. Therefore, as CO{sub 2} migrates upward through the deep subsurface, it will likely encounter less saline water with increasing capacity to dissolve CO{sub 2} potentially preventing ebullition, depending on the CO{sub 2} leakage flux. However, as CO{sub 2} continues to move upward through shallower depths, CO{sub 2} solubility in water decreases strongly leading to greater likelihood of ebullition and bubble flow in surface water. In the case of deep density-stratified lakes in which ebullition is suppressed, enhanced mixing and man-made degassing schemes can alleviate the buildup of CO{sub 2} and related risk of dangerous rapid discharges. Future research efforts are needed to increase understanding of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage in surface water and saturated porous media. For example, we recommend experiments and field tests of CO{sub 2} migration in saturated systems to formulate bubble-driven water-displacement models and relative permeability functions that can be used in simulation models.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based study of ordered layering on the surface of alumina nanoparticles in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig

    Layering of water molecules on the surface of alumina nanoparticles in an alumina/water nanofluid is studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The data suggest that a thin ordered layer ( ? 1.4?nm) of water molecules ...

  8. Dealing with parameter uncertainty in the calculation of water surface profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas-Cruz, Ruben F.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Dealing with Parameter Uncertainty in the Calculation of Water Surface Profiles. (August 1998) Ruben R Vargas-Cruz, B. S. , Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ralph A. Wurbs Hydrologic and hydraulic... component of the hydrologic cycle in the analysis is important. In that case the water budget must be calculated using the following expression. P ? R ? I ? G ? E ? T=tkS where, P = Precipitation, R = Surface runoff, I = Infiltration, G = Groundwater...

  9. Ground-water hydrogeology and geochemistry of a reclaimed lignite surface mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Clifford Ralph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GROUND-WATER HYDROGEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF A RECLAIMED LIGNITE SURFACE MINE A Thesis by CLIFFORD RALPH POLLOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Geology GROUND-WATER HYDROGEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF A RECLAIMED LIGNITE SURFACE MINE A Thesis by CLIFFORD RALPH POLLOCK Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ember) (Member (Member) F...

  10. Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Water Quality Parameters Affected by Hydropower Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by Hydropower Production Total Dissolved Gas Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation often occurs during periods of high runoff and spill at hydropower projects and can be harmful to fish. Supersaturation occurs of hydropower projects on Columbia River water temperature has been to delay the time when thermal maximums

  11. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friday, G. P.

    2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal components of the environmental remediation program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the assessment of ecological risk. Used to support CERCLA, RCRA, and DOE orders, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) can identify environmental hazards and evaluate remedial action alternatives. Ecological risk assessment is also an essential means for achieving DOE's risk based end state vision for the disposition of nuclear material and waste hazards, the decommissioning of facilities, and the remediation of inactive waste units at SRS. The complexity of an ERA ranges from a screening level ERA (SLERA) to a full baseline ERA. A screening level ecological risk assessments, although abbreviated from a baseline risk assessment, is nonetheless considered a complete risk assessment (EPA, 2001a). One of the initial tasks of any ERA is to identify constituents that potentially or adversely affect the environment. Typically, this is accomplished by comparing a constituent's maximum concentration in surface water, sediment, or soil with an ecological screening value (ESV). The screening process can eliminate many constituents from further consideration in the risk assessment, but it also identifies those that require additional evaluation. This document is an update of a previous compilation (Friday, 1998) and provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil. It describes how the screening values were derived and recommends benchmarks that can be used for ecological risk assessment. The sources of these updated benchmarks include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the State of Florida, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (RIVM), and the scientific literature. It should be noted that ESV's are continuously revised by the various issuing agencies. The references in this report provide the citations of each source and, where applicable, the internet address where they can be accessed. Although radiological screening values are not included herein due to space limitations, these have been recently derived by a technical working committee sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE 2002, 2004). The recommended ecological screening values represent the most conservative concentrations of the cited sources, and are to be used for screening purposes only. They do not represent remedial action cleanup levels. Their use at locations other than SRS should take into account environmental variables such as water quality, soil chemistry, flora and fauna, and other ecological attributes specific to the ecosystem potentially at risk.

  12. Nitrogen and chlorpyrifos in surface water runoff from a golf course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birdwell, Brian

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the contamination of these waters is a major issue for the turfgrass industry. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of surface water runoff from golf course fairways and greens, and determine the amount of nitrate-nitrogen and chlorpyrifos...

  13. Risk-based modelling of surface water quality: a case study of the Charles River, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagener, Thorsten

    : Water quality; Risk; Monte Carlo; Sensitivity analysis; Eutrophication 1. Introduction 1.1. Motivation recognised in the development of some decision-support tools, for example, QUAL2E- UNCAS (Brown and BarnwellRisk-based modelling of surface water quality: a case study of the Charles River, Massachusetts

  14. I. Abstract Vegetation plays an important role in the surface energy and water balance of wetlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    55 I. Abstract Vegetation plays an important role in the surface energy and water balance or reverse the downward trend in streamflow. In this study, we investigated the energy and water balance had been sprayed with herbicide (and remained only as dead, standing biomass). Energy balance

  15. Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand management; Urban areas; Hydraulic models; Sand, filter; Parameters; Estimation; Water treatment. Author. Optimized model parameter values were calculated on a storm by storm basis. Thereafter, a gamma distribution

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Seasonal progression of diatom assemblages in surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relative to other periods of the study, although carbon export was relatively low. Melt water flux the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (Pal-LTER) project have documented a 40% decrease in mean duration Bordeaux 1, Av. Des Facultes, 33405 Talence Cedex, France A. Clarke British Antarctic Survey, High Cross

  17. Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards are established pursuant to the provisions of Subchapter 2 of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Act 472 of the Acts of Arkansas...

  18. The effect of surface and interfacial tensions upon the recovery of oil by water flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Erasmo Trevino

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL TENSIONS UPON THE RECOVERY OF OIL BY WATER FLOODING A Dissertation By ERASMO T . GUERRERO Approved as to style and content by: J t Q J w & U 7 T Chsfirman of Cfommittee f Head of Department TABLE....................................................................................................... .......... 25 Surface and Interfacial Tensions..........................................................26 Adsorption............................... .................. . ........................................ .......... 31 Flow Tests...

  19. Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radio- meter (AVHRR) is decreasing since middle 1980s in response to global are variations in surface albedo and surface energy budgets, sensible heat and water vapor fluxes-chan- nel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) provide a capa

  20. Pg: 1 February 11, 2009 Surface Water and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    -mesoscale and kinetic energy containing scales -- What is the small- scale (10-100 km) variability of ocean surface/C requirements: ·Payload power, mass: ~1.1KW, ~300Kg ·Stringent Pointing knowledge requirements ·High Data Rate · Use conventional Jason- class altimeter for nadir coverage and radiometer for wet-tropospheric delay

  1. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  2. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJump to: navigation, search ContentsWater Power ForumGround Jump

  3. Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impacts of the concentrate dis- charge. Seawater Seawater is taken into a desalination plant ei- ther from have used surface intakes on the open sea. Although surface water intake can affect and be affected

  4. Category:Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:ConceptualGeothermalInformationSolarallSurface

  5. Arizona has relatively limited water resources due to its arid climate and limited surface water.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    CYCLE 2007 PROJECT GOALS The goal of this project was to evaluate the life cycle water consumption have begun to spur the development of alternatives to our current petroleum based transportation system these technologies with a broad lens and ensure that they will not introduce PROJECT FACT SHEET Life Cycle Water

  6. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  7. Water, chloroform, acetonitrile, and atrazine adsorption to the amorphous silica surface studied by vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water, chloroform, acetonitrile, and atrazine adsorption to the amorphous silica surface studied the air­silica interface before, during, and after adsorption of water, chloroform, acetonitrile the compounds. Adsorption of chloro- form and acetonitrile was weaker compared to water. Binding to the surface

  8. Studies of the viscoelastic properties of water confined between surfaces of specified chemical nature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Moore, Nathan W.; Feibelman, Peter J.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 10-0973 of the same title. Understanding the molecular origin of the no-slip boundary condition remains vitally important for understanding molecular transport in biological, environmental and energy-related processes, with broad technological implications. Moreover, the viscoelastic properties of fluids in nanoconfinement or near surfaces are not well-understood. We have critically reviewed progress in this area, evaluated key experimental and theoretical methods, and made unique and important discoveries addressing these and related scientific questions. Thematically, the discoveries include insight into the orientation of water molecules on metal surfaces, the premelting of ice, the nucleation of water and alcohol vapors between surface asperities and the lubricity of these molecules when confined inside nanopores, the influence of water nucleation on adhesion to salts and silicates, and the growth and superplasticity of NaCl nanowires.

  9. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.

    2001-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work.

  10. Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The lakes are closest in the East Plain and Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Land in China, and they form the two east and west opposite biggest lake cluster; The Chinese coastline begins with Yalu River at the border between China and Korea, end with Beilun... River at the border between China and Viet Nam, and the length is more than 18000 kilometers. The huge surface water system covers more than 60 percents area of China [6]. In this thesis we first investigate and analyze of the surface water...

  11. Levels of dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of western Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatoki, O.S. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)] [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of Western Nigeria were separated and quantified using anion exchange of their chloro-complexes and detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of zinc and cadmium found in tested water samples ranged from 0.99 to 2.97 mg L{sup {minus}1} and 0.13 to 0.17 mg L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Study to Verify the Material Surface Concept of Water Table by Examining Analytical and Numerical Models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dadi, Sireesh Kumar

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The highly nonlinear nature of unsaturated flow results in different ways to approximate the delayed or instantaneous movement of the water table. In nearly all the approaches, the water table is conceptually treated as a “material surface...

  13. A model for materials scientists: Water runs off the surface of a lotus leaf without a trace. Researchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the water, not only dry but, most importantly, clean. As the water runs off, it rinses away the dirt, whichA model for materials scientists: Water runs off the surface of a lotus leaf without a trace. Researchers in Mainz use this concept to develop coatings that repel both water and oil. #12;TEXT ROLAND

  14. Observation of the long term stability of water stations in the Pierre Auger surface detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allekotte, I.; Arisaka, K.; Barnhill, D.; Bertou, Xavier; Bonifazi, C.; Healy, M.D.; Lee, J.; Medina, C.; Ohnuki, T.; Tripathi, A.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a study examining the long-term behavior of Pierre Auger surface detectors is presented. The station properties, such as water quality, liner reflectivity and the water level must be continuously monitored. Such monitoring provides information on the long-term stability of the detectors, which have been designed to operate for twenty years. Using pulse height and shapes of cosmic ray muons, water quality changes are monitored and a technique developed to identify and monitor long-term trends in the array.

  15. Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

    2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

  16. DOE-EMSP Final Report: Characterization of Changes in Colloid and DNAPL Affecting Surface Chemistry and Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan E. Powers; Stefan J. Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste disposal to the M-area basin and A-14 outfall at the Savannah River Department of Energy facility in Aiken SC (USA) included a wide variety of inorganic aqueous flows and organic solvents in the form of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The DNAPL has migrated through the subsurface resulting in widespread groundwater contamination. The goal of this research was to identify and quantify processes that could have affected the migration and remediation of the DNAPL in the subsurface. It was hypothesized that the variety of waste disposed at this site could have altered the mineral, microbial and DNAPL properties at this site relative to other DNAPL sites. The DNAPL was determined to have a very low interfacial tension and is suspected to be distributed in fine grained media, thereby reducing the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation efforts. Although the DNAPL is primarily comprised of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethane, it also contains organic acids and several heavy metals. Experimental results suggest that iron from the aqueous and DNAPL phases undergoes precipitation and dechlorination reactions at the DNAPL-water interface, contributing to the low interfacial tension and acidity of the DNAPL. Biological activity in the contaminated region can also contribute to the low interfacial tension. PCE degrading bacteria produce biosurfactants and adhere to the DNAPL-water interface when stressed by high tetrachloroethene or low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The presence of iron can reduce the interfacial tension by nearly an order of magnitude, while the PCE degraders reduced the interfacial tension by nearly 50%. Abiotic changes in the mineral characteristics were not found to be substantially different between contaminated and background samples. The research completed here begins to shed some insight into the complexities of DNAPL fate and migration at sites where co-disposal of many different waste products occurred. Quantifying the low interfacial tension of the SRS DNAPL helps to formulate a new conceptual picture of the subsurface DNAPL migration and provides an explanation of the limited effectiveness of remediation efforts. Alternative designs for remediation that are more effective for sites with DNAPL in fine grained media are required.

  17. Methodology Water Harvesting Measurements with Biomimetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Methodology Water Harvesting Measurements with Biomimetic Surfaces Zi Jun Wang and Prof. Anne parameters that affect the water harvesting efficiencies of different surfaces · Optimize the experimental Objectives Water is one of the most essential natural resources. The easy accessibility of water

  18. Energy and Water Use in Irrigated Agriculture During Drought Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    attempt to compensate for lack of water later. The importanton this question. or its lack affect water quality? usea drought year the lack of surface water supply is partially

  19. Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with topographic position in harvested and unharvested portions of an aspen-dominated catchment in the Boreal Plain M.L. Macrae, K.J. Devito, I.F. Creed, and S.E. Macdonald Abstract: Spatial distributions of soil extractable

  20. One-dimensional snow water and energy balance model for vegetated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    One-dimensional snow water and energy balance model for vegetated surfaces Jiming Jin,2 Xiaogang heat ¯ux (W mÀ2 ) Iprec heat ¯ux of precipitation (W mÀ2) I5 s downwelling solar radiation (W mÀ2, USA. Email: jjm@hwr.arizona.edu or gao@hwr.arizona.edu Contract grant sponsor: NASA

  1. GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography-11:50 AM or by appointment. Email: fpan@unt.edu Required Text: Elements of Physical Hydrology by Hornberger, G.M., Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. References: Physical Hydrology by Dingman, Prentice

  2. GEOG4750 (GEOG5960.02) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOG4750 (GEOG5960.02) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography-12:00PM or by appointment. Email: fpan@unt.edu Required Text: Elements of Physical Hydrology by Hornberger, G.M., Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. References: Physical Hydrology by Dingman, Prentice

  3. GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography:50 AM or by appointment. Email: feifei.pan@unt.edu Required Text: Elements of Physical Hydrology by Hornberger, G.M., Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. References: Physical Hydrology by Dingman, Prentice

  4. Methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone in the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Steve

    Methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone in the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean Rachael Beale,1; revised 12 June 2013; accepted 16 July 2013; published 16 October 2013. [1] Oceanic methanol, acetaldehyde to Chile (49 N to 39 S) in 2009. Methanol (48­361 nM) and acetone (2­24 nM) varied over the track

  5. Incorporating and Evaluating Environmental Instream Flows in a Priority Order Based Surface Water Allocation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauls, Mark

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................................ 120 Figure 20. Comparison of Engaged Period Reliability versus Allowable Deficit (M3B) between Trinity WAM Control Points for All Instream Flow Targets... INCORPORATING AND EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL INSTREAM FLOWS IN A PRIORITY ORDER BASED SURFACE WATER ALLOCATION MODEL A Thesis by MARK ALLEN PAULS Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University...

  6. Changes in surface water regime and resources in Mongolia Davaa G., Adiyabadam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changes in surface water regime and resources in Mongolia Davaa G., Adiyabadam Mongolia and the semi-desert area of Central Asia. The river flow regime of Mongolia is highly seasonal with minimum Basin (IDB) of Central Asia. Mean annual river runoff formed in the territory of Mongolia is 30.6 km3

  7. Water jet rebounds on hydrophobic surfaces : a first step to jet micro-fluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Celestini; R. Kofman; Xavier Noblin; Mathieu Pellegrin

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    When a water jet impinges upon a solid surface it produces a so called hydraulic jump that everyone can observe in the sink of its kitchen. It is characterized by a thin liquid sheet bounded by a circular rise of the surface due to capillary and gravitational forces. In this phenomenon, the impact induces a geometrical transition, from the cylindrical one of the jet to the bi-dimensional one of the film. A true jet rebound on a solid surface, for which the cylindrical geometry is preserved, has never been yet observed. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a water jet can impact a solid surface without being destabilized. Depending on the incident angle of the impinging jet, its velocity and the degree of hydrophobicity of the substrate, the jet can i) bounce on the surface with a fixed reflected angle, ii) land on it and give rise to a supported jet or iii) be destabilized, emitting drops. Capillary forces are predominant at the sub-millimetric jet scale considered in this work, along with the hydrophobic nature of the substrate. The results presented in this letter raise the fundamental problem of knowing why such capillary hydraulic jump gives rise to this unexpected jet rebound phenomenon. This study furthermore offers new and promising possibilities to handle little quantity of water through "jet micro-fluidics"

  8. The passage of LB962 accelerated efforts to conjunctively manage ground water and surface water in Nebraska. The drought across the High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    -fill. With more water, irrigation began earlier and was extended through pod-fill. For dry bean we couldBACKGROUND The passage of LB962 accelerated efforts to conjunctively manage ground water and surface water in Nebraska. The drought across the High Plains from 1999 to 2008 magnified the seriousness

  9. Water balance in the Amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getirana, Augusto; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hongyi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Rodell, Matthew; Mounirou Toure, Ally; Xue, Yongkang; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Arsenault, Kristi Rae; Drapeau, Guillaume; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ronchail, Josyane; Sheffield, Justin

    2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite recent advances in modeling and remote sensing of land surfaces, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-of-the-art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables [total water storage (TWS), evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff (R) and baseflow (B)] are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Fourteen LSMs were run using meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 1-degree spatial resolution. Three experiments are performed using precipitation which has been rescaled to match monthly global GPCP and GPCC datasets and the daily HYBAM dataset for the Amazon basin. R and B are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration, and GRACE TWS estimates in different catchments. At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39mm.d-1 to 3.26mm.d-1 and a low spatial correlation between ET and P indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget variables vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used, but simulated TWS generally agree at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using the HYBAM dataset, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network the daily rescaling.

  10. Appendix D Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthNrr-osams ADMIN RCD _WOMPOC: A-2Surface

  11. Theoretical Study of Adsorption of Water Dimer on the Perfect MgO(100) Surface: Molecular Adsorption versus Dissociative Chemisorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Theoretical Study of Adsorption of Water Dimer on the Perfect MgO(100) Surface: Molecular Adsorption versus Dissociative Chemisorption Yan Wang and Thanh N. Truong* Henry Eyring Center on the mode of adsorption of the water dimer on the perfect MgO(100) surface using the ab initio embedded

  12. Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    using Advanced Very High Res- olution Radiometer Lai data, Climate Research Unit climate dataGlobal estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balance

  13. Combined use of passive sampling and in vitro bioassays for the detection of emerging pollutants in surface water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in surface water Nicolas Creusot1,3 , Nathalie Tapie3 , Karyn Lemach3 , Patrick Balaguer2 , Emmanuelle classical ones such as PCBs, PAHs, pesticides or alkylphenols as well as emerging pollutants of emerging compounds are polar and occur mainly in surface water at very low concentration

  14. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cardone; T. Durante; S. A. Nazarov

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  15. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  16. Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water-air interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water to be a function of the surface tension. The time of mound formation measurementsin cleanwaterat low.Our objectiveisto investigatetheeffectsof surface tension on mound formation. We usea boundaryintegralmethodto

  17. Surface Tensions in NaCl-Water-Air Systems from MD Simulations Ranjit Bahadur, Lynn M. Russell,*, and Saman Alavi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Surface Tensions in NaCl-Water-Air Systems from MD Simulations Ranjit Bahadur, Lynn M. Russell, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada ReceiVed: July 9, 2007; In Final Form: July 30, 2007 Surface tensions to the surface tension, while the energy-integral and test area methods provide direct estimates. At 1 atm

  18. Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern for the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern South), respectively, the monthly pCO2 fields were computed. The derived pCO2 was compared with the shipboard pCO2

  19. Surface Water Chemistry in White Oak Creek, North-East Texas: Effect of Land Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Eliza

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    watersheds soils, leaches readily to surface waters. Manure can contribute a significant amount of phosphorus loading into adjacent streams from livestock agriculture (James et al. 2007). Contributions from dairy cattle in a watershed in southeastern... New York showed that in-stream fecal deposits from pastured cattle represented 10% of watershed phosphorus loadings (James et al. 2007). Additionally, it was found that livestock grazing along streams and riparian zones can also have adverse...

  20. The detection and modelling of surface thermal structures and ground water discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Douglas Vincent

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , Southern Illinois University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Earl R. Hoskins On March 29, 1973, data were collected by a thermal infrared scanner mounted in a twin-engine aircraft over a 55-mile stretch of the Clark Fork River in northwestern... on a VAX Il/750 interfaced with an I'S Model 70 processing system. Both qualitative and quantitative processing techniques were employed to identify and describe the surface temperature patterns and ground water discharges into the river. Computer...

  1. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  2. Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes:Results of IPILPS phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Fischer, M.; Aleinov, I.; McGuffie, K.; Riley, W.J.; Schmidt, G.A.; Sturm, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Irannejad, P.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase 1 of isotopes in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (iPILPS) compares the simulation of two stable water isotopologues ({sup 1}H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and {sup 1}H{sup 2}H{sup 16}O) at the land-atmosphere interface. The simulations are off-line, with forcing from an isotopically enabled regional model for three locations selected to offer contrasting climates and ecotypes: an evergreen tropical forest, a sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a mixed deciduous wood. Here we report on the experimental framework, the quality control undertaken on the simulation results and the method of intercomparisons employed. The small number of available isotopically-enabled land-surface schemes (ILSSs) limits the drawing of strong conclusions but, despite this, there is shown to be benefit in undertaking this type of isotopic intercomparison. Although validation of isotopic simulations at the land surface must await more, and much more complete, observational campaigns, we find that the empirically-based Craig-Gordon parameterization (of isotopic fractionation during evaporation) gives adequately realistic isotopic simulations when incorporated in a wide range of land-surface codes. By introducing two new tools for understanding isotopic variability from the land surface, the Isotope Transfer Function and the iPILPS plot, we show that different hydrological parameterizations cause very different isotopic responses. We show that ILSS-simulated isotopic equilibrium is independent of the total water and energy budget (with respect to both equilibration time and state), but interestingly the partitioning of available energy and water is a function of the models' complexity.

  3. The thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollard, Travis P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Beck, Thomas L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The free energy change for transferring a single ion across the water liquid/vapor interface includes an electrochemical surface potential contribution. Since this potential is not directly accessible to thermodynamic measurement, several extra-thermodynamic approaches have been employed to infer its sign and magnitude, with a resulting wide spread of values. Here, we examine further the thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water along three directions: (1) a basic relation of interfacial electrostatics and experimental results on ion distributions near a water/organic interface are employed to infer a solvent contribution to the electrochemical surface potential, (2) a re-analysis is performed of the existing bulk and cluster ion hydration data, and (3) extensive computational modeling is conducted to examine the size dependence of hydration enthalpy differences for the NaF ion pair between the small cluster and the converged bulk limits. The computational studies include classical polarizable models and high-level quantum chemical methods. The new theoretical analysis of existing experimental data and the combined classical/quantum modeling lead to results consistent with our previously derived proton hydration quantities.

  4. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  5. The impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    of Climate, 21, 638 Sriver & Huber, 2007, Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropicalThe impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface. One way to parameterise this process

  6. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace; Craig Morgan; Stephanie Carney

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  7. In the near future, Switzerland is predicted to be affected by climate change, that is bound to impact both water demand and water supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and agriculture increases, water supply decreases (ProClim and OcCC, 2007) as climate change alters the hydrologic of the economic impact of climate change and different adaptation strategies in the water sector is essential in Switzerland, mandated by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). 4) Climate change and water resources

  8. Characterization of uranium in surface-waters collected at the Rocky Flats Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Aguilar, R.D.; Roensch, F.R.; Perrin, R.E.; Banar, J.C.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility where plutonium and uranium components were manufactured for nuclear weapons. During plant operations radioactivity was inadvertently released into the environment. This study was initiated to characterize the uranium present in surface-waters at RFP. Three drainage basins and natural ephemeral streams transverse RFP. The Woman Creek drainage basin traverses and drains the southern portion of the site. The Rock Creek drainage basin drains the northwestern portion of the plant complex. The Walnut Creek drainage basin traverses the western, northern, and northeastern portions of the RFP site. Dams, detention ponds, diversion structures, and ditches have been constructed at RFP to control the release of plant discharges and surface (storm water) runoff. The ponds located downstream of the plant complex on North Walnut Creek are designated A-1 through A-4. Ponds on South Walnut Creek are designated B-1 through B-5. The ponds in the Woman Creek drainage basin are designated C-1 and C-2. Water samples were collected from each pond and the uranium was characterized by TIMS measurement techniques.

  9. In-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of the Surface Films on Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in Pressurized Water Reactor-Primary Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxidation of Alloy 600 in PWR Primary Water. The layered-oxidation of Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water. The film ofwith oxidation of Alloy 600 in PWR Primary Water. The film

  10. Free energy surface of ST2 water near the liquid-liquid phase transition Peter H. Poole, Richard K. Bowles, Ivan Saika-Voivod, and Francesco Sciortino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Free energy surface of ST2 water near the liquid-liquid phase transition Peter H. Poole, Richard K://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 034505 (2013) Free energy surface of ST2 water near umbrella sampling Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the free energy surface of the ST2 model of water

  11. Phase states of water near the surface of a polymer membrane. Phase microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N. F., E-mail: nbunkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gorelik, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: v.kozlov@hotmail.com; Shkirin, A. V., E-mail: avshkirin@mephi.ru; Suyazov, N. V., E-mail: nvs@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase microscopy is used to show that the refractive index in the near-surface layer of water at the surface of a polymer Nafion membrane increases by a factor of 1.1 as compared to bulk water. Moreover, this layer exhibits birefringence. Experiments on UV irradiation of dry (anhydrous) and water-soaked Nafion are performed in grazing-incidence geometry to study their stimulated luminescence spectra. These spectra are found to be identical in both cases. For dry Nafion, luminescence can only be excited if probing radiation illuminates the polymer surface. The luminescence of water-soaked Nafion can also be excited if the distance between the optical axis and the surface is several hundred micrometers.

  12. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  13. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  14. Lasing from single, stationary, dye-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiraz, A; DoÄ?anay, S; Dündar, M A; Kurt, A; KalaycıoÄ?lu, H; Demirel, A L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report laser emission from single, stationary, Rhodamine B-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface. In the experiments, a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm was used as the excitation source. The microdroplets ranged in diameter from a few to 20 um. Lasing was achieved in the red-shifted portion of the dye emission spectrum with threshold fluences as low as 750 J/cm2. Photobleaching was observed when the microdroplets were pumped above threshold. In certain cases, multimode lasing was also observed and attributed to the simultaneous lasing of two modes belonging to different sets of whispering gallery modes.

  15. NMSA 72-5 Appropriation and Use of Surface Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources JumpNEFAppropriation and Use of Surface Water

  16. Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance, J. The algorithms are found to be valid both in coastal and oceanic waters, and largely insensitive to regional

  17. Thermodynamic assessment of the variation of the surface areas of two synthetic swelling clays during adsorption of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Thermodynamic assessment of the variation of the surface areas of two synthetic swelling clays; Synthetic smectite; Water; Adsorption; Surface area; Swelling clay; Interlayer space #12;1. Introduction Synthetic clays are very interesting materials, both for scientific research and for industrial applications

  18. A low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . The evolution of the interfaces between phases and the consecutive complex dynamics need to be simulatedA low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows. Introduction Simulation of free surface flows knows an increasing interest as an essential predictive tool

  19. Water condensation behavior on the surface of a network of superhydrophobic carbon fibers with high-aspect-ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    Water condensation behavior on the surface of a network of superhydrophobic carbon fibers with high on a superhydrophobic carbon fiber (CF) network with high-aspect-ratio hair-like nanostructures. Nanostructures ranging. Superhydrophobic CF surfaces were achieved by application of a hydrophobic siloxane- based hydrocarbon coating

  20. Economic costs of conventional surface-water treatment: A case study of the Mcallen northwest facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Callie Sue

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional water treatment facilities are the norm for producing potable water for U.S. metropolitan areas. Rapidly-growing urban populations, competing demands for water, imperfect water markets, and uncertainty of future water supplies...

  1. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  2. Nickel Alloy Primary Water Bulk Surface and SCC Corrosion Film Analytical Characterization and SCC Mechanistic Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, D.; Lewis, N.; Hanson, M.; Rice, S.; Sanders, P.

    2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloy 600 corrosion coupon tests were performed: (1) to quantify the temperature dependency of general corrosion and (2) to characterize the composition and structure of bulk surface corrosion films for comparison with ongoing primary water SCC (PWSCC) crack tip corrosion film analyses. Results suggest that the thermal activation energy of Alloy 600 corrosion is consistent with the thermal activation energy of nickel alloy PWSCC. Analytical investigations of the structure and composition of Alloy 600 bulk surface corrosion oxides revealed a duplex (inner and outer) oxide layer structure. The outer layer is discontinuous and comprised of relatively large (1 to 3 {micro}m) nickel ferrite crystals and smaller ({approx}0.1 {micro}m) chromium containing nickel ferrite crystals. The inner layer consists of a relatively continuous chromite spinel (major phase) and chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} minor phase) which formed through non-selective oxidation. Chromia and dealloyed Alloy 600 (highly Ni enriched metal) were only observed at 337 C (640 F) and only along the boundaries of deformation induced fine grains and subcells. Specimens having deformation free surfaces exhibited continuous uniform inner chromite spinel oxide layers. Specimens with machining induced surface deformation produced non-uniform inner layer oxides (chromite spinel, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and unoxidized material). PWSCC crack tip oxides, in contrast, were fine grain (no duplex structure) and consisted of both chromium rich spinels and ''NiO'' structure oxides. Generally, nickel rich oxides were more abundant under more oxidized conditions (reduced coolant hydrogen) and spinel rich crack tip oxides were favored under more reducing conditions (increased coolant hydrogen). Bulk surface corrosion film thickness did not correlate with observed SCC growth rates. These results suggest that corrosion is not the rate controlling step of PWSCC but rather that PWSCC and corrosion have a common rate controlling sub process (e.g., cation diffusion, oxygen ingress).

  3. Effects of Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties and Water Resistance of Kenaf Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Qui, Renhui; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; li, Kaichang

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of surface treatments on the strength and water resistance of kenaf fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were investigated. A new coupling agent that consists of 1,6-diisocyanato-hexane (DIH) and 2-hydroxylethyl acrylate (HEA) was investigated for surface treatments of kenaf fibers. The surface treatments were found to significantly enhance the tensile strength, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and water resistance of the resulting kenaf UPE composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that DIH-HEA was covalently bonded onto kenaf fibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the composites revealed that chemical treatment of kenaf fibers with a combination of DIH and HEA improved the interfacial adhesion between kenaf fibers and UPE resin in the DIHHEA-treated kenafUPE composites. The mechanisms by which the chemical treatment of kenaf fiber surfaces improved strength and water resistance of the resulting kenaf UPE composites were discussed.

  4. Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  5. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)] [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  6. The influence of water interfacial potentials on ion hydration free energies and density profiles near the surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas L. Beck

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface or contact potential at the water liquid-vapor interface is discussed in relation to determinations of absolute ion hydration free energies and distributions of ions near the interface. It is shown that, rather than the surface potential itself, the net electrostatic potential at the center of an uncharged solute can aid both in relating differences between tabulations of hydration free energies and in explaining differing classical and quantum surface potential estimates. Quantum mechanical results are consistent with conclusions from classical simulations that there is a net driving force that enhances anion density at the surface relative to cations.

  7. An in situ intercomparison exercise on passive samplers for the monitoring of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides in surface waters. Various PSs were used and compared at 2 rivers sites aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface water C. Miège1* , N. Mazzella2 , S. Schiavone1 , A. Dabrin, the interlaboratory variability of field blanks, time weighted average water concentrations and its uncertainties

  8. Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids by electrochemical exfoliation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Ming; Lai, Wei-Hao [Materials and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040 Taiwan (China)] [Materials and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040 Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids are obtained by electrochemical exfoliation with hydrophobic graphite electrodes. Such counterintuitive characteristics are caused by partial oxidation and investigated by examining both graphite electrodes and exfoliated particles after electrolysis. The extent of surface oxidation can be explored through contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope, electrical sheet resistance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta-potential analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-visible, and Raman spectroscopy. The degree of wettability of the graphite anode can be altered by the electrolytic current and time. The water contact angle declines generally with increasing the electrolytic current or time. After a sufficient time, the graphite anode becomes superhydrophilic and its hydrophobicity can be recovered by peeling with adhesive tape. This consequence reveals that the anodic graphite is oxidized by oxygen bubbles but the oxidation just occurs at the outer layers of the graphite sheet. Moreover, the characteristics of oxidation revealed by UV peak shift, peak ratio between D and G bands, and negative zeta-potential indicate the presence of graphite oxide on the outer shell of the exfoliated colloids. However, thermogravimetric analysis for the extent of decomposition of oxygen functional groups verifies that the amount of oxygen groups is significantly less than that of graphite oxide prepared via Hummer method. The structure of this partially oxidized graphite may consist of a graphite core covered with an oxidized shell. The properties of the exfoliated colloids are also influenced by pH of the electrolytic solution. As pH is increased, the extent of oxidation descends and the thickness of oxidized shell decreases. Those results reveal that the degree of oxidation of exfoliated nanoparticles can be manipulated simply by controlling pH.

  9. A dimension-breaking phenomenon for water waves with weak surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark D. Groves; Shu-Ming Sun; Erik Wahlén

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that the water-wave problem with weak surface tension has small-amplitude line solitary-wave solutions which to leading order are described by the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The present paper contains an existence theory for three-dimensional periodically modulated solitary-wave solutions which have a solitary-wave profile in the direction of propagation and are periodic in the transverse direction; they emanate from the line solitary waves in a dimension-breaking bifurcation. In addition, it is shown that the line solitary waves are linearly unstable to long-wavelength transverse perturbations. The key to these results is a formulation of the water wave problem as an evolutionary system in which the transverse horizontal variable plays the role of time, a careful study of the purely imaginary spectrum of the operator obtained by linearising the evolutionary system at a line solitary wave, and an application of an infinite-dimensional version of the classical Lyapunov centre theorem.

  10. Establishment, growth and water use of Quercus virginiana (Mill.) on lignite surface-mined soils in response to irrigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Jacalyn E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The petiole extended out to the exterior. Chamber pressure was slowly increased until water was forced out of the petiole. The pressure indicated on the pressure gauge at that time was regarded as equal to the tension originally existing in the xylem sap... and outside the stem flow gauge. Sap flow is determined from heat movement in the sap estimated by thermocouples on the stem surface. The stem flow gauge design assumes the surface temperatures provide an accurate estimate of the stem cross...

  11. Results of a baseflow tritium survey of surface water in Georgia across from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.L.

    1993-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 1991 the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) issued a press release notifying the public that tritium had been measured in elevated levels (1,200 - 1,500 pCi/1) in water samples collected from drinking water wells in Georgia across from the Savannah River Site in Aiken Co. South Carolina. None of the elevated results were above the Primary Drinking Water Standard for tritium of 20,000 pCi/l. The GDNR initiated 2 surveys to determine the source and extent of elevated tritium: (1) baseflow survey of surface water quality, and (2) well evaluation program. Results from the 2 surveys indicate that the tritium measured in groundwater wells in Georgia is not the result of a groundwater flow from South Carolina under the Savannah River and into Georgia. Atmospheric transport and consequent rainout and infiltration has resulted in an increase of tritium in the water-table aquifer in the vicinity. Water samples collected from drinking water wells believed to have been installed in the aquifer beneath the water-table aquifer were actually from the shallower water-table aquifer. Water samples collected from the wells contain the amount of tritium expected for the water-table aquifer in the sample area. The measured tritium levels in the well samples and baseflow samples do not exceed Primary Drinking Water Standards. Tritium levels in the water-table in Georgia will decline as the atmospheric releases from SRS decline, tritium undergoes natural decay, and infiltration water with less tritium flushes through the subsurface.

  12. In-situ measurements of surface water pCO2 from commercial ships between 1994/5 and 2002 2005 show surprising results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of residual between MLR output and observations of surface water pCO2 for Jul/Aug/Sep ­ 2002-2007 Root Mean Square of residual between MLR output and observations of surface water pCO2 for Jan/Feb/Mar ­ 2002-2007 Root Mean Square of residual between MLR output and observations of surface water pCO2 for 2004 Root

  13. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  14. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  15. Effect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walden, Von P.

    in the near-surface snow of East Antarctica. The processes of forced ventilation, pore-space diffusion to forced ventilation for several annual cycles. Postdepositional modification during the Last Glacial. Introduction [2] Stable isotopes of water in polar snow and ice have long been regarded as proxies for local

  16. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  17. Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG&G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

  18. Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). [Contaminant transport computer codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Water Availability, Crop Water Requirements and Soil Salinity in the SJV, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopmans, Jan W; Maurer, Edwin P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Irrigation Water Availability, Crop Water Requirementsreduced surface water availability can be managed byrequirement and water availability (surface water and

  20. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  1. The water ice rich surface of (145453) 2005 RR43: a case for a carbon-depleted population of TNOs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Pinilla-Alonso; J. Licandro; R. Gil-Hutton; R. Brunetto

    2007-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results suggest that there is a group of TNOs (2003 EL61 being the biggest member), with surfaces composed of almost pure water ice and with very similar orbital elements. We study the surface composition of another TNO that moves in a similar orbit, 2005 RR43, and compare it with the surface composition of the other members of this group. We report visible and near-infrared spectra, obtained with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope and the 3.58m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo at the "Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory (La Palma, Spain). The spectrum of 2005 RR43 is neutral in color in the visible and dominated by very deep water ice absorption bands in the near infrared (D= 70.3 +/- 2.1 % and 82.8 +/- 4.9 % at 1.5 \\mu and 2.0 \\mu respectively). It is very similar to the spectrum of the group of TNOs already mentioned. All of them present much deeper water ice absorption bands (D>40 %) than any other TNO except Charon. Scattering models show that its surface is covered by water ice, a significant fraction in crytalline state with no trace (5 % upper limit) of complex organics. Possible scenarios to explain the existence of this population of TNOs are discussed: a giant collision, an originally carbon depleted composition, or a common process of continuous resurfacing. We conclude that TNO 2005 RR43 is member of a group, may be a population, of TNOs clustered in the space of orbital parameters that show abundant water ice and no signs of complex organics. The lack of complex organics in their surfaces suggests a significant smaller fraction of carbonaceous volatiles like CH4 in this population than in "normal" TNOs. A carbon depleted population of TNOs could be the origin of the population of carbon depleted Jupiter family comets already noticed by A'Hearn et al. (1995).

  2. Threshold of trichloroethylene contamination in maternal drinking waters affecting fetal heart development in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 111(3):289?292

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paula D. Johnson; Stanley J. Goldberg; Mary Z. Mays; Brenda V. Dawson

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the most common water supply contaminants in the United States and abroad. Epidemiologic studies have found an association but not a cause-and-effect relation between halogenated hydrocarbon contamination and increased incidence of congenital cardiac malformations or other defective birth outcomes. Avian and rat studies demonstrated statistically significant increases in the number of congenital cardiac malformations in those treated with high doses of TCE, either via intrauterine pump or in maternal drinking water, compared with controls. This study attempts to determine if there is a threshold dose exposure to TCE above which the developing heart is more likely to be affected. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly placed in test groups and exposed to various concentrations of TCE (2.5 ppb, 250 ppb, 1.5 ppm, 1,100 ppm) in drinking water or distilled water (control group) throughout pregnancy. The percentage of abnormal hearts in the treated groups ranged from 0 to 10.48%, with controls having 2.1 % abnormal hearts, and the number of litters with fetuses with abnormal hearts ranged from 0 to 66.7%, and the control percentage was 16.4%. The data from this study indicate not only that there is a statistically significant probability overall of a dose response to increasing levels of TCE exposure, but also that this trend begins to manifest at relatively low levels of exposure (i.e., < 250 ppb). Maternal rats exposed to more than this level of TCE during pregnancy showed an associated increased incidence of cardiac malformations in their developing rat fetuses. Key words: cardiac malformations, cardiac teratogenicity, environmental contaminants, halogenated hydrocarbon, heart defects, heart development, TCE, trichloroethylene. Environ Health Perspect 111:289–292 (2003). doi:10.1289/ehp.5125 available via

  3. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  4. 5 CCR 1002-31 Basic Standards and Methodologies for Surface Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water RegulationLegal Abstract Regulations implementing the Colorado Water Quality Control Act, in particular CRS 25-8-203 and 25-8-204, providing basic standards, an...

  5. Photo-driven oxidation of water on ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Manh-Thuong, E-mail: mtnguyen@ictp.it; Seriani, Nicola [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)] [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Piccinin, Simone [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS, c/o SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)] [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS, c/o SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Gebauer, Ralph [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste, Italy and CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, 34136 Trieste (Italy)] [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste, Italy and CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Adopting the theoretical scheme developed by the Nørskov group [see, for example, Nørskov et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17886 (2004)], we conducted a density functional theory study of photo-driven oxidation processes of water on various terminations of the clean hematite (?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (0001) surface, explicitly taking into account the strong correlation among the 3d states of iron through the Hubbard U parameter. Six best-known terminations, namely, Fe ? Fe ?O{sub 3}? (we call S{sub 1}), O? Fe ? Fe ? (S{sub 2}), O{sub 2}? Fe ? Fe ?(S{sub 3}), O{sub 3}? Fe ? Fe ? (S{sub 4}), Fe ?O{sub 3}? Fe ? (S{sub 5}), and O? Fe ?O{sub 3}?(S{sub 6}), are first exposed to water, the stability of resulting surfaces is investigated under photoelectrochemical conditions by considering different chemical reactions (and their reaction free energies) that lead to surfaces covered by O atoms or/and OH groups. Assuming that the water splitting reaction is driven by the redox potential for photogenerated holes with respect to the normal hydrogen electrode, U{sub VB}, at voltage larger than U{sub VB}, most 3-oxygen terminated substrates are stable. These results thus suggest that the surface, hydroxylated in the dark, should release protons under illumination. Considering the surface free energy of all the possible terminations shows that O{sub 3}–S{sub 5} and O{sub 3}–S{sub 1} are the most thermodynamically stable. While water oxidation process on the former requires an overpotential of 1.22 V, only 0.84 V is needed on the latter.

  6. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakobsson, Martin

    and heat supply owing to the influx of waters from adjacent oceans. We suggest that onset and termination

  7. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information.

  8. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghose, S.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the (010) surface of goethite. Geochem. Trans. 9, 1–16.Con?rmation of the surface structure of goethite (a-FeOOH. ,phosphated goethite by infrared spectroscopy. Soil Sci. Soc.

  9. Complex potential surface for the {sup 2}B{sub 1} metastable state of the water anion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haxton, Daniel J.; Zhang, Zhiyong; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential energy surface corresponding the complex resonance energy of the 2B1 Feshbach resonance state of the water anion is constructed in its full dimensionality. Complex Kohn variational scattering calculations are used to compute the resonance width, while large-scale Configuration Interaction calculations are used to compute the resonance energy. Near the equilibrium geometry, an accompanying ground state potential surface is constructed from Configuration Interaction calculations that treat correlation at a level similar to that used in the calculations on the anion.

  10. Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methanesulfonic Acid Revealed by Phase-Sensitive Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide States ReceiVed: August 26, 2010; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 9, 2010 Interfacial water. Through isotopic dilution, we probed bulk water hydrogen bonding strength using the vibrational frequency

  11. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  12. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 5 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 21, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference, are tabulated. All DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  13. No steady water waves of small amplitude are supported by a shear flow with still free surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Kozlov; Nikolay Kuznetsov

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The two-dimensional free-boundary problem describing steady gravity waves with vorticity on water of finite depth is considered. It is proved that no small-amplitude waves are supported by a horizontal shear flow whose free surface is still in a coordinate frame such that the flow is time-independent in it. The class of vorticity distributions for which such flows exist includes all positive constant distributions, as well as linear and quadric ones with arbitrary positive coefficients.

  14. Surface water processes in the Indonesian Throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral (Delta)14C record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallon, S J; Guilderson, T P

    2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian Throughflow we have generated a 115-year bi-monthly coral-based radiocarbon time-series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15{per_thousand}). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric {sup 14}C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60{per_thousand} and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high Austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant {sup 14}C peak in 1955 due to bomb {sup 14}C water advected into this region in the form of CaCO{sub 3} particles (this implies that the particles were advected intact and then become entrapped in the coral skeleton--is this what we really mean? Wouldn't even fine particles settle out over the inferred transit time from Bikini to MAK?) or water particles with dissolved labeled CO{sub 2} produced during fallout from the Castle tests in 1954.

  15. Multiobjective calibration and sensitivity of a distributed land surface water and energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, Paul R; Gupta, Hoshin V; Shuttleworth, W. James; Famiglietti, James S

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    identification and energy balance models on a tallgrassdata for surface energy balance evaluation of a semiaridWatershed. We are energy balance components over a semiarid

  16. Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Beaini, Sara

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nomenclature specific heat capacity of liquid drop at (T i +surface [m] specific heat capacity of liquid drop at (T i +

  17. Satellite Microwave remote sensing of contrasting surface water inundation changes within the ArcticBoreal Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montana, University of

    -atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2, CH4) fluxes, and potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we report fractional open water (Fw) cover from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E). The AMSR ) of regions above 49°N (Brown et al., 1998). Although permafrost is widespread at high latitudes due to low

  18. Water distribution in the top 1 m of the earth's surface soil layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    the fruit instead of putting its energy into pro- ducing more vegetation. However, major water shortages can and quantity, the outlay of resources and energy concomitant with crop irrigation is critical in water-scarce regions. California, which accounts for 80% of the wine grape production in the United States and has

  19. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  20. Economic costs of conventional surface-water treatment: A case study of the Mcallen northwest facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Callie Sue

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    be tested. Salinity is measured by the ?total dissolved solids? (TDS) content which is reported in milligrams per liter (mg/l). Water with a salinity between 1,000 and 10,000 mg/l is considered brackish (Arroyo 2004). The Texas Commission on Environmental..., acidic, and corrosive which could lead to leaching of materials from pipes. A high pH level (above 8.5) indicates the water is hard, and could cause build- ups of deposits in pipes (Water Systems Council 2004). Facility could potentially have...

  1. Daily Time Step Simulation with a Priority Order Based Surface Water Allocation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffpauir, Richard James

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Summaries of Water Rights at BRA Reservoirs for Scenarios 5.03, 5.05, 5.06, and 5.08 ............................................. 172 Table 5.18 Mean Shortage for Selected Run-of-river Water Rights for Scenarios 5.03, 5.05, 5.06, and 5... .............................................. 179 Table 5.24 Reliability Summaries of Water Rights at BRA Reservoirs for Scenarios 5.08 and 5.09 ................................................................ 180 Table 5.25 Mean Shortage and Volume Reliability for Selected Run...

  2. Estimation of land surface water and energy balance flux components and closure relation using conditional sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhadi, Leila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of terrestrial water and energy balance include numerical treatment of heat and moisture diffusion in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. These two diffusion and exchange processes are linked only at a few ...

  3. Control, Prevention, and Abatement of Pollution of Surface Waters (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of North Dakota to protect, maintain, and improve the quality of the waters in the state, and to require necessary and reasonable treatment of sewage, industrial, or other wastes....

  4. Evaluation of Methods to Assess and Reduce Bacterial Contamination of Surface Water from Grazing Lands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Kevin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    assessed the ability of alternative water supplies and grazing management to reduce E. coli loading from cattle and evaluated the ability of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of total and bovine-associated Bacteroides markers (AllBac and Bo...

  5. Water table recovery in a reclaimed surface lignite mine, Grimes County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peace, Kelley H.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water table recovery in four reclaimed mine blocks containing replaced overburden has been monitored at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas since 1986. Recovery analysis was conducted based on data recorded at 27 wells installed...

  6. Dealing with parameter uncertainty in the calculation of water surface profiles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas-Cruz, Ruben F.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrologic and hydraulic variables common to many graphics. water resources engineering problems are known to contain considerable uncertainty. The description of the underlying uncertainty of these parameters is extremely ...

  7. Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Beaini, Sara

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanotube Forests”. In: Nano Letters 3 (2003), p. 1701. [37]Namib Desert Beetle”. In: Nano Letters 6.6 (2006), pp. 1213–Surface Energy”. In: ACS Nano 3.7 (2009), pp. 1703–1710. [

  8. Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lin-Wen

    In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Sphere Slamming to Quiescent Water Surface-Pressure Distribution and Jetting Flow Field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Wan-Yi

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    in four various sphere impacting speeds as four cases. Five designed impacting angles which means impacting measuring point around sphere surface for sensor were conducted for each case. Maximum pressures happened at impacting measuring point of 0o...

  10. 4, 30553085, 2007 Winter climate affects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 4, 3055­3085, 2007 Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de and Earth System Sciences Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de Wit et al. Title Page Abstract

  11. User`s Guide: Database of literature pertaining to the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, L.F.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its beginnings in 1949, hydrogeologic investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have resulted in an extensive collection of technical publications providing information concerning ground water hydraulics and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy through the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office in a grant to compile an INEL-wide summary of unsaturated zone studies based on a literature search. University of Idaho researchers are conducting a review of technical documents produced at or pertaining to the INEL, which present or discuss processes in the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions. Results of this review are being compiled as an electronic database. Fields are available in this database for document title and associated identification number, author, source, abstract, and summary of information (including types of data and parameters). AskSam{reg_sign}, a text-based database system, was chosen. WordPerfect 5.1{copyright} is being used as a text-editor to input data records into askSam.

  12. TABLE 3.-Comparison of this work with literature values for the concentration of PCB's and DDT residues in surface films and subsurface waters. All values in nanograms per liter, and are the sum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    residues in surface films and subsurface waters. All values in nanograms per liter, and are the sum of filtrate and filter from Table 2 where applicable. PCB's DDT residues Subsurface Subsurface Reference Location Surface films waters Surface films waters Seba and Corcoran Biscayne Bay NO' NO 185-13,710

  13. Geophysical survey to estimate the 3D sliding surface and the 4D evolution of the water pressure on part of a deep seated landslide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Geophysical survey to estimate the 3D sliding surface and the 4D evolution of the water pressure slide. The geometry and the structure can be determined only by geotechnical and/or geophysical methods

  14. Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Water in Federal Projects: Elephant Butte Irrigahon District, Dona Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, J. R.; Teague, P. W.; Lacewell, R. D.

    allocation of surface water given the 1 and 3 foot groundwater limitations. These streams of net returns were valued in 1980 dollars allowing comparison among the alternative scenarios. Differences between the various returns streams for each groundwater...

  15. Global study of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) behaviour and the tuning of a 1-dimensional model to determine the LSWTs of large lakes worldwide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layden, Aisling

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) of 246 globally distributed large lakes were derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) for the period 1991 to 2011. These LSWTs, derived in a systematic manner, presents ...

  16. A rapid method for measuring local groundwater-surface water interactions and identifying potential non-point source pollution inputs to rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Christopher Aaron

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential Non-Point Source Pollution Inputs to Rivers APotential Non-Point Source Pollution Inputs to Rivers byof non-point source pollution to surface waters via the

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2006 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: {sm_bullet} to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; {sm_bullet} to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; {sm_bullet} to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and ! to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2006 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2006 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2006 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. The monitoring frequency and selection criteria for each sampling location is in Appendix C. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix D. If issued, addenda to this plan will be inserted in Appendix E, and Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued) will be inserted in Appendix F. Guidance for managing purged groundwater is provided in Appendix G.

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2008 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E. The updated sampling frequency for each monitoring well is in Appendix F, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix G.

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2011 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2011 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2011 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2011) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

  20. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2012 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding a data summary table presented in Section 4) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2012) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

  1. Surface residues dynamically organize water bridges to enhance electron transfer between proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Lande, Aurélien; ?ezá?, Jan; Sanders, Barry C; Salahub, Dennis R; 10.1073/pnas.0914457107

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellular energy production depends on electron transfer (ET) between proteins. In this theoretical study, we investigate the impact of structural and conformational variations on the electronic coupling between the redox proteins methylamine dehydrogenase and amicyanin from Paracoccus denitrificans. We used molecular dynamics simulations to generate configurations over a duration of 40ns (sampled at 100fs intervals) in conjunction with an ET pathway analysis to estimate the ET coupling strength of each configuration. In the wild type complex, we find that the most frequently occurring molecular configurations afford superior electronic coupling due to the consistent presence of a water molecule hydrogen-bonded between the donor and acceptor sites. We attribute the persistence of this water bridge to a "molecular breakwater" composed of several hydrophobic residues surrounding the acceptor site. The breakwater supports the function of nearby solvent-organizing residues by limiting the exchange of water molecul...

  2. A common supersolid low-density skin sliperizing ice and toughening water surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Weitao Zheng; Ji Zhou; Chang Q. Sun

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Skins of water and ice share the same attribute of supersolidity characterized by the identical H-O vibration frequency of 3450 cm-1. Molecular undercoordination and inter-electron-pair repulsion shortens the H-O bond and lengthen the O:H nonbond, leading to a dual process of nonbonding electron polarization. This relaxation-polarization process enhances the dipole moment, elasticity,viscosity, thermal stability of these skins with 25% density loss, which is responsible for the hydrophobicity and toughness of water skin and for the slippery of ice.

  3. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used today, the one used most commonly is MTBE. To meet the oxygen requirements of the CAA Amendments, gasoline

  4. Ab Initio Study of the Interaction of Water with Cluster Models of the Aluminum Terminated (0001) r-Aluminum Oxide Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Ab Initio Study of the Interaction of Water with Cluster Models of the Aluminum Terminated (0001) r-Aluminum to hydroxylation of the aluminum terminated surface, the two water process was found to be the most exothermic, occurring within 10-2 s. I. Introduction As one of the most important ceramic materials, R-aluminum oxide

  5. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Reflectance Imaging: A Label-Free/Real-Time Mapping of Microscale Mixture Concentration Fields (Water+Ethanol)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    Mixture Concentration Fields (Water+Ethanol) Iltai Kim and Kenneth D. Kihm Department of Mechanical (water+ethanol) concentration fields with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reflectance technique based the refractive index and mixture concentration fields. The presented results show that ethanol penetrates

  6. Effect of composition on adsorption of water on perfect olivine surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    Department of Chemistry, University College London, UK 3 Department of Material Science and Engineering, USA be a viable source of water in the terrestrial planets. Gases coexist with dust in the accretion disk for long cycle C.H. STIRLING Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand (cstirling

  7. Gas exchange in terrestrial environments comes at the cost of evaporative water loss from respiratory surfaces.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz, Nico M.

    3477 Gas exchange in terrestrial environments comes at the cost of evaporative water loss from of gas exchange, both within and among species (Lighton, 1998; Shelton and Appel, 2001; Chown, 2002). The classical pattern is that of discontinuous gas exchange, or discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGC; Lighton

  8. In pursuit of anomalies -Analyzing the poleward transport of Atlantic Water with surface drifters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCasce, Joseph H.

    drifters released at or passing through the Svinøy section, off the west coast of Norway. For comparison km and mix vigorously with interior waters in the Norwegian and Lofoten Basins. Thus an anomaly, comprising the Norwegian, Iceland and Greenland Seas (Figure 1a) is the transition zone for the warm, saline

  9. In pursuit of anomalies--Analyzing the poleward transport of Atlantic Water with surface drifters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCasce, Joseph H.

    . The drifters were released at or passed through the Svinøy section, off the west coast of Norway large distances, mixing with water in the Norwegian and Lofoten Basins. Thus an anomaly entering, comprising the Norwegian, Iceland and Greenland Seas (Fig. 1A) is the transition zone for the warm, saline

  10. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COST EFFECTIVE SURFACE MOUNTED WATER TURBINES FOR RURAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    for further hydro development. Optimization of existing recourses for power harnessing has made application/low head hydro power generation. This project intends to design and develop cost effective design of engineered low head hydro turbines capable of utilizing 2-10 meter of water head and power output 2 to 15 k

  11. Hydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    'Connor1 Received 2 May 2008; revised 13 January 2009; accepted 28 January 2009; published 28 March 2009 to flow reductions associated with flood control. We measured flow velocity, water depth, and wind consequences for transport and fate of sediments and energy and nutrient-rich materials, which in turn interact

  12. Space-based detection of wetlands' surface water level changes from L-band SAR interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amelung, Falk

    , 2006; Dai et al., 2002; Kimura & Yamaguchi, 2000), mining and large-scale geotechnical projects (e., 1998). The above applications measure the displacement of solid surfaces, whether they are rocks, soil and the vertical vegetation allow a double-bounce reflection of the transmitted radar signal back to the satellite

  13. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

  14. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 2 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on November 15, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the results are compared using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2012). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, all DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  15. Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

  16. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-column modeling (SCM) is one of the key elements of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research initiatives for the development and testing of various physical parameterizations to be used in general circulation models (GCMs). The data required for use with an SCM include observed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water, as well as the large-scale vertical motion and tendencies of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water due to horizontal advection. Surface-based measurements operated at ARM sites and upper-air sounding networks supply most of the required variables for model inputs, but do not provide the horizontal advection term of condensed water. Since surface cloud radar and microwave radiometer observations at ARM sites are single-point measurements, they can provide the amount of condensed water at the location of observation sites, but not a horizontal distribution of condensed water contents. Consequently, observational data for the large-scale advection tendencies of condensed water have not been available to the ARM cloud modeling community based on surface observations alone. This lack of advection data of water condensate could cause large uncertainties in SCM simulations. Additionally, to evaluate GCMsâ�� cloud physical parameterization, we need to compare GCM results with observed cloud water amounts over a scale that is large enough to be comparable to what a GCM grid represents. To this end, the point-measurements at ARM surface sites are again not adequate. Therefore, cloud water observations over a large area are needed. The main goal of this project is to retrieve ice water contents over an area of 10 x 10 deg. surrounding the ARM sites by combining surface and satellite observations. Built on the progress made during previous ARM research, we have conducted the retrievals of 3-dimensional ice water content by combining surface radar/radiometer and satellite measurements, and have produced 3-D cloud ice water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10�° (latitude) x 10�° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  17. Abstracts and parameter index database for reports pertaining to the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomsburg, G.; Finnie, J.; Horn, D.; King, B.; Liou, J. [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a product generated by faculty at the University of Idaho in support of research and development projects on Unsaturated Zone Contamination and Transport Processes, and on Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions and Regional Groundwater Flow at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These projects are managed by the State of Idaho`s INEL Oversight Program under a grant from the US Department of Energy. In particular, this report meets project objectives to produce a site-wide summary of hydrological information based on a literature search and review of field, laboratory and modeling studies at INEL, including a cross-referenced index to site-specific physical, chemical, mineralogic, geologic and hydrologic parameters determined from these studies. This report includes abstracts of 149 reports with hydrological information. For reports which focus on hydrological issues, the abstracts are taken directly from those reports; for reports dealing with a variety of issues beside hydrology, the abstracts were generated by the University of Idaho authors concentrating on hydrology-related issues. Each abstract is followed by a ``Data`` section which identifies types of technical information included in a given report, such as information on parameters or chemistry, mineralogy, stream flows, water levels. The ``Data`` section does not include actual values or data.

  18. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

  19. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  20. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  1. Effects of a nonrigid, impermeable bottom on plane surface waves in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gade, Herman Gerhard

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~oq ~o Woqoe i~g qsoqg oq c~ soqgea sqf, N&l 3 5i4 gflE L&bl EPSOM Gv A RQIRIOIB) Xl6'RWHRARLS' SPVIQL' GF FAkllS SURFACE INES W? 8EAL$4I 1A%lk kWStktK The forewing yayer ie a disenssioa of tbo aatwgL effesta ef yeadressive ~ socisa ef esall...~oode ops. 'aog ~~goq @we ~ s 41' OOOQ CIY$$0'$Jg 0$ O~ $~Q pQll l$0$$~ ~OS 'ill ~ %N~'5++~ ~+ og en' Casey esca ge yoa~a ye~CEg seaag~ oyea ~ eo~aw4see y SSNDXk XXQSMBV $2QHXRiUBU NOXQMQgGQ 3q&eR e4~4 e&ttHS ttq3 hat tttt73ttttXAQ? teo334R FP78 tt...

  2. Preliminary study of the potential environmental concerns associated with surface waters and geothermal development of the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langhorst, G.J.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary evaluation is presented of possible and probable problems that may be associated with hydrothermal development of the Valles Caldera Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), with specific reference to surface waters. Because of the history of geothermal development and its associated environmental impacts, this preliminary evaluation indicates the Valles Caldera KGRA will be subject to these concerns. Although the exact nature and size of any problem that may occur is not predictable, the baseline data accumulated so far have delineated existing conditions in the streams of the Valles Caldera KGRA. Continued monitoring will be necessary with the development of geothermal resources. Further studies are also needed to establish guidelines for geothermal effluents and emissions.

  3. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 1 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. King, CHP, PMP

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 22, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses. The comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ? 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty. The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties. Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. A comparison of split sample results, using the DER equation, indicates one set with a DER greater than 3. A DER of 3.1 is calculated for gross alpha results from ORAU sample 5198W0003 and NFS sample MCU-310212003. The ORAU result is 0.98 ± 0.30 pCi/L (value ± 2 sigma) compared to the NFS result of -0.08 ± 0.60 pCi/L. Relatively high DER values are not unexpected for low (e.g., background) analyte concentrations analyzed by separate laboratories, as is the case here. It is noted, however, NFS uncertainties are at least twice the ORAU uncertainties, which contributes to the elevated DER value. Differences in ORAU and NFS minimum detectable activities are even more pronounced. comparison of ORAU and NFS split samples produces reasonably consistent results for low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  4. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 4 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUELS SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on June 12, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ≤ 3 indicates at a 99% confidence interval that split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report specifies 95% confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0014 was the exception. The ORAU gross beta result of 6.30 ? 0.65 pCi/L from location NRD is well above NFS?s non-detected result of 1.56 ? 0.59 pCi/L. NFS?s data package includes no detected result for any radionuclide at location NRD. At NRC?s request, ORAU performed gamma spectroscopic analysis of sample 5198W0014 to identify analytes contributing to the relatively elevated gross beta results. This analysis identified detected amounts of naturally-occurring constituents, most notably Ac-228 from the thorium decay series, and does not suggest the presence of site-related contamination.

  5. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  6. The significance of organic carbon and sediment surface area to the benthic biogeochemistry of the slope and deep water environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beazley, Melanie J.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of sediment wt % <63 µm to surface area?????.... 19 4 5 Grain size tertiary diagram????????????????... Map of Gulf of Mexico wt % organic carbon???..?????? 19 22 6 Map of Gulf of Mexico organic carbon-to-surface area (OC/SA)?... 23 7 Map of Gulf... abundance.?????????... 35 14 Linear regression analysis of OC/SA and water depth for the GOM sample set????????????????.??????? 37 15 Linear regression analysis of OC/SA with an east/west gradient...

  7. Water at Hydrophobic Surfaces: When Weaker Is Better Dennis K. Hore, Dave S. Walker, and Geraldine L. Richmond*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    ) or with carbon tetrachloride, dichlo- romethane, or chloroform. The organic models and associated point charges interfaces. Air-water (black), carbon tetrachloride-water (red), chloroform-water (blue), and dichloromethane

  8. Water Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. Water Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. Abstract: The atomic-level structure of water at mineral surfaces is an important controlling...

  9. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 3 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on March 20, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0012 was the exception. The ORAU result of 9.23 {+-} 0.73 pCi/L from location MCD is well above NFS?s result of -0.567 {+-} 0.63 pCi/L (non-detected). NFS?s data package included a detected result for U-233/234, but no other uranium or plutonium detection, and nothing that would suggest the presence of beta-emitting radionuclides. The ORAU laboratory reanalyzed sample 5198W0012 using the remaining portion of the sample volume and a result of 11.3 {+-} 1.1 pCi/L was determined. As directed, the laboratory also counted the filtrate using gamma spectrometry analysis and identified only naturally occurring or ubiquitous man-made constituents, including beta emitters that are presumably responsible for the elevated gross beta values.

  10. affect colonization parameters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 'Tejada, M., A. 1. Borderfas, and F. Jimenez 3 Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape by Anton Bergant1 Engineering Websites Summary: Parameters Affecting...

  11. Time-resolved surface infrared spectroscopy during atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperling, Brent A., E-mail: brent.sperling@nist.gov; Hoang, John; Kimes, William A.; Maslar, James E. [Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8320, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8320 (United States); Steffens, Kristen L. [Biomolecular Measurement Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8362, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8362 (United States); Nguyen, Nhan V. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8120, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8120 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water vapor is studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) with a time resolution of 120?ms. At 190?°C and 240?°C, a decrease in the absorption from adsorbed TDMAT is observed without any evidence of an adsorbed product. Ex situ measurements indicate that this behavior is not associated with an increase in the impurity concentration or a dramatic change in the growth rate. A desorbing decomposition product is consistent with these observations. RAIRS also indicates that dehydroxylation of the growth surface occurs only among one type of surface hydroxyl groups. Molecular water is observed to remain on the surface and participates in reactions even at a relatively high temperature (110?°C) and with long purge times (30?s)

  12. Inorganic and organic carbon variations in surface water, Konza prairie LTER site, USA, and Maolan karst experimental site, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Huan

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    at the Maolan Karst Experimental (Maolan) Site, China. For the stream at the Konza LTER site, little variation in water chemistry was observed among the upstream, midstream and downstream locations, indicating the groundwater and stream water chemistry...

  13. Coalbed methane produced water management guide treatment and discharge to surface waters: Black Warrior Basin, Alabama. Final report, April 1991-May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.A.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assist coalbed methane in their efforts to manage produced waters in an environmentally acceptable manner, GRI, in cooperation with the member companies of the Coalbed Methane Association of Alabama, developed a guidance manual that presents the state-of-the-art methodology for managing Black Warrior Basin produced water through the use of treatment ponds and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Six treatment pond systems were studied to develop information for the manual. Topics included in the manual are produced water characteristics, NPDES permit requirements, sample collection and testing, pond based treatment methods, treatment pond management, and process troubleshooting.

  14. The Freshening of Surface Waters in High Latitudes: Effects on the Thermohaline and Wind-Driven Circulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to freshen over the next few decades should polar ice caps melt or should precipitation increase in those re involves meridional overturning, but its variations and critical transitions affect mainly the Tropics of the critical parameters that affect the relative strength of the two circulation components and hence

  15. Chapter 10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This administrative regulation establishes procedures to protect the surface waters of the Commonwealth, and thus protect water resources. It states the designated uses of surface water and...

  16. MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T A

    2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

  17. Estimations of the extent of migration of surficially applied water for various surface conditions near the potential repository perimeter; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolik, S.R.; Fewell, M.E.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to support the design of site characterization activities so to have minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. Two examples of site characterization activities are the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, which may include underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and surface-based testing activities, which may require borehole drilling, excavation of test pits, and road watering for dust control. The information in this report pertains to two-dimensional numerical calculations modeling the movement of surficially applied water and the potential effects of that water on repository performance and underground experiments. This document contains information that has been used in preparing recommendations for two Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project documents: Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document, and the Surface-Based Testing Field Requirements Document.

  18. Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system for harvesting and returning clean water to Lakeharvesting for landscape and species health, and surface water and

  19. Materials for light-induced water splitting: In situ controlled surface preparation of GaPN epilayers grown lattice-matched on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supplie, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.supplie@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); May, Matthias M.; Stange, Helena [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Höhn, Christian [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); California Institute of Technology, Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Hannappel, Thomas [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy storage is a key challenge in solar-driven renewable energy conversion. We promote a photochemical diode based on dilute nitride GaPN grown lattice-matched on Si(100), which could reach both high photovoltaic efficiencies and evolve hydrogen directly without external bias. Homoepitaxial GaP(100) surface preparation was shown to have a significant impact on the semiconductor-water interface formation. Here, we grow a thin, pseudomorphic GaP nucleation buffer on almost single-domain Si(100) prior to GaPN growth and compare the GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface preparation to established P- and Ga-rich surfaces of GaP/Si(100). We apply reflection anisotropy spectroscopy to study the surface preparation of GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} in situ in vapor phase epitaxy ambient and benchmark the signals to low energy electron diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. While the preparation of the Ga-rich surface is hardly influenced by the presence of the nitrogen precursor 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), we find that stabilization with UDMH after growth hinders well-defined formation of the V-rich GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface. Additional features in the reflection anisotropy spectra are suggested to be related to nitrogen incorporation in the GaP bulk.

  20. Surface Water and Groundwater Relationships in Nebraska James Goeke, Research Hydrogeologist, School of Natural Resources/Conservation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    , on average in Nebraska is about 10 feet per mile, or almost a flat line, so there is little driving force rates of ground water flow in Nebraska are less than 300 feet per year. The long lines in the zone of saturation in Figure 1 are flow lines indicating ground water flowing from higher to lower elevations

  1. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  2. A low diffusive Lagrange-Remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of applications. This includes for instance the safety study of water dams, tsunamis, the extraction of offshore treatment, flocculation processes, bio-Engineering, medical applications, etc. The evolution for a multidimensional evolution of the fluids while a direction-by

  3. Foliar water uptake: a common water acquisition strategy for plants of the redwood forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limm, Emily Burns; Simonin, Kevin A.; Bothman, Aron G.; Dawson, Todd E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To measure whether residual water on the leaf surfaceand drying quanti?ed residual water on the leaf surface. Wesubmergence including residual water on the leaf surface. We

  4. Geotechnical and environmental impacts on the surface of the water rising in French Underground coal mines after closure.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of these gases in confined areas and premises that are not or poorly ventilated are far from being negligible of gas emissions to the surface or even accumulations in places not or badly ventilated. The various

  5. Controlling ice nucleation through surface hydrophilicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen J. Cox; Shawn M. Kathmann; Ben Slater; Angelos Michaelides

    2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice formation is one of the most common and important processes on Earth and almost always occurs at the surface of a material. A basic understanding of how the physiochemical properties of a material's surface affects its ability to form ice has remained elusive. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to directly probe heterogeneous ice nucleation at an hexagonal surface of a nanoparticle of varying hydrophilicity. Surprisingly, we find that structurally identical surfaces can both inhibit and promote ice formation and analogous to a chemical catalyst, it is found that an optimal interaction between the surface and the water exists for promoting ice nucleation. We use our microscopic understanding of the mechanism to design a modified surface in silico with enhanced ice nucleating ability.

  6. Water Quality Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency outlines the minimum water quality requirements for all surface waters of the state.

  7. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  8. Investigation of the character of and the constituents of slicks on water surfaces near power plants on Chesapeake Bay. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellama, J.M.; Zoller, W.H.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A slick occurring on the surface of the cooling canal at the Chalk Point Power Plant on the Patuxent River near Benedict, Maryland was found to contain organic material that appeared to originate both from anthropogenic sources and also from breakup of organisms and microorganisms naturally present in the water. Trace metal analysis showed enrichment from oceanic salt and from Sb, Ag, Zn, Se, Ba, W, and Cd, elements likely contributed from the power plant fly ash. Organometallic species were not detected; however, the presence of organosilicon species was observed.

  9. USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed on temperature include viscosity, density, and surface tension, all of which affect hydraulic conductivity the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspi- ration, in addition to the advective and conductive

  10. A shallow water model for the numerical simulation of overland flow on surfaces with ridges and furrows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The furrows are the roughness due to agricultural practices and create a strong directional heterogeneity requires to have a good prediction of the 1 hal-00429152,version1-31Oct2009 #12;water flux at the watershed outlet but also a good prediction of the spatial distribution of flux over the whole watershed. However

  11. Sensitivity study of borehole-to-surface and crosswell electromagnetic measurements acquired with energized steel casing to water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with energized steel casing to water displacement in hydrocarbon-bearing layers David Pardo1 , Carlos Torres- gized steel casing in the presence of subsurface variations of electrical resistivity. Casing- gized steel casing are performed with a goal-oriented hp- adaptive finite-element method

  12. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  13. Humidity effects on ,,001... BaTiO3 single crystal surface water adsorption L. J. Qiao,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    , People's Republic of China 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa prefer to adsorb on c domains due to their higher surface energy. © 2011 American Institute of Physics was employed for k-space integrations. Calculation accuracy is as follows: stress 0.02 GPa, atomic displacement

  14. Contact angle measurements and wetting behavior of inner surfaces of pipelines exposed to heavy crude oil and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    alternative for the transportation of heavy crude oils. The lubricating effect of the aqueous film leads of such surfaces by crude oils through contact angle measurements in systems containing heavy oil/aqueous phase Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Heavy oil; Asphaltenes; Naphthenic acids; Wettability; Oil

  15. Leaching action of EJ-13 water on unirradiated UO{sub 2} surfaces under unsaturated conditions at 90{degree}C: Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Veleckis, E.; Tani, B.S.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of experiments, based on the application of the Unsaturated Test method to the reaction of UO{sub 2} with EJ-13 water, has been conducted over a period of 182.5 weeks. One half of the experiments have been terminated, while one half are still ongoing. Solutions that have dripped from UO{sub 2} specimens have been analyzed for all experiments, while the reacted UO{sub 2} surfaces have been examined for only the terminated experiments. A pulse of uranium release from the UO{sub 2} solid, in conjunction with the formation of dehydrated schoepite on the surface of the UO{sub 2}, was observed during the 39- to 96-week period. Thereafter, the uranium release decreased and a second set of secondary phases was observed. The latter phases incorporate cations from the EJ-13 water and include boltwoodite, uranophane, sklodowskite, compreignacite, and schoepite. The experiments are being continued to monitor for additional changes in solution composition and secondary phase formation, and have now reached the 319-week period. 9 refs., 17 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  17. Seasonal and interannual differences in surface chlorophyll stocks and integrated water column chlorophyll stocks in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, William Wallerich

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used in this study and to explain the criteria used to assign them within each category. The three designations are ?freshwater? stations, ?bluewater? stations and ?coastal? stations. Freshwater stations are categorized according to the amount... or location. Bluewater stations are those characterized by having relatively low surface chl-? concentrations, relatively low light extinction coefficients and the presence of deep chl-? maximums. In this study, the bluewater stations were effectively...

  18. Establishment, growth and water use of Quercus virginiana (Mill.) on lignite surface-mined soils in response to irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Jacalyn E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 percent slope and an aspect of 95'. The plot location is at latitude 30'35'N and longitude 96 06'W at an elevation of 85 meters. The study site is in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas which is characterized by gently rolling to hilly... applied to 12 live oak seedlings on reclaimed lignite surface-mined soils in central Texas as a means to study the physiology and growth of seedlings during establishment. The study period was 4 July 1990 through 30 September 1990. Transpiration...

  19. Groundwater Management and the Cost of Reduced Surface Water Deliveries to Urban Areas: The Case of the Central and West Coast Basins of Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunding, David L.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Ajami, Newsha K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct Use Desalter Water Residual Demand Source: Datathe basins. Residual demand for imported water, which is thefrom MWD. Residual demand for imported water represents the

  20. Groundwater Management and the Cost of Reduced Surface Water Deliveries to Urban Areas: The Case of the Central and West Coast Basins of Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunding, David L.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Ajami, Newsha K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    represents the annual water shortage that cannot be met fromservice associated with water shortage events. Total Costscost to consumers of a water shortage. 11 LCPSIM optimizes

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Energy and Water in the Western...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of surface water for in-stream ecological and environmental uses Uncertainty about the impact of climate variability on future water fresh surface and ground water resources...

  2. Impact of Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures on interannual and decadal variations of GRACE land water storage in tropical South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Linage, Caroline; Kim, Hyungjun; Famiglietti, James S; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stress, i.e. , the ground water storage [Toomey et al. ,and longer time scales, as ground water storage multidecadal

  3. Evaluation Of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and surface Water Quality Data For the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1997. The monitoring data were obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Regime and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, and are reported ixx Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater A40nitoringReport for the Bear Creek Hydrogeolo@"c Regime at the US. Department ofEnergy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1998a). This report provides an evaluation of the monitoring data with respect to historical results for each sampling location, the regime-wide extent of groundwater and surface water contamination, and long-term concentration trends for selected groundwater and surface water contaminants.

  4. Evaluation of Hot Water Wash Parameters to Achieve Maximum Effectiveness in Reducing Levels of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and coliforms/Escherichia coli on Beef Carcass Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Melissa A.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION OF HOT WATER WASH PARAMETERS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM EFFECTIVENESS IN REDUCING LEVELS OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM, ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND COLIFORMS/ ESCHERICHIA COLI ON BEEF CARCASS SURFACES A Thesis by MELISSA ANN DAVIDSON... PARAMETERS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM EFFECTIVENESS IN REDUCING LEVELS OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM, ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND COLIFORMS/ ESCHERICHIA COLI ON BEEF CARCASS SURFACES A Thesis by MELISSA ANN DAVIDSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  5. Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin,...

  6. Stick-Slip Control in Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication by Surface Wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; Adam S. Foster; Mikko J. Alava; Lasse Laurson

    2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of atomic scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction, by considering two example surfaces - hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene - confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces, and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction.

  7. Coal conversion siting on coal mined lands: water quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triegel, E.K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The siting of new technology coal conversion facilities on land disturbed by coal mining results in both environmental benefits and unique water quality issues. Proximity to mining reduces transportation requirements and restores disrupted land to productive use. Uncertainties may exist, however, in both understanding the existing site environment and assessing the impact of the new technology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently assessing the water-related impacts of proposed coal conversion facilities located in areas disturbed by surface and underground coal mining. Past mining practices, leaving highly permeable and unstable fill, may affect the design and quality of data from monitoring programs. Current mining and dewatering, or past underground mining may alter groundwater or surface water flow patterns or affect solid waste disposal stability. Potential acid-forming material influences the siting of waste disposal areas and the design of grading operations. These and other problems are considered in relation to the uncertainties and potentially unique problems inherent in developing new technologies.

  8. Water Levels, Barrow, Alaska, NGEE Areas A, B, C and D for 2012, 2013, 2014, Final Version, 20150324

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  9. Hydrologic and Aquatic Species Implications of the Proposed Pebble Mine, Bristol Bay, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cundy, Fiona

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed  Surface  Water  Extraction  Limits    (Source:  groundwater  extraction  affect  surface  water?   6. How  groundwater  extraction  affect  surface  water? There  is  

  10. aqueous solutions affected: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na+ in the aqueous solutions and aromatic rings on the graphite surfaces, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surfaces, i.e., Na+...

  11. Water, Sun, Energy | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water, Sun, Energy Water, Sun, Energy Released: March 20, 2012 Novel method yields highly reactive, highly hydroxylated TiO2 surface The team's new method is a two-step...

  12. Walking on water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

  13. Iowa Water Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    influence water quality and restoration potential? How does stream channelization influence water quality of the United States. Human activities have altered stream hydrology that affects water quality. Stream-2010 Iowa Water Center research program is on stream dynamics affecting water quality. We are interested

  14. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    for the training of scientists in water resources. Through the years, projects have included irrigation, ground water modeling, non-point source pollution, quality of ground water and surface water, efficient septic heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter Basic Information Title

  15. Local Water Quality Districts (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute provides for the creation of local water quality districts to prevent and mitigate ground and surface water contamination. Each local water quality district may develop and implement a...

  16. Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    include: water quality, surface and groundwater management, water quality management and water resources Category: Water Quality Focus Category: Wetlands, Water Quality, Management and Planning Descriptors; to assist state agencies in the development and maintenance of a state water management plan

  17. A method to predict the soil susceptibility to compaction of surface layers as a function of water content and bulk density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    physical properties. Because the soil compaction depends on its water content, bulk density and texture was obtained between soil precompression stress, compression index, initial water content, initial bulk density, 1994). Thus, knowing the changes in soil compaction with changes in water content and bulk density

  18. Nanoscale modification of key surface parameters to augment pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water and dielectric fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Eric Christopher

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface effects on pool boiling heat transfer and the critical heat flux are well documented but poorly understood. This study investigates the pool boiling characteristics of various fluids, and demonstrates that surface ...

  19. Infrastructure systems, such as buildings, schools, roads, bridges, water lines, sewage systems, communication systems, and power plants, are a fundamental part of daily life. Both rapid and gradual climate changes can affect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and gradual climate changes can affect these systems and have significant impacts on society. Extreme weather infrastructure sector make practical decisions in order to adapt to climate changes and variations systems, communication systems, and power plants, are a fundamental part of daily life. Both rapid

  20. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  1. University of Wisconsin Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling studies and applications designed to preserve or improve groundwater quality. The following reportUniversity of Wisconsin Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction: groundwater, surface water, groundwater/surface water interactions, and drinking water initiatives. Faculty

  2. A critical evaluation of factors affecting reservoir yield estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Carla Elaine

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statement of Problem Estimation of reservoir yield is fundamental to water resources planning and management. Effective management of the surface water resource of a river basin requires an understanding of the amount of water which can be provided... and approaches used in handling various complicating factors. Water supply planning and management involves complex institutional, legal, hydrologic, and physical systems. Streamflow, reservoir sedimentation, evaporation, water demands, and other variables...

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  4. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

  5. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and heavy metals to surface runoff following storm events. Evaluating runoff water quality response, innovative domestic wastewater disposal systems, ground water modeling and landuse mapping, erosionArkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Arkansas Water Resources Center

  6. Groundwater Management and the Cost of Reduced Surface Water Deliveries to Urban Areas: The Case of the Central and West Coast Basins of Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunding, David L.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Ajami, Newsha K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal Management of Groundwater over Space and Time. ”Optimal Control in Groundwater Pumping,” Water ResourcesYear ???? Paper ???? Groundwater Management and the Cost of

  7. The significance of organic carbon and sediment surface area to the benthic biogeochemistry of the slope and deep water environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beazley, Melanie J.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The bioavailability of metabolizable organic matter within marine sediments is one of the more important driving mechanisms controlling benthic pelagic communities. Interactions between organic material and mineral surfaces ...

  8. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  9. How the Koontz Decision May Affect Climate Change Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Please join us for a Sept. 10 webinar to discuss the Supreme Court's controversial decision in Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District and explore how the decision may affect the...

  10. affects acid production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    role of affect. They have posited that choices Gross, James J. 150 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

  11. Cultural Waters: Values of Water Resources in Hidalgo, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurst, Kristin

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of clean water is fundamental to the survival of all living things. Humans have altered fresh water cycles in a number of ways that affect both water quality and quantity. This has led to a global water crisis where an estimated...

  12. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    grow faster, die younger as temperature increases ·In general, warm water species are smaller and have transporters (nutrients) It slows down (curves) because the dark reactions can't process fast enough Light and NADPH Therefore, some of the energy from PSII and PSI goes to nutrients, NOT to the Calvin- Benson

  13. 3, 18091850, 2006 groundwater-surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al System Sciences Measuring methods for groundwater, surface water and their interactions: a review E;HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al

  14. International Lige Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, GAS TRANSFER AT WATER SURFACES, May 2 -6 2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and surface wave measurements and much higher heat fluxes. In addition, the infrared imagery analysis reveals potentially significant the infrared images. It is also shown that the difference in the surface boundary conditions for heat and gas

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 205407 (2012) Polarization-dependent water adsorption on the LiNbO3(0001) surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    configuration and energy are determined as a function of the surface coverage on both the positive and negative and the etching rate in acid solutions8,9 have been shown to be very different for differently polarized domains between adsorbates and surfaces. These include the photochemical deposition of metal nanoparticles,15

  16. Water Impacts of the Electricity Sector (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the water impacts of the electricity sector. Nationally, the electricity sector is a major end-user of water. Water issues affect power plants throughout the nation.

  17. Modeling water use at thermoelectric power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutberg, Michael J. (Michael Jacob)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The withdrawal and consumption of water at thermoelectric power plants affects regional ecology and supply security of both water and electricity. The existing field data on US power plant water use, however, is of limited ...

  18. Chapter 13 Water Resources Hoover Dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    management Water shortage linked to food supply Learning Objectives #12; The global water cycleChapter 13 Water Resources #12;Hoover Dam #12;The Colorado River Basin Population growth Urbanization Climate change #12; Water cycle Water use Surface water and groundwater processes Water

  19. texas water resources institute Water management is one of the most significant challenges facing Texas today. Major water quantity and water quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    texas water resources institute Water management is one of the most significant challenges facing Texas today. Major water quantity and water quality problems exist, affecting the environment and economy. Texas needs solutions. At the Texas Water Resources Institute, we help solve these pressing water

  20. On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limmer, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative water model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3 Determining T g for water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv Contents 6 Frustrating water at ordered surfaces 6.1

  1. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  2. Groundwater Management and the Cost of Reduced Surface Water Deliveries to Urban Areas: The Case of the Central and West Coast Basins of Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunding, David L.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Ajami, Newsha K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    basin to recover the economic incentives for water trading.Economic incentives for inter-basin transfers arise when thein which the economic incentive to trade implies a movement

  3. Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse...

  4. Center for Water Resources Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in assessing the susceptibility of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities, Hydrology, Models Descriptors: Drinking Water, Source Water, Pollution Sources, Watershed Management Supply Descriptors: Drinking water, source water, pollution sources, watershed management Primary PI

  5. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  6. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  7. Nebraska Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Groundwater, Models, Water Use Descriptors: Aquifer parameters, conjuntive use, groundwater modeling, surface-groundwater modeling, Surface- groundwater Relationships, Well hydraulics Problem and research objectives: ProblemNebraska Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction Welcome

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  9. Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

  10. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  11. Protecting Our Water: Tracking Sources of Bacterial Contamination Numerous surface waterbodies in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution. coli and other fecal coliform bacteria do not provide information on whether the source of pollution of pollution need to be identified to implement effective pollution control strategies to improve water quality

  12. Sampling and analytical testing of groundwater and surface water at the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute (CSMRI) has been conducted on a quarterly basis since early

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is being consumed, changing the water chemistry, and leading to lower uranium concentrations with flow, Th-230, Th-232, and uranium), and metals (arsenic, barium calcium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and analytical testing for radium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, uranium, and zinc will continue

  13. A Physically Based Coupled Model for Simulating 1D Surface -2D Subsurface Flow and Plant Water Uptake in Irrigation Furrows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of modeling the water movement processes in irrigation systems. These empirical approaches can provide Uptake in Irrigation Furrows. II: Model Test and Evaluation Th. W¨ohling , J.C. Mailhol Abstract A physically based seasonal furrow irrigation model - FIM - was developed which comprises three mod- ules

  14. Surface layering of liquids: Is surface tension the dominant factor? Oleg Shpyrko,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukuto, Masafumi

    Surface layering of liquids: Is surface tension the dominant factor? Oleg Shpyrko,1 Masafumi Fukuto near a hard flat surface and at first it is tempt- ing to think that the large surface tension that the free surface of water, which has nearly the same surface tension as K, does not exhibit SL features

  15. Water Quality Regulations (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of these regulations is to establish water quality standards for the state's surface waters. These standards are intended to restore, preserve and enhance the physical, chemical and...

  16. Clean Water Partnership Law (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The main purpose of the Clean Water Partnership Law is to provide financial and technical assistance to local governments for the protection, enhancement, and restoration of surface waters. However...

  17. University of Wisconsin Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling studies and applications designed to preserve or improve groundwater quality. ChargedUniversity of Wisconsin Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction into the following four thematic areas: groundwater, surface water, groundwater/surface water interactions

  18. Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Jos Zwanikken; Markus Bier; Arjen Baarsma; Yasha Oloumi; Mischa Spelt; Rene van Roij

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horvath, Mark S. (Canton, MI); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fodor, George (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature.

  20. Relative efficiency of land surface energy balance components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateni, S. M.

    [1] The partitioning of available energy into dissipative fluxes over land surfaces is dependent on the state variable of the surface energy balance (land surface temperature) and the state variable of the surface water ...

  1. atrazine exposure affects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A reversed-phase gradient of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile The transport of atrazine and its byproducts in soil and in groundwater and surface...

  2. Resolving Water's Electrical Properties | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gave two radically different interpretations of what was happening at the surface of water. The team showed, through careful analysis, that the measurements weren't wrong, but...

  3. WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Water Year explores the sensitivity of water indexing methods to climate change scenarios to better understand how water management decisions and allocations will be affected by climate change. Many water management

  4. affected surface produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    includes the production of the mold. Let us look at an example: To produce a curved glass-fibre reinforced con- crete panel, a mold is produced from styrofoam. The cheapest way of...

  5. affects leaf surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Derived Leaf Area Index over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part II: Earth System Models CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key parameter in the...

  6. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, along with the required data evaluations specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime. This report provides additional evaluation of the CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater contamination and long-term concentration trends for regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

  7. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The monitoring data were collected for the multiple programmatic purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and have been reported in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Annual Monitoring report presents only the results of the monitoring data evaluations required for waste management sites addressed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Regime. The Annual Monitoring Report also serves as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained throughout the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 GWPP. This report provides an evaluation of the CY 1996 monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater and surface water quality and long-term concentration trends of regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

  8. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO? nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [South-Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Si, Rui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnston-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Martinez-Arias, Arturo [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Hanson, Jonathan C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H?O ? CO?) was studied over CuO/CeO? catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO? (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO? (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO? (ns), such as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ce³? in CeO? (ns).

  9. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO? nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Si, Rui; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Martinez-Arias, Arturo; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H?O ? CO?) was studied over CuO/CeO? catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO? (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO? (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO? (ns), suchmore »as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ce³? in CeO? (ns).« less

  10. Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Ground-water Flow and Transport Focus Category: Non Point Pollution, Surface Water, Toxic Substances Descriptors: Benthos, Bioindicators, Biomonitoring, Ecosystems, Heavy metals, Insects, Land use, PollutantsWater Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Introduction - Research

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

  12. Optimization of Cooling Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

  13. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    surface versus rough surface · Light color surface versus dark color surface · Albedo of water surface energy through the atmosphere or water. Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere #12;© 2015 Pearson of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of energy to another. Solar radiation

  14. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard Dudley

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface Layers on Lead and Lithium By Richard Dudley Peterssulfuric acid and and lithium to water, Acid concentrationsbeen observed in the reaction of lithium with water vapor. i

  15. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  16. Liquid Evaporation on Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of water evaporation from superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces are presented. The nanostructured surfaces consiste of an array of equidistant ...

  17. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  18. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  19. The Mystery of Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.

  20. Surfactant/Water Interactions at the Air/Water Interface Probed by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surfactant/Water Interactions at the Air/Water Interface Probed by Vibrational Sum Frequency and orientation of water molecules at an air/water interface has been measured in the presence of cationic spectrum of both the surfactant and water molecules at the water surface. In the presence of the charged

  1. Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): II. Water, water, everywhere A.E. Becerra-Toledo a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): II. Water, water, everywhere A.E. Becerra-Toledo a, , J January 2012 Available online 17 January 2012 Keywords: Strontium titanate Density functional theory Water adsorption Surface reconstruction X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Oxide surfaces The role of water

  2. Energy -Matter Interactions: Water Open water covers about 74% of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Energy - Matter Interactions: Water #12;Open water covers about 74% of the earth's surface. Oceans's Terra satellite on March 5, 2001 shows the murky brown water of the Mississippi mixing with the dark this material come from? #12;Energy - Matter Interactions As incident light strikes the water surface, some

  3. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  4. Prediction of the effects of size and morphology on the structure of water around hematite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnoli, D.; Gilbert, B.; Waychunas, G.A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared with macroscopic surfaces, the structure of water around nanoparticles is difficult to probe directly. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of particle size and morphology on the time-averaged structure and the dynamics of water molecules around two sizes of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. Interrogation of the simulations via atomic density maps, radial distribution functions and bound water residence times provide insight into the relationships between particle size and morphology and the behavior of interfacial water. Both 1.6 and 2.7 nm particles are predicted to cause the formation of ordered water regions close to the nanoparticle surface, but the extent of localization and ordering, the connectivity between regions of bound water, and the rates of molecular exchange between inner and outer regions are all affected by particle size and morphology. These findings are anticipated to be relevant to understanding the rates of interfacial processes involving water exchange and the transport of aqueous ions to surface sites.

  5. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion.

  6. Ground-water effects of the UCG experiments at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-water changes and subsidence effects associated with three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been monitored at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. It was found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. These contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters, or into aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. Fortunately, the concentrations of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, recent field measurements indicate that there may be significant limitations on this natural cleansing process. The contaminants of potential concern, and the mechanisms that affect their deposition and persistence have been identified.

  7. Marangoni convection in droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Daniel

    We consider a small droplet of water sitting on top of a heated superhydrophobic surface. A toroidal convection pattern develops in which fluid is observed to rise along the surface of the spherical droplet and to accelerate ...

  8. II. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Terry

    Heat Capacity 4. Solvent Properties 5. Dissociation: Acids & Bases / pH II. Organic Chemistry A transport in plants #12;Water has a high specific heat capacity specific heat capacity = amount of energyII. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure 2. Cohesion / Surface Tension 3. High

  9. Other Surface Impoundments and Land Applications (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A water quality permit is required from the Department of Environmental Quality to construct, install, operate or close any industrial surface impoundment, industrial septic tank or treatment...

  10. "Nanoengineered Surfaces for Efficiency Enhancements in Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 24, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Nanoengineered Surfaces for Efficiency Enhancements in Energy and Water", Professor Kripa Varansi, Massachusetts Institute of...

  11. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campiglia, Andres D. [UCF; Hernandez, Florencio E. [UCF

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  12. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characteristics, along with water age and temperature, are primary factors affecting disinfectant residual decaySouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction South Dakotas Water Resources Research Institutes program is administered through the College of Agricultural

  13. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (L-lactide) membranes obtained by CF4 microwave plasma treatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Mengyao; Wang, Jiajun; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Jiao, Yanan

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF? microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF? plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF? plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreasedmore »from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF? plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.« less

  14. WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF SIMULATED ANNEALING Fred E. Goldman Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5.1 INTRODUCTION The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained

  15. Downscaled climate change impacts on agricultural water resources in Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmsen, E.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts uncertainty for water resources in the San JoaquinJournal of the American Water Resources Association.approach for surface subsurface water transport modeling in

  16. Getting Our Feet Wet: Water Management at Mt. Laguna in Cleveland National Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mumby, William Cade

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mountain lacks potable surface water sources causingNo concerns about water scarcity due to lack of largecontaminated water or faulty infrastructure and lack the

  17. How intimacy affects resource conceptualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Allison L

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research regarding Foa and Foa's Resource Theory does not address whether the level of intimacy shared between the actors affects their resource conceptualization. Furthermore, siblings have not been utilized as a separate intimacy group...

  18. Factors Affecting Option Premium Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

  19. How intimacy affects resource conceptualization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Allison L

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research regarding Foa and Foa's Resource Theory does not address whether the level of intimacy shared between the actors affects their resource conceptualization. Furthermore, siblings have not been utilized as a separate intimacy group...

  20. OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE AND FRACTURE PERMEABILITY IN A FRACTURED RESERVOIR are in integrated reservoir study, reservoir charac- terization, naturally fractured reservoirs, waterflooding in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs." His research areas include experimental analysis

  1. What's In My Water?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .The salts in conductivity levels are conductivity levels. allow for too much water to evaporate water are not just table high, evaluate other from the surface, or where soils are salt, but are often a individual characteristics naturally high in salts...- tive safety margin. You can have your water analyzed by a government agency or a private company. 13 Salt: an organic or inorganic com- pound that is subject to dissociation when water is added, resulting in a dis- tinct increase in specific anions...

  2. New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is crucial to ensuring their status as global competitors. Currently, most industries treat water to meet standards for direct discharge to surface water. The process includes a...

  3. adriatic sea water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Energy - Matter Interactions: Water 12;Open water covers about 74% of the earth's surface. Oceans, inorganic matter, sea...

  4. atomic-scale intracellular water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small structural changes in molecular surfaces can evoke large changes in the contact energy of hydrated surfaces; surface hydration and the energetics of water displacement are a...

  5. annual water storage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a program for farmer storage of surface irrigation water in Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico. This program would allow individual farmers to store part of their annual surface...

  6. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Dublin, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  7. Designing liquid repellent surfaces for fabrics, feathers and fog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chhatre, Shreerang S. (Shreerang Sharad)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Omniphobicity refers to a property of surfaces which are not wetted by water, oils, alcohols and other low surface tension liquids. Robust omniphobic surfaces can be applied in many areas including fabrics with chemical / ...

  8. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  9. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Irvine, T.F., Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus_minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured [0 to 8.5 cm/s], the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  10. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Irvine, T.F., Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured (0 to 8.5 cm/s), the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  11. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  12. Plastron Shielding Technologies Liquid Repellent Surface Coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    and impervious to water damage. Cleaning or repairing dirty or water-damaged surfaces such as walls, windows a separate subsidiary for each, and individually raise money. Therefore, there is a furniture surface for raising money from targeted industry companies and customizing the technology for its industry market

  13. UNIVERSITIES COUNCIL ON WATER RESOURCES JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY WATER RESEARCH & EDUCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    . It is shown that water use affects primarily the generation and consumptive aspects of the energy sector that exploits the synergies between the energy and water sectors. Synergic benefits derived from water, whereas~ energy utilization ilnpacts all aspects of the water sector. In California, around 19 percent

  14. Water Management: Clearing Cloudy and Muddy Water in Ponds and Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , including bass, to see and capture prey. Muddy waters may impart a bad flavor to fish. Such waters also can- tion for game fish and other aquatic animals. Cloudy water interferes with the ability of certain fish-feeding fish such as carp and bullheads also can affect water clarity. These animals root and stir up

  15. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  16. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Milking Center Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    be affected by manure, milk solids, ammonia, phosphorus, and detergents. Wastewater from the dairy milking center is made up of waste from the milking parlor (manure, feed solids, hoof dirt, bulk tank rinse water and detergent used in cleaning), and should... topics: 1. Combining wastes 2. Application methods 3. Slow surface infiltration Combining Wastes When milking center wastes are combined with manure a common disposal system can be used for both types of waste. A liquid manure storage facility, properly...

  17. Interactions of Water and Energy Mediate Responses of High-Latitude Terrestrial Ecosystems to Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subin, Zachary Marc

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Inclusion of Inland Water Surfaces. J. Clim. , 8, 2691-Estimating sensitivities of water and carbon budgets. J.H. , 1955: Wind Stress Over a Water Surface. Quart. J. Roy.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailing site Maybell, Colorado. Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR Part 192 (1993)) (52 FR 36000 (1978)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment will include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes the proposed action compliance with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4, Water Resources Protection Strategy. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include the following: (1) Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and ground water velocities. (2) Definition of background ground water quality and comparison with proposed EPA ground water protection standards. (3) Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. (4) Definition of existing ground water contamination by comparison with the EPA ground water protection standards. (5) Description of the geochemical processes that affect the migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. (6) Description of water resource use, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies.

  19. The Magic and Mysteries of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    The Magic and Mysteries of Water Speaker: Prof. Geri Richmond University of Oregon Water is ubiquitous in our lives. Covering more than two thirds of this planet, water surfaces provide a unique role in controlling our climate. In our bodies, water is the `canal of life', transporting and passing

  20. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for overall water quality and quantity research and implementation in Delaware include: enhanced management the federal Clean Water Act's rating system of designated uses (such as drinking water supply, swimming, fishing, etc.). Delaware has promulgated surface water quality standards which are designed to protect

  1. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for overall water quality and quantity research and implementation in Delaware include: enhanced management that have been classified using the federal Clean Water Act's rating system of designated uses (such as drinking water supply, swimming, fishing, etc.). Delaware has promulgated surface water quality standards

  2. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  3. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance.  Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems – affecting energy use , water...

  4. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's at Stake

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance.  Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems – affecting energy use , water...

  5. Water Pollution Control Permit Regulations (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations outline the permits and permitting processes for point discharges to surface waters and outline the monitoring and reporting requirements.

  6. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  7. Reducing Herbicide Entry into Surface Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Paul A.; Bean, Brent W.

    1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    before planting anyway. Even a very light incorporation with a rotary hoe is beneficial. Use Integrated Weed Mangement Minimize the use of herbicides by applying them on an as-needed basis along with cultural practices such mechanical cultivation... Board, and Texas Natural Resource and Conservation Commission. Produced by AgriLife Communications & Marketing, The Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Educational programs of the Texas...

  8. Physicochemical properties of concentrated Martian surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    predicting saline mineral solubility, we generate likely brine compositions ranging from bicarbonate dominated to sulfatedominated and predict their saline mineralogy. For each brine composition, we, much of the anticipated variation in chemistry for likely Martian brines. These estimates allow

  9. Best Management Practices for Surface Water Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Mick Wiest, B&W Y-12 Technical Services, L.L.C., Y-12 National Security Complex Track 7-8

  10. Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained By FaultSunpods Inc Jump to:SuperiorEnergyIncluding

  11. Statistical Characterization of Bare Soil Surface Microrelief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to substrate movement, water infiltration or runoff, and soil erosion. It has been noted by many authors that most of the soil surface and water interaction processes have characteristic lengths in millimeter, fragmentation and water content) to obtain an optimal crop emergence. Seedbed preparation focuses

  12. Plugging Abandoned Water Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    is one of our state?s most precious resources. Groundwater from aquifers (underground layers of porous rock or sand containing water, into which wells can be drilled) supplies over half of the water used in the state. Protecting the quality of this vital... of Licensing and Regulation (TDLR). Abandoned wells are a threat to our water supply An abandoned well is a direct channel from the surface to the aquifer below. Contaminants that enter a well are introduced directly into the aquifer with no opportunity...

  13. X-rays at Solid-Liquid Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosch, Helmut (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research

    2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-liquid interfaces play an important role in many areas of current and future technologies, and in our biosphere. They play a key role in the development of nanofluidics and nanotribology, which sensitively depend on our knowledge of the microscopic structures and phenomena at the solid-liquid interface. The detailed understanding of how a fluid meets a wall is also a theoretical challenge. In particular, the phenomena at repulsive walls are of interest, since they affect many different phenomena, such as water-repellent surfaces or the role of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. Recent x-ray reflectivity studies of various solid-liquid interfaces have disclosed rather intriguiing phenomena, which will be discussed in this lecture: premelting of ice in contact with silica; liquid Pb in contact with Si; water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. These experiments, carried out with high-energy x-ray microbeams, reveal detailed insight into the liquid density profile closest to the wall. A detailed insight into atomistic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is also a prerequisite in the microscopic control of electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Recent x-ray studies show the enormous future potential of such non-destructive analytical tools for the in situ observation of (electro-)chemical surface reactions. This lecture will review recent x-ray experiments on solid-liquid interfaces.

  14. An Investigation of Hydrological Aspects of Water Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, O.; Runkles, J.; Wendt, C.

    Water harvesting is a potential source of water for arid and semiarid lands. The objectives of this study were to determine combinations of land surface treatments and land forming which result in efficient but inexpensive water harvesting...

  15. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nutrients and bacteria in feedlot runoff, arsenic removal from drinking water, study of pharmaceuticals in surface water and uranium detoxification in ground water using bacteria. These projects were scheduled

  16. Center for Water Resources Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in assessing the susceptibility of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities water, source water, pollution sources, watershed management Primary PI: Darwin L. Sorensen Other PIs of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities in the watershed. The major

  17. Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water contamination with MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether,that areas vulnerable to MTBE are also vulner- able tothat affect the movement of MTBE. If only a small amount of

  18. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  19. Surface Dependent Representations for Illumination Insensitive Image Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindenbaum, Michael

    . Lighting variation significantly affects surface appearance and makes image comparison difficultSurface Dependent Representations for Illumination Insensitive Image Comparison Margarita Osadchy the problem of matching images to tell whether they come from the same scene viewed under different lighting

  20. Kansas Water Office November 14, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    adequate quantities of good quality water to meet future needs. #12;#12;Kansas Reservoir Loss of Capacity 0 that adversely affect the water quality of Kansas lakes and streams. Ensure that water quality conditions are maintained at a level equal to or better than year 2000 conditions. Reduce total nitrogen and phosphorus

  1. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  2. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

  3. Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff and fail. Corrosion can cause three types of damage: · The entire metal surface gradually thins and red (Fig. 1). · Deep pits appear that can penetrate pipe or tank walls. This type of corrosion may not add

  4. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    nutrient loading of surface streams and reservoirs in northwest Arkansas, identifying and evaluating the viability of alternate water supplies using abandoned, flooded coal mines for the City of Greenwood Phosphorus Flux in Streams and Reservoirs: Effect of Chemical Amendments Basic Information Title: Phosphorus

  5. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio; Levine, Xavier

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change non-monotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circul...

  6. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  7. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  8. Drinking Water Problems: Lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A lmost everyone knows that lead-based paint caused serious health problems (especially in children) before it was banned. But not everyone is aware that people can ingest lead from other sources such as contaminat- ed food and drinking water... sources of lead con- tamination. But if your water comes from a private well, it might contain enough lead to warrant action. How does lead affect health? Lead can be absorbed through the digestive tract, the lungs and the skin. It accumulates in the body...

  9. Wetting and friction on superoleophobic surfaces March 20, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    then focus on their friction properties, and es- tablish an important condition for their use as super-lubricating,15­18 . Similar surfaces can be produced to repel oil, but repelling both oil and water with the same surface is a true challenge since surfaces that repel water are usu- ally attracting oils. The recently introduced

  10. Polyamide desalination membrane characterization and surface modification to enhance fouling resistance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Mukul M. (Univeristy of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Freeman, Benny D. (Univeristy of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Van Wagner, Elizabeth M. (Univeristy of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market for polyamide desalination membranes is expected to continue to grow during the coming decades. Purification of alternative water sources will also be necessary to meet growing water demands. Purification of produced water, a byproduct of oil and gas production, is of interest due to its dual potential to provide water for beneficial use as well as to reduce wastewater disposal costs. However, current polyamide membranes are prone to fouling, which decreases water flux and shortens membrane lifetime. This research explored surface modification using poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) to improve the fouling resistance of commercial polyamide membranes. Characterization of commercial polyamide membrane performance was a necessary first step before undertaking surface modification studies. Membrane performance was found to be sensitive to crossflow testing conditions. Concentration polarization and feed pH strongly influenced NaCl rejection, and the use of continuous feed filtration led to higher water flux and lower NaCl rejection than was observed for similar tests performed using unfiltered feed. Two commercial polyamide membranes, including one reverse osmosis and one nanofiltration membrane, were modified by grafting PEGDE to their surfaces. Two different PEG molecular weights (200 and 1000) and treatment concentrations (1% (w/w) and 15% (w/w)) were studied. Water flux decreased and NaCl rejection increased with PEGDE graft density ({micro}g/cm{sup 2}), although the largest changes were observed for low PEGDE graft densities. Surface properties including hydrophilicity, roughness and charge were minimally affected by surface modification. The fouling resistance of modified and unmodified membranes was compared in crossflow filtration studies using model foulant solutions consisting of either a charged surfactant or an oil in water emulsion containing n-decane and a charged surfactant. Several PEGDE-modified membranes demonstrated improved fouling resistance compared to unmodified membranes of similar initial water flux, possibly due to steric hindrance imparted by the PEG chains. Fouling resistance was higher for membranes modified with higher molecular weight PEG. Fouling was more extensive for feeds containing the cationic surfactant, potentially due to electrostatic attraction with the negatively charged membranes. However, fouling was also observed in the presence of the anionic surfactant, indicating hydrodynamic forces are also responsible for fouling.

  11. Water Resource Uses and Issues in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Resource Uses and Issues in Texas The Texas A&M University System The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Neville P. Clarke. Director, College Station, Texas Acknowledgments This study of the Texas water situation completes a series... Water Deuelopment in Texas August 1978 - B-1189: Wafer Resource Uses and Issues in Texas. The present publication considers the implications of ground-water over- drafts and impending full utilization of surface-water resources in Texas. Princi- gal...

  12. Effect of Droplet Morphology on Growth Dynamics and Heat Transfer during Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces offers new opportunities for enhanced energy conversion, efficient water harvesting, and high performance thermal management. These surfaces are designed to be Cassie ...

  13. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  14. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  15. Effect of Surface Environment on Energy Relaxation Dynamics in Photo-Excited Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiti, Sourav

    2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    on the exciton quantum yield and charge carrier dynamics of these nanocrystals. Surface imperfections or surface defects often decrease the exciton quantum yield by trapping the charge carriers and thus affect relaxation dynamics. Surface binding surfactants play...

  16. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

  17. UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

  18. Programmable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

  19. amazon state waters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about a quarter of all global biodiversity. It acts as one of the major flywheels of global climate, transpiring water and generating clouds, affecting atmospheric circulation...

  20. Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.

    Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler...

  1. advanced heavy water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How does the use of advanced waterHow does the use of advanced water treatment affect energy Keller, Arturo A. 3 Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine Energy Storage,...

  2. advanced alkaline water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How does the use of advanced waterHow does the use of advanced water treatment affect energy Keller, Arturo A. 4 Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline...

  3. Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, James Brent

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    RWH systems has become a concern. Water temperature is a parameter of water quality and storage container color and shading affect this temperature. Four different colors and three different shadings were applied to twelve rainwater storage barrels...

  4. Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    include: water quality, surface and groundwater management, water quality management and water resources, Water Quality, Management and Planning Descriptors: Principal Investigators: Todd Tietjen, Gary N. Ervin; to assist state agencies in the development and maintenance of a state water management plan

  5. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  6. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  7. Core design study of a supercritical light water reactor with double row fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, ShannXi, 710049 (China); Yang, J.; Zhang, Y. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., Yitian Road, ShenZhen, GuangDong, 518026 (China)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An equilibrium core for supercritical light water reactor has been designed. A novel type of fuel assembly with dual rows of fuel rods between water rods is chosen and optimized to get more uniform assembly power distributions. Stainless steel is used for fuel rod cladding and structural material. Honeycomb structure filled with thermal isolation is introduced to reduce the usage of stainless steel and to keep moderator temperature below the pseudo critical temperature. Water flow scheme with ascending coolant flow in inner regions is carried out to achieve high outlet temperature. In order to enhance coolant outlet temperature, the radial power distributions needs to be as flat as possible through operation cycle. Fuel loading pattern and control rod pattern are optimized to flatten power distribution at inner regions. Axial fuel enrichment is divided into three parts to control axial power peak, which affects maximum cladding surface temperature. (authors)

  8. Biosand filtration of high turbidity water : modified filter design and safe filtrate storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collin, Clair

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of water-related diseases that predominantly affect people living in developing countries. The most prevalent water-related disease is diarrhea, estimated to kill 1.8 million children ...

  9. Guidelines for water use. Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crook, J.; Ammerman, D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual is a valuable tool for regulatory agencies at all levels of government, engineers, planners, and all other groups affected by water reuse problems. Key water reuse planning issues are identified and discussed in a manner that librally employs case study experience to illustrate the importance of each issue and successful solutions. A comprehensive listing of state water reuse guidelines by category of reuse is provided, along with an analysis of the variations between states within each category. The analysis is then followed with a series of suggested guidelines for water quality required for each category of reuse. These guidelines are based on the state guidelines and experience described earlier, and they offer a suggested starting point for state, regional, and local governments that plan to establish water reuse procedures, both in terms of water quality requirements and procedures for design, operation, and monitoring.

  10. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  11. ASCE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS World Water Congress 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the ice pack and boundary conditions of ice-water existence. It simultaneously finds ice temperatures, pack size, and heat transferred between ice pack and both the atmosphere and the water. Since measured-parameter Great Lakes continuous evaporation model solves for each day's over-water and over-ice surface fluxes

  12. ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water Objective This project provides measurement solutions that probe the surface and internal structure of polymer membranes used in water purification, and correlate that structure to the transport of water and other species through the membrane. Our methods are focused

  13. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    irrigation, ground water modeling, non-point source pollution, quality of ground water and surface water heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter Basic Information Title: Vadose-zone losses of soluble heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter

  14. Nebraska Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Hydroclimatic Controls on the Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water in the Platte River Basin; and (3 for organic, emerging contaminants, heavy metals, and for stable isotope mass spectrometry. Faculty, staffNebraska Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Nebraska Water Resources Center

  15. Multiscale modeling of clay-water systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebrahimi, Davoud

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering properties of soils are highly affected by clay content and clay-water interactions. However, existing macro-scale continuum models have no length scale to describe the evolution of the clay microstructure ...

  16. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupportingAlbedo at theSurface Soil Surface Soil

  17. Waterfowl habitats on reclaimed surface mined lands in southwestern Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, W.G.; Klimstra, W.D.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Loss of quality wetland habitat is probably the most important factor affecting populations of waterfowl in the United States. To counteract this problem programs for protecting critical habitats have been established and research for innovative methods to create wetlands are being pursued. Recently, attention has been given to evaluation of wetland habitats on lands surface-mined and to methods of reclamation to enhance their development as part of future planning. These data indicate quality wetland habitats can be a legitimate aspect of reclaimed surface-mined lands; and selective overburden handling, grading so as to maximize biologically productive zones and selective plantings contribute importantly to their value. Currently bond release criteria by the Illinois regulatory authority for wildlife habitat and developed water resources discourages reclamation that would maximize quality wetland habitats. Suggested changes in these criteria include alternative vegetation requirements for wetland habitats, more leniency on seasonally inundated shallow water areas, and variation from topsoil requirements when adequate unconsolidated substitute material is available. It is believed that such allowances would result in incentives for the industry to develop wetland habitats so vital to continued enjoyment of waterfowl resources.

  18. auger observatory surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000...

  19. auger surface detector: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000...

  20. Role of Water States on Water Uptake and Proton Transport in Nafion using Molecular Simulations and Bimodal Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Michigan; Hwang, Gi Suk; Kaviany, Massoud; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Kientiz, Brian; Weber, Adam Z.; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular simulations and a bimodal domain network, the role of water state on Nafion water uptake and water and proton transport is investigated. Although the smaller domains provide moderate transport pathways, their effectiveness remains low due to strong, resistive water molecules/domain surface interactions. The water occupancy of the larger domains yields bulk-like water, and causes the observed transition in the water uptake and significant increases in transport properties.