Sample records for af alkaline fly

  1. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  2. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  3. Brndeforbrug i Danmark En undersgelse af antallet af og brndeforbruget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Br鎛deforbrug i Danmark En unders鴊else af antallet af og br鎛deforbruget i br鎛deovne, pejse............................. 16 Bilag 4; Import af br鎛de til Danmark brugervaner og emissi- oner fra br鎛deovne i Danmark. I unders鴊elsen indgik en opg鴕else af bestanden af

  4. 1. Abstract -algebra AF-algebra AF-algebra C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Hitoshi

    C AF K ( ) 4 1. Abstract C -algebra AF-algebra AF-algebra C -algebra AF-algebra K0 2. AF-algebra 2.1 (AF-algebra). C -algebra A C -subalgebra (An) n=1 A = nAn 路 A AF-algebra AF-algebra Mn(C) Mn 2.2 (CAR algebra). M2 M4 M8 路 路 路 M2n M2n+1 路 路 路 x ( x 0 0 x ) inductive limit C -algebra CAR algebra 2

  5. Undersgelse af analysemetode for bestemmeslse af enzym i

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .imm.dtu.dk #12;Resum Dette projekt unders鴊er en af Novozymes nyudviklede analysemetode for be- stemmelse af. Usikker- hederne kan af Novozymes anvendes i deres l鴅ende kontrol af enzym m鎛gden i dyrefoder. Der er til sidst givet et bud p en ny m錮e at dimensionere Novozymes fremti- dige ringtest. Diminsioneringen

  6. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alkaline province of West Texas, near the northern terminusthe Diablo Plateau, West Texas the lujavritic-tinguaitic

  7. Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Drain flies can be a common problem in homes. They live and reproduce in drains and septic tank field lines. The first step in controlling these pests is identifying the source of the infestation. Then there are cleaning products and insecticides...

  8. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  9. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  10. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  11. Alkalinity tolerance of peach rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Yan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be substituted for chlorophyll analyses in the alkalinity tolerance evaluation in sorghum, soybeans and citrus (DeCianzio et al. , 1979; Mckenzie et al. , 1984; Sudahono, 1991). Active Fe, a form of Fe effective in chlorophyll formation, is proportional... 1992 ABSTRACT Alkalinity Tolerance of Peach Rootstocks. (May 1992) Yan Shi, B. S. , Fujian Agricultural College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. David H. Byrne Peaches suffer from Fe chlorosis when grown in alkaline soils. A range of alkalinity...

  12. Controlling Blow Flies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Blow flies lay their eggs on animal remains and can spread disease. To control blow flies, it is important to remove dead animals and dispose of them properly, and to use effective insecticides when necessary....

  13. Alkalinity tolerance of peach rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Yan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1992 ABSTRACT Alkalinity Tolerance of Peach Rootstocks. (May 1992) Yan Shi, B. S. , Fujian Agricultural College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. David H. Byrne Peaches suffer from Fe chlorosis when grown in alkaline soils. A range of alkalinity... could be assessed by leaf visual-chlorosis rating and Sped-502 reading instead of extractable leaf-chlorophyll concentration or leaf Fe concentration. Some modifications were suggested for the future evaluation. Bicarbonate was a major factor which...

  14. 10. juni 2009 Analyse af grnsesnkning for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ...................................................................................................39 #12;2/40 Resume Til at integrere mere vindkraft i Danmark, har udbygning og forst鎟kning af virkemidler i spil. En mulighed er at 錬ne for anvendelsen af det prisfleksible elforbrug i Danmark. Det kan

  15. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  16. AFS and the Web: Competitors or Collaborators?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhall, Tia

    AFS and the Web: Competitors or Collaborators? M. Satyanarayanan Mirjana Spasojevic Carnegie Mellon颅Wide Web and AFS represent two different approaches to the problem of large颅scale information sharing and weaknesses. Our comparison shows that the Web and AFS are not really competing technologies. Rather

  17. INVITATION: PRAKTISK TEMADAG OM INDHENTNING AF BIO-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVITATION: PRAKTISK TEMADAG OM INDHENTNING AF BIO- MASSE FRA LAVBUNDSOMR臘E TIL BIOGAS 24 lavbundsomr錮et til biogas v鎟et stigende de senere 錼. Der sker en sp鎛dende teknologisk udvikling indenfor som har draget erfaringer med h鴖t og anvendelse af enggr鎠 til biogas, og se udstyr til sl錸ing af

  18. Anmeldelse af Margit Warburg, Hans Raun Iversen & Peter Gundelach: I hjertet af Danmark. Hans Reitzels Forlag. 2008. 294 s.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

    Anmeldelse af Margit Warburg, Hans Raun Iversen & Peter Gundelach: I hjertet af Danmark. Hans Reitzels Forlag. 2008. 294 s. 'I hjertet af Danmark' fungerer som en af de senere udgivelser fra K酶benhavns

  19. Protecting Cattle from Horn Flies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2004-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Horn flies are the most damaging insect to cattle in Texas. This publication explains biological, cultural and chemical methods of controlling horn flies. Various insecticides used to suppress horn flies are listed...

  20. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  1. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  2. Still Flying Issue 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Still Flying can be found on http://www.browncoats.com ! Still Flying is always looking for more people to get involved in all aspects of its production and distribution. If you are interested please either join the Yahoo Group (http://uk.groups.yahoo.com.../group/stillflying) or you can contact the editor (dave@bowsy.co.uk) UK Browncoats come join the fun at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Firefly_Serenity_UK ! If anyone is interested in getting a group together to either fly to the US or hire a cinema...

  3. MORPHISMS OF SIMPLE TRACIALLY AF ALGEBRAS 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    the UCT and reproves Huaxin Lin's theorem on the classification of nuclear tracially AF ... A deep conjecture of Elliott asserts that the simple separable nuclear...

  4. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  6. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David B. (Ithaca, NY); Lao, Guifang (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  7. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  9. Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

    2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

  10. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  11. Ris-R-Report Undersgelse af vindforhold ved det

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sp鴕gsm錶 ang錯nde 豷terild placeringen er hvor mange af tr鎒rne det er n鴇vendige at f鎙de for at kunne e best錯nde af Ris DTU, Siemens Wind Power AS, Vestas Energy Systems AS, Skov- og Naturstyrelsen og

  12. LINK2009 FASE 1 UDVIKLING AF 2. GEN. BRNDSELSCELLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foreningen Hydrogen Link Danmark | www.hydrogenlink.net Side 2 af 56 Indledning & sammendrag I begyndelsen af drift i K鴅enhavn. #12;LINK2009 FASE 1 SLUTRAPPORT MARTS 2010 Foreningen Hydrogen Link Danmark | www

  13. Suppression of Stable Flies on Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large populations of stable flies can substantially reduce the income of beef and dairy producers. This publication explains how to suppress stable flies effectively and economically....

  14. Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hessian fly came from Russia and may have been introduced into the United States during the Revolutionary War. It has since spread to many parts of the country. By 2005, more than 67 counties in Texas reported Hessian fly infestations...

  15. Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hessian fly came from Russia and may have been introduced into the United States during the Revolutionary War. It has since spread to many parts of the country. By 2005, more than 67 counties in Texas reported Hessian fly infestations...

  16. Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger hvori der systematisk er valgt lav. 23. November 2007 #12;#12;Reduced energy use for ventilation of buildings through selection of low ventilation rate on perceived quality of air polluted by different materials, small scale and full scale

  17. xico, Agost w.ird.fr/af

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ju醨ez M閤 ttp://www de Trabajo de Travai diente Huet xico, Agost AFR w.ird.fr/af o No. 12. No obstante, desde hace algunos a駉s, numerosos y diversos trabajos hist髍icos muestran el papel que estos 鷏timos han tenido a lo largo de la historia del pa韘 (ver el cuaderno de trabajo Afrodesc No. 3

  18. Plast kan ikke hamle op med silicium og metaller. Men elektronik af plast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plast kan ikke hamle op med silicium og metaller. Men elektronik af plast bliver langt billigere traditionelle materialer af banen, n錼 det g鎙der nye generationer af lynhurtige computere. Men billige og med chips af plast. Der er masser af muligheder. Hvad med en sensor af plast i emballagen, som

  19. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report B. Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Proceedings from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Arlington, Virginia...

  20. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Abstract: Previous experiments have demonstrated that...

  1. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  2. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  3. COURSE INFORMATION: Title: Fly Fishing Weekend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikes, Derek S.

    COURSE INFORMATION: Title: Fly Fishing Weekend Department/Number: NONC F040 F01 Credits: 0 to the art and science of fly casting, fishing and tying. Students will learn how use a fly rod to place a fly with pinpoint accuracy, tie fishing knots and construct their own leaders, and, most importantly

  4. Screening citrus rootstocks for alkalinity tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudahono

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major... Subject: Horticulture SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Approved as to style and content by: David H. yr (Chair of Com ttee) Robert E. Rouse (Member) ~. Err. tg~i ~PI. ~~ Frank M. Hone (Member) Calvin G...

  5. af psoriasis og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  6. af fisk og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  7. af kommunikation og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  8. af spredning og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tak til lektor i idhistorie Boyer, Edmond 2 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  9. af interaktion og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  10. af kodning og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  11. af opholdstid og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  12. af patientsikkerhed hvorfor og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Erichsen, Ola Bakken 2013-01-01 2 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  13. af forbrug og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  14. af landgilde og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  15. af abstract og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  16. af frakturer og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  17. af energiforbrug og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  18. af metoder til: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Iterative metoder til rekonstruktion af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: .3 Iterative...

  19. af status og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  20. af doedelighed og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  1. af stordrifts og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  2. af diabetesskole og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  3. af kraeftsygdomme udfordringer og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ressourcer Bud p nogle nye og fremti 2 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  4. af indkaldelse og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  5. af calcium og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  6. af quantiferon og: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Preprocessering og postprocessering af PET billeder Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Del III...

  7. af skovene som: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File System Joshua Foster Computer Science Kalpathi Subramanian exploratory tool for monitor- ing and viewing the complex relationships within the Andrews File System (AFS. We...

  8. af brint som: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File System Joshua Foster Computer Science Kalpathi Subramanian exploratory tool for monitor- ing and viewing the complex relationships within the Andrews File System (AFS. We...

  9. atrial fibrillation af: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analysis (ICA) to solve the problem of atrial activity (AA) extraction from real electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of atrial fibrillation (AF). The proper analysis and...

  10. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  11. and a Prayer eople flying in airplanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Frank

    On a Fin and a Prayer Frank Fish eople flying in airplanes invariably think of birds in flight the flight of flying fish. The article examined the steeringand handling mecha- nisms of the fish in the Spirit of St. Louis, researchers could not fullygrasp how fish could fly above the surface of the ocean

  12. Sjaggeren, der hopper rundt i haven og spiser af vinterens udbud af rdne bler, er ankommet fra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorup, Kasper

    , rovfugle, 鎛der, g鎠 og vadefugle passerer hen over Danmark i tr鎘s鎠o- nerne. Nogle af dem yngler i Danmark, andre er her kun som vinterg鎠ter, men langt st鴕stedelen passerer bare igennem landet. Kun en lille andel af de danske arter forbliver hele deres liv inden for Danmarks gr鎛ser (B鴑l鴎ke et al. i

  13. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  15. Geosynthetic clay liners in alkaline environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKelvey, J.A. III [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as secondary barrier layers in environmental applications such as landfills and other impoundment facilities is becoming increasingly more popular among the engineering community, particularly at project sites where earthen materials suitable for barrier layers may not be locally available. Design engineers for these environmental applications are becoming well versed at performing equivalency calculations comparing the performance of geosynthetic materials to their earthen counterparts. For barrier layers, these equivalency calculations would normally compare the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the GCL to a compacted clay liner. Of these properties, the ability of the hydraulic properties to withstand degradation due to permeation of contained leachates is of prominent concern. Such is the case in alkaline environments. The leachate may adversely affect the GCL by minimizing swelling, decreasing adsorption capacity and increasing the permeability of the material. If the effect on the material is significant, the usefulness of this product is diminished, possibly voiding any equivalency comparison to compacted clay liner performance. The design engineer must fully understand what effect, if any, specific leachates will have on the GCL being considered. Accordingly, appropriate performance testing with the leachate in question must be performed during the design phase and confirmed during construction through quality assurance testing. This paper will present the design considerations, required laboratory testing and conformance tests for a recent project that contained an alkaline leachate. Through appropriate testing, a contaminant resistant GCL was shown to possess desired hydraulic properties in the presence of the alkaline leachate.

  16. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K. [University of Western Cape, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  17. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  18. alkaline ph alter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in magnitude and are often opposite in direction. It was also found that during Clyde Marshall; Leslie; F. Nims 37 Subcellular localization of marine bacterial alkaline...

  19. alkali metal alkaline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for hydrogen, the alkali-metal atoms, the alkaline earth atoms, and the inert gases are tabulated along with the resulting values of the atomic static polarizabilities,...

  20. alkaline phosphatase production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    any soluble alkaline phospha rase activity remaining, and the supernatant solution and pellet separated. The pellet was suspended in 110 ml of the above buffer and homogenized. To...

  1. alkaline water electrolysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane Yongjun Leng,, Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Supporting Information ABSTRACT:...

  2. alkaline single cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through both new materials and membrane electrode processing 10 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  3. alkaline earth metal compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley. FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Cohen, Ronald C. 2 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  4. alkaline secondary cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through both new materials and membrane electrode processing 8 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  5. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and Overview Innovation for Our Energy Future Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory AMFC Workshop May 8, 2011 Innovation...

  6. alkaline phosphate wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  7. alkaline emissions produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  8. alkaline tank waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  9. alkaline waste solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  10. alkaline nuclear wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  11. alkaline nuclear waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  12. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  13. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  14. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  15. alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    ORIGINAL PAPER Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite in the southern Altai orogen for the Bulgen alkaline granite yield crystallization ages of 358 卤 4 Ma (SHRIMP) and 354 卤 4 Ma (LA-orogenic granitoids (460颅375 Ma) in this region. The Bulgen granite has high SiO2, total alkalis, rare earth elements

  17. alkaline earth silicate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth silicate First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  18. alkaline earth ions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth ions First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal Ion...

  19. alkaline earth cax: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth cax First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  20. alkaline earth oxides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth oxides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  1. alkaline earth metals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth metals First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal...

  2. alkaline earth atoms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth atoms First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  3. alkaline earth codoped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth codoped First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  4. alkaline earth compound: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth compound First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  5. alkaline earth metallic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth metallic First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - af polyaromatiske kulbrinter Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tller, 3 Energiteknologi og energiplanlgning Summary: Resultaterne tller, 3 Energi, 4 Energiteknologi og energiplanlgning Milj, 12 Miljaspekter af... fluid...

  7. Leica EM AFS2 Automatic Freeze Substitution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    " excludes humidity and oxygen Fast UV polymerization with LED UV lamp Flexibility Any choice is polymerized under UV light in the EM AFS2 and can be cut and immuno labelled. LED UV lamp FS chamber with new. An integrated LED UV lamp allows immediate polymerization of the samples. Automatic process One step

  8. as a standardised serialisation for ISO 24615 SynAF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    as a standardised serialisation for ISO 24615 SynAF Sonja Bosch, University of South/> format to various linguistic scenarios with the aim of making it the standard serialisation for the ISOAF to In 2010, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published ISO 24615 (Syn

  9. Fly ash enhanced metal removal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonavinakere, S. [Plexus Scientific Corp., Annapolis, MD (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

  10. To tekster af neas Silvius Piccolomini om Danmark Michael v. Cotta-Schnberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

    1 To tekster af ?neas Silvius Piccolomini om Danmark af Michael v. Cotta-Sch酶nberg (rev. 29 Danmark samt to egentlige tekster, hver p氓 nogle sider. Tilsammen viser de Danmarksbilledet hos en person, To tekster af ?neas Silvius Piccolomini om Danmark. In: Umisteligt 颅 Festskrift til Erland Kolding Nielsen

  11. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  12. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  13. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  14. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  15. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musharova, Darya

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) process is a tertiary method of oil recovery that has promising results for future development. It has already been implemented in different areas of the United States such as Wyoming, west Texas, also in Canada...

  17. alkaline membrane cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuelAnalysis of PtC electrode performance in a flowing- electrolyte alkaline fuel cell Fikile R 17 October 2011 Accepted 18 October 2011 Available online 12 November 2011...

  18. advanced alkaline water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How does the use of advanced waterHow does the use of advanced water treatment affect energy Keller, Arturo A. 4 Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline...

  19. alkaline massif se: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  20. alkaline hydrothermal reaction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  1. alkaline hydrothermal vent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  2. alkaline phosphatase activities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  3. african alkaline fermentedfood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  4. alkaline phosphatase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  5. alkaline phosphatase-conjugated oligonucleotide: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  6. alkaline complex south: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  7. alkaline membrane fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  8. alkaline anaerobic respiration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  9. alkaline province located: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  10. alkaline massif kola: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  11. A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, James Kent

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utant Strain DO4-AP2 24 24 24 30 31 36 39 41 43 43 43 46 46 51 51 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Isoelectric Focussing Page 53 IV. Discussion and Conclusions 56 V. References 65 VI, Vita 68 LIST OF TABLES Tables Page 1.... Fluorescent Readings of 4-methylumbelliferone 25 2. Fluorescent Readings of a-naphthol 25 3. Substrate Specificity of Particulate Alkaline Phosohatase 40 Intracellular Localization of Particulate Alkaline Phos- phatase 45 5. Specific Activity of a...

  12. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  13. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  14. The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates analysis. Significantly greater amplification of digestive surface area by villi in small birds, also in actively flying vertebrates. digestion gut morphometrics nutrient absorption paracellular uptake Birds have

  15. Wakate-Initiative Seminar Memory formation in the fly brain!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ejiri, Shinji

    Wakate-Initiative Seminar Memory formation in the fly brain! Dr. Hiromu Tanimoto Head is synthesized in ~280 neurons in the fly brain and involved also in other brain functions, it is important

  16. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  17. Approaches to the petrographic characterization of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enhanced understanding of fly ash properties provided by petrographic analysis, a level of detail chemical analysis cannot provide, will be essential in the upgrading and utilization of fly ash produced in boilers retrofitted to meet clean air standards. Howe et al estimated that over 25% of the fly ash produced in Kentucky in 1992 would not have met the Kentucky Department of Transportation limit of 3% loss-on-ignition (LOI) for class F fly ash used as a Portland cement admixture. The conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} emission units increases fly ash carbon, hence LOI, by 150-200% rendering the fly ash unsuitable for highway construction use in concrete. The preservation of fly ash`s market share will require increased attention to the removal of excess carbon from the fly ash. In this paper, we will discuss the basic components of fly ash. An example of the petrographic analysis of fly ash from a Kentucky power plant will be used to illustrate the partitioning of fly ash components by size, as well as within the fly ash collection system.

  18. Chromatin insulators: lessons from the fly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corces, Victor G.

    Chromatin insulators: lessons from the fly B.V.Gurudatta and Victor G.Corces Abstract Chromatin insulators are DNA^protein complexes with broad functions in nuclear biology. Drosophila has at least five different types of insulators; recent results suggest that these different insulators share some components

  19. Where Eagles FlyTM CHARLES COUNTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    with the development of new energetic systems, CECD's expansion calls for the creation of other areas of excellenceWhere Eagles FlyTM CHARLES COUNTY MARYLAND CENTER FOR ENERGETIC CONCEPTS DEVELOPMENT Dr. D. K Phone 301.405.5294 Fax 301.314.9477 dkanand@umd.edu Website: www.cecd.umd.edu ENERGETICS TECHNOLOGY

  20. Deep-hole drilling Fruit Flies & Zebrafish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yi

    surface to purify air, employing existing technology in a new way. It is the brainchild of artistFEATURE Deep-hole drilling Fruit Flies & Zebrafish Bj枚rk FEATURE Academics & Industry: ResearchIScOvER mAGAZInE discover@sheffield.ac.uk Research and Innovation Services University of Sheffield New

  1. Af projektleder, forskningsprofessor, dr.scient., ph.d. Michael Mller Hansen, Danmarks Fiskeriundersgelser, Danmarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    216 Af projektleder, forskningsprofessor, dr.scient., ph.d. Michael M鴏ler Hansen, Danmarks Fiskeriunders鴊elser, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet Togtben 17 (Sargasssohavet) Baggrund og form錶 Trods mere end 100

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - af vind analyse Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    af forbruget med vindkraft. Specielt i disse... at sikre mod strmudfald, nr vind- energi skal bidrage med halvdelen ... Source: Ris National Laboratory Collection:...

  3. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  4. Heat inactivation of alkaline phosphatase in human milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odumodu, Chinyelu Uzoamaka

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of bovine mii. k than in similar portions of human milk. The activity of the enzyme was, in general, three times more in colostrum than in normal human milk. A definite alkaline phosphatase acti. vity with stages of lactation wa- indeterminate because.... LIST OF FIGURES. I NTR ODD'CTI ON. vill 1X The Study and Its Purposes. The Objectives. . LITERATURE REVIEW 1 3 Distribution of the Enzyme in Various Milk Portions. Variation of Alkaline Phosphatase in Relation to 'the Progress of Lactation...

  5. alkaline direct ethanol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline direct ethanol First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Author's personal copy...

  6. alkaline cementitious materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline cementitious materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Discrete element...

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake Surface Water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada (X) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water16. Notwithstanding high X, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface

  8. Variation in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Jesse Lane

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the serum was stored, the analysis was completed within ten days of the date of collection of the blood sample. The serum alkaline phosphatase activity was determined 17 by the method of Bessy, Lowry, and Brock (194-6), in which 0.1 ml. of serum is used...

  9. Increase in the Export of Alkalinity from North America's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    be fluvially exported. The fluvial export of terrestrial alkalinity is also the major source of oceanic bicarbonate or car- bonate through the weathering of the parent rock material, and the hydrologic cycle trans delivery can alter the export rates of elements with a weathering source (4). It has recently been shown

  10. alkaline earth elements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    earth elements First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Bose-Einstein condensation of alkaline...

  11. alkaline earth lanthanide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth lanthanide First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  12. alkaline earth ruthenates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth ruthenates First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  13. alkaline earth cations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth cations First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Noncovalent interaction or...

  14. alkaline earth compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth compounds First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  15. alkaline earth transition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth transition First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 SU(N) magnetism in chains of...

  16. alkaline earth chalcogenides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth chalcogenides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  17. alkaline earth halogenides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    earth halogenides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline earth...

  18. alkaline earth metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    earth metal First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal Ion...

  19. alkali alkaline earth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkali alkaline earth First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Long range interactions between...

  20. alkaline earth plasmas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth plasmas First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Static and Dynamic Structure...

  1. alkaline earth chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth chlorides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  2. alkaline air pollution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline air pollution First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution Air...

  3. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, James G. (Collegeville, PA); Mathur, Akshay (Tampa, FL); Simpson, James C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  4. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  5. The stable fly: prediction of larval temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foerster, Kenneth Wayne

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the manure and to develop a dynamic heat transfer model, Larval migration behavior was observed in simulated sections of a manure mound. From these data a dynamic, temperature-dependent, larval migration model was developed. The results indicate... Of The Stable Fly Response To Temperature Heat Transfer Model III. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AND MATERIALS Manure Mound Temperature Distribution Temperature Measurement Thermodynamic Model Heat Transfer in the Mound Convective Heat Transfer Heat Transfer...

  6. Det sovjetiske kernevbenprogram i perioden 1949-1956 gav massiv strlingsudsttelse af arbejdere og befolkning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Den f酶rste produktionsenhed blev opf酶rt i Chelyabinsk regionen omkring 15 km fra byen Kysthym i det, eksempelvis Chelyabinsk-40 eller Tomsk-7. I l酶bet af de f酶rste ti 氓rs drift af Mayak-enheden blev store

  7. Til efterret kommer videnskabsminis-ter Helge Sander (V) med en reform af

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Til efter錼et kommer videnskabsminis- ter Helge Sander (V) med en reform af sektorforskningen Sander. N錼 Folketinget 錬ner til oktober, l鎔ger han et forslag frem til en lov, der reforme- rer for det vigtige skridt fra laboratoriet til samleb錸det", siger Helge Sander. Den kommende reform af

  8. Udvikling af et demonstrations-og testkleanlg, der anvender CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udvikling af et demonstrations- og testk鴏eanl鎔, der anvender CO2 som k鴏emiddel Mogens et demonstrations- og testk鴏eanl鎔, der anvender CO2 som k鴏emiddel". Rapporten er en kortfattet rapport beskriver design, opbygning og test af et prototype- vandk鴏eaggregat med CO2 som k鴏emiddel

  9. Slutrapport for PSO 337-068 Udvikling af LED lyskilder og lamper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bulb. - two LED pendants/lamps, a LED table lamp and a chair with LED lighting developed by designers Cluster lampe 13 Teknisk design af Cluster 15 Konklusion 16 Lysflyder 17 Hvordan opstod ideen om en LEDSlutrapport for PSO 337-068 Udvikling af LED lyskilder og lamper Carsten Dam-Hansen, Paul Michael

  10. INCRUST TECHNOLOGY FREMGANGSMDE FOR PRODUKTION AF FODER INDKAPSLET I EN FORDJELIG SKAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INCRUST TECHNOLOGY FREMGANGSM臘E FOR PRODUKTION AF FODER INDKAPSLET I EN FORD豃ELIG SKAL FASE 4.0 (M芌KNING) RAPPORT DECEMBER 2003 #12;INCRUST TECHNOLOGY 2001301-Incrust-110A-Rapport.DOC BILAG 31.12.03 DATO Technology Fremgangsm錮e for produktion af foder indkapslet i en ford鴍elig skal. Fase 1 Rapport December

  11. INCRUST TECHNOLOGY FREMGANGSMDE FOR PRODUKTION AF FODER INDKAPSLET I EN FORDJELIG SKAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INCRUST TECHNOLOGY FREMGANGSM臘E FOR PRODUKTION AF FODER INDKAPSLET I EN FORD豃ELIG SKAL PROCESANL艷 (ANL艷SOPBYGNING) RAPPORT DECEMBER 2004 #12;INCRUST TECHNOLOGY 2001301-Incrust-150A Technology Fremgangsm錮e for produktion af foder indkapslet i en ford鴍elig skal. Fase 1.0 Rapport December

  12. INCRUST TECHNOLOGY. FREMGANGSMDE FOR PRODUKTION AF FODER INDKAPSLET I EN FORDJELIG SKAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INCRUST TECHNOLOGY. FREMGANGSM臘E FOR PRODUKTION AF FODER INDKAPSLET I EN FORD豃ELIG SKAL FASE 3.0 (AFKORTER) RAPPORT SEPTEMBER 2003 #12;INCRUST TECHNOLOGY 2001301-Incrust-100A-Rapport.DOC 30.09.03 2 39 indkapslet i en ford鴍elig skal. Rapport September 2000. -Incrust Technology Fremgangsm錮e for produktion af

  13. Uncertainty in the reactive transport model response to an alkaline perturbation in a clay formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burnol, A.; Blanc, P.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Gaucher, E.C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    degradation of a concrete/clay interface, in Migration'05 -an alkaline plume in a clay barrier, Applied Geochemistry,AN ALKALINE PERTURBATION IN A CLAY FORMATION A. Burnol*, P.

  14. alkaline-earth hafnates bahfo3: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth hafnates bahfo3 First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline earth atoms CERN Preprints...

  15. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  16. Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of Cations in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cation degradation insights obtained by computational modeling could result in better performance and longer lifetime for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  17. Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell L. An, T.S. Zhao ethanol fuel cell Alkaline-acid Species concentrations Membrane thickness Power density a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell (AA-DEFC) that is composed

  18. SINGLE ELEMENT TEST PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prashant, Amit

    : Fly-ash is a waste product produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. It is often used. Introduction Fly-ash is a fine powdery material, produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. Fly-ash need to dispose fly-ash from these ponds. Fly-ash is often used as structural fill in order to dispose

  19. Mercury capture by distinct fly ash carbon forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Taulbee, D.N.; Sakulpitakphon, T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon was separated from the fly ash from a Kentucky power plant using density gradient centrifugation. Using a lithium heterolpolytungstate high-density media, relative concentrations of inertinite (up to 85% vol.), isotropic carbon (up to 79% vol.), and anisotropic carbon (up to 76% vol.) were isolated from the original fly ash. Mercury concentration was lowest in the parent fly ash (which contains non-carbon components); followed by inertinite, isotropic coke, mixed isotropic-anisotropic coke fraction, and, with the highest concentration, the anisotropic coke concentrate. The latter order corresponds to the increase in BET surface area of the fly ash carbons. Previous studies have demonstrated the capture of mercury by fly ash carbon. This study confirms prior work demonstrating the varying role of carbon types in the capture, implying that variability in the carbon content influences the amount of mercury retained on the fly ash.

  20. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  1. uncovercalifornia.com http://uncovercalifornia.com/content/21978-better-smelling-beer-attracts-fruit-flies Better-Smelling Beer attracts Fruit Flies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    uncovercalifornia.com http://uncovercalifornia.com/content/21978-better-smelling-beer-attracts-fruit-flies Better-Smelling Beer attracts Fruit Flies A new research has found that the smell of beer not only attracts beer lovers, but fruit flies as well. The research team discovered that fruit flies and yeast

  2. Alkaline industrial waters and wetlands: prospects for effective treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Kate

    - sources High rates of calcite (CaCO3) precipitation as waters take in atmospheric CO2 Ca2+ + CO3 2- CaCO setting Two leachate sources: input increases alkalinity (>1500mg/L as CaCO3), pH (>12) and Ca2+ (>600mg/L) CM2: Pilot CW sized by CaCO3 removal rates from volunteer system CM3: Monitored through natural

  3. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Baudry, Michelle (Le Pontaroux, FR)

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  4. Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

    2009-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  5. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline earth atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meiser; M. J. Holland

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth-alkaline-like atoms with ultra-narrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements

  6. Flying Cloud Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information Hydro IncEnergyInformationOpenOpenFluxFlying

  7. Flying F Bio Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park atFisiaFlorida: EnergyFlying F Bio

  8. Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  9. Drosophila taxonomy 10 Fly 2009; Vol. 3 Issue 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markow, Therese

    Drosophila taxonomy 10 Fly 2009; Vol. 3 Issue 1 [Fly 3:1, 10-14; January/February/March 2009 taxonomies and to propose novel relationships among taxa. Phylogenetic systematics seeks to use explicit. This approach is an improvement over traditional taxonomy because of the explicit, repeatable analytical methods

  10. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  11. P trods af at plantefibre har vret i forskernes sgelys siden 1930'erne,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bioethanol. Her har man l鎛ge forsket i, hvordan man mest rentabelt kan fremstille bioethanol og man at isolere planternes cellulose til fibre eller glukosen, som bruges til fremstillingen af bioethanol, vil

  12. 14 GeologiskNyt 5/06 Af Henning Haack1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Anja C.

    Nyt besk鎓tiger sig ellers normalt ikke med astronomiske emner som Univer- sets oprindelse, supernova-eksplosioner radioaktive stof- fer. De fleste af disse stoffer skabtes i stjer- ner og supernova-eksplosioner, i tiden

  13. THE IMPACT OF DISSOLVED SALTS ON PASTES CONTAINING FLY ASH, CEMENT AND SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The degree of hydration of a mixture of cementitious materials (Class F fly ash, blast furnace slag and portland cement) in highly concentrated alkaline salt solutions is enhanced by the addition of aluminate to the salt solution. This increase in the degree of hydration, as monitored with isothermal calorimetry, leads to higher values of dynamic Young's modulus and compressive strength and lower values of total porosity. This enhancement in performance properties of these cementitious waste forms by increased hydration is beneficial to the retention of the radionuclides that are also present in the salt solution. The aluminate ions in the solution act first to retard the set time of the mix but then enhance the hydration reactions following the induction period. In fact, the aluminate ions increase the degree of hydration by {approx}35% over the degree of hydration for the same mix with a lower aluminate concentration. An increase in the blast furnace slag concentration and a decrease in the water to cementitious materials ratio produced mixes with higher values of Young's modulus and lower values of total porosity. Therefore, these operational factors can be fine tuned to enhance performance properties of cementitious waste form. Empirical models for Young modulus, heat of hydration and total porosity were developed to predict the values of these properties. These linear models used only statistically significant compositional and operational factors and provided insight into those factors that control these properties.

  14. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  17. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OFDecember 18,United4Energy 06 Alkaline

  18. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat Pump BasicsAlexander DaneDirector,Alkaline

  19. Integrated Pest Management of Flies in Texas Dairies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Douglas; Cocke, Jesse

    2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    into one system that reduces dependence on chemicals. 7 Sanitation To implement a successful IPM program, begin with sanitation and manure management. 8 Biological control Fly populations can be suppressed by using beneficial insects and arthropods... are laid in clusters of 75 to 150 every three to four days during a 31-day period. Flies usually deposit eggs in wet, decaying organic matter such as manure and spilled feed. After hatching, the cream-colored fly larva, or maggot (Figure 2), feeds from four...

  20. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  1. FLYING FISH GLIDE AS WELL We're all familiar with birds that are as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moss, Cynthia

    Inside JEB i FLYING FISH GLIDE AS WELL AS BIRDS We're all familiar with birds that are as comfortable diving as they are flying but only one family of fish has made the reverse journey. Flying fish Choi, a mechanical engineer from Seoul National University, Korea, became fascinated by flying fish

  2. Evolving Vision-Based Flying Robots Jean-Christophe Zufferey, Dario Floreano,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    without human intervention. The flying robot consists of a small wireless airship equipped with a linear

  3. alkaline-earth metal oxides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley. FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Cohen, Ronald C. 2 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  4. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  5. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  6. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  7. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  8. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  9. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  10. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  11. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  12. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-pol

  13. Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly to be used in a Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell (SAFC) needs to (i) be insoluble in both aqueous solutions,10% > 320 癈). When used in a fuel cell as a binder in the membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA

  14. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain Available online 8 March 2012 Keywords: A1. Mineral replacement rate A1. Serpentinization A1. TG analyses B1. Alkaline medium B2. Chrysotile nanotubes a b s t r a c t Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one

  15. Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell S and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 26 carbon supported PtRh catalysts and compare their catalytic activities with that of Pt/C in alkaline

  16. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  17. alkaline-earth metals pt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth metals pt First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth...

  18. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologiesAlkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a , Lizhu Wang b membrane fuel cell (AMFC) in-situ cross-linking ionomer net water transport coefficient A B S T R A C

  19. Robust interface between flying and topological qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng-Yuan Xue; Ming Gong; Jia Liu; Yong Hu; Shi-Liang Zhu; Z. D. Wang

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid architectures, consisting of conventional and topological qubits, have recently attracted much attention due to their capability in consolidating the robustness of topological qubits and the universality of conventional qubits. However, these two kinds of qubits are normally constructed in significantly different energy scales, and thus this energy mismatch is a major obstacle for their coupling that supports the exchange of quantum information between them. Here, we propose a microwave photonic quantum bus for a direct strong coupling between the topological and conventional qubits, in which the energy mismatch is compensated by the external driving field via the fractional ac Josephson effect. In the framework of tight-binding simulation and perturbation theory, we show that the energy splitting of the topological qubits in a finite length nanowire is still robust against local perturbations, which is ensured not only by topology, but also by the particle-hole symmetry. Therefore, the present scheme realizes a robust interface between the flying and topological qubits. Finally, we demonstrate that this quantum bus can also be used to generate multipartitie entangled states with the topological qubits.

  20. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  1. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  3. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  4. Properties of concrete containing wood/coal fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, D.M.; Larrimore, C.L.; Fouad, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities are increasingly interested in co-firing wood with coal in existing pulverized coal units. The co-firing technology is a means of developing a relatively low-cost renewable energy resource, as well as of supporting customers and community by making energy with biomass that might otherwise have been land-filled. However, recent changes in the ASTM C618 standard for fly ash as cement replacement restrict the definition of fly ash that includes non-coal sources. As a result, wood co-firing could affect the market for the fly ash, reducing ash sales revenue, increasing ash disposal costs, and overall substantially increasing the cost of the co-firing technology. In order to address concerns about the effect of wood ash/coal ash mixtures on concrete properties, a study was conducted by University of Alabama at Birmingham, Southern Company, EPRI, and the State of Alabama. This study compared the effects on properties of concrete made with fly ash from coal and made with fly ash from co-firing up to 30% wood with coal. Fly ashes from three plants were used, with two of the ashes from actual co-firing experience and the third an artificial blend of wood and coal ash. Concrete test cylinders were made of several cement/fly ash mixes, and enough were made to allow testing periodically over a one year time period. Test measurements included workability, setting time, air content, compressive and flexural strength, rapid chloride permeability and freeze thaw. It was concluded on the basis of these tests that the wood ash content had no detrimental effect on the plastic and hardened properties of the concrete.

  5. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta III b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Carl S.

    Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (=?net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral p in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity

  6. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  7. 30 Robust og bredygtig bioenergi september 2012 Af Brian Vad Mathiesen, Henrik Lund,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    30 Robust og b忙redygtig bioenergi 路 september 2012 Af Brian Vad Mathiesen, Henrik Lund, Frede K erstatte de fossile br忙ndsler med biobr忙ndsler og bioenergi, og/eller i hvor h酶j grad vi skal satse p氓

  8. Af projektleder, professor David A.T. Harper, Statens Naturhi-storiske Museum (Geologisk Museum)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    276 Af projektleder, professor David A.T. Harper, Statens Naturhi- storiske Museum (Geologisk Museum) Landbaseret, Andesbjergene ?vrige deltagere: lektor Jan Audun Rasmussen, Statens Na- turhistoriske Museum (Geologisk Museum), ph.d.-stipendiat Christian Mac ?rum Rasmussen, Statens Naturhistoriske

  9. CS233917-AF National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS233917-AF National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division, Physical Activity, and Obesity Profile Obesity has important consequences on our nation's health by unhealthy options when it comes to diet and physical activity.We need public health approaches that make

  10. 32 Robust og bredygtig bioenergi september 2012 Af Brian Vad Mathiesen, David

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    Kenneth Hansen I de seneste fire 錼tier er det lykke- des Danmark at holde det samlede prim鎟e kan produceres i Danmark, medmindre man ligefrem v鎙ger at inddrage naturarealer og en del af f- ning til Danmark. Det betyder, at hvis alle andre lande benytter den samme afgr鎛sning, bliver hele

  11. "Omprioriteringen af Riss forskningsvirke er en enestende chance for endelig at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at give Danmark et selvst鎛digt nationalt forskningscenter, der p 閚 gang er forank- ret i grundforskning omprioriteringen af Ris鴖 forsknings- virke betyder til geng鎙d en enest- ende chance for endelig at give Danmark haft Danmarks udvikling p sinde Allerede i sine studie錼, hvor Haldor Tops鴈 l鎠te p Danmarks

  12. "Abelprisen Matematikkens Nobelpris" Af Nils A. Baas, Johan P. Hansen og Ib Madsen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Johan P.

    tradition, at vinderne af Abelprisen hvert 錼 kommer til Danmark i efter錼et, som J.-P. Serre gjorde det sidste 錼. Dermed har Danmark f錯t et naturligt og frugtbart samarbejde med Abelprisen - et samarbejde Danmark. Niels Henrik Abel blev f鴇t den 5. august 1802, og voksede op i Gjerstad i Norge, hvor hans far

  13. Forord Side 3 Vindenergi en af lsningerne p de energipolitiske udfordringer Side 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vindm鴏ler i Danmark #12;INDHOLD Forord Side 3 Vindenergi en af l鴖ningerne p de energipolitiske Husstandsm鴏ler og sm-m鴏ler Vindm鴏ler p havet Side 18 Havvindm鴏ler i Danmark Energistyrelsen som one stop danmark #12;FORORD Form錶et med pjecen "Vindm鴏ler i Danmark" er at give en samlet introduktion til

  14. Indledning Velkommen til Microsoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Side 4 Inspiration Vi er drevet af passion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Side 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    af software og it-l鴖ninger . Siden 1990 har Microsoft v鎟et repr鎠enteret i Danmark, hvor vi i dag Danmark kombinerer det bedste fra to verdener: det ameri- kanske fokus p performance og talentudvikling,fleksibilitetogklarem錶ervoresDNA. Hos Microsoft Danmark er vi 450 medarbejdere med vidt forskellige baggrunde og kompetenc

  15. Af cand.scient. Rikke Dan, Danmarks Miljundersgelser Togtben 5 og 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    163 Af cand.scient. Rikke Dan, Danmarks Milj鴘nders鴊elser Togtben 5 og 6 Projektets deltagere Projektleder: Rune Dietz, seniorforsker - Danmarks Milj鴘n- ders鴊elser (togtben 6) Jesper M鴏ler, cand.scient. Danmarks Milj鴘nders鴊elser (togtben 5 og 6) Rikke Dan, cand.scient. - Danmarks Milj鴘nders鴊elser

  16. Det&rmlrvatton af AuetenH vs. a-ferrlt Hi Steel by Neutron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Det&rmlrvatton af AuetenH漏 vs. a-ferrlt茅 Hi Steel by Neutron and X-ray Oif fraction Bltv Nitl-FERRITE IN STEEL BY NEUTRON AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION J. Als-Nielsen and K. Clausen Physics Department Abstract-ferrite) phases in steel samples are reported. In addition to determine the relative content of phases

  17. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  18. Development of alkaline solution separations for potential partitioning of used nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goff, George S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The processing of used nuclear fuel in alkaline solution provides potentially useful new selectivity for separating the actinides from each other and f rom the fission products. Over the ast decade, several research teams around the world have considered dissolution of used fuel in alkaline solution and further partitioning in this medium as an alternative to acid dissolution. The chemistry of the actinides and fission products in alkaline soilltion requires extensive investigation to more carefully evaluate its potential for developing useful separation methods for used nuclear fueI.

  19. Studies of fly ash using thermal analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hanxu; Shen, Xiang-Zhong; Sisk, B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved thermoanalytical methods have been developed that are capable of quantitative identification of various components of fly ash from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustion system. The thermogravimetric procedure developed can determine quantities of H{sub 2}O, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4} and carbonaceous matter in fly ash with accuracy comparable to more time-consuming ASTM methods. This procedure is a modification of the Mikhail-Turcotte methods that can accurately analyze bed ash, with higher accuracy regarding the greater amount of carbonaceous matter in fly ash. In addition, in conjunction with FTIR and SEM/EDS analysis, the reduction mechanism of CaSO{sub 4} as CaSO{sub 4} + 4H{sub 2} = CaS + 4H{sub 2}O has been confirmed in this study. This mechanism is important in analyzing and evaluating sulfur capture in fluidized-bed combustion systems.

  20. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  1. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  2. Phototactic personality in fruit flies and its suppression by serotonin and white

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    one choice tube leads to a lit light-emitting diode (LED) (Fig. 1A, Fig. S1 A and B, and Movie S1). Af

  3. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  4. Pore water chemistry of an alkaline rift valley lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerling, T.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Halfman, J.D.; Lister, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Turkana is the largest closed basin lake in the African rift system. It has evolved through the past 5000 years to become a moderately alkaline lake. Previous mass balance argument suggest that sulfate is removed from the lake by sulfate reduction in the sediments, and that the lake is accumulating in chloride, sodium, and alkalinity. Studies of pore water from 12 meter cores collected in November 1984 show that sulfate is reduced in the sediment column with a net production of alkalinity. Some sodium is lost from the lake and diffuses into the sediment to maintain charge balance. At several meters depth, organic matter is destroyed by methanogenic bacteria, as shown by the high delta /sup 13/C values for dissolved inorganic carbon. Magnesium and calcium molar ratios change with depth; chloride, sodium, and alkalinity also change with depth.

  5. Hot alkaline treatment to stimulate and consolidate the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valera Villarroel, Cesar Amabilis

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to verify experimentally whether sand consolidation by high-temperature alkaline treatment was possible in the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 reservoir. The experiments were conducted using sand samples from a core taken...

  6. A NEW CONCEPT IN AN ELECTRICALLY RECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of a New Zinc-Air Battery Concept Using Flowingdiagram of the zinc-air battery single cell prototype usedRECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY Philip N. Ross

  7. RESEARCH NEEDS IN MINERAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION: FLY ASH, SILICA FUME AND SLAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of coal in electric power plants. It is captured by either mechanical separators, electrostatic. 2.0 Research Needs Concerning Fly Ash Utilization 2.1 CLSM Fly Ash Slurry Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), as classified by ACI Committee 229, have been produced using fly ash slurry [9

  8. TRACE ELEMENTS LEACHING FROM ORGANIC SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON FLY ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    and Se for organic soil-HCFA mixtures. Keywords: organic soil, fly ash, coal combustion products, CCPs INTRODUCTION Fly ash is a silt-size particulate collected by air pollution control systems at coal fly ashes (HCFAs) generally are disposed in landfills (Hodges and Keating 1999). However, many HCFAs

  9. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  10. Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols Leona incineration fly ash at 200 掳C under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermodynamic calculations have been carried out ash produced by municipal waste incineration (MWI) have clearly demonstrated that MWI fly ash can

  11. Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Nita

    Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution Michel R 16, 2005 We present 29 Si, 27 Al, and 67 Zn NMR evidence to show that silicate ions in alkaline, with aluminate (Al(OH)4 - ). Zincate reacts with monomeric silicate at pH 14-15 to form [(HO)O2Si-O-Zn(OH)3

  12. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  13. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  14. China, March 2005 DAY 1: FLYING TO MUNICH & SHANGHAI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    China, March 2005 DAY 1: FLYING TO MUNICH & SHANGHAI March 12. Saturday Waking up time: 8.30 am. I, lived one year in Beijing and told me lots of stuff about China, where to go, what to do, how in Namibia at Christmas, making me extremely jealous. DAY 2: FIRST DAY IN SHANGHAI, CHINA March 13. Sunday

  15. Article ID: Query Translation on the Fly in Deep Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Article ID: Query Translation on the Fly in Deep Web Integration Jiang Fangjiao, Jia Linlin, Meng users to access the desired information, many researches have dedicated to the Deep Web (i.e. Web databases) integration. We focus on query translation which is an important part of the Deep Web integration

  16. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From (2011); DOI: 10.1603/ME10170 ABSTRACT The phlebotomine sand 遡es Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Dyar species were collected from ultraviolet CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control light traps during a state

  18. Acquisition and Control of a Precision Formation Flying Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 SSL # 10-10 #12;#12;Acquisition and Control of a Precision Formation Flying Mission John M. Field, David W. Miller June 2010 SSL # 10-10 This work is based on the unaltered text of the thesis by John M

  19. Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is produced when coal is consumed by power plants Fly ash can be used beneficially in numerous applications-fired power plants work to create cleaner skies, they'll likely fill up landfills with millions more tons.05 0.05 #12;6 Challenge: Mercury Controls One approach to reducing mercury emissions from power plants

  20. accident flying squad: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accident flying squad First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Governing the Mod Squad Walt...

  1. TECHNICAL PAPER Time dependent simulation of active flying height control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    of the heater were estimated by measuring the transient response of the TFC slider to a step function. Figure 2 (TFC) slider as a function of the power input to the heater element. The Reynolds equation is used and flying height of the slider. The power input signal to the heater element is optimized using convex

  2. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  3. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  4. Kre nye regering Af Albrightgruppen , Lrdag den 24. september 2011, 22:30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Anja C.

    : Tillykke med sejren. P氓 tv忙rs af politisk overbevisning er vi i Albrightgruppen glade for, at Danmark har f氓et sin f酶rste kvindelige statsminister. Vi vil gerne v忙re med til at 酶ge lige muligheder i Danmark for begge k酶n. Der er nemlig stadig stor forskel p氓 at v忙re f酶dt som dreng og som pige i Danmark. Vi har ni

  5. Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    in the United States generate 80 million tons of fly ash as a by-product each year, primarily from coal combustion [1]. Fly ash is typically disposed in landfills, but it is preferred to convert fly ashUse of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung

  6. 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 00, 101-104 Comparison of UHE Composition Measurements by Fly's Eye,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurements by Fly's Eye, HiRes-prototype/MIA and Stereo HiRes Experiments P. Sokolskya , John Belza-fluorescence experiments: Stereo Fly's Eye, HiRes/MIA, and HiRes. A shift of 13 gm/cm2 of the stereo Fly's Eye data , well. These are the Stereo Fly's Eye [1], the HiRes Prototype/MIA[2] and the HiRes[3] experiments. The Fly's Eye

  7. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential

  8. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differentia

  9. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  10. Day 2 MTH 490.433 Dying Flies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    [-0.1 i],{i,0,32},PlotRange{0,1}]; 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Note: more analysis of this data download this data set at http://www.msu.edu/~brassilc/ELME/flies.csv. Day 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

  11. Imaging of semiconductors using a flying laser spot scanning system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas William

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in silicon p-n junctions was a direct result of this research. Verification of the experimental findings include analysis using other characterization techniques such as X-ray topo- graphy, electrical testing and preferential chemical etching... Image (I. R. Radiation) . . 22 Flying Spot Scanner Photo Image (Visible Radiation) . 23 15 Photo Image Showing Crystal Defects 24 16 Sirtl Etch Photomicrograph of Lattice Crystal Defects 25 17 Photo Image Showing Laser Induced Lifetime Changes 26...

  12. Basic Instrumentation for Hall A at Je erson J. Alcorn af , B.D. Anderson r , K.A. Aniol c , J.R.M. Annand ai ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    . Rosner ai , D. Rowntree u , G.A. Rutledge e , P.M. Rutt af , M. Rvachev u , F. Sabati#19;e x;d , A. Saha

  13. Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyung Jun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash at 90days ............... 38 5-13 Stress Strain Curve of 6% CaCl2+10% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-14 Stress Strain Curve of 4% CaCl2+15% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-15 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy... (E-SEM) of Class F Fly Ash ................................................................................. 40 5-16 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (E-SEM) of Control Soil after 7 Days of Curing...

  14. GP AF001033 1 37 169 SW EFP HELPY 6 39

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Kevin

    GP AF001033 1 37 169 SW EFP HELPY 6 39 SW IF5A SCHMA 2 51 SW IF5A NEUCR 16 157 PIR2 S41010 25 168 SW IF51 CAEEL 13 156 SW IF52 CAEEL 13 156 SWN IF5A SCHPO 11 152 SW IF51 YEAST 9 150 PIR1 FIBYA2 10 151 SW IF52 YEAST 9 150 PIR1 FIBYA1 10 151 SW IF51 CHICK 9 150 SW IF5A RABIT 8 149 PIR2 A31486 9 150

  15. GP AF001033 1 37 169 SW IF5A NEUCR 16 157

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Kevin

    GP AF001033 1 37 169 SW IF5A NEUCR 16 157 SW IF5A DICDI 24 165 PIR2 B42156 3 96 SW IF52 CHICK 2 100 GP S72024 1 9 150 PIR1 FIHUA 9 150 SW IF5A HUMAN 8 149 PIR2 A31486 9 150 SW IF5A RABIT 8 149 SW IF51 CHICK 9 150 PIR1 FIBYA1 10 151 SW IF52 YEAST 9 150 PIR1 FIBYA2 10 151 SW IF51 YEAST 9 150 SWN IF5A SCHPO

  16. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  17. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3....

  18. Residual alkalinity as tracer to estimate the changes induced by forage cultivation in a non-saline irrigated sodic soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Residual alkalinity as tracer to estimate the changes induced by forage cultivation in a non, 31000 Toulouse, France Short title: Residual alkalinity and reclamation of sodic soil Summary Soil) the large amount of water supplied during cultivation that induced salt leaching. This is the main

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Available online 3 August 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Oxygen reduction Carbon in large quantities from agricultural products or biomass. Hence, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) haveSynthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol

  20. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  1. artificial fly ash-clay: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interacting visually with each other. Each fly is described by a simple tracking system (Poggio and Reichardt, 1973; Land and Collett, 1974) which summarizes ... Poggio, M....

  2. Clay formation and metal fixation during weathering of coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Bradley, J.P.; Reeuwijk, L.P. Van; Shyam, A.K.; Hjelmar, O.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enormous and worldwide production of coal fly ash cannot be durably isolated from the weathering cycle, and the weathering characteristics of fly ash must be known to understand the long-term environmental impact. The authors studied the weathering of two coal fly ashes and compared them with published data from weathered volcanic ash, it's closest natural analogue. Both types of ash contain abundant aluminosilicate glass, which alters to noncrystalline clay. However, this study reveals that the kinetics of coal fly ash weathering are more rapid than those of volcanic ash because the higher pH of fresh coal fly ash promotes rapid dissolution of the glass. After about 10 years of weathering, the noncrystalline clay content of coal fly ash is higher than that of 250-year-old volcanic ash. The observed rapid clay formation together with heavy metal fixation imply that the long-term environmental impact of coal fly ash disposal may be less severe and the benefits more pronounced than predicted from previous studies on unweathered ash. Their findings suggest that isolating coal fly ash from the weathering cycle may be counterproductive because, in the long-term under conditions of free drainage, fly ash is converted into fertile soil capable of supporting agriculture.

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Aydilek, Ahmet H., E-mail: aydilek@umd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Li, Lin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 17068 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  4. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO); Reis, Signo T. (Rolla, MO); Velez, Mariano (Rolla, MO); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  5. Author's personal copy An alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cell with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    ), rather than carbon di- oxide (CO2) [5]. Hence, the actual and maximum electron transfer numbers per), and the product of ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline media is pre- dominated by acetic acid (CH3COOH), respectively. Under this circumstance, the electron transfer rate (ETR) of the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR

  6. Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing-electrolyte alkaline fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing- electrolyte alkaline fuel cell Fikile R cell Electrode characterization X-ray micro-computed tomography Microfluidic fuel cell Carbonates a b a microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell as an analytical platform. Both anodes and cathodes were investigated

  7. Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement-mail address: pourchez@emse.fr emse-00449712,version1-18Sep2010 Author manuscript, published in "Cement the potential role of cellulose ethers degradation on the alteration of the cement hydration kinetics

  8. Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. As a result, the overall cost of the fuel cell system can for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells E.D. Wang, T.S. Zhao*, W.W. Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering Accepted 29 December 2009 Available online 8 January 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct ethanol fuel cell

  9. Surface structural changes of perovskite oxides during oxygen evolution in alkaline electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskite oxides such Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.8O3-6 (BSCF82) are among the most active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution reported to date. In this work it is shown via high resolution ...

  10. MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL, Universidade de Sa~o Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Dr. Lineu Prestes, 338, 05508-900, Sa~o Paulo, Brazil 2 Soil-saline lake of Nhecola^ndia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil, and then to identify the mechanisms

  11. Natural Arsenic in Groundwater and Alkaline Lakes at the upper Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Natural Arsenic in Groundwater and Alkaline Lakes at the upper Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Brazil L, Brazil d Universit de Provence, Aix Marseille 1, France e Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Tr阺 Lagoas, Brazil f Laboratoire de G閛mophologie Appliqu閑, Universit de

  12. The structure and energetics of $^3$He and $^4$He nanodroplets doped with alkaline earth atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Hernando; R. Mayol; M. Pi; M. Barranco; F. Ancilotto; O. B{鼄nermann; F. Stienkemeier

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present systematic results, based on density functional calculations, for the structure and energetics of $^3$He and $^4$He nanodroplets doped with alkaline earth atoms. We predict that alkaline earth atoms from Mg to Ba go to the center of $^3$He drops, whereas Ca, Sr, and Ba reside in a deep dimple at the surface of $^4$He drops, and Mg is at their center. For Ca and Sr, the structure of the dimples is shown to be very sensitive to the He-alkaline earth pair potentials used in the calculations. The $5s5p\\leftarrow5s^2$ transition of strontium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets of either isotope has been probed in absorption experiments. The spectra show that strontium is solvated inside $^3$He nanodroplets, supporting the calculations. In the light of our findings, we emphasize the relevance of the heavier alkaline earth atoms for analyzing mixed $^3$He-$^4$He nanodroplets, and in particular, we suggest their use to experimentally probe the $^3$He-$^4$He interface.

  13. Separating natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon in the ocean: The potential alkalinity method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the atmosphere to the ocean on a similar time scale and that they penetrate into the ocean in a similar mannerSeparating natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon in the ocean: The potential alkalinity method M. Key Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

  14. alkaline-earth silicate phosphors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth silicate phosphors First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Diffusion Raman...

  15. alkaline-earth dihalide molecules: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth dihalide molecules First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 EDM searches based on...

  16. alkaline-earth elements studied: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth elements studied First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A theoretical study of...

  17. alkali halide-alkaline earth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkali halide-alkaline earth First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Long range interactions...

  18. Noncovalent interaction or chemical bonding between alkaline earth cations and benzene? A quantum chemistry study using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Joel L.

    Noncovalent interaction or chemical bonding between alkaline earth cations and benzene? A quantum earth metal ion眀enzene complexes were performed using the density-functional theory (DFT) B3LYP and ab of the al- kaline earth metal ions to benzene may be attributed to s眕 and p眕 interactions, which are signi

  19. Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Matthew J. Evans hot springs flow within the steeply incised gorges of the central Nepal Himalayan front. The spring of central Nepal, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q08011, doi:10.1029/2004GC000719. G 3 G 3Geochemistry

  20. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  1. Nepheline syenites and related magmatic fluids in the Ditr u Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania Andrs Fall *, Robert J. Bodnar and Csaba Szab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    Nepheline syenites and related magmatic fluids in the Ditr u Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania Carpathians, in Romania, and is a Mesozoic alkaline igneous complex formed during an extensional phase

  2. Mechanism of CO Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Media J. S. Spendelow, J. D. Goodpaster, P. J. A. Kenis, and A. Wieckowski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    of the mechanism of CO oxidation on Pt surfaces would be useful in optimizing Pt-based catalysts for fuel cell fuel cells (DMFCs) and reformate- fed hydrogen fuel cells.1-11 Alkaline electrolytes have been shown carbonation in alkaline media complicates the use of alkaline electrolytes for fuel cells.16 Fuel cells

  3. 10/10/2014 Your Beer Attracts Fruit Flies on Purpose | WIRED http://www.wired.com/2014/10/beer-yeast-attracts-fruit-flies/#disqus_thread 15/31

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10/10/2014 Your Beer Attracts Fruit Flies on Purpose | WIRED http://www.wired.com/2014/10/beer-yeast-attracts-fruit-flies/#disqus_thread 15/31 Insider Subscribe #12;10/10/2014 Your Beer Attracts Fruit Flies on Purpose | WIRED http://www.wired.com/2014/10/beer-yeast-attracts-fruit-flies/#disqus_thread 16/31 RSS Search Science beer Follow Wired

  4. info@airbus-fyi.com Airbus Fly Your Ideas 2013 Register Your Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    info@airbus-fyi.com Airbus Fly Your Ideas 2013 Register Your Team Now! Are you passionate about than ever before. Fly Your Ideas is open to teams of 3 to 5 students from around the world, studying to science and philosophy to design. You have until November 30th 2012 to register your team online at www

  5. A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye cosmic ray observatory J, 800 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1156 Abstract This article describes the ber-optic based: Highest energy cosmic rays Fly's Eye Experiment HiRes YAG Laser Fiber-optics PMT PACS: 95.45.+i 95.85.Ls

  6. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  7. The Fly's Eye Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum D.J. Bird,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Fly's Eye Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum D.J. Bird,1 S.C. Corbato,3 H.Y. Dai,3 B present our latest results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 1017 eV observed by Fly's Eye. Tracks detected by both eyes can be well reconstructed and therefore have very good energy resolution

  8. Flying Drosophila stabilize their vision-based velocity controller by sensing wind with their antennae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Sawyer Buckminster

    in flight control is unknown. We manipulated the antennal function of fruit flies by ablating their aristae regulator by fitting parameters of candidate models to our exper- imental data. The model suggestsFlying Drosophila stabilize their vision-based velocity controller by sensing wind

  9. Lead in Species of Greatest Conservation Need: Free-flying Bald Eagles as Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Lead in Species of Greatest Conservation Need: Free-flying Bald Eagles as Indicators Principal Wildlife Grant Goals and Objectives: o Characterize lead levels in nesting and wintering Bald Eagles in Iowa State University o Compare lead exposure in free-flying eagles with eagles admitted

  10. Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

    Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* , L. S. Fisher1 , J of the potential for carbon sequestration in degraded mine lands, we have found that based on laboratory and field and its influence on carbon sequestration. Also, addition of fly ash to soil, while generally considered

  11. Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyung Jun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    in soil to verify the effectiveness and optimum ratio of calcium chloride and Class F fly ash in soil stabilization. Mix design was programmed at pure calcium chloride concentrations at 0% to 6% and Class F fly ash at 10 to 15%. Laboratory tests showed...

  12. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    December 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Coal combustion by products Fly ash Heavy metals Leaching road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater is produced in the United States as a by-product of burning coal in electric power plants (ACAA, 2009

  13. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  14. 10/10/2014 Better smelling beer, thanks to fruit flies | Science/AAAS | News http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014/10/better-smelling-beer-thanks-fruit-flies 1/5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10/10/2014 Better smelling beer, thanks to fruit flies | Science/AAAS | News http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014/10/better-smelling-beer-thanks-fruit-flies 1/5 #12;10/10/2014 Better smelling beer, thanks to fruit flies | Science/AAAS | News http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014/10/better-smelling-beer

  15. Geotechnical properties of fly and bottom ash mixtures for use in highway embankments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M.; Salgado, R. [Korean Institute for Water & Environment, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dam Safety Research Center

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Class F fly ash and bottom ash are the solid residue byproducts produced by coal-burning electric utilities. They are usually disposed of together as a waste in utility disposal sites with a typical disposal rate of 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Direct use of these materials in construction projects consuming large volumes of materials, such as highway embankment construction, not only provides a promising solution to the disposal problem, but also an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. Representative samples of class F fly and bottom ash were collected from two utility power plants in Indiana and tested for their mechanical properties (compaction, permeability, strength, stiffness, and compressibility). Three mixtures of fly and bottom ash with different mixture ratios (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% fly ash content by weight) were prepared for testing. Test results indicated that ash mixtures compare favorably with conventional granular materials.

  16. Use of rubber and bentonite added fly ash as a liner material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cokca, Erdal; Yilmaz, Zeka

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many countries regulations require all hazardous waste disposal facilities to be lined with suitable impermeable barriers to protect against contamination. In this study, a series of laboratory tests on rubber and bentonite added fly ash were conducted. The aim of the tests was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash, rubber and bentonite as a low hydraulic conductivity liner material. Type C fly ash was obtained from Soma thermal power plant in Turkey; rubber in pulverized form was waste from the retreading industry. To investigate the properties of rubber and bentonite added fly ash, hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression, split tensile strength, one-dimensional consolidation, swell and freeze/thaw cycle tests were performed. The overall evaluation of results have revealed that rubber and bentonite added fly ash showed good promise and a candidate for construction of a liner.

  17. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--January 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to investigate the kinetics of beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7--2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash beneficiation have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550--750{degrees}C. The P{sub 02} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  19. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  20. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  1. Ann. For. Sci. 67 (2010) 810 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010 www.afs-journal.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

    and Christensen, 1987). Irregular mortality results from ran- dom disturbances or hazards such as fire, wind, snow.afs-journal.org DOI: 10.1051/forest/2010046 Original article Modeling individual-tree mortality in Pyrenean oak) Keywords: individual-tree mortality model / logistic regression / mixed model / rebollo oak / Mediteranean

  2. Ann. For. Sci. 65 (2008) 604 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2008 www.afs-journal.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007; accepted 9 May 2008) Abstract Carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems is an important / carbon sequestration R閟um 蓈olution des stocks de carbone dans la biomasse des for阾s belges entre.afs-journal.org DOI: 10.1051/forest:2008034 Original article Organic carbon stocks and stock changes of forest biomass

  3. Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a, , F Available online 21 December 2010 Keywords: Solar wind sputtering Lunar regolith KREEP soil Potential a c t Lunar surface materials are exposed to $1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost

  4. Fatigue life estimation program for Part 23 airplanes, `AFS.FOR`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaul, S.K.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce to the general aviation industry a computer program which estimates the safe fatigue life of any Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 23 airplane. The algorithm uses the methodology (Miner`s Linear Cumulative Damage Theory) and the various data presented in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Report No. AFS-120-73-2, dated May 1973. The program is written in FORTRAN 77 language and is executable on a desk top personal computer. The program prompts the user for the input data needed and provides a variety of options for its intended use. The program is envisaged to be released through issuance of a FAA report, which will contain the appropriate comments, instructions, warnings and limitations.

  5. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  6. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  7. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  8. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Beck, P [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville; Rowe, E [Fisk University, Nashville; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  9. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  11. Phase-locked flying qubits with synthesized waveforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthiesen, Clemens; Schulte, Carsten H H; Gall, Claire Le; Hansom, Jack; Li, Zhengyong; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atat黵e, Mete

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant progress has been reported within quantum information science for quantum-dot spins as stationary qubits including long spin coherence times and ultrafast optical manipulation capabilities. A successful realization of a solid-state quantum network relies on quantum-optical coupling of distributed spins. The quality of photons as flying qubits, however, remained systematically below par due to detrimental effects of the solid-state environment on the photon generation process casting a major challenge on this roadmap today. Recently, the coherent component of resonance fluorescence has been observed from a single quantum dot promising a fully coherent single photon scattering channel for interfacing spins and photons with suppressed environment effects. Here, we first demonstrate that the coherently generated single photons display mutual coherence with the excitation laser on a timescale exceeding 3 seconds. Exploiting this degree of mutual coherence we synthesize near-arbitrary single photon wave...

  12. Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Krizmanic; Gerry Skinner; Neil Gehrels

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The employment of a large area Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) in a gamma-ray telescope offers the potential to image astrophysical phenomena with micro-arcsecond angular resolution. In order to assess the feasibility of this concept, two detailed studies have been conducted of formation flying missions in which a Fresnel lens capable of focussing gamma-rays and the associated detector are carried on two spacecraft separated by up to 10$^6$ km. These studies were performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) which developed spacecraft, orbital dynamics, and mission profiles. The results of the studies indicated that the missions are challenging but could be accomplished with technologies available currently or in the near term. The findings of the original studies have been updated taking account of recent advances in ion thruster propulsion technology.

  13. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  14. On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

  15. ORNL/CDIAC-160 Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/CDIAC-160 NDP-094 Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean. ORNL/CDIAC-160, NDP-094. Carbon Dioxide, total CO2 concentration (TCO2), and the degree of CaCO3 saturation for the global surface ocean waters

  16. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the benefication of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7-2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash benefication have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550-750{degrees}C. The P{sub O{sub 2}} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Luminescence properties of Eu-activated alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Yanlin, E-mail: huang@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Xigang, E-mail: wangxigang@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Qin, Lin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Center for Marine-Integrated Biomedical Technology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: A novel yellow-emitting alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} was first developed. Under excitation with UV or near UV light the silicate presents broad emission band centered at 580 nm. - Abstract: Yellow-emitting phosphors of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} was prepared by wet chemistry sol杇el method. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM measurements were applied to characterize the structure and morphology, respectively. The luminescence properties were investigated by the photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, decay curve (lifetimes), CIE coordinates and the internal quantum efficiencies. The excitation spectra can match well with the emission light of near UV-LED chips (360400 nm). Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} presents a symmetric emission band from 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} ? 4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) transitions of Eu{sup 2+} ions on doping below 3.0 mol%. On increasing Eu-doping levels, the sample contains two kinds of emission centers, i.e., Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, which present the characteristic broad band (5d ? 4f) and narrower (4f ? 4f) luminescence lines, respectively. The energy transfer, the luminescence thermal stability (activation energy ?E for thermal quenching) and luminescence mechanism of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were discussed by analyzing the relationship between the luminescence characteristics and the crystal structure.

  18. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A. [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called {open_quotes}Loss On Ignition{close_quotes} (LOI). The concrete producer`s day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  19. Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A. [Center and Department of Geology, Oporto (Portugal)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

  20. High temperature affects olive fruit fly populations in California抯 Central Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is associated with heat stress that the flies experience insources to survive heat stress, it may be best to continueCombined effects of heat stress and food supply on flight

  1. Leaching of Metals from Fly ash-Amended Permeable Reactive Barriers Doina L. Morar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    (Petzrick 2001). Unfortunately, this HCC fly ash cannot be beneficially reused in the construction industry organic and inorganic pollutants. Specific reactive materials such as wood chips, limestone, manure (USEPA

  2. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Norton; Hongqun Yang; Robert C. Brown; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John Erjavec; Joseph M. Okoh

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry than the fly ash composition. Combustion tests were performed in which Blacksville and PRB fly ashes were injected into filtered (via a baghouse with Teflon bags) flue gas obtained while firing PRB coal in a 35 kW combustor. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the Hg speciation after fly ash injection. Wall effects in the combustor complicated interpretation of testing data, although a number of observations could still be made. The amount of Hg collected in the Ontario Hydro impingers was lower than anticipated, and is probably due to sorption of Hg by the fly ash. While firing PRB coal without any ash injection, the percent oxidized Hg in the gas stream was fairly high (average of 63%). The high levels of vapor phase oxidized Hg in these base line tests may be due to catalytic effects from the refractory materials in the combustor. When PRB fly ash was injected into a filtered PRB flue gas stream, the percentage of oxidized Hg in the gas stream decreased dramatically. Decreases in the percentage of oxidized Hg were also observed while injecting Blacksville fly ash, but to a lesser extent. Injecting whole Blacksville fly ash into the filtered PRB flue gas appeared to result in greater concentrations of oxidized Hg relative to the tests where whole PRB fly ash was injected. However, because the Blacksville fly ash has a relatively high surface area, this may be only a surface area effect.

  3. An embedded controller for quad-rotor flying robots running distributed algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian, Brian John

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple collaborating quad-rotor flying robots are useful in a broad range of applications, from surveillance with onboard cameras to reconfiguration of wireless networks. For these applications, it is often advantageous ...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-activated fly ash Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Materials Science 12 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - activated fly ash Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Materials Science 9 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

  6. aluminum-fly ash metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Journal of Composite Materials, July 2006, Vol. 40 no. 13, 1163-1174 1163 Thermal Expansion of AluminumFly Ash...

  7. Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doha, Said Abdallah; Samy, Abdallah Mohammed

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species...

  8. Comparative study of interaction between organophosphorus insecticides and different strains of house flies (Musca domestica L.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suksayretrup, Pin

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parathion against Orlando Regular (susceptible strain) and R-Baygon (re- sistant to Baygon insecticide) strains and they are much more effective than methyl parathion against R-Parathion (resistant to parathion insecticide) and R-Hodgson (resistant... 59 LIST OF TABLES Table 2. Bioassay of house flies. Inhibition of C-ethyl parathion micro- 14 somal metabolism in Orlando Regular house flies. Page 27 35 4. Inhibition of C-ethyl parathion micro- 14 somal metabolism in R-Baygon house...

  9. Results from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aspen 4/06/05 1 Results from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment Charles Jui (HiRes) University of Utah Physics at the End of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Spectrum Aspen Apr 26-30, 2005 #12;Aspen 4 Anisotropy Composition Proton-air cross-section measurement #12;Aspen 4/06/05 3 The High Resolution Fly

  10. Investigation of the potential of fly ash as an adsorbent for removal of priority pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zardkoohi, Minoo

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Aydin Akgerman Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, p-chlorophenol, 2, 4, dichlorophenol, cadmium and lead from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The value of Freundlich isotherm..., parameter n indicated that the adsorption isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable. Phenol displayed a much higher aAinity for fly ash than chlorophenol and 2, 4 dichlorophenol Adsorption isotherms for the trace metals studied were slightly...

  11. Data:B888c279-fe87-45f7-85f5-5cb7ab35d6af | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cb7ab35d6af No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2....

  12. Data:E048d107-159c-487c-9109-ba295af2f003 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    95af2f003 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2....

  13. Data:209d7efd-f9f6-4c93-a261-7922668af118 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  15. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, 躡erlandstrasse 129, 8600 D黚endorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, 躡erlandstrasse 129, 8600 D黚endorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, 躡erlandstrasse 129, 8600 D黚endorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, 躡erlandstrasse 129, 8600 D黚endorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, J黵gen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 癈. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C朣朒 and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 癈, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 癈, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C朣朒. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C朣朒 and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: 昑he reaction of quartz powder at 80 癈 strongly enhances the compressive strength. 旳lmost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 癈 was found after 2 days. 昐iliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. 昑emperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. 旸estabilisation of ettringite above 50 癈 correlates with sulphate content of C朣朒.

  16. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  17. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  18. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  19. d. 11. dec. 2003 Moderne bioenergi -et nyt dansk vkstomrde 1 Har forbrnding og forgasning af biomasse en

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    d. 11. dec. 2003 Moderne bioenergi - et nyt dansk v忙kstomr氓de 1 Har forbr忙nding og forgasning af biomasse en fremtid ? Charles Nielsen Elsam A/S #12;d. 11. dec. 2003 Moderne bioenergi - et nyt dansk v忙kstomr氓de 2 JaJa #12;d. 11. dec. 2003 Moderne bioenergi - et nyt dansk v忙kstomr氓de 3 Disposition

  20. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; O'Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectra from the 揳t-line spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the 搊dd shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it 搊dd shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  1. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Marvin M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Kernohan, Robert H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  2. Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Osamu Tochiyama [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO{sub 2} and include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, and K{sub 2}O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using the silica sand as packed mineral, the flow-path seems to be clogged by the rearrangement of the particles rather than the increase of the pore space between the particles. (authors)

  3. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, Manuel F. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: mfa@fe.up.pt; Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done for most of potential reactions between components in the batteries as well as between them and the surrounding atmosphere and it reasonably agrees the experimental results. The results obtained show the role of alkaline batteries at the acid gases cleaning process, through the neutralization reactions of some of their components. Therefore, LCA of spent AA alkaline batteries at the municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process must consider this contribution.

  4. In situ atomic force microscopy imaging of electroprecipitated nickel hydrous oxide films in alkaline electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, R.; Mo, Y.; Scherson, D.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ atomic force microscopy images of nickel hydrous oxide films electrodeposited on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in alkaline electrolytes have shown that a stepwise oxidation leads to irreversible formation of wide crevices throughout the material. Upon subsequent stepwise reduction, the gaps close leaving a hairline type crack which follows the profile of the crevice. These potential induced structural rearrangements have been attributed to stresses induced by differences in the densities of the nickel hydrous oxide in the two oxidation states. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperly, William R. (Summit, NJ); Deane, Barry C. (East Brunswick, NJ); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  6. PAUL SHORT --MENS BROWN file:///Users/bkatten/Desktop/R092812AF.html[9/28/12 4:04:11 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    PAUL SHORT -- MENS BROWN file:///Users/bkatten/Desktop/R092812AF.html[9/28/12 4:04:11 PM] PAUL 163 183 191 27:03 1:28 22 Lafayette College 532 11 107 115 147 152 225 27:01 2:11 23 South Florida 564 file:///Users/bkatten/Desktop/R092812AF.html[9/28/12 4:04:11 PM] West Chester Universi 14 wins Vassar

  7. Safety criteria for flying E-sail through solar eclipse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janhunen, Pekka

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) propellantless propulsion device uses long, charged metallic tethers to tap momentum from the solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. If flying through planetary or moon eclipse, the long E-sail tethers can undergo significant thermal contraction and expansion. Rapid shortening of the tether increases its tension due to inertia of the tether and a Remote Unit that is located on the tether tip (a Remote Unit is part of typical E-sail designs). We analyse by numerical simulation the conditions under which eclipse induced stresses are safe for E-sail tethers. We calculate the closest safe approach distances for Earth, Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Ceres and an exemplary 300 km main belt asteroid Interamnia for circular, parabolic and hyperbolic orbits. We find that any kind of eclipsing is safe beyond approximately 2.5 au distance, but for terrestrial planets safety depends on the parameters of the orbit. For example, for Mars the safe distance with 20 km E-sail tether li...

  8. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garc韆-Mat, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Qu韒ica Inorg醤ica, Cristalograf韆 y Mineralog韆, Universidad de M醠aga, 29071 M醠aga (Spain)] [Departamento de Qu韒ica Inorg醤ica, Cristalograf韆 y Mineralog韆, Universidad de M醠aga, 29071 M醠aga (Spain); Le髇-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigaci髇, Universidad de M醠aga, 29071 M醠aga (Spain)] [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigaci髇, Universidad de M醠aga, 29071 M醠aga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Qu韒ica Inorg醤ica, Cristalograf韆 y Mineralog韆, Universidad de M醠aga, 29071 M醠aga (Spain) [Departamento de Qu韒ica Inorg醤ica, Cristalograf韆 y Mineralog韆, Universidad de M醠aga, 29071 M醠aga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Qu韒ica Inorg醤ica, Cristalograf韆 y Mineralog韆, Universidad de M醠aga, 29071 M醠aga (Spain)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 2 and 72 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  9. Modeling the formation and size distribution of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of mathematical models has been developed to predict the size distribution of fly ash particles formed in pulverized coal combustion. The large particle mode of the size distribution, typically centered about 10 to 20 ..mu..m, is predicted by a simple breakup model that is based on the complete coalescence of molten mineral inclusions within fragments of the devolatilized coal char. The ultrafine particle mode, that is typically centered about 0.1 to 0.2 ..mu..m, is modeled in terms of ash volatilization, nucleation, and coagulation. Silica and alumina are reduced to volatile suboxides through reactions at the char surface. The volatile suboxides are transported from the char surface where they are oxidized back to the stable oxides in the bulk gas, and then nucleated in accordance with homogeneous nucleation theory. The ultrafine nuclei coagulate in accordance with Brownian coagulation theory. The predicted particle size spectra have been compared to measured size distributions from a pilot-scale combustor and a full-scale utility boiler. Considering the disproportionate loss of coarse particles in the pilot-scale unit, the agreement between the predicted and measured size distributions was considered reasonably good. Both the predicted ultrafine and large particle modes agreed reasonably well with the measured particle size distribution for the full scale boiler. The validated computer models were used to study the effect of changes in the coal ash content, coal particle size, and the combustion flame temperature.

  10. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  11. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  13. Investigations Into the Nature of Alkaline Soluble, Non-Pertechnetate Technetium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work accomplished in fiscal year (FY) 2013, exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium(I) species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Various aspects of FY 2013抯 work were sponsored both by Washington River Protection Solutions and the U.S. Department of Energy抯 Office of River Protection; because of this commonality, both sponsors work is summarized in this report. There were three tasks in this FY 2013 study. The first task involved examining the speciation of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ in alkaline solution by 99Tc nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The second task involved the purchase and installation of a microcalorimeter suitable to study the binding affinity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ with various inorganic and organic compounds relevant to Hanford tank wastes, although the actual measure of such binding affinities is scheduled to occur in future FYs. The third task involved examining the chemical reactivity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ as relevant to the development of a [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ spectroelectrochemical sensor based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

  14. Implementation of on-the-fly doppler broadening in MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, W. R.; Wilderman, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Yesilyurt, G. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at problem temperatures. When a neutron of energy E enters a material region that is at some temperature T, the cross sections for that material at temperature T are immediately obtained 'on-the-fly' (OTF) by interpolation using a high order functional expansion for the temperature dependence of the Doppler-broadened cross section for that isotope at the neutron energy E. The OTF cross sections agree with the NJOY-based cross sections for all neutron energies and all temperatures in the range specified by the user, e.g., 250 K - 3200 K. The OTF methodology has been successfully implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code and has been tested on several test problems by comparing MCNP with conventional ACE cross sections versus MCNP with OTF cross sections. The test problems include the Doppler defect reactivity benchmark suite and two full-core VHTR configurations, including one with multiphysics coupling using RELAP5-3D/ATHENA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis. The comparison has been excellent, verifying that the OTF libraries can be used in place of the conventional ACE libraries generated at problem temperatures. In addition, it has been found that the OTF methodology greatly reduces the complexity of the input for MCNP, resulting in an order of magnitude decrease in the number of input lines for full-core configurations. Finally, for full-core problems with multiphysics feedback, the memory required to store the cross section data is considerably reduced with OTF cross sections and the additional computational effort with OTF is modest, on the order of 10-15%. (authors)

  15. Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

  16. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  17. Investigation of fly ash carbon by thermal analysis and optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R. [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study investigated various fly ashes that had comparable loss on ignition values, but significant differences with respect to air entrainment performance. Thermal analysis data suggested that a poorly performing fly ash, with respect to air entrainment, contained a higher proportion of carbon that gasifies (oxidizes) at comparatively low temperatures. A relatively high abundance of isotropic carbon was identified in the poor-performing ash using optical microscopy. The present investigation examined a larger collection of fly ash samples to determine if thermal analysis could be used as a prognostic tool for fly ash performance. An attempt was made to correlate mortar air and foam index values for each sample with differential thermal analysis (DTA) data. Optical microscopy and BET surface area analysis were used as supportive techniques. No clear relationship could be established with the thermal or optical methods, although fly ash performance did correlate well with BET surface area. A low temperature component of the DTA exotherms was considered to be a function of inorganic catalytic species that reside on the carbon surface and lower the ignition temperature.

  18. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  19. Investigation of MSWI fly ash melting characteristic by DSC-DTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Rundong [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)], E-mail: leerd@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tianhua; Raninger, Bernhard [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The melting process of MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) fly ash has been studied by high-temperature DSC-DTA experiments. The experiments were performed at a temperature range of 20-1450 deg. C, and the considerable variables included atmosphere (O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), heating rates (5 deg. C/min, 10 deg. C/min, 20 deg. C/min) and CaO addition. Three main transitions were observed during the melting process of fly ash: dehydration, polymorphic transition and fusion, occurring in the temperature range of 100-200 deg. C, 480-670 deg. C and 1101-1244 deg. C, respectively. The apparent heat capacity and heat requirement for melting of MSWI fly ash were obtained by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). A thermodynamic modeling to predict the heat requirements for melting process has been presented, and it agrees well with the experimental data. Finally, a zero-order kinetic model of fly ash melting transition was established. The apparent activation energy of MSWI fly ash melting transition was obtained.

  20. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Norton

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the total amount of Hg passing through the filter as well as the percentages of elemental and oxidized Hg collected. Results indicated that substantial amounts of Hg oxidation did not occur with either fly ash, regardless of the temperature used for testing. When oxidation was observed, the magnitude of the oxidation was comparable between the two fly ashes. These results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important than the ash components with respect to the distribution of Hg species observed in gaseous effluents at coal-fired power plants.

  1. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: lyang@u.washington.edu [Department of Orthopedics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States) [Department of Orthopedics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Medical Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108 (United States); Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A. [Department of Orthopedics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States) [Department of Orthopedics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Medical Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108 (United States)

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. {yields} The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. {yields} While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. {yields} This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  2. Methanol Dehydrogenation and Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Jacob S. Spendelow, Jason D. Goodpaster, Paul J. A. Kenis, and Andrzej Wieckowski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Methanol Dehydrogenation and Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Solutions Jacob S. Spendelow, Jason D, and oxidation of methanol on Pt(111) in alkaline solutions has been examined from a fundamental mechanistic.COhasbeenconfirmedasthemainpoisoningspecies,affectingtherateofmethanoldehydrogenation primarily through repulsive interactions with methanol dehydrogenation intermediates. At direct methanol

  3. The ultraviolet-bright, slowly declining transient PS1-11af as a partial tidal disruption event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Kamble, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Czekala, I.; Dittmann, J.; Drout, M.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gezari, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Rest, A.; Riess, A. G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chomiuk, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Huber, M. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lawrence, A., E-mail: rchornock@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the Pan-STARRS1 discovery of the long-lived and blue transient PS1-11af, which was also detected by Galaxy Evolution Explorer with coordinated observations in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) band. PS1-11af is associated with the nucleus of an early type galaxy at redshift z = 0.4046 that exhibits no evidence for star formation or active galactic nucleus activity. Four epochs of spectroscopy reveal a pair of transient broad absorption features in the UV on otherwise featureless spectra. Despite the superficial similarity of these features to P-Cygni absorptions of supernovae (SNe), we conclude that PS1-11af is not consistent with the properties of known types of SNe. Blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with the cooling, expanding ejecta of a SN, and the velocities of the absorption features are too high to represent material in homologous expansion near a SN photosphere. However, the constant blue colors and slow evolution of the luminosity are similar to previous optically selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The shape of the optical light curve is consistent with models for TDEs, but the minimum accreted mass necessary to power the observed luminosity is only ?0.002 M {sub ?}, which points to a partial disruption model. A full disruption model predicts higher bolometric luminosities, which would require most of the radiation to be emitted in a separate component at high energies where we lack observations. In addition, the observed temperature is lower than that predicted by pure accretion disk models for TDEs and requires reprocessing to a constant, lower temperature. Three deep non-detections in the radio with the Very Large Array over the first two years after the event set strict limits on the production of any relativistic outflow comparable to Swift J1644+57, even if off-axis.

  4. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  5. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquidi-Macdonald, M; Grimes, P; Tewari, A; Sambhy, V; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper reports successful tests of a technique for coating the electrodes with polystyrene which, in conjunction with older common-sense techniques, appears to solve the problem. This kind of design is applicable to cars run on hydrogen fuel, on reformed methanol or even direct methanol. Developing a test methodology was a major part of the work. A foreword by one of the sponsors at NSF discusses the larger importance of this work for energy security and the environment.

  6. Parity violating radiative emission of neutrino pair in heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yoshimura; N. Sasao; S. Uetake

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Metastable excited states ${}^3P_2, {}^3P_0$ of heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes are studied for parity violating (PV) effects in radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP). PV terms arise from interference between two diagrams containing neutrino pair emission of valence spin current and nuclear electroweak charge density proportional to the number of neutrons in nucleus. This mechanism gives large PV effects, since it does not suffer from the suppression of 1/(electron mass) usually present for non-relativistic atomic electrons. A controllable magnetic field is crucial to identify RENP process by measuring PV observables. Results of PV asymmetries under the magnetic field reversal and the photon circular polarization reversal are presented for an example of Yb atom.

  7. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  8. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  9. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

  10. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Quarterly] report, March 31--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost- effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. Last quarter we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous emulsification in alkali/acidic crude oil systems with and without added surfactant. We have observed that the roll cell size and formation time depend strongly on the pH and ionic strength of the alkaline solution. For a particular roll cell size, the addition of surfactant causes the cells to take longer to form, causing an interfacial resistance to mass transfer and making the interface more rigid. We have shown that interfacial turbulence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for spontaneous emulsification. Low interfacial tension is also a necessary condition. This quarter a microwave interferometric procedure was developed for the determination of low water content (0. 5 to 10 vol%) of water-in-oil macroemulsions. The apparatus operates at a frequency of 23.48 GHz in the K-band microwave region. The procedure is based on the large differences in dielectric properties between water and oil, and it utilizes the variation in phase shift as sample path length is varied. Measurements are accurate to within 0.5 vol% water.

  11. Influence of Alkaline Co-Contaminants on Technetium Mobility in Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Jansik, Danielle P.; McKinley, James P.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pertechnetate was slowly reduced in a natural, untreated arid sediment under anaerobic conditions (0.02 nmol g-1 h-1), which could occur in low permeability zones in the field, most of which was quickly oxidized. A small portion of the surface Tc may be incorporated into slowly dissolving surface phases, so was not readily oxidized/remobilized into pore water. In contrast, pertechnetate reduction in an anaerobic sediment containing adsorbed ferrous iron as the reductant was rapid (15 to 600 nmol g-1 h-1), and nearly all (96 - 98%) was rapidly oxidized/remobilized (2.6 to 6.8 nmol g-1 h-1) within hours. Tc reduction in an anaerobic sediment containing 0.5 to 10 mM sulfide showed a relatively slow reduction rate (0.01 to 0.03 nmol g-1 h-1) that was similar to observations in the natural sediment. Pertechnetate infiltration into sediment with a highly alkaline water resulted in rapid reduction (0.07 to 0.2 nmol g-1 h-1) from ferrous iron released during biotite or magnetite dissolution. Oxidation of NaOH-treated sediments resulted in slow Tc oxidation (~0.05 nmol g-1 h-1) of a small fraction of the surface Tc (13% to 23%). The Tc remaining on the surface was TcIV (by XANES), and autoradiography and elemental maps of Tc (by electron microprobe) showed Tc was present associated with specific minerals, rather than being evenly distributed on the surface. Dissolution of quartz, montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite also occurred in the alkaline water, resulting in significant aqueous silica and aluminum. Over time, aluminosilicates cancrinite, zeolite and sodalite were precipitating. These precipitates may be coating surface Tc(IV) phases, limiting reoxidation.

  12. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Apopka, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  13. Bull. Soc. gol. Fr., 2008, no The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey): a Late

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Bull. Soc. g茅ol. Fr., 2008, no 4 The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey-words. 颅 Alkali basalt, Intraplate volcanism, Triassic (Upper), Neotethys, Turkey, Geochemistry. Abstract. 颅 Late belonging to the Kara Dere 颅 Sayrun unit of the Middle Antalya nappes, southwestern Turkey. New

  14. Historical and Short-Term Controls on Sulfate Reduction and Alkalinity Generation in Three Aquatic Ecosystems of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    precipitation, pyrite, sediments #12;Introduction First described as acid rain in 1852 by Scottish chemist Angus.19 to 13.47 mEq m-2 y-1 in freshwater sediments. Keywords: Sulfate reduction, alkalinity, acid Smith, all forms of atmospheric acid deposition continue to be an environmental problem faced

  15. Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from1 hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    under high-carbonate alkalinity2 3 Romain Lafaya, b , German Montes-Hernandeza, *, Emilie Janotsb experiments in order to investigate the simultaneous25 serpentinization and carbonation of olivine-situ and in-situ mineral sequestration of27 CO2). For this case, specific experimental conditions were

  16. An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao the performance of anion exchange membrane (AEM) direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) is that state-of-the-art AEMs exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM- DEFCs) have received ever-increasing attention, mainly

  17. Oscillatory Increases in Alkalinity Anticipate Growth and May Regulate Actin Dynamics in Pollen Tubes of Lily W OA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 b Integrative Cell Biology Laboratory, Durham University, Durham DH1 alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical

  18. Coal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: Parental provisioning exposes nestlings to harmful trace elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    inhabiting settling impoundments receiving slurried ash from a coal-fired power plant located on the U. SCoal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: Parental provisioning exposes nestlings Keywords: Coal fly ash basin Common Grackle Contaminants Quiscalus quiscala Selenium a b s t r a c t Birds

  19. MagnoFly: Game Based Screening for Dyslexia computer game to test magnocellular motion sensitivity in children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferwerda, James A.

    MagnoFly: Game Based Screening for Dyslexia MagnoFly: 路 computer game to test magnocellular motion the player's motion coherence threshold impact: 路 new tool to screen children for risk of dyslexia: Dyslexia is a reading disorder that affects approximately five percent of the population. Recent research

  20. Comparative study of interaction between organophosphorus insecticides and different strains of house flies (Musca domestica L.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suksayretrup, Pin

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Different Strain= of House Fli. es (Ilusca dizmesi i ca L ) ( Decal'ther 19 M ) Pin Suksayretrup, B. S. , Kasetsart Univer ity Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frederick M. Plapp, Jr. Qn Orthen (O, S ? dimethyl N-acetyl phosphoramidoth. i o- ato...) and Monitor (O, S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate), 2 new insecticides, are toxic to certain house fly pop- ulations which are resistant to other organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. The purpose of this research was to find out why Orthene and Monitor...

  1. Evaluation of lime-fly ash stabilized bases and subgrades using static and dynamic deflection systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raba, Gary W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structural evaluations of the subgrade and its overlying pavement layers for test sites in Texas. Six evaluations of the lime-fly ash stabilization technique, based on dual parametric results, are given in this thesis. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes... FOR TEST SITE 5 H. DFFLECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR TEST SITE 8 VITA PAGE 141 141 154 160 160 172 181 181 195 202 213 213 213 215 220 227 231 238 245 252 259 268 275 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 10. 12. 13. 14. Lime-Fly Ash...

  2. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

  3. Fly ash-enhanced aluminum composites for automotive parts. [Reports for April to June, 1998, and July to September, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, Dean; Rohatgi, Pradeep

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report are to produce and evaluate the use of aluminum ''ashalloys''--metal matrix composites that incorporate coal fly ash--in the commercial manufacture of cast automotive parts. Some highlights are: (1) Ashalloy ingot with ''C'' type fly ash was synthesized using stir casting techniques similar to the successful castings of ''F'' type fly ash. Agglomeration was noted. Stirring periods were increased up to 45 minutes compared to the normal 5 minutes to determine whether the shear force of stirring would disagglomerate the clusters noted with this type of fly ash. The resulting sample showed clustering. (2) The ashalloy ingots of ''C'' type fly ash were remelted and poured into permanent molds using a cloth filter to screen out clusters. There was no major reduction in clusters of fly ash particles in the composite since the filter with the mesh size larger than 1 x 1 mm was used. The composite melt would not flow through when filters with smaller openings were used. (3) The fly ash sample from Wisconsin Electric Power Company was sent for classification. (4) A 1 lb. sample of JTM-processed fly ash was sent to Wisconsin Electric Power Company for classification and 10 lb. of same fly ash was sent to The Jet Pulverizer Company for jet milling. (5) Experiments on fly ash pretreatment as well as synthesis of ash alloy are continuing. (6) Attempts are being made to apply high speed shear mixing with selected liquids to disperse the clusters noted in ashalloy with the ''C'' type fly ash base. Stir casting processes have been developed to incorporate type ''F'' fly ash of different sizes and measuring tensile data on cast bars. This data enables selection of the optimum size of fly ash to meet specific property requirements. Attempts are underway to develop stir casting techniques to incorporate ''C'' type fly ash in cast aluminum alloys. It is expected that the next milestone for making trial parts will be completed on schedule by June 1999.

  4. AFS-2 FLOWSHEET MODIFICATIONS TO ADDRESS THE INGROWTH OF PU(VI) DURING METAL DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapse, K.; Rudisill, T.; O'Rourke, P.; Kyser, E.

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Alternate Feed Stock Two (AFS-2) PuO{sub 2} production campaign, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted a series of experiments concluding that dissolving Pu metal at 95癈 using a 610 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.050.2 M KF and 02 g/L B could reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to dissolving Pu metal under the same conditions but at or near the boiling temperature. This flowsheet was demonstrated by conducting Pu metal dissolutions at 95癈 to ensure that PuO{sub 2} solids were not formed during the dissolution. These dissolution parameters can be used for dissolving both Aqueous Polishing (AP) and MOX Process (MP) specification materials. Preceding the studies reported herein, two batches of Pu metal were dissolved in the H-Canyon 6.1D dissolver to prepare feed solution for the AFS-2 PuO{sub 2} production campaign. While in storage, UV-visible spectra obtained from an at-line spectrophotometer indicated the presence of Pu(VI). Analysis of the solutions also showed the presence of Fe, Ni, and Cr. Oxidation of Pu(IV) produced during metal dissolution to Pu(VI) is a concern for anion exchange purification. Anion exchange requires Pu in the +4 oxidation state for formation of the anionic plutonium(IV) hexanitrato complex which absorbs onto the resin. The presence of Pu(VI) in the anion feed solution would require a valence adjustment step to prevent losses. In addition, the presence of Cr(VI) would result in absorption of chromate ion onto the resin and could limit the purification of Pu from Cr which may challenge the purity specification of the final PuO{sub 2} product. Initial experiments were performed to quantify the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) (presumed to be facilitated by Cr(VI)) as functions of the HNO{sub 3} concentration and temperature in simulated dissolution solutions containing Cr, Fe, and Ni. In these simulated Pu dissolutions studies, lowering the temperature from near boiling to 95 癈 reduced the oxidation rate of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI). For 8.1 M HNO{sub 3} simulated dissolution solutions, at near boiling conditions >35% Pu(VI) was present in 50 h while at 95 癈 <10% Pu(VI) was present at 50 h. At near boiling temperatures, eliminating the presence of Cr and varying the HNO{sub 3} concentration in the range of 78.5 M had little effect on the rate of conversion of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI). HNO{sub 3} oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) in a pure solution has been reported previously. Based on simulated dissolution experiments, this study concluded that dissolving Pu metal at 95癈 using a 6 to 10 M HNO{sub 3} solution 0.050.2 M KF and 02 g/L B could reduce the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to near boiling conditions. To demonstrate this flowsheet, two small-scale experiments were performed dissolving Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L. No Pu-containing residues were observed in the solutions after cooling. Using Pu metal dissolution rates measured during the experiments and a correlation developed by Holcomb, the time required to completely dissolve a batch of Pu metal in an H-Canyon dissolver using this flowsheet was estimated to require nearly 5 days (120 h). This value is reasonably consistent with an estimate based on the Batch 2 and 3 dissolution times in the 6.1D dissolver and Pu metal dissolution rates measured in this study and by Rudisill et al. Data from the present and previous studies show that the Pu metal dissolution rate decreases by a factor of approximately two when the temperature decreased from boiling (112 to 116癈) to 95癈. Therefore, the time required to dissolve a batch of Pu metal in an H-Canyon dissolver at 95癈 would likely double (from 36 to 54 h) and require 72 to 108 h depending on the surface area of the Pu metal. Based on the experimental studies, a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet utilizing 610 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.050.2 M KF (with 02 g/L B) at 95癈 is recommended to reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to near boiling conditions. The time required to completely di

  5. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. E

  6. Conversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A. Aksay, and Wei-Heng Shih*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    and aluminum sources. Fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal burning, contains mostly aluminosilicates. Recently not only eliminates the disposal problem of fly ash but also turns an otherwise waste materialConversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A

  7. Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites polyurea and the polyurea matrix for the composites based on Isonate庐 2143L (diisocyanate) and Versalink庐 P of the composites. Particle size and volume fraction were varied to study their effects on the tensile properties

  8. High-Carbon Fly Ash in Manufacturing Conductive CLSM and Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ; Slurries; Steel fibers; Recycling. Introduction In response to Phase II of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, many electric utilities operating coal-fired power plants installed low NOx nitrogen oxides it in nonconcrete applications. The physical characteristics of the coal fly ash vary widely and depend on the type

  9. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R. (Livermore, CA); Ornellas, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  10. Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 7313, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-7313, USA b Roman Cement LLC, Salt Lake City form 29 April 2011 Accepted 30 April 2011 Available online 7 May 2011 Keywords: Blended cement Design

  11. Flying over the Reality Gap: From Simulated to Real Indoor Airships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Flying over the Reality Gap: From Simulated to Real Indoor Airships Jean-Christophe Zufferey-Christophe.Zufferey@epfl.ch Abstract Because of their ability to naturally float in the air, indoor airships (often called blimps) con physics-based dynamic modelling of indoor airships including a pragmatic methodology for parameter

  12. Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

  13. PS3060: Perception and Action (L.2) A view from the cockpit of a fly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zanker, Johannes M.

    PS3060: Perception and Action (L.2) A view from the cockpit of a fly 颅 the ecology of navigation 路 landmark navigation ... a universal problem ... !! perception and action !! the ecological approach perception : 路 perception happens in an ecological context: surfaces offer much more information than

  14. Geophysical flight line flying and flight path recovery utilizing the Litton LTN-76 inertial navigation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitkus, A.F.; Cater, D.; Farmer, P.F.; Gay, S.P. Jr.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Litton LTN-76 Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) with Inertial Track guidance System (ITGS) software is geared toward the airborne survey industry. This report is a summary of tests performed with the LTN-76 designed to fly an airborne geophysical survey as well as to recover the subsequent flight path utilizing INS derived coordinates.

  15. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  16. Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z. [Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

  17. How carbon-based sorbents will impact fly ash utilization and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Buckley, T.D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pavlish, J.H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection of activated carbon flue gas to control mercury emissions will result in a fly ash and activated carbon mixture. The potential impact of this on coal combustion product disposal and utilization is discussed. The full paper (and references) are available at www.acaa-usa.org. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  18. IS THE DRAGON LEARNING TO FLY? AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE PATENT EXPLOSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    IS THE DRAGON LEARNING TO FLY? AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE PATENT EXPLOSION Markus EBERHARDT of the recent explosion of patent filings by Chinese firms both in China and the United States. We construct a firm-level dataset by matching USPTO and SIPO patents to Chinese manufacturing census data

  19. Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

  20. Low-speed optic-flow sensor onboard an unmanned helicopter flying outside over fields*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Low-speed optic-flow sensor onboard an unmanned helicopter flying outside over fields* Guillaume.Fabiani}@onera.fr weight or were not very well characterized, except for the optical mouse sensors [21], with which] in that of 2-D optic flow sensors). It therefore seemed to be worth testing the reliability of the present 1-D

  1. Evaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly AshSoil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    from coal-fired power plants, which burn over 1 billion t of coal annually (Kim 2006). This generationEvaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly Ash璖oil Mixtures Jason Becker: Beneficial reuse of coal combustion byproducts, e.g., in highway construction, requires an evaluation

  2. TRIGGER SENSITIVITY OF THE FADC .INSTRUMENTED HIRES FLY'S EYE T. Abu-Zayyad1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , L. Wiencke1 , and C.R. Wilkinson4 1 Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute Department. Faculty of Science. Alexandria University, Egypt ABSTRACT A flash analog-to-digital (FADC) based of this measurement. INTRODUCTION The HiRes Fly's Eye detector is designed to measure the energy and direction

  3. The Future of BPM: Flying with the Eagles or Scratching with the Chickens?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    The Future of BPM: Flying with the Eagles or Scratching with the Chickens? Peter Dadam Institute-oriented architectures, business process management (BPM) systems, and BPM in general receive a lot of attention to be performed manually today. In fact, BPM has a great potential. However, to realize this potential in practice

  4. FliHy experimental facilities for studying open channel turbulent flows and heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    FliHy experimental facilities for studying open channel turbulent flows and heat transfer B. Freeze) facility was constructed at UCLA to study open channel turbulent flow and heat transfer of low supercritical flow regimes (Fr /1), in which the surface waves are amplified and heat transfer is enhanced due

  5. Highly Scalable On-the-Fly Interleaved Address Generation for UMTS/HSPA+ Parallel Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    Highly Scalable On-the-Fly Interleaved Address Generation for UMTS/HSPA+ Parallel Turbo Decoder@huawei.com Abstract-- High throughput parallel interleaver design is a major challenge in designing parallel turbo the silicon area and frequency is improved compared to recent related works. Keywords--Turbo decoder

  6. THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL 103.1 (2007) 7992 UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be called unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Many convention- ally explicable phenomena can be weeded out, leaving a small residue of puzzling reports. These fall neatly into the same categories as modern UFO reports, suggesting that the UFO phenomenon, whatever it may be due to, has not changed much over two

  7. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar (BSFL) are consid- ered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel

  8. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  9. A k t u e l N a t u r v i d e n s k a b | 3 | 2 0 0 8 Af Peter Anton Sthr og Kaj Sand-Jensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Frede .

    for str鴐 og man ser vindm錶er og lysm錶er i luften, mens forskellige sensorer automatisk m錶er lyset s鴈ns vand (figur 1). Alt efter interesse og penge- pung kan vi tilkoble andre typer af sensorer. Et for at afsl鴕e, hvilke arter som er p toppen eller truede, men risikoen for at have overset en opblomstring af

  10. Writing a Math Phase Two Paper http://www.mit.edu/afs/athena.mit.edu/course/other/mathp2/www/pii... 1 of 17 09/06/04 21:41

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Daniel

    Writing a Math Phase Two Paper http://www.mit.edu/afs/athena.mit.edu/course/other/mathp2/www/pii Phase Two Paper http://www.mit.edu/afs/athena.mit.edu/course/other/mathp2/www/pii... 2 of 17 09/06/04 21

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Different Alkaline Catalysts on Biodiesel Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cynthia Ofori-boateng; Ebenezer M. Kwofie; Moses Y. Mensah

    Abstract: A major challenge in the biodiesel industry is the comparatively high cost of raw materials for production. A cost build-up analysis of biodiesel production from J. curcas oil shows that catalyst alone contributes about 50.9 % of the total production cost. This paper aims at highlighting the effects of two different commonly used catalysts on the yield of biodiesel. Samples of biodiesel were produced by three different methods namely single stage transesterification (SST), double stage transesterification (DST) and foolproof (FP) processes in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were used. The effects of each catalyst on the production yield were analyzed and compared. NaOH gave production yields of 79%, 81% and 84 % for the SST, DST and FP processes respectively. KOH produced comparatively lower yields of 68%, 71 % and 75 % for SST, DST and fool proof processes respectively. Although the use of KOH slightly raises the cost of biodiesel production as compared to NaOH, the local production of KOH from cocoa husks could minimize the production cost. Abbreviations: BDF = Biodiesel fuel; PDF = Petroleum diesel fuel; DF = Diesel fuel Key words: Transesterification Alkaline catalysts Biodiesel yield Biodiesel KOH NaOH

  12. The Characterization of Eu2+-Doped Mixed Alkaline-Earth Iodide Scintillator Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, John S [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Wisniewski, D. [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toru?, Poland; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-performance inorganic scintillator, SrI2:Eu2+, when activated with divalent europium in the concentration range of 3 to 6%, has shown great promise for use in applications that require high-energy-resolution gamma-ray detection. We have recently grown and tested crystals in which other alkaline-earth ions have been partially substituted for Sr ions. Specifically, europium-doped single crystals have been grown in which up to 30 at % of the strontium ions have been substituted for either by barium, magnesium, or calcium ions. In the case of the strontium iodide scintillator host, a material that is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure, there are three other column IIA elements that are obvious choices for investigations whose purpose is to realize potential improvements in the performance of SrI2:Eu2+-based scintillators via the replacement of strontium ions with either Mg2+, Ca2+, or Ba2+. Light yields of up to 81,400 photons/MeV with an associated energy resolution of 3.7% (fwhm for 662 keV gamma-rays) have been observed in the case of a partial substitution of Ba2+ for Sr2+. The measured decay times ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 s, while the peak emission wavelengths ranged from 432 to 438 nm.

  13. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  14. The relative efficiency of the Malaise trap and animal-baited traps for collecting biting flies in Southwest Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easton, Emmett Richard

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to laboratory animals. A trap model was desired that would require little or no handling of the trapped animal. Disney (1966) placed a metal sheet around a cubical rat cage and liberally applied castor oil to the metal sheet so that phlebotomine sand flies... could be caught and trapped in the castor oil. Since this sand fly moves in a hopping fashion the trap would seem to be more efficient for this fly than for mosquitoes. Bellamy and Res~ca (1952) employed a 110-lb. lard can as a portable baited trap...

  15. Surface and bulk studies of leached and unleached fly ash using XPS, SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousuf, M.; Mollah, A.; Hess, T.R.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Gill Chair of Chemistry

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective chemical utilization of fly ash in environmental applications requires a detailed knowledge of the surface and bulk changes induced by leaching in acid solutions. The surface and bulk characteristics of fly ash from the combustion of Texas lignite have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of leaching with acid solutions commonly used in environmental studies have been documented using these techniques. The results of these studies reveal that the fly ash particles are relatively resistance to either chemical or physical changes due to attack by acidic leaching solutions.

  16. Version 3.01 SOP 3b --Total alkalinity (open cell) July 1, 2008 Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is monitored using a pH glass electrode/reference electrode cell, and the total alkalinity is computed from to weigh1 200 g to within 0.01 g, 125 cm3 plastic screw-cap bottle with cap. 4.2 Titration cell assembly system. The system is used to buffer the e.m.f. of the combination pH glass electrode/reference electrode

  17. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  18. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, W., E-mail: guowei1982cry@163.com [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, H.A.; Jia, X. [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the 揼raphitization index values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  19. Data:Adb1e18b-1345-4ff7-838d-66b9af1fe75d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5-4ff7-838d-66b9af1fe75d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  20. Data:749fbfcb-a56a-4f98-b5f7-02d31b37af83 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fbfcb-a56a-4f98-b5f7-02d31b37af83 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  1. Religion det 21. rhundredes udfordring I det 20. rhundrede begyndte religion s smt at g af mode som forskningsfelt. Efter 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de

    . De tre antologier er 'Gudstro i Danmark' (2005), 'Gudebilleder 颅Ytringsfrihed og religion i en forskelligt. Forfatterne i 'Gudstro i Danmark' behandler, som titlen ogs氓 antyder, danskernes forst氓else af. Peter L眉chau leverer som den f酶rste i 'Gudstro i Danmark' et overbevisende argument

  2. Dedicated to Sharing Information About Water Management and the Florida LAKEWATCH Program Volume 66 (2014) Total Color and Total Alkalinity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Volume 66 (2014) Florida LAKEWATCH Total Color and Total Alkalinity Analysis Recently on total phosphorus, total nitrogen and chlorophyll were similar between equivalent to FDEP's, which were collected using stringent quality assurance (QA

  3. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

  4. Intra- and inter-unit variation in fly ash petrography: Examples from a western Kentucky power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Goodman, J. [Prestonburg High School, KY (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash was collected from eight mechanical and ten baghouse hoppers at each of twin 150-MW wall-fired units in a western Kentucky power station. The fuel burned at that time was a blend of low-sulfur, high volatile bituminous Central Appalachian coals. The baghouse ash showed less variation between units than the mechanical units. The coarser mechanical fly ash showed significant differences in the amount of total carbon and in the ratio of isotropic coke to both total carbons and total coke; the latter excluding inertinite and other unburned, uncoked coal. There was no significant variation in ratios of inorganic fly ash constituents. The inter-unit differences in the amount and forms of mechanical fly ash carbon appear to be related to differences in pulverizer efficiency, leading to greater amounts of coarse coal, therefore unburned carbon, in one of the units.

  5. Classical biological control of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), (Diptera:Tephritidae): natural enemy exploration and nontarget testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trostle Duke, Marcia Katherine

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This work covers stages one through seven (of nine stages) of a classical biological control program for Mediterranean fruit fly (=medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Major research objectives concentrate on stage five (exploration...

  6. Investigation of bit patterned media, thermal flying height control sliders and heat assisted magnetic recording in hard disk drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Hao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with different heat transfer models for a flying-heightD. B. Bogy, 揂 heat transfer model for thermal fluctuationsD. B. Bogy, 揂 heat transfer model for thermal fluctuations

  7. Deltaic sedimentation in saline, alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Response to environmental change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renaut, R.W. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Tiercelin, J.J. (Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Domaines Oceaniques)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Bogoria is a meromictic, saline (90 g/l TDS), alkaline (pH: 10.3) lake with Na-CO[sub 3]-Cl waters, located in a narrow half-graben in the central Kenya Rift. It is fed by hot springs, direct precipitation, and a series of ephemeral streams that discharge into the lake via small deltas and fan-deltas. Examination of the exposed deltas and >50 short cores from the lake floor, have revealed a wide range of deltaic and prodeltaic sediments, including turbidites and subaqueous debris-flow deposits. Studies of 3 long cores and the exposed delta stratigraphy have shown how the style of deltaic sedimentation has responded to environmental changes during the last 30,000 years. During humid periods when lake level is high the lake waters are fresher and less dense. Theoretically, high sediment yield and more constant discharge may promote underflow (hyperpycnal flow), generating low-density turbidity currents. In contrast, during low stages with dense brine, the less dense, inflowing waters carry fine sediment plumes toward the center of the lake where they settle from suspension (hypopycnal flow). Although applicable as a general model, the sediment record shows that reality is more complex. Variations in meromixis and level of the chemocline, together with local and temporal differences in sediment yield and discharge, may permit density flows even when the lake is under a predominant hypopycnal regime. During periods of aridity when sodium carbonate evaporites were forming, exposed delta plains were subject to desiccation with local development of calcrete and zeolitic paleosols.

  8. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A. [Worldwide Fund for Nature, Nakuru (Kenya). Lake Nakuru Conservation and Development Project; Motelin, G.K. [Egerton Univ., Njoro (Kenya). Dept. of Animal Health

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  9. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  10. Novel alkaline earth copper germanates with ferro and antiferromagnetic S=1/2 chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandao, Paula [University of Aveiro, Portugal; Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new alkaline earth copper(II) germanates were hydrothermally synthesized: CaCuGeO4 center dot H2O (1) and BaCu2Ge3O9 center dot H2O (2), and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (1) crystallizes in space group P2(1)/c with a=5.1320(2) angstrom, b=16.1637(5) angstrom, c=5.4818(2) angstrom, beta=102.609(2)degrees, V=443.76(3) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This copper germanate contains layers of composition [CuGeO4](infinity)(2-) comprising CuO4 square planes and GeO4 tetrahedra with calcium and water molecules in the inter-layer space. Compound (2) crystallizes in the Cmcm space group with a=5.5593(3) angstrom, b=10.8606(9) angstrom, c=13.5409(8) angstrom, V=817.56(9) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This structure contains GeO6 and CuO6 octahedra as well as GeO4 tetrahedra, forming a three-dimensional network of interconnecting six-membered ring channels. The magnetic susceptibility for both samples can be interpreted as S=1/2 chains, in agreement with the copper topology observed in the crystal structure. The susceptibility of (1) exhibits a Bonner-Fisher type behavior, resulting from antiferromagnetic intra-chain interactions without three-dimensional ordering down to 5 K-the lowest measured temperature. This observation, together with the absence of super-exchange paths between the copper chains, make this system particularly promising for the study of low dimensional magnetism. The magnetic properties of (2) show a very weak ferromagnetic near-neighbor interaction along the chain. In this compound a peak the chi T plot seems to indicate the onset of interchain antiferromagentic correlations. However, no ordering temperature is detected in the susceptibility data.

  11. Geochemical evolution of highly alkaline and saline tank wasteplumes during seepage through vadose zone sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larsen, Joern T.; Serne, R. Jeff

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leakage of highly saline and alkaline radioactive waste from storage tanks into underlying sediments is a serious environmental problem at the Hanford Site in Washington State. This study focuses on geochemical evolution of tank waste plumes resulting from interactions between the waste solution and sediment. A synthetic tank waste solution was infused into unsaturated Hanford sediment columns (0.2, 0.6, and 2 m )maintained at 70 C to simulate the field contamination process. Spatially and temporally resolved geochemical profiles of the waste plume were obtained. Thorough OH- neutralization (from an initial pH 14 down to 6.3) was observed. Three broad zones of pore solutions were identified to categorize the dominant geochemical reactions: the silicate dissolution zone (pH>10), pH-neutralized zone (pH 10 to 6.5), and displaced native sediment pore water (pH 6.5 to 8). Elevated concentrations of Si, Fe, and K in plume fluids and their depleted concentrations in plume sediments reflected dissolution of primary minerals within the silicate dissolution zone. The very high Na concentrations in the waste solution resulted in rapid and complete cation exchange, reflected in high concentrations of Ca and Mg at the plume front. The plume-sediment profiles also showed deposition of hydrated solids and carbonates. Fair correspondence was obtained between these results and analyses of field borehole samples from a waste plume at the Hanford Site. Results of this study provide a well-defined framework for understanding waste plumes in the more complex field setting and for understanding geochemical factors controlling transport of contaminant species carried in waste solutions that leaked from single-shell storage tanks in the past.

  12. Geochemical evolution of highly alkaline and saline tank waste plumes during seepage through vadose zone sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larsen, Joern T.; Serne, R JEFFREY.

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leakage of highly saline and alkaline radioactive waste from storage tanks into underlying sediments is a serious environmental problem at the Hanford Site in Washington State. This study focuses on geochemical evolution of tank waste plumes resulting from interactions between the waste solution and sediment. A synthetic tank waste solution was infused into unsaturated Hanford sediment columns (0.2, 0.6, and 2 m) maintained at 70C to simulate the field contamination process. Spatially and temporally resolved geochemical profiles of the waste plume were obtained. Thorough OH neutralization (from an initial pH 14 down to 6.3) was observed. Three broad zones of pore solutions were identified to categorize the dominant geochemical reactions: the silicate dissolution zone (pH > 10), pH-neutralized zone (pH 10 to 6.5), and displaced native sediment pore water (pH 6.5 to 8). Elevated concentrations of Si, Fe, and K in plume fluids and their depleted concentrations in plume sediments reflected dissolution of primary minerals within the silicate dissolution zone. The very high Na concentrations in the waste solution resulted in rapid and complete cation exchange, reflected in high concentrations of Ca and Mg at the plume front. The plume-sediment profiles also showed deposition of hydrated solids and carbonates. Fair correspondence was obtained between these results and analyses of field borehole samples from a waste plume at the Hanford Site. Results of this study provide a well-defined framework for understanding waste plumes in the more complex field setting and for understanding geochemical factors controlling transport of contaminant species carried in waste solutions that leaked from single-shell storage tanks in the past.

  13. Vertical distribution of larval stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), in relation to manure pat temperature gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March, Philip Anderson

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VERTICAL DISTRISUTION OF LARVAL STAGES OF THE HORN FLY, HAEMATOBIA IRRITANS IRRITANS (L. ), IN RELATION TO MANURE PAT TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS A Thesis by PHILIP ANDERSON MARCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AijM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Entomology VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LARVAL STAGES OF THE HORN FLY, HAEMATOBIA IRRITANS IRRITANS (L. ), IN RELATION TO MANURE PAT TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS...

  14. FLI-1 Flightless-1 and LET-60 Ras control germ line morphogenesis in C. elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jiamiao; Dentler, William L., Jr; Lundquist, Erik A.

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    for the germ line morphogenesis defect by DIC optics and DAPI staining (Figure 11A) [30,32,33]. The hypomorphic loss-of-function allele n2021 caused a ky535-like germ line defect in 44% of gonad arms, and the stronger let-60 loss-of-function alleles s1124, s...1045), let-23(sy10), lin-31(n301). LGIII: fli-1(ky535), fli-1(tm362), tnIs6 [plim-7::gfp], dpy- 17(e164), unc-32(e189), mpk-1(ku1), eT1. LGIV: let- 60(n2021), let-60(s1124), let-60(s1155), let-60(s59), let- 60(sy93), let-60(sy92), let-60(sy99), let-60(n...

  15. Progress with On-The-Fly Neutron Doppler Broadening in MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yesilyurt, Gokhan [Argonne National Laboratory; Wilderman, Scott [University of Michigan

    2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Michigan, ANL, and LANL have been collaborating on a US-DOE-NE University Programs project 'Implementation of On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening in MCNP5 for Multiphysics Simulation of Nuclear Reactors.' This talk describes the project and provides results from the initial implementation of On-The-Fly Doppler broadening (OTF) in MCNP and testing. The OTF methodology involves high precision fitting of Doppler broadened cross-sections over a wide temperature range (the target for reactor calculations is 250-3200K). The temperature dependent fits are then used within MCNP during the neutron transport, for OTF broadening based on cell temperatures. It is straightforward to extend this capability to cover any temperature range of interest, allowing the Monte Carlo simulation to account for a continuous distribution of temperature ranges throughout the problem geometry.

  16. Iron distribution among phases in high- and low-sulfur coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Dyar, M.D.; Taylor, M.E. [West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Astronomy

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Moessbauer spectroscopy, reflected-light optical microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, wet chemical, and X-ray diffraction studies were conducted on six fly ash samples. The fly ashes, representing the combustion by-products of coals with total sulfur contents of less than 2% to greater than 4%, ranged from 17.6 to 32.0% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by XRF analysis. Wet chemical analysis was used to determine the Fe{sup 3+}/{summation}Fe content of the ashes, which ranged from 72% to 83%. Optical analysis of the ashes indicated that the spinel, encompassing iron oxides of various compositions, ranges from 4.0 to 12.6% (vol.). Moessbauer analyses confirmed the presence of three Fe-bearing phases: magnetite, hematite (possibly of two different compositions), and glass. The variation in the Fe-oxidation state follows the variation in the sulfur, consequently pyrite, content of the feed coal.

  17. Petrography and chemistry of high-carbon fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shawnee power station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150-MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur (< 1 wt %) eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units burn medium- and high-sulfur (> 1 wt %) coal in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25 wt %. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6% to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety, but there is a portion that is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

  18. An examination of fly ash carbon and its interactions with air entraining agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.L. [Monex Resources, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Monex Resources, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Sarkar, S.L. [Sarkar and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)] [Sarkar and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four fly ash samples, which had previously been found to effect concrete air entrainment in a manner inconsistent with their respective loss on ignition, were investigated using several physico-chemical techniques. This study focused on characterization of the high-carbon fraction of each fly ash, obtained by a triboelectric separation process. While the four samples displayed varying reactivities toward AEA adsorption, the BET specific surface area of all four samples was determined to be essentially the same. Thermal analysis and petrographic examination revealed that the higher demand for air entraining agents exhibited by two of the samples could be directly related to the presence of a higher proportion of optically isotropic, amorphous carbon. Liquid and vapor phase adsorption analysis suggested that the surface chemistry characteristics of the isotropic carbon resulted in a higher adsorption capacity for polar compounds such as air entraining surfactants.

  19. Petrography and chemistry of fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Wild, G.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shawnee Power Station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150 MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units bum medium and high-sulfur coal in an AFBC unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25%. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6 to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety but there is a portion which is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

  20. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  1. Speciation of Major and Selected Trace Elements in IGCC Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Font,O.; Querol, X.; Huggins, F.; Chimenos, J.; Fernandez, A.; Burgos, S.; Pena, F.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The speciation of Ga, Ge, Ni, V, S and Fe in fly ash from IGCC power plant were investigated for possible further extraction process by combining conventional mineral and chemical analysis, leaching tests, wet sequential extraction, Moessbauer and XAFS spectroscopies. The results shown that Ge occurs mainly as water-soluble species, GeS and/or GeS2 and hexagonal GeO2. Ga is present as an oxide, Ni occurs mainly as nickeline (NiAs), with minor proportions of Ni arsenates and vanadium as V(III) with minor amounts of V(IV) in the aluminosilicate glass matrix. Pyrrhotite and wurtzite-sphalerite are sulfide species containing Fe and Zn, but an important fraction of iron is also present in the aluminosilicate glass. These clear differences between the speciation of the above elements in this material and those reported for fly ash from conventional PC combustion.

  2. Anionic states of LiFLi Maciej Gutowski and Jack Simons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    ;,'symmetry and which have vertical detachment energies of 0.94 and 0.89 eV, respectively. The LiFLi+ cation earlier.3-7 DR anions, such as the Td iso- mer of NH, or the C3, isomer of H30-, consist of a closed-shell experimentally studied yet. II. COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS For the lithium atom, we used the Dunning (9s5p/ 3~2~) one

  3. Host recognition in Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera :Pteromalidae): a parasitoid of the house fly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Randy Russel

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. 1996; Gilbert and Rayer 1985; Stamhuis et al. 1996; Walgenbach and Burkholder 1987) according to various changes in the behavior of the parasitoid as a result of the parasitoid being naive or experienced and the host being parasitized or non... the hide of animals and feeds on the blood. The feeding activity disturbs the animals and may affect weight gain and milk production of cattle (Bruce and Decker 1958; Campbell et al. 1977, 1987). Stable fly related reductions in livestock related...

  4. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  5. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  6. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual report for the period January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.; Mundorf, W.R.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. {open_quotes}Detailed Evaluation of the West Kiehl Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and Its Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods{close_quotes} objective is to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  7. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L. [Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  8. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  9. Feasibility of using reject fly ash in cement-based stabilization/solidification processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poon, C.S.; Qiao, X.C.; Cheeseman, C.R.; Lin, Z.S. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Civil & Structural Engineering

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilization/solidification (s/s) has been routinely used for the final treatment of hazardous wastes prior to land disposal. These processes involve adding one or more solidifying reagents into the waste to transform it into a monolithic solid with improved structural integrity. Cement-based systems with partial replacement by pulverized fuel ash (PFA) have been widely used to minimize leaching of contaminants from hazardous wastes. The finer fraction of PFA ({lt}45 {mu} m, fine fly ash, MA), produced by passing the raw ash through a classifying process is commonly used in s/s processes. Low-grade fly ash is rejected (rFA) from the ash classifying process, and is largely unused due to high carbon content and large particle size but represents a significant proportion of PFA. This paper presents experimental results of a study that has assessed the feasibility of using rFA in the cement-based s/s of a synthetic heavy metal waste. Results were compared to mixes containing fFA. The strength results show that cement-based waste forms with rFA replacement are suitable for disposal at landfill and that the addition of heavy metal sludge can increase the degree of hydration of fly ash and decrease the porosity of samples. Adding Ca(OH){sub 2} and flue gas desulphurization sludge reduces the retarding effect of heavy metals on strength development. The results of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and Dynamic Leach Test show that rFA can be used in cement-based s/s wastes without compromising performance of the product.

  10. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  11. Techniques for measuring atmospheric aerosols at the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The HiRes Collaboration

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe several techniques developed by the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment for measuring aerosol vertical optical depth, aerosol horizontal attenuation length, and aerosol phase function. The techniques are based on measurements of side-scattered light generated by a steerable ultraviolet laser and collected by an optical detector designed to measure fluorescence light from cosmic-ray air showers. We also present a technique to cross-check the aerosol optical depth measurement using air showers observed in stereo. These methods can be used by future air fluorescence experiments.

  12. Study of genetics of resistance to organophosphates in the house fly (Musca domestica L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Tsing Cheng

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Committee: Br. F. W. Plapp, Jr. In the house fly, Musca domestics L. , the phenotypes aristapedia (ar), tubby wing (:;tv, ) and carnation eye (car) are controlled by recce"ive allcles of genes located on chromosome II. Resistance tn parathion is also... controlled by a chromosome II gene. Three double-mutant strains ar;car, stw;car and ar;stw were developed and the relative genetic map positions oi ar, stw and car were determined. The linkage relationsnips of *he parathion resistance locus in relation...

  13. Respirable aerosols from fluidized bed coal combustion. 3. Elemental composition of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissman, S.H.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace element constituents in fly ash from an experimental atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) are reported and compared with pulverized coal combustor (PCC) data and those from other fluidized bed combustors. Bulk and size-separated particles were collected and analyzed using spark source mass spectrometry. Fluidized bed combustion ash was similar to PCC ash in minor and trace element composition, but AFBC ash showed less size dependence of elemental composition. Bulk particle elemental composition varied with sampling position within the effluent stream. Penetration of elements through each cleanup stage and elemental enrichment were a function of the cleanup stage and the element under consideration.

  14. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

  15. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. An OntheFly Mark and Sweep Garbage Collector Based on Sliding Views Hezi Azatchi + Yossi Levanoni # Harel Paz Erez Petrank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    An On璽heFly Mark and Sweep Garbage Collector Based on Sliding Views #3; Hezi Azatchi + Yossi garbage collector has become acute. We propose a novel mark and sweep on璽hefly algorithm based on the sliding views mechanism of Levanoni and Petrank. We have implemented our collector on the Jikes Java

  17. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  18. Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors in France: Implications for Atmospheric Lead Source Tracing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr _______________________________________________________________________________________ Fly ash and flue gas residues from eight municipal solid waste combusters (MSWC) in France (1992 of "industrial Pb" is not an easy task because of its possible extreme heterogeneity. Municipal solid waste

  19. Arab states seek Libya no-fly zone Regional bloc calls on UN Security Council to take steps to protect civilians from air attack by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arab states seek Libya no-fly zone Regional bloc calls on UN Security Council to take steps on the United Nations Security Council to impose a no-fly zone over Libya in a bid to protect civilians from air the civilian population of Libya. "The Arab League has officially requested the UN Security Council to impose

  20. JOM November 2006, Volume 58, Issue 11, pp 71-76 71 Applications of Fly Ash in Synthesizing Low Cost Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive and other Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    Cost Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive and other Engineering Applications P. K. Rohatgi Materials and adequate properties for several automotive applications [1, 2]. Fly ash particles can be either solid will have to be remelted. Additions of fly ash can make automotive castings lighter, leading to further

  1. Induction of Glutathione S-aryl transferase by phenobarbital and other inducers in resistant and susceptible house flies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottea, James Anthony

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUCERS IN RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE HOUSE FLIES A Thesis by JAMES ANTHONY OTTEA Approved as to style and content by: DY. F. N. Plapp, J . . '(C airman) r. . L. le (M mber Dr. P. J. Riz o (Mem D J. C. Schaffne (Member) F. G. Maxwell (Dept. Head...) December 1980 ABSTRACT Induction of Glutathione S-Aryl Transferase by Phenobarbital and Other Inducers 'n Resistant and Susceptible House Flies. (December 1980) James Anthony Ottea, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr...

  2. Nickel and Sulfur Speciation of Residual Oil Fly Ashes from Two Electric Utility Steam-Generating Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath,K.; Schulz, R.; Toman, D.; Nyberg, C.; Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.; Zillioux, E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400- and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned 0.9 and 0.3 wt % S residual (No. 6 fuel) oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for Ni concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  3. Wet extraction of heavy metals and chloride from MSWI and straw combustion fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguiar del Toro, M. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, W. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: calmano@tuhh.de; Ecke, H. [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Alvkarleby (Sweden)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash residues from combustion often do not meet the criteria neither for reuse as construction materials nor landfilling as non-hazardous waste, mainly because of the high concentration of heavy metals and chlorides. This work aimed to technically evaluate an innovative wet treatment process for the extraction of chloride (Cl{sup -}), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and from a straw combustion (SC) facility. Factors investigated were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, full carbonation (CO{sub 2} treatment), influence of pH and leaching time, using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was low pH, followed by L/S ratio. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in extraction data had R{sup 2} values ranging from 58% to 98%. An optimization of the element extraction models was performed and a set of treatment conditions is suggested.

  4. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush, E-mail: chaunsa2@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Peethamparan, Sulapha, E-mail: speetham@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 癈 to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: 旾nteraction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. 旵KD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. 旵-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  5. Metal recovery from fly ash generated from vitrification process for MSW ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumikawa, Chiaki [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)] [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-bearing wastes have to be carefully treated because heavy metals could be leached out under uncontrolled conditions when disposed of in a landfill. Consequently, heavy metals should be principally recovered and recycled forever. From this standpoint, the author has been trying to develop a technology to recover heavy metals from toxic vitrification fly ash for recycling to smelters. After a number of laboratory-scale experiments, pilot plant tests were successfully carried out and the developed process has been proven to be commercially realized. The main features of the process are that it recovers almost 100% of the heavy metals, simultaneously separating the metals which are recovered in a lead smelter from those in a zinc smelter, and that the output of the process are only metallurgical products recyclable for smelters and the effluent water which can be released into the environment. The process is considered an ideal one for the treatment of toxic fly ash from the viewpoint of not only natural resources but also environmental conservation.

  6. Case study of the conversion of tangential- and wall-fired units to low-NO{sub x} combustion: Impact on fly ash quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Haeberlin, B.O. [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States)] [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States); Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} combustion can influence fly ash quality in terms of the amount and forms of carbon, the overall fly ash fineness, and the relative amount of glass versus crystalline inorganic phases. All of these factors can influence the potential for a fly ash to be marketed for utilization. In this study, three coal-fired combustors, two tangentially fired and one wall-fired, all burning high-sulfur Illinois coal at the same power plant, were studied before and after conversion to low-NO{sub x} combustion. In all cases, the post-conversion fly ash was higher in carbon than the pre-conversion ash from the same unit. The fly ashes in at least two of the units would appear to have post-conversion ashes which still fall within the regional guidelines for the limit of carbon (or loss on ignition).

  7. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  8. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  9. A Carbon-Supported Copper Complex of 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole as a Cathode Catalyst for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Fuel Cell Applications Fikile R. Brushett, Matthew S. Thorum, Nicholas S. Lioutas, Matthew S. Naughton-tri/C) is investigated as a cathode material using an alkaline microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell. The absolute Cu be realized by optimizing catalyst and electrode preparation procedures. Fuel cell-based systems hold promise

  10. Influence of conversion to low NO{sub x} combustion on fly ash petrology and mineralogy: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The wall-fired 116 MW unit 2 at the John Sherman Cooper Station, Pulaski County, Kentucky, was converted to low-NO{sub x} combustion in the winter of 1993--1994. The fly ash from before and after conversion was studied in detail. The coal feed, which did not change significantly over the study, was from southeastern Kentucky and had an ash range of 10--12% and a sulfur range of 1.5--1.9%. The coal rank was high volatile bituminous A with a vitrinite reflectance (R{sub max}) of about 0.8%. The coal had about 17% by volume inertinite macerals (mineral-free basis). The fly ash carbon can be divided into three types: anisotropic coke, isotropic coke and inertinite. The post-conversion fly ash has nearly twice the amount of carbon as the pre-conversion ash and shows an increase in anisotropic coke. Mullite and quartz were observed petrographically to be more abundant in the post-conversion fly ash, although only the mullite increase was confirmed by XRD. The proportion of glass is slightly less in the post-conversion ash and is accompanied by one-third drop in the amount of cenospheres.

  11. On-the-fly string method for minimum free energy paths calculation Luca Maragliano *, Eric Vanden-Eijnden 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    On-the-fly string method for minimum free energy paths calculation Luca Maragliano *, Eric Vanden and simplified version of the string method in collective variables for computing minimum free energy paths) the minimum free energy path (MFEP) plays an important role. Given a set of collective variables to describe

  12. Effect of atomic scale plasticity on hydrogen diffusion in iron: Quantum mechanically informed and on-the-fly kinetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Michael

    across several disciplines such as surface chemistry and catalysis, applied physics, metallurgy and on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo simulations A. Ramasubramaniam Program in Applied and Computational) Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics

  13. Evaluation of fly ash-surfaced pens as a control for fugitive dust emissions from beef cattle feedyards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kantor, Theodore Lee

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of pens was surfaced with fly ash from a coal-fired power plant, while the other set, surfaced with caliche, served as a control. Five sampling trips were completed for a total of 492 TSP samples and 288 PM10 samples. Results indicate that statistically...

  14. Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne sediments (Central

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne emitted in the area of Lake Lucerne (Central Europe) throughout the last 7200 years. Charcoal navigation on Lake Lucerne. The successive burning of wood (after AD 1838), coal (after AD 1862), and diesel

  15. Supervised Control of a Flying Performing Robot using its Intrinsic Sound Benjamin N. Passow and Sophy Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopgood, Adrian

    to achieve autonomous stable flight. The controllers have been tuned using genetic algorithms to further the need for additional sensors. 1. Introduction The interest on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in- creased. Our project goes even further as we are developing a multi-purpose lightweight autonomous flying robot

  16. Swimming and flying animals generate fluid-dynamic forces by flapping flexible appendages such as wings or fins. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    Swimming and flying animals generate fluid-dynamic forces by flapping flexible appendages such as wings or fins. The stresses generated by motions of these structures can be resolved into vertical aerial and aquatic animals that propel themselves with wing-like appendages generate these vertical

  17. Data:E7b859bf-4846-4454-a578-937e8f5af100 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision has been approved8-b979-92bc8c6f8fcd Nof5af100 No

  18. AFS on PDSF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced1 TEMPERATUREiiO E / E I A - 0 4 8

  19. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  20. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.