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1

Solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings and method of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings, the solvent having a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide as constituents. In some embodiments the solvent consists only of miscible constituents. In some embodiments the carbaldehyde is benzaldehyde and in some embodiments the cyclic amide is N-methylpyrrolidone (M-pyrole). An extender may be added to the solvent. In some embodiments the extender is miscible with the other ingredients, and in some embodiments the extender is non-aqueous. For example, the extender may include isopropanol, ethanol, tetrahydro furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Gamma-butyrolactone or a caprolactone. In some embodiments a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide are heated and used to separate a urethane bonded to a component.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

2

The Effect of Solvent on the Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solvent-analyte reactions in organic aerosol (OA) extracts prepared for analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were examined. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by ozonation of d-limonene as well as several test organic chemicals with functional groups typical for OA constituents were dissolved and stored in methanol, d3-methanol, acetonitrile, and d3-acetonitrile to investigate the extent and relative rates of reactions between analyte and solvent. High resolution ESI-MS showed that reactions of carbonyls with methanol produce significant amounts of hemiacetals and acetals on time scales ranging from several minutes to several days, with the reaction rates increasing in acidified solutions. Carboxylic acid groups were observed to react with methanol resulting in the formation of esters. In contrast, acetonitrile extracts showed no evidence of reactions with analyte molecules, suggesting that acetonitrile is the preferred solvent for SOA extraction. The use of solvent-analyte reactivity as an analytical chemistry tool for the improved characterization of functional groups in complex organic mixtures was also demonstrated. Direct comparison between ESI mass spectra of the same SOA samples extracted in reactive (methanol) versus non-reactive (acetonitrile) solvents was used to estimate the relative fractions of ketones (?38%), aldehydes (?6%), and carboxylic acids (?55%) in d-limonene SOA.

Bateman, Adam P.; Walser, Maggie L.; Dessiaterik, Yury; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Hazardous particle binder, coagulant and re-aerosolization inhibitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copolymer and water/ethanol solvent solution capable of binding with airborne contaminants or potential airborne contaminants, such as biological weapon agents or toxic particulates, coagulating as the solvent evaporates, and adhering the contaminants to a surface so as to inhibit the re-suspension of such contaminants. The solution uses a water or ethanol/water mixture for the solvent, and a copolymer having one of several functional group sets so as to have physical and chemical characteristics of high adhesion, low viscosity, low surface tension, negative electrostatic charge, substantially neutral pH, and a low pKa. Use of the copolymer solution prevents re-aerosolization and transport of unwanted, reactive species thus increasing health and safety for personnel charged with decontamination of contaminated buildings and areas.

Krauter, Paula; Zalk, David; Hoffman, D. Mark

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

Hazardous particle binder, coagulant and re-aerosolization inhibitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copolymer and water/ethanol solvent solution capable of binding with airborne contaminants or potential airborne contaminants, such as biological weapon agents or toxic particulates, coagulating as the solvent evaporates, and adhering the contaminants to a surface so as to inhibit the re-suspension of such contaminants. The solution uses a water or ethanol/water mixture for the solvent, and a copolymer having one of several functional group sets so as to have physical and chemical characteristics of high adhesion, low viscosity, low surface tension, negative electrostatic charge, substantially neutral pH, and a low pKa. Use of the copolymer solution prevents re-aerosolization and transport of unwanted, reactive species thus increasing health and safety for personnel charged with decontamination of contaminated buildings and areas.

Krauter, Paula (Livermore, CA); Zalk, David (San Jose, CA); Hoffman, D. Mark (Livermore, CA)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

5

Solvent substitution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

aerosols | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols aerosols Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate material for...

7

EMSL - aerosols  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-structural-defects-m...

8

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

9

PH dependent adhesive peptides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

10

A thermally responsive, rigid, and reversible adhesive Xiaofan Luo, Kathryn E. Lauber 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Reversible adhesive Solid adhesive Thermally responsive polymer a b s t r a c t In this paper we present interconnected spheres (``bricks'') that interpenetrate with a continuous PCL matrix (``mortar''). When heated network (thermosetadhesives), or a physical melting/crystallization process triggered by solvent

Mather, Patrick T.

11

Solvent recycle/recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Continuous countercurrent membrane column for the separation of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reverse osmosis membrane process or hybrid membrane - complementary separator process for producing enriched product or waste streams from concentrated and dilute feed streams for both solvent/solvent and solute/solvent systems is described.

Nerad, Bruce A. (Longmont, CO); Krantz, William B. (Boulder, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Optical adhesive property study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

Sundvold, P.D.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Adhesive Gravitational Clustering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The notion of `adhesion' has been advanced for the phenomenon of stabilization of large-scale structure emerging from gravitational instability of a cold medium. Recently, the physical origin of adhesion has been identified: a systematic derivation of the equations of motion for the density and the velocity fields leads naturally to the key equation of the `adhesion approximation' - however, under a set of strongly simplifying assumptions. In this work, we provide an evaluation of the current status of adhesive gravitational clustering and a clear explanation of the assumptions involved. Furthermore, we propose systematic generalizations with the aim to relax some of the simplifying assumptions. We start from the general Newtonian evolution equations for self-gravitating particles on an expanding Friedmann background and recover the popular `dust model' (pressureless fluid), which breaks down after the formation of density singularities; then we investigate, in a unified framework, two other models which, under the restrictions referred to above, lead to the `adhesion approximation'. We apply the Eulerian and Lagrangian perturbative expansions to these new models and, finally, we discuss some non-perturbative results that may serve as starting points for workable approximations of non-linear structure formation in the multi-stream regime. In particular, we propose a new approximation that includes, in limiting cases, the standard `adhesion model' and the Eulerian as well as Lagrangian first-order approximations.

Thomas Buchert; Alvaro Dominguez

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

15

Halogenated solvent remediation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. An illustrative method includes adding an electron donor for microbe-mediated anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents, which electron donor enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative electron donors include C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof, of which lactic acid, salts of lactic acid--such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof are particularly illustrative. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the electron donor.

Sorenson, Jr., Kent S. (Windsor, CO)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

16

Improved surface adhesion and coverage of perfluoropolyether lubricants following far-UV irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Far-UV treatment of a surface with a thin film of a perfluoropolyether improves adhesion and lowers surface free energy substantially compared to the unirradiated, lubricated surface. With 185-nm radiation, approximately one monolayer can be fixed to surfaces such as amorphous carbon, silica, and gold. These lubricated surfaces become extremely hydrophobic after UV treatment (advancing water contact angle increases about 65{degree} to {ge} 110{degree}) and are not removed by fluorinated solvents. In the absence of far-UV radiation, most perfluoropolyethers show poor adhesion to carbon and are removed easily by rinsing with fluorinated solvents.

Saperstein, D.D. (IBM General Products Div., San Jose, CA (USA)); Lin , L.J. (IBM Research Div., San Jose, CA (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Adhesive particle shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

19

Organic solvent topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

Cowley, W.L.

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

20

Organic solvent topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

COWLEY, W.L.

1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

22

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

23

Solvent Fractionation of Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

26

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

27

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

28

Modal aerosol dynamics modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Aerosol Cans? -Aerosol cans use a pressurized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? - The waste generated in the processing of images/photos contains silver. Silver is a toxic heavy metal the product. Propellants are often flammable and/or toxic. Therefore, never store aerosol cans near ignition of this pamphlet. -Carefully transfer the old paint thinner from the one gallon closable can to the 30 gallon metal

Jia, Songtao

30

Occupational neurotoxicology of organic solvents and solvent mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of two field studies in painters and spray painters, the outcomes of examinations of workers with suspected work-related disease due to solvents, as well as data from an evaluation of an epidemiologic study in painters with confirmed occupational disease, are presented and discussed. The results of these studies and the experiences in occupational medicine in the Federal Republic of Germany do not support the assumption of high neurotoxic risks in solvent-exposed workers, which can be postulated from various epidemiologic studies from Scandinavian countries. Several factors may explain the different conclusions: (1) lower solvent exposures of German painters in the past decades; (2) false positive diagnosis of a toxic encephalopathy; (3) aetiological misclassification; (4) differences in legislation relevant for the acknowledgement of occupational diseases. In conclusion, there is a need for further well-designed epidemiologic studies in occupationally solvent-exposed workers. Suggestions regarding assessment of exposure and neurobehavioral tests are given.

Triebig, G. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

32

Adhesives from modified soy protein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

Sun, Susan (Manhattan, KS); Wang, Donghai (Manhattan, KS); Zhong, Zhikai (Manhattan, KS); Yang, Guang (Shanghai, CN)

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

33

High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1123 Laboratory FAX (916) 752-4107 Standard Operating Procedures Technical Information Document TI 201A #12;TI 201.................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.0 Weekly Maintenance ProceduresIMPROVE Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual February 10, 1997 Air Quality Group Crocker Nuclear

Fischer, Emily V.

36

Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

37

Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

5, 79658026, 2005 Simulating aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition, number concentration, and size distribution of the global submicrometer aerosol. The present, coagulation, condensation, nucleation of sulfuric acid vapor, aerosol chemistry, cloud processing, and sizeACPD 5, 7965­8026, 2005 Simulating aerosol microphysics with ECHAM/MADE A. Lauer et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : model and implementation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report a model for simulating aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls is presented. The model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular (DEM) package within the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Modeling the interactions of small particles is relevant to a number of applications (e.g., soils, powders, colloidal suspensions, etc.). Modeling the behavior of aerosol particles during agglomeration and cluster dynamics upon impact with a wall is of particular interest. In this report we describe preliminary efforts to develop and implement physical models for aerosol particle interactions. Future work will consist of deploying these models to simulate aerosol cluster behavior upon impact with a rigid wall for the purpose of developing relationships for impact speed and probability of stick/bounce/break-up as well as to assess the distribution of cluster sizes if break-up occurs. These relationships will be developed consistent with the need for inputs into system-level codes. Section 2 gives background and details on the physical model as well as implementations issues. Section 3 presents some preliminary results which lead to discussion in Section 4 of future plans.

Lechman, Jeremy B.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Aerosol engineering: design and stability of aerosol reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical study of the performance of aerosol reactors is presented. The goals of this study are (1) to identify the appropriate reactor types (batch, CSTR, and tubular) for production of aerosol with specific properties (for example, uniform size particles, high aerosol surface area, etc.) and (2) to investigate the effect of various process parameters on product aerosol characteristics and on the stability of operation of aerosol reactors. In all the reactors considered, the aerosol dynamics were detemined by chemical reaction, nucleation, and aerosol growth in the free molecule regime in the absence of coagulation at isothermal conditions. Formulation of the aerosol dynamics in terms of moments of the aerosol size distribution facilitated the numerical solution of the resulting systems of ordinary or partial differential equations. The stability characteristics of a continuous stirred tank aerosol reactor (CSTAR) were investigated since experimental data in the literature indicate that under certain conditions this reactor exhibits oscillatory behavior with respect to product aerosol concentration and size distribution.

Pratsinis, S.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Highly stable aerosol generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

42

Controllable adhesion using field-activated fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate that field-responsive magnetorheological fluids can be used for variable-strength controllable adhesion. The adhesive performance is measured experimentally in tensile tests (a.k.a. probe-tack experiments) ...

Ewoldt, Randy H.

43

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Electrostatics and radioactive aerosol behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive aerosols differ from their nonradioactive counterparts by their ability to charge themselves by emitting charged particles during the radioactive decay process. Evidence that electrostatics, including this charging process, can affect the transport of the aerosols was summarized previously. Charge distributions and the mean charge for a monodisperse radioactive aerosol have been considered in detail. The principal results of theory to calculate charge distributions on a aerosol with a size distribution, changes to Brownian coagulation rates for an aerosol in a reactor containment, and possible changes to aerosol deposition resulting from the charging will be presented. The main purpose of the work has been to improve calculations of aerosol behavior in reactor containments, but behavior in less ionizing environments will be affected more strongly, and some problems remain to be solved in performing reliable calculations.

Clement, C.F.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

aerosols and climate : uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contributes to creating a level playing field. (BC emissions tradeble like CO2 emissions?) OUTLINE #12;size. policy measures, is even more uncertain (emissions & their chemical fingerprint are uncertain (not just aerosol emissions, not just climate impacts) OUTLINE #12;- Standardization doesn't reduce

46

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Solvent-induced forces in protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

48

Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

49

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

50

SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

51

Experimental study of nuclear workplace aerosol samplers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LITERATURE REVIEW Aerosol Losses in an Inlet . Aerosol Losses in a Transport System Aerosol Losses in CAMs Critical Flow Venturi 8 13 15 16 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 18 CAM Evaluation Consideration FAS Evaluation Consideration Test Protocol Mixing... Chamber Setup High Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Low Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Critical Flow Venturi 18 19 21 22 24 25 27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Page 28 Aerosol Penetration through Transport Systems and CAM Areal Uniformity Deposits...

Parulian, Antony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

53

Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Formation and Growth. Abstract: Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)...

54

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment2)isomerase from GiardiaA CombinedSolvent

55

6, 75197562, 2006 Simulating aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, particle number concentration and aerosol size-distribution. The model takes into account sulfate (SO4. This model system enables explicit simulations of the particle number concentration and size-distribution of aerosol dynamical processes (nucleation, condensation, coagulation) is evaluated by comparison

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

57

A computational model for nanoscale adhesion between deformable solids and its application to gecko adhesion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), RWTH Aachen University, Templergaben 55, 52056 Aachen, Germany Published2 in the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1163/016942410X507588 Submitted on 20 June 2009, Accepted on 18 January adhesion [2], rough surface adhesion [3], thin film delamination [4], and self- cleaning surfaces [5

58

The Nearby Supernova Factory Ozone + Aerosol + Rayleigh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rayleigh + Aerosol Extinction monitor filter Auxiliary Camera CCD Spectrograph picko ff mirror Umbra

59

aerosol particles collected: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Saller 2002-05-07 6 Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles Materials Science Websites Summary: being clouds...

60

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

62

AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

63

Adhesion hysteresis of silane coated microcantilevers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed a new experimental approach for measuring hysteresis in the adhesion between micromachined surfaces. By accurately modeling the deformations in cantilever beams that are subject to combined interfacial adhesion and applied electrostatic forces, they determine adhesion energies for advancing and receding contacts. They draw on this new method to examine adhesion hysteresis for silane coated micromachined structures and found significant hysteresis for surfaces that were exposed to high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Atomic force microscopy studies of these surfaces showed spontaneous formation of agglomerates that they interpreted as silages that have irreversibly transformed from uniform surface layers at low RH to isolated vesicles at high RH. They used contact deformation models to show that the compliance of these vesicles could reasonably account for the adhesion hysteresis that develops at high RH as the surfaces are forced into contact by an externally applied load.

DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

64

adhesion kinase controls: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A 17 Controlling cell adhesion on polyurethanes T. Joseph Dennes and Jeffrey Schwartz* Materials Science Websites Summary: Controlling cell adhesion on polyurethanes T. Joseph...

65

Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

66

Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Biobriefcase electrostatic aerosol collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air comprising a receiving surface, a liquid input that directs liquid to the receiving surface and produces a liquid surface, an air input that directs the air so that the air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface, and an electrostatic contact connected to the liquid that imparts an electric charge to the liquid. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid by the air with particles entrained in the air impacting the liquid surface. Collection efficiency is improved by the electrostatic contact electrically charging the liquid. The effects of impaction and adhesion due to electrically charging the liquid allows a unique combination in a particle capture medium that has a low fluid consumption rate while maintaining high efficiency.

Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Christian, Allen T. (Madison, WI); Bailey, Christopher G. (Pleasanton, CA); Willis, Ladona (Manteca, CA); Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

68

8, 68456901, 2008 Aerosol optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance, Germany 2 Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

SCHWARTZ, S.E.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

Schuetz, K., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Hoerber, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Franke, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fathi, Zakaryae (Cary, NC); Wei, Jianghua (Raleigh, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

73

Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

74

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

Jessop, Philip G.; Eckert, Charles A.; Liotta, Charles L.; Heldebrant, David J.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

Jessop, Philip G; Eckert, Charles A; Liotta, Charles L; Heldebrant, David J

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

77

Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic...

78

Solvent composition and process for the isolation of radium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent extraction composition for radium including a high molecular wet organophilic carboxylic acid and an organophilic macrocycle dissolved in a suitable solvent.

McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN); Case, Gerald N. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A fresh look at the adhesion approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I report on a systematic derivation of the phenomenological ``adhesion approximation'' from gravitational instability together with a brief evaluation of the related status of analytical modeling of large-scale structure.

Thomas Buchert

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

80

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Brayton Solvent Recovery Heat Pump Technology Update  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Brayton cycle technology was developed to reduce the temperature of gas streams containing solvents in order to condense and recover them. While the use of turbo compressor/expander machinery in conjunction with an energy recuperator...

Enneking, J. C.

82

Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waterflooding has become standard practice for extending the productive life of many solution gas drive reservoirs, but has the disadvantage of leaving a substantial residual oil volume in the reservoir. Solvent flooding has been offered as a...

Moon, Gary Michael

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source type and mechanism information for the four aerosol samples gathered from the Caribbean, the Sea of Japan, and New Jersey. One way to gauge an aerosol's ability to stay...

85

Optimization of a Solvent Extraction Desalination Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is usually determined by economical considerations with other factors sometimes exert. ing strong influ- ences Processes currently showing good potentials are various forms of distillation, freezing, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, and solvent..., electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, and others. This thesis concerns the optimization of a Solvent Extraction Desalination Plant with respect to the "Standardized Procedure for Estimating Costs of Saline Water Conversions" (16). The two most im- portant...

Beighle, Phillip Lew

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

Delmau, L.H.

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

87

CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

88

6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

The Effect of Solvent on the Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

typical for OA constituents were dissolved and stored in methanol, d3-methanol, acetonitrile, and d3-acetonitrile to investigate the extent and relative rates of reactions...

90

The Effect of Solvent on the Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Using  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2Different Impacts of SO2 andOxideElectrospray

91

Adhesion Recovery and Passive Peeling in a Wall Climbing Robot using Adhesives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adhesion Recovery and Passive Peeling in a Wall Climbing Robot using Adhesives Casey Kute, Michael results illustrate that a passive peeling mechanism is successful in reducing the required power to peel vertical surfaces are capable of sensing how well they are adhered to the surface. The flat-tailed house

Wood, Robert

92

Chlorinated solvent replacements recycle/recovery review report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a literature review of waste solvents recycle/recovery methods and shows the results of solvent separations using membrane and distillation technologies. The experimental solvent recovery methods were conducted on solvent replacements for chlorinated solvents at Montana State University. The literature review covers waste solvents separation using distillation, membranes decantation, filtration, carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, and other vapor-phase separation techniques. The results of this study identify solvent distillation methods as the most common separation technique. The alternative separation methods typically supplement distillation. The study shows the need for industries to identify waste solvent disposal methods and investigate the economics of waste solvent recycling as a possible waste reduction method.

Beal, M.; Hsu, D.; McAtee, R.E.; Weidner, J.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berg, L.; McCandless, F.P.; Waltari, S.; Peterson, C. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

adhesion molecule-1 d-lactate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(UF) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives dominate the current wood adhesive market. However, these adhesives are derived from petrochemicals and carcinogenic (more)...

94

Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary Solvent Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary SolventVised Manuscript ReceiVed December 9, 2006 The heaviest fraction of crude oils, asphaltenes, has been shown to play-assembled interfacially active asphaltenic aggregates. Thus, careful characterization of these aggregates is of great

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

95

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

Glissmeyer, J.A.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK ABSTRACT In response to global warming, one suggested geoengineering response involves creating a cloud of particles in the stratosphere to reflect some, the volcano analog also warns against geoengineering because of responses such as ozone depletion, regional

Robock, Alan

97

Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

Miller, W.K.; McCray, S.B.; Friesen, D.T.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

98

Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR); McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Solvent interactions with a triphenylated benzoxazole polymer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 4-Dimethyl-3-penta Dimethylsulfoxide n-Dodecane Ethanol 2-Ethoxyethanol 2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy) -e N-Ethylacetamide Ethyl Acetate Ethylbenzene Ethyl Carbonate Ethylcyclohexane none thanol 10. 6 13. 1 9. 9 9. 1 11. 2 15. 3 11. 1 12. 3 10. 8 9... Molar Gi. bbs Energv of Adsorption for Solvent. s DCE ? NI3z at 270 C 30 9. Additional Molar Gibbs Energy of AdsorpLion for Solvent NO C~ ? II 0 at. ?70'C 3 2 9. Solubility Plot for Tviphcnylated Pf)O at 270'C 35 10 Interaction of m ? Cresol Kith...

Eversdyk, David Allen

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

DO AEROSOLS CHANGE CLOUD COVER AND AFFECT CLIMATE?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter Schwartz, 1996, modified from;AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS

Schwartz, Stephen E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method of measuring metal coating adhesion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

Roper, John R. (Northglenn, CO)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A controllably adhesive climbing robot using magnetorheological fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the novel adhesive effects of magnetorheological fluid for use in climbing robotics were experimentally measured and compared to existing cohesive failure fluid models of yield stress adhesion. These models ...

Wiltsie, Nicholas Eric

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

104

Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

105

Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a composite immobulized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement Gaurav Chopraa , Christopher M. Summab structure), also known as the protein structure refinement problem. It has been shown that improve- ment in protein structure refinement. Molecular dynamics in explicit sol- vent and energy minimization in both

Summa, Christopher M.

107

Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Conserve Energy: Modernize Your Solvent Deasphalting Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Catalytic Cracking-Hydro cracking Feed & Asphalt"; Presented at NPRA Annual Meeting, March 1971, Paper AM-71-15. 4. nitman, J. G.; "Solvent Deasphalting A Versatile Tool for the Preparation of Lube Hydrotreated Feed Stocks"; Presented at API Midyear...

Lambert, J. S.; Gleitsmann, J. W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method for making adhesive from biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin.

Russell, Janet A. (Richland, WA); Riemath, William F. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Method for making adhesive from biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin. 2 figures.

Russell, J.A.; Riemath, W.F.

1984-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Adhesion and Thin-Film Module Reliability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the infrequently measured but essential properties for thin-film (T-F) module reliability are the interlayer adhesion and cohesion within a layer. These can be cell contact layers to glass, contact layers to the semiconductor, encapsulant to cell, glass, or backsheet, etc. We use an Instron mechanical testing unit to measure peel strengths at 90deg or 180deg and, in some cases, a scratch and tape pull test to evaluate inter-cell layer adhesion strengths. We present peel strength data for test specimens laminated from the three T-F technologies, before and after damp heat, and in one instance at elevated temperatures. On laminated T-F cell samples, failure can occur uniformly at any one of the many interfaces, or non-uniformly across the peel area at more than one interface. Some peel strengths are Lt1 N/mm. This is far below the normal ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface values of >10 N/mm. We measure a wide range of adhesion strengths and suggest that adhesion measured under higher temperature and relative humidity conditions is more relevant for module reliability.

McMahon, T. J.; Jorgenson, G. J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water Wuge H. Briscoe Physical friction between two surfaces in adhesive contact with the loading­unloading adhesion hysteresis between them. We then examine in light of this model the observed low friction between two mica surfaces coated

Klein, Jacob

113

RESIDUAL STRESS EFFECTS IN FRACTURE OF COMPOSITES AND ADHESIVES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESIDUAL STRESS EFFECTS IN FRACTURE OF COMPOSITES AND ADHESIVES JOHN A. NAIRN ABSTRACT Because composites and adhesive joints are made from different phases with different thermal expansion coefficients, they inevitably develop residual thermal stresses. When designing composites or adhesive joints, it is important

Nairn, John A.

114

Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites M I Mishchenko1 instruments suitable for aerosol remote sensing and give examples of aerosol retrievals obtained forcing directly by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, thereby cooling or heating the atmosphere

115

Solvent extraction process for recovering bitumen from tar sand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recovering bitumen from tar sand which comprises: (a) preparing a mixture containing divided tar sand and an organic solvent the ratio of the solvent to the bitumen in the tar sand is at least 2 parts solvent to 1 part bitumen form a bitument/solvent phase with a viscosity low enough to facilitate the physical separation of a significant portion of the bitumen/solvent phase from the mineral matrix of the tar sand; (b) separating by physical means at least a portion of the bitumen/solvent phase from the mineral matrix; (c) mixing the separated mineral matrix of step (b) with additional solvent in a washing stage to recover bitumen remaining with the mineral matrix; (d) introducing the recovered solvent/bitumen mixture from wash step (c) back into step (a); (e) recovering organic solvent from the mineral matrix of step (c) using an aqueous/organic solvent froth flotation phase separation where the majority of the mineral matrix remains with the aqueous phase; (f) recycling the solvent recovered from the phase separation of step (e) back to the washing step of (c); (g) separating bitumen from the bitumen/solvent phase of step (b); and (h) returning solvent collected from step (g) back to step (a).

Hsieh, C.R.; Clifford, R.K.

1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be minimum and -' he penetration of aerosols through the transport system will be maximal. It is the purpose of the study reported herein to experimentally investigate the optimization of aerosol penetration through transport systems and to obtain a... numbers less than 869, bounded the use of this model to Reynolds numbers less than or equal to 1100. 19 IV. SUNNARY OF WORK AND EXPERINENTAL NETHODOLOGY The purpose of the study reported herein was to further analyze the optimization of aerosol...

Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

118

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu,...

119

Separating Cloud Forming Nuclei from Interstitial Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has become important to characterize the physicochemical properties of aerosol that have initiated the warm and ice clouds. The data is urgently needed to better represent the aerosol-cloud interaction mechanisms in the climate models. The laboratory and in-situ techniques to separate precisely the aerosol particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), termed as cloud nuclei (CN) henceforth, have become imperative in studying aerosol effects on clouds and the environment. This review summarizes these techniques, design considerations, associated artifacts and challenges, and briefly discusses the need for improved designs to expand the CN measurement database.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October? 2. To what extent do the different properties of the Arctic aerosol during April produce differences in clouds? * Do the more polluted conditions during April in the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries. The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries....

122

Construction of prototype system for directional solvent extraction desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directional solvent extraction has been demonstrated as a low temperature, membrane free desalination process. This method dissolves the water into an inexpensive, benign directional solvent, rejects the contaminants, then ...

Fowler, Michael James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

124

aerosol ratio program: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

contribute a major portion of atmospheric aerosol mass loading 5. The estimated global annual Liou, K. N. 2 Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and...

125

Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

126

aerosol optical thickness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

127

aerosol black carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

128

aerosols iii morphologic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences Websites Summary: of aerosols. Keywords: metal waste recycling; aerosols; fire hazard; explosion hazard. 1. OVERVIEW ProductsRisks generated by the treatment of...

129

The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

Ghan, Steve

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

ambient ultrafine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Ambient aerosol sampling using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer...

131

The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

Ghan, Steve

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

132

Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic...

133

acid aerosol exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nenes, Athanasios 8 Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia Geosciences Websites Summary: Neutralization of soil aerosol and...

134

Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXEPESASTIM and Multivariate Analysis. Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the...

135

Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass...

136

aerosol samples collected: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

elements analysis of aerosol samples from some CiteSeer Summary: Aerosols deposits on filters from ten Romanian towns with different kinds and levels of industrial development...

137

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in...

138

aerosol particles emitted: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols scatter and absorb solar, estimates of the impact of aerosols on visibility, the solar radiation balance, and crop production is presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The attenuation...

139

aerosolized pentamidine effect: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

140

aerosols radioactifs artificiels: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

aerosol particle analysis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: data analysis algorithm is presented. Our earlier algorithm assumed a monomodal aerosol size distribution, while the new algorithm allows us to partition the aerosol...

142

aerosol research study: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in atmospheric thermal structure, burning, bio-sources changes? 12;Aerosol microphysics: size distribution, mixing state, morphology, shape 9 Aerosol Science and Technology,...

143

Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This webinar was presented by research team Building...

144

The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in arctic mixed-phase stratus clouds during ISDAC and M-PACE. The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol...

145

Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal. 2 figs.

Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.

1986-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

147

Heterogeneous Chemistry: Understanding Aerosol/Oxidant Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global radiative forcing of nitrate and ammonium aerosols has mostly been estimated from aerosol concentrations calculated at thermodynamic equilibrium or using approximate treatments for their uptake by aerosols. In this study, a more accurate hybrid dynamical approach (DYN) was used to simulate the uptake of nitrate and ammonium by aerosols and the interaction with tropospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry in a three-dimensional global aerosol and chemistry model, IMPACT, which also treats sulfate, sea salt and mineral dust aerosol. 43% of the global annual average nitrate aerosol burden, 0.16 TgN, and 92% of the global annual average ammonium aerosol burden, 0.29 TgN, exist in the fine mode (D<1.25 {micro}m) that scatters most efficiently. Results from an equilibrium calculation differ significantly from those of DYN since the fraction of fine-mode nitrate to total nitrate (gas plus aerosol) is 9.8%, compared to 13% in DYN. Our results suggest that the estimates of aerosol forcing from equilibrium concentrations will be underestimated. We also show that two common approaches used to treat nitrate and ammonium in aerosol in global models, including the first-order gas-to-particle approximation based on uptake coefficients (UPTAKE) and a hybrid method that combines the former with an equilibrium model (HYB), significantly overpredict the nitrate uptake by aerosols especially that by coarse particles, resulting in total nitrate aerosol burdens higher than that in DYN by +106% and +47%, respectively. Thus, nitrate aerosol in the coarse mode calculated by HYB is 0.18 Tg N, a factor of 2 more than that in DYN (0.086 Tg N). Excessive formation of the coarse-mode nitrate in HYB leads to near surface nitrate concentrations in the fine mode lower than that in DYN by up to 50% over continents. In addition, near-surface HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations are underpredicted by HYB by up to 90% and 5%, respectively. UPTAKE overpredicts the NO{sub x} burden by 56% and near-surface NO{sub x} concentrations by a factor of 2-5. These results suggest the importance of using the more accurate hybrid dynamical method in the estimates of both aerosol forcing and tropospheric ozone chemistry.

Joyce E. Penner

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

148

Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.

Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III (.,; )

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

ENCAPSULATION EFFECTS ON CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL LIGHT ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENCAPSULATION EFFECTS ON CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL LIGHT ABSORPTION Arthur Sedlacek, Brookhaven National of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because. This poster presents data on black carbon (BC) light absorption measured by Photothermal Interferometry

152

2, 12871315, 2002 Aerosol sources and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in climate variability and climate change studies (IPCC, 2001). Radiative forcing of natural and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime J aerosol sources in the Eastern Mediterranean5 Basin could be investigated at this location since the site

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

6, 1217912197, 2006 Aerosol formation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model implements a first order scheme for resolving the aerosol size distribution within its geometric size10 sections, which efficiently suppresses numerical diffusion. We operate removes freshly nucleated particles by coagulation. The observation of high ultrafine aerosol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

6, 32653319, 2006 Study aerosol with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 3265­3319, 2006 Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et in Europe to two different emission inventories and temporal distribution of emissions A. de Meij 1 , M Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

High performance low cost interconnections for flip chip attachment with electrically conductive adhesive. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report is a compilation of final reports from each of the groups participating in the program. The main three groups involved in this effort are the Thomas J. Watson Research Center of IBM Corporation in Yorktown Heights, New York, Assembly Process Design of IBM Corporation in Endicott, New York, and SMT Laboratory of Universal Instruments Corporation in Binghamton, New York. The group at the research center focused on the conductive adhesive materials development and characterization. The group in process development focused on processing of the Polymer-Metal-Solvent Paste (PMSP) to form conductive adhesive bumps, formation of the Polymer-Metal Composite (PMC) on semiconductor devices and study of the bonding process to circuitized organic carriers, and the long term durability and reliability of joints formed using the process. The group at Universal Instruments focused on development of an equipment set and bonding parameters for the equipment to produce bond assembly tooling. Reports of each of these individual groups are presented here reviewing their technical efforts and achievements.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Thompson, Lisa M. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

158

AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

159

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3, 2010SeptemberInfrared SpectralgovCampaignsAerosol IOP

160

Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

162

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

163

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Abstract: A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic...

164

Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

167

The behavior of constant rate aerosol reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aerosol reactor is a gaseous system in which fine particles are formed by chemical reaction in either a batch or flow process. The particle sizes of interest range from less than 10 angstrom (molecular clusters) to 10 ..mu..m. Such reactors may be operated to study the aerosol formation process, as in a smog reactor, or to generate a product such as a pigment or a catalytic aerosol. Aerosol reactors can be characterized by three temporal or spatial zones or regions of operation for batch and flow reactors, respectively. In zone I, chemical reaction results in the formation of condensable molecular products which nucleate and form very high concentrations of small particles. The number density depends on the concentration of preexisting aerosol. Zone II is a transition region in which the aerosol number concentration levels off as a result of hetergeneous condensation by the stable aerosol. In zone III coagulation becomes sufficiently rapid to reduce the particle number concentration. There may be a zone IV in which agglomerates form.

Friedlander, S.K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

adhesion plaque protein: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

film, and exhibit ultralow protein adsorption and cell attachment with the coating. This "stealth" or "non 14 Mechanistic studies on zymogen-activator and adhesion proteins (ZAAP)...

170

adhesive protein inspired: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

film, and exhibit ultralow protein adsorption and cell attachment with the coating. This "stealth" or "non 16 Mechanistic studies on zymogen-activator and adhesion proteins (ZAAP)...

171

adhesion protein neuroligin: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

film, and exhibit ultralow protein adsorption and cell attachment with the coating. This "stealth" or "non 14 Mechanistic studies on zymogen-activator and adhesion proteins (ZAAP)...

172

adhesive small bowel: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Loadings University of Cambridge - Dspace Summary: The corrosion resistance of glass-fibre reinforced polymers (GFRPs) is a key advantage in pipeline applications. Adhesive...

173

adhesion cluster stability: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

We confirm that the adhesion approximation produces an excessively filamentary distribution. Relative to the nbody results, we also find that: (a) the power spectrum obtained...

174

Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

175

INVESTIGATION OF PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM UPTAKE INTO MCU SOLVENT AND NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) customer, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) examined the plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) uptake into the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) that will be used at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). SRNL examined archived samples of solvent used in Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests, as well as samples from new tests designed explicitly to examine the Pu and U uptake. Direct radiocounting for Pu and U provided the best results. Using the radiocounting results, we found that in all cases there were <3.41E-12 g Pu/g of NGS and <1.17E-05 g U/g of NGS in multiple samples, even after extended contact times and high aqueous:organic volume phase ratios. These values are conservative as they do not allow for release or removal of the actinides by scrub, strip, or solvent wash processes. The values do not account for extended use or any increase that may occur due to radiolytic damage of the solvent.

Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

176

A Novel Approach to Solvation Time Scale in Nonpolar Solvents via Instability of Solvent Density Modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The molecular processes underlying the rate-determining factors can be probed by the solvation time1, theoretical, and simulation techniques have been extensively used to understand the solvation time in solvents to study the nonpolar solvation dynamics. Nonpolar solvation dynamics involves changes in the shape and

Biswas, Ranjit

177

NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied.

Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

178

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method for destroying halocarbon compositions using a critical solvent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for destroying halocarbons. Halocarbon materials are reacted in a dehalogenation process wherein they are combined with a solvent in the presence of a catalyst. A hydrogen-containing solvent is preferred which functions as both a solvating agent and hydrogen donor. To augment the hydrogen donation capacity of the solvent if needed (or when non-hydrogen-containing solvents are used), a supplemental hydrogen donor composition may be employed. In operation, at least one of the temperature and pressure of the solvent is maintained near, at, or above a critical level. For example, the solvent may be in (1) a supercritical state; (2) a state where one of the temperature or pressure thereof is at or above critical; or (3) a state where at least one of the temperature and pressure thereof is near-critical. This system provides numerous benefits including improved reaction rates, efficiency, and versatility.

Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.; Janikowski, Stuart K.

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

182

Southern hemisphere tropospheric aerosol microphysics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol particle size distribution data have been obtained in the southern hemisphere from approximately 4{degree}S to 44{degree}S and between ground level and 6 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 {mu}m was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.

Gras, J.L. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Aspendale (Australia))

1991-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

alternative solvent systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: alternatives for conventional...

184

acetonitrila como solvente: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(CE) was investigated. Nonaqueous solvents used included methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and molten salts. Both indirect, and (more) Salimi-Moosavi,...

185

advanced integrated solvent: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rheology of solvent-responsive complex fluids by integrating microrheology and microfluidics Materials Science Websites Summary: 11927.00 12;In order to optimize the...

186

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

incident radiation are distinguished, and albedos for oceanOceans using multiple satellite datasets in conjunction with MACR (Monte Carlo Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation)ocean temperature is coupled with the rest of the climate system, the dimming of surface radiation

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Adhesives and method for making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermosetting mixture for use as an adhesive, as well as other applications, that is substantially nonmutagenic. This mixture is based upon a thermosetting resin selected from polyurethane and epoxy resins, using an improved curing agent that does not contain mutagenic components. Specifically, the curing agent is a multi-mixture of substituted alkylanilines produced by an improved process. These alkylanilines are formed by condensation of at least two 2,6-dialkylanilines with a formaldehyde in an acid solution. Upon purification, at least three aromatic diamines are formed that are used for the curing agent with the polyurethane and epoxy resisn. Pot life, green strength and ultimate strength are comparable to adhesives of the prior art that contain mutagenic constituents. Although several dianilines are described, the preferred curing agents are formed using 2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) and 2,6-diisopropylaniline (DIPA), where the mole % of DEA and DIPA is 38-48 and 62-52, respectively. Curing agents within the preferred range have been designated as "Asilamine 4852" and "Asilamine 4555".

Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of ngstrm's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winterspring and summerautumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winterspring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-lesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surfaceatmosphere system over polar regions.

Tomasi, C.; Wagener, R.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lupi, A.; Ritter, C.; Smirnov, A.; O Neill, N. T.; Stone, R. S.; Holben, B. N.; Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Stohl, A.; Mazzola, M.; Lanconelli, C.; Vitale, V.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; de Leeuw, G.; Rodriguez, E.; Herber, A. B.; Radionov, V. F.; Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Sakerin, S. M.; Kabanov, D. M.; Xue, Y.; Mei, L.; Istomina, L.; Wagener, R.; McArthur, B.; Sobolewski, P. S.; Kivi, R.; Courcoux, Y.; Larouche, P.; Broccardo, S.; Piketh, S. J.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

Mekala, Malla R.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

192

WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Versatile Surface Tension and Adhesion for SPH Fluids Nadir Akinci  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Versatile Surface Tension and Adhesion for SPH Fluids Nadir Akinci University of Freiburg Gizem as a result of the impact of a water droplet into a filled container. Our surface tension force allows such as surface tension and adhesion emerge as a result of inter-molecular forces in a microscopic scale

Teschner, Matthias

194

Effects of Surface Properties on Adhesion of Protein to Biomaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of implants. The present research evaluates and analyzes the adhesive strength of proteins on pure High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) enhanced HDPE composites, Ti-C:H coating and Ti6Al4V alloys (grade 2). The adhesive...

Feng, Fangzhou

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Carbon nanotubes adhesion and nanomechanical behavior from peeling force spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon nanotubes adhesion and nanomechanical behavior from peeling force spectroscopy Julien December 17, 2010 Abstract Applications based on Single Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) are good example such as adhesion energy per unit length, curvature and bending rigidity of the nanotube. A complete picture

Boyer, Edmond

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol chemical vapor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical and microphysical properties influence aerosol optical properties and radiative effects... distribution of aerosol extensive and intensive properties will aid ......

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative adhesion mechanisms Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the adhesive are shear stresses caused by 12;11 the mechanism where the two... ABSTRACT SMITH, GLEN. Bond Characteristics and Qualifications of Adhesives ... Source: Collection:...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesively bonded aluminum Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 22 ELASTIC-PLASTIC MODE-II FRACTURE OF ADHESIVE JOINTS Summary: unit width) needed to deform an adhesively-bonded...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bi-material pairs) to macroscale surface... measurements of adhesion (from interfacial fracture mechanics). A combination of adhesion ... Source: Petta, Jason - Department of...

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bi-material pairs) to macroscale surface... measurements of adhesion (from interfacial fracture mechanics). A combination of adhesion ... Source: Petta, Jason - Department of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive bond strength Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The lap-shear strengths of adhesively bonded polystyrene (PS), high-density polyethylene (HDPE... 12;strength of the substrate, or the adhesive strength of the bond 9....

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion mechanism implications Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

law of the adhesive in question can be obtained. Polymer joints with different mechanical... methods for modelling the mechanical behaviour of adhesively bonded joints in...

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - astroglial cell adhesion Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mature Rat Hippocampus Summary: astroglial processes and dendritic spines (Spacek and Harris, 1998) contain a variety of cell adhesion... of cell adhesion junctions at synapses...

204

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion molecules shaping Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 97 Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water Summary: ). The hydrophobic adhesive force, fsurfsurf, per surfactant molecule at...

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive lap joints Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

M. Liechti Summary: of adhesively bonded joints at several temperatures in air and salt water. Moti- vated by current trends... ; Adhesively bonded joints; Saltwater exposure;...

206

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive joints exposed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

M. Liechti Summary: of adhesively bonded joints at several temperatures in air and salt water. Moti- vated by current trends... ; Adhesively bonded joints; Saltwater exposure;...

207

AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL SPECIATION MONITOR Yin-Nan Lee1 , Fan Mei1 , Stephanie DeJong1 , Anne Jefferson2 1 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

208

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

209

Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

210

Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models Jianwei Che , Joachim. The unique set of such concentrations that minimize this free energy are given by the usual Boltzmann. The variation of the electrostatic free energy with respect to the location change of solute-solvent interfaces

Li, Bo

211

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman Students #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total1 . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one

212

Upgrading of solvent extracted athabasca bitumen by membrane ultrafiltration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on solvent extraction processes that have been tested extensively for the separation of bitumen from surface-mineable, oil-bearing deposits. The end result of these processes is a solution of bitumen in a hydrocarbon solvent, usually a light naphtha. The bitumen solution contains only minimal amounts of solids and water; but, because of the constraints of the solid- liquid separation and washing steps, the bitumen concentration in the produced solutions can be quite low. Solvent must be separated from these solutions for recycle back to the extraction step of the process. This is usually accomplished by conventional techniques such as distillation, multiple-effect evaporation, or steam stripping. Sometimes a combination of these techniques is required. As a result of the low bitumen content of the solutions, the energy and capital costs associated with solvent recycle can be substantial. The use of membranes for nonaqueous liquid separations is a recent application of this developing technology. Several patents can be found describing processes for the recovery of solvent used in lube oil dewaxing or the regeneration of used automotive oils. A Japanese company has reported the development of several solvent-stable ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of solids from a number of solvents. The use of spiral-wound polysulfone membranes for the recovery of pentane solvent used in heavy oil deasphalting has been described by an American firm.

Sparks, B.D.; Hazlett, J.D.; Kutowy, O.; Tweddle, T.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Montreal Road Campus, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R9 (CA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR PARSONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared a nominal 150 gallon batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) for Parsons. This material was then analyzed and tested for cesium mass transfer efficiency. The bulk of the results indicate that the solvent is qualified as acceptable for use in the upcoming pilot-scale testing at Parsons Technology Center. This report describes the analysis and testing of a batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) prepared in support of pilot-scale testing in the Parsons Technology Center. A total of {approx}150 gallons of NGS solvent was prepared in late November of 2011. Details for the work are contained in a controlled laboratory notebook. Analysis of the Parsons NGS solvent indicates that the material is acceptable for use. SRNL is continuing to improve the analytical method for the guanidine.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

215

DOE research on atmospheric aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

Schwartz, S.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Application of computational fluid dynamics to aerosol sampling and concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An understanding of gas-liquid two-phase interactions, aerosol particle deposition, and heat transfer is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming a powerful tool to predict aerosol behavior for related design work. In this study...

Hu, Shishan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

aerosol particle penetration: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 Lmin to 169.9...

219

Effects of operating conditions on a heat transfer fluid aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of heat transfer fluid aerosols from process leaks. To simulate industrial leaks, aerosol formation from a plain orifice into ambient air is studied by measuring liquid drop sizes and size distributions at various distances from an orifice. Measurements...

Sukmarg, Passaporn

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

ANALYSIS OF SOLVENT RECOVERED FROM WRIGHT INDUSTRIES, INCORPORATED TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to process liquid waste for an interim period. The MCU Project Team conducted testing of the contactors, coalescers, and decanters at Wright Industries, Incorporated (WII) in Nashville, Tennessee. That testing used MCU solvent and simulated SRS dissolved salt. Because of the value of the solvent, the MCU Project wishes to recover it for use in the MCU process in the H-Tank Farm. Following testing, WII recovered approximately 62 gallons of solvent (with entrained aqueous) and shipped it to SRS. The solvent arrived in two stainless steel drums. The MCU Project requested SRNL to analyze the solvent to determine whether it is suitable for use in the MCU Process. SRNL analyzed the solvent for Isopar{reg_sign} L by Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), for Modifier and BOBCalixC6 by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and for Isopar{reg_sign} L-to-Modifier ratio by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. They also measured the solvent density gravimetrically and used that measurement to calculate the Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier concentration. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The constituents of the used WII solvent are collectively low in Isopar{reg_sign} L, most likely due to evaporation. This can be easily corrected through the addition of Isopar{reg_sign} L. (2) Compared to a sample of the WII Partial Solvent (without BOBCalixC6) archived before transfer to WII, the Reworked WII Solvent showed a significant improvement (i.e., nearly doubling) in the dispersion numbers for tests with simulated salt solution and with strip acid. Hence, the presence of the plasticizer impurity has no detrimental impact on phase separation. While there are no previous dispersion tests using the exact same materials, the results seem to indicate that the washing of the solvent gives a dispersion benefit. (3) WII Solvent that underwent a cleaning cycle provides an acceptable set of cesium distribution (i.e., D) values when used in a standard Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test.

Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Stabilization of Large Scale Structure by Adhesive Gravitational Clustering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The interplay between gravitational and dispersive forces in a multi-streamed medium leads to an effect which is exposed in the present note as the genuine driving force of stabilization of large-scale structure. The conception of `adhesive gravitational clustering' is advanced to interlock the fairly well-understood epoch of formation of large-scale structure and the onset of virialization into objects that are dynamically in equilibrium with their large-scale structure environment. The classical `adhesion model' is opposed to a class of more general models traced from the physical origin of adhesion in kinetic theory.

Thomas Buchert

1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

222

Synthesis of controlled release drug device with supercritical CO2 and co-solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these solvents are toxic themselves. Therefore, steps must be taken to either remove residual solvent from the final device or limit their use during synthesis. Ideally, it is desirable to remove the organic solvents from the process entirely. Supercritical...

Bush, Joshua R.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

223

Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

Glen, Crystal

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

224

Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosols Using Nanospray Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (Nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR/MS) is a promising approach for detailed chemical characterization of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) collected in laboratory and field experiments. In Nano-DESI analyte is desorbed into a solvent bridge formed between two capillaries and the analysis surface, which enables fast and efficient characterization of OA collected on substrates without special sample preparation. Stable signals achieved using Nano-DESI make it possible to obtain high-quality HR/MS data using only a small amount of material (<10 ng). Furthermore, Nano-DESI enables efficient detection of chemically labile compounds in OA, which is important for understanding chemical aging phenomena.

Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Thermodynamics of the solvent swelling of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sorption of benzene by the pyridine-extracts of premium Argonne Illinois {number sign}6 coal was studied at several relative vapor pressures at 50{degrees}C and 70{degrees}C. The amount of benzene sorbed by the extract increases linearly or nearly linearly with benzene vapor pressure. The extrapolated lines do not pass through the origin. At low pressures, a dual-mode sorption mechanism is proposed, whereby benzene concurrently fills holes (microvoids) and dissolves into the extract. At higher pressures, we propose that the holes are saturated and that only dissolution is occurring. Dissolution thus increases linearly with pressure of benzene. The heat of dilution, calculated from the change in slope of the curve with temperature, is positive, indicating a endothermic process. This result is in distinct contrast to results obtained previously using pyridine as solvent. The O-methylated extract absorbs considerably more benzene at 50{degrees}C compared to the extract. Again, the sorption curve is linearly, with a slope 1.5 times that of the extract. The increase in slope is consistent with the disruption of hydrogen bonds by O-methylation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Green, T.K.

1991-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

226

Project of Aerosol Optical Depth Change in South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Paraguay Uruguay #12;Statistics of Aerosol M ean D ec 01 to 06 Mean Month AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela

Frank, Thomas D.

227

Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

Robock, Alan

228

Organic and Inorganic Aerosol Below-Cloud Scavenging by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentrations, with an average gravimetric PM1.0 of 8.2 ( 1.6 µg m-3 and an average Fourier transform infrared-rinsing behavior was unaffected by source type. The aerosol OM was hydrophilic throughout the sampling period the description of aerosol lifetimes in global models. Introduction Wet and dry deposition of aerosol particles

Russell, Lynn

229

Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ambient aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climatic changes as well. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the formation of ambient aerosols, which are composed mostly of sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides in either pure or mixed forms. These inorganic salt aerosols are hygroscopic by nature and exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in humid air. For pure inorganic salt particles with diameter larger than 0.1 micron, the phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet occurs only when the relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere reaches a certain critical level corresponding to the water activity of the saturated solution. The droplet size or mass in equilibrium with relative humidity can be calculated in a straightforward manner from thermodynamic considerations. For aqueous droplets 0.1 micron or smaller, the surface curvature effect on vapor pressure becomes important and the Kelvin equation must be used.

Tang, I.N.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

Moffat, Harry K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept biocatalyst enhanced solvent process was developed and demonstrated in an integrated bench-scale system using coal post combustion flue gas. The biocatalyst was deployed as a coating on M500X structured packing. Rate enhancement was evaluated using a non-volatile and non- toxic 20 wt% potassium carbonate solution. Greater than 500-fold volumetric scale-up from laboratory to bench scale was demonstrated in this project. Key technical achievements included: 10-fold mass transfer enhancement demonstrated in laboratory testing relative to blank potassium carbonate at 45C; ~ 7-fold enhancement over blank in bench-scale field testing at National Carbon Capture Center; aerosol emissions were below detection limits (< 0.8 ppm); 90% capture was demonstrated at ~19.5 Nm{sup 3}/hr (dry basis); and ~ 80% CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at ~ 30 Nm{sup 3}/hr (dry basis) for more than 2800-hrs on flue gas with minimal detectible decline in activity. The regeneration energy requirement was 3.5 GJ/t CO{sub 2} for this solvent, which was below the target of <2.1 GJ/t CO{sub 2}. Bench unit testing revealed kinetic limitations in the un-catalyzed stripper at around 85C, but process modeling based on bench unit data showed that equivalent work of less than 300 kWh/t CO{sub 2} including all CO{sub 2} compression can be achieved at lower temperature stripping conditions. Cost analysis showed that 20% potassium carbonate in a basic solvent flow sheet with biocatalyst coated packing has economic performance comparable to the reference NETL Case-12, 30% MEA. A detailed techno-economic analysis indicated that addition of catalyst in the stripper could reduce the cost of capture by ~6% and cost of avoided CO{sub 2} by ~10% below reference NETL Case-12. Based on these results, a directional plan was identified to reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture in future work.

Zaks, Alex; Reardon, John

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Phil Attard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Microscope Phil. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 16, 753­791 (2002).) Running title: Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation Abstract for the friction force microscope, quantitative measurements of friction and the ef- fect of adhesion, measurement

Attard, Phil

234

Acetone as a solvent for extraction of cottonseed oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXTRACTION GP COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis In-Wai Hui June 1950 Approval as to style and content recommended c t Head oi' the Department of Chemical Engineering ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXT "ACTION OF COTTONSEED OIL A... Thesis In-Nai Hui June 1950 ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXTRACTION QF COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas Partis1 Fulfillment of the Recuirements for the Degree of Master of Science...

Hui, In-Wai

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process. 4 figs.

Schweighardt, F.K.

1986-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Folding of a DNA Hairpin Loop Structure in Explicit SolventUsingRepli...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Folding of a DNA Hairpin Loop Structure in Explicit Solvent UsingReplica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Folding of a DNA Hairpin Loop Structure in Explicit Solvent...

239

E-Print Network 3.0 - amide solvent exchange Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

amide solvent exchange Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: amide solvent exchange Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 J. Am. Chem....

240

adhesive protein coatings: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings Materials Science Websites Summary: to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thin films Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons Dipanjan Sen, Kostya S. Novoselov, Pedro M. Reis, and Markus J. Buehler* Graphene is a truly two- film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical properties of graphene

Entekhabi, Dara

242

Controllable adhesion using field-activated fluids Randy H. Ewoldt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controllable adhesion using field-activated fluids Randy H. Ewoldt Institute for Mathematics and its Applications & The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, UniversityKinley, and A. E. Hosoi Hatsopoulos Microfluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts

243

Determining graphene adhesion via substrate-regulated morphology of graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determining graphene adhesion via substrate-regulated morphology of graphene Zhao Zhang and Teng Li Institute of Physics. Related Articles Identification of graphene crystallographic orientation by atomic two-dimensional, epitaxially-grown, nanostructured graphene for study of single molecule

Li, Teng

244

Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

245

A new technique for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the need for nondestructive characterization (NDE) of adhesive layers within a joint. In aerospace adhesives, (typically thermoset resins), determination of wavespeed, and thus modulus, will indicate if resins have been properly cured. Without proper... and will affect bond strength. Therefore, there is a need for techniques for in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of these two parameters. Although ultrasonic NDE (UNDE) techniques appear to be the most promising techniques for determining the properties...

Hanneman, Susan Elisabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

246

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

248

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

249

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterization of the chemical composition and chemical transformations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is both a major challenge and the area of greatest uncertainty in current aerosol research. This study presents the first application of desorption electrospray ionization combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for detailed chemical characterization and studies of chemical aging of OA collected on Teflon substrates. DESI-MS offers unique advantages both for detailed characterization of chemically labile components in OA that cannot be detected using more traditional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and for studying chemical aging of OA. DESI-MS enables rapid characterization of OA samples collected on substrates by eliminating the sample preparation stage. In addition, it enables detection and structural characterization of chemically labile molecules in OA samples by minimizing the residence time of analyte in the solvent. SOA produced by the ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA) was allowed to react with gaseous ammonia. Chemical aging resulted in measurable changes in the optical properties of LSOA observed using UV- visible spectroscopy. DESI-MS combined with tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS/MS) enabled identification of species in aged LSOA responsible for absorption of the visible light. Detailed analysis of the experimental data allowed us to identify chemical changes induced by reactions of LSOA constituents with ammonia and distinguish between different mechanisms of chemical aging.

Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Roach, Patrick J.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Bones, David L.; Nguyen, Lucas

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Aerosol Science and Technology, 41:202216, 2007 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes, such as con- densation, coagulation, gas-to-particle conversion (Reid et al. 1998), and particle Aerosol size distribution is, along with particle refractive in- dex and shape, one of important

252

Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

Kroll, Jesse

253

Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

254

The behavior and separation of polystyrene in mixed solvent systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-polar phase selective solubility of modified poly(4-n-alkylstyrene) supports can be measured using fluorescent dyes as catalyst surrogates with thermomorphic and latent biphasic systems. By modifying the solvent compositions in heptane...

Hamilton, Patrick Neal

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Computer-aided rational solvent selection for pharmaceutical crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvents play an important role in crystallization, a commonly used separation and purification technique in the pharmaceutical, chemical and food industries. They affect crystal properties such as particle size distribution, ...

Chen, Jie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

TRL Acid and Solvent Wet Processing Rules and Guidelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: General rules and guidelines for wet chemical processing in TRL. Author: KFlo hood and when transporting or handling chemicals. An acid-proof apron, sleeveTRL Acid and Solvent Wet Processing Rules and Guidelines Purpose

Reif, Rafael

257

Heats of dissolution of tar sand bitumen in various solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissolution of tar sand bitumen from a tar sand matrix was examined using three solvents: (1) dichloromethane, a polar-polarizable solvent; (2) toluene, a nonpolar-polarizable solvent; and (3) hexane, a nonpolar-nonpolarizable solvent. The dichloromethane had the highest dissolution energy, followed by toluene, with hexane having the lowest dissolution energy. These data were combined with heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and heat of wetting of spent sand to calculate the bonding energy between bitumen and the mineral matrix. The interfacial bonding energy between tar sand bitumen and the mineral matrix was found to be in the region of 0 to 0.09 cal/g of bitumen, which is very small. This conclusion may find application in recovery of energy or bitumen from bitumen-wet tar sand deposits. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Improved mass transport efficiency in copper solvent extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis considers methods which can be employed to increase the mass of copper transferred into and out of the organic phase during the load and strip stages of commercial solvent extraction processes. Conventional ...

Gordon, Ross John

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

259

aqueous organic solvents: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Excel 15 16... Choi, Jihyun 2000-01-01 2 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

260

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Universal iso-density polarizable continuum model for molecular solvents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implicit electron-density solvation models based on joint density-functional theory offer a computationally efficient solution to the problem of calculating thermodynamic quantities of solvated systems from first-principles quantum mechanics. However, despite much recent interest in such models, to date the applicability of such models to non-aqueous solvents has been limited because the determination of the model parameters requires fitting to a large database of experimental solvation energies for each new solvent considered. This work presents an alternate approach which allows development of new solvation models for a large class of protic and aprotic solvents from only simple, single-molecule ab initio calculations and readily available bulk thermodynamic data. We find that this model is accurate to nearly 1.7 kcal/mol even for solvents outside our development set.

Gunceler, Deniz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICAS-ProCAMD, and consequence models were integrated into Aspen Plus simulator using a calculator sheet. Upon integrating flammable and toxic hazard modeling, solvents such as 5-nonanone, 2-nonanone and 5-methyl-2-hexanone provide inherently safer...

Patel, Suhani Jitendra

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

263

Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

264

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pentecost, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

Hohaus, T.

268

Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments that have phased out the use of ozone depleting solvents (ODS) have given the precision cleaning industry a challenge that they must respond to if they are to continuously and economically improve quality of service. The phase out of the ozone depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as their ODS counterparts in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. The prototype workcell under development uses a robot that sprays Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and terpene at pressures ranging to 600 psi in a glovebox environment. Key to the projects success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned. Also key to the success of this prototype development is FM approval of the process and associated hardware which translates directly into operator and facilities safety.

McKee, R.; Meirans, L.; Watterberg, P.; Drotning, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Chemical phenomena in solid-state voltammetry in polymer solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper, aimed at delineating significant chemical effects in solid-state voltammetry, describes electrochemical oxidations and reductions of electroactive monomer solutes dissolved in and diffusing through rigid and semirigid polymer electrolyte solvents. Sorption of organic monomer vapors into poly(ethylene oxide) films yields polymer solvents whose chemistry is dominated by that of the sorbed monomer as shown by coordination and precipitation effects. The dynamics of plasticization-induced changes in transport rates are quite rapid. Physical diffusion in the polymer solvent in slow enough that electron hopping reactions measurably enhance charge transport rates; the effect was used to estimate a lower limit for the (Co(bpy)/sub 3/)/sup 2+/+/ self-exchange rate constant of 2 /times/ 10/sup 9/ M/sup /minus/1/ s/sup /minus/1/. It is possible to erect polymeric film transport barriers at the electrode/polymer solvent interface and to measure the rate of permeation of monomer complexes from the polymer solvent into the polymer transport barrier film. Polymeric films of Os and Ru polypyridine complexes can be electropolymerized from polymer solutions of the corresponding monomers. Solid-state voltammetry can be extended to other polymer solvents including sulfonated polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), Nafion, and poly(acrylamide) gel.

Geng, L.; Reed, R.A.; Kim, M.H.; Wooster, T.T.; Oliver, B.N.; Egekeze, J.; Kennedy, R.T.; Jorgenson, J.W.; Parcher, J.F.; Murray, R.W.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

CMPO purity tests in the TRUEX solvent using americium-241  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) Process was developed by E.P. Horwitz and coworkers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to separate the +4, +6, and +3 actinides from acidic aqueous solutions of nuclear wastes. Octyl (phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) is the active actinide complexant used in the TRUEX solvent. CMPO is combined with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in an organic diluent, typically n-dodecane, to form the TRUEX solvent. Small quantities of impurities in the CMPO resulting from: (1) synthesis, (2) acid hydrolysis, or (3) radiolysis can result in actinide stripping problems from the solvent. The impurity, octylphenylphosphinic acid (POPPA), ia a powerful extractant at low acid concentrations which may be formed during CMPO synthesis. Consequently, commercial CMPO may contain sufficient quantities of POPPA to significantly impact the stripping of actinides from the TRUEX solvent. The purpose of these tests was to (1) determine if commercially available CMPO is sufficiently pure to alleviate actinide stripping problems from the TRUEX process and (2) to determine if solvent cleanup methods are sufficient to purify the commercially purchased CMPO. Extraction and solvent cleanup methodologies used by Horwitz and coworkers at ANL were used to determine CMPO purity with {sup 241}Am. The improvement of the americium distribution coefficient in dilute nitric acid resulting from further purifying this CMPO is not significant enough to warrant additional CMPO purifying steps. The commercially purchased CMPO is found to be acceptable to use, as received, in a full-scale TRUEX process.

Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Uncertainties and Frontiers in Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Transport Power Industry Biomass burning Residential Human activity Perspective Aerosol Sources (rather than, Mixing, Chemistry, Climate) Climate Effects Resource: AeroCom, an international model intercomparison of fossil fuel (coal, oil, diesel, gasoline), domestic wood burning, forest fires #12;Natural sources

273

Aerosol Spray Synthesis of Porous Molybdenum Sulfide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and colloidal silica, SiO2, was ultrasonically nebulized using a household humidifier; the resulting aerosol in materials science because of their ability to be scaled-up for industrial applications.[2] USP solution, as indicated by Eq. 2. Typically, micron-sized particles are obtained; however, by adding

Suslick, Kenneth S.

274

3, 59195976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 3, 5919­5976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol field over Europe M. Schaap et al. Title Page Abstract of Utrecht, Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Science, PO Box 80005, 3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands 2, The Netherlands 3 Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands 4 Joint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are different than the collection of particles from water Filtration has high efficiency for all sizes Size Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Human health Carbonaceous aerosol implicated as important for toxicity and adverse of particulate matter Again, agreement between these two approaches would give a high level of confidence

Einat, Aharonov

276

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Analysis and testing of adhesively bonded lap joints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed studies of adhesively bonded tubular lap joints subjected to axial loads can be efficiently performed with two-dimensional (2D) finite element analyses. However, three-dimensional (3D) analyses are required to model the bending of tubes and the axial loading of many other shapes such as airfoils. Unfortunately, these 3D analyses require significantly more time and computer resources than 2D analyses. Thus, it is of interest to determine whether some aspects of 3D behavior can be captured with 2D analyses. A series of finite element analyses will show that the shear stress in the adhesive of a tubular or an elliptic lap joint -- due to a bending load -- can be reasonably estimated with a 2D analysis even though the behavior is 3D. After the agreement between 2D and 3D analyses is detailed, preliminary efforts to assess the importance of adhesive geometry at the end of the bond will be discussed. Experimental measurements of the mechanical properties of a structural adhesive used in joint tests will also be presented. Tension, compression, and stress relaxation data for a filled, amine-cured epoxy adhesive will be discussed.

Metzinger, K.E.; Guess, T.R.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of removing a nonpolar solvent from a fluid volume that includes at least one nonpolar compound, such as a fat, an oil or a triglyceride, is provided. The method comprises contacting a fluid volume with an expanding gas to expand the nonpolar solvent and form a gas-expanded solvent. The gas-expanded solvent may have a substantially reduced density in comparison to the at least one nonpolar compound and/or a substantially reduced capacity to solubilize the nonpolar compound, causing the nonpolar compounds to separate from the gas-expanded nonpolar solvent into a separate liquid phase. The liquid phase including the at least one nonpolar compound may be separated from the gas-expanded solvent using conventional techniques. After separation of the liquid phase, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the nonpolar solvent from the expanding gas such that the nonpolar solvent may be recovered and reused.

Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

280

SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR URANIUM MOLYBDENUM ALLOY DISSOLUTION FLOWSHEET  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

H-Canyon Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform two solvent extraction experiments using dissolved Super Kukla (SK) material. The SK material is an uranium (U)-molybdenum (Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight with 20% 235U enrichment. The first series of solvent extraction tests involved a series of batch distribution coefficient measurements with 7.5 vol % tributylphosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin for extraction from 4-5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), using 4 M HNO{sub 3}-0.02 M ferrous sulfamate (Fe(SO3NH2)2) scrub, 0.01 M HNO3 strip steps with particular emphasis on the distribution of U and Mo in each step. The second set of solvent extraction tests determined whether the 2.5 wt % sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solvent wash change frequency would need to be modified for the processing of the SK material. The batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed using dissolved SK material diluted to 20 g/L (U + Mo) in 4 M HNO{sub 3} and 5 M HNO{sub 3}. In these experiments, U had a distribution coefficient greater than 2.5 while at least 99% of the nickel (Ni) and greater than 99.9% of the Mo remained in the aqueous phase. After extraction, scrub, and strip steps, the aqueous U product from the strip contains nominally 7.48 {micro}g Mo/g U, significantly less than the maximum allowable limit of 800 {micro}g Mo/g U. Solvent washing experiments were performed to expose a 2.5 wt % Na2CO3 solvent wash solution to the equivalent of 37 solvent wash cycles. The low Mo batch distribution coefficient in this solvent extraction system yields only 0.001-0.005 g/L Mo extracted to the organic. During the solvent washing experiments, the Mo appears to wash from the organic.

Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R

2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Determination of the relationship between permeation rates and solubility parameter differences for selected protective glove/solvent and boot/solvent combinations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERMEATION RATES AND SOLUBILITY PARAMETER DIFFERENCES FOR SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE/SOLVENT AND BOOT/SOLVENT COMBINATIONS A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH JANICIK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A... PROTECTIVE GLOVE/SOLVENT AND BOOT/SOLVENT COMBINATIONS A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH JANICIK Approved as to style and content by: H . Sug (Chai a of Com ttee) Charles L. Gilmore (Member) Leon H. Russell (Member) ewton . is (Head of Department) August...

Janicik, Thomas Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earths surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

Kravitz, Benjamin S.

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

283

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

284

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

285

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols" (Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D14109

Robock, Alan

286

Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

possible pollutant sources. Keywords Atmospheric aerosols . Canonical correlation analysis . Chicago air pollution studies involve collection and anal- ysis of atmospheric aerosols and concurrent meteorol- ogy) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations

O'Brien, Timothy E.

287

Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity.

Pertsin, Alexander, E-mail: ig3@ix.urz.uni-heidelberg.de [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universitt Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany) [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universitt Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Organo-Element Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str. 28, 117991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Grunze, Michael [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universitt Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany) [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universitt Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von- Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

288

Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

Alexandrov, Mikhail

289

Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Development of novel contactor for nuclear solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For current designs of radiochemical plants, solvent-extraction contactors with no periodic maintenance like pulse column are the first choice. In addition, as costs of specialty solvents for nuclear extraction are quite high, there is a demand for operation at extreme phase ratios. Recently a novel mixer-settler was visualized and developed for this kind of service. The mixer of the novel contactor is based on rotated helical tubes and does not involve any mechanical moving part. Mass-transfer runs were carried out with aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP solvent at A/O of 0.25-200 (in extraction) and A/O of 0.25-10 (in back-extraction mode). The developed contactor exhibited nearly 100% efficiency for all the cases. (authors)

Kumar, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajnish; Sivakumar, D.; Balamurugan, M.; Koganti, S.B. [Reprocessing R and D Division, Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethaneProductsCSSEFProductsMerged andAerosol Optical

292

Aerosol Working Group Contributions Accomplishments for 2006  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation 2011 Simulation StudiesAerosol

293

Quantitative adhesion data for electroless nickel deposited on various substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper includes a review of the literature on quantitative adhesion of electroless nickel coatings and then presents recent ring shear quantitative data for the electroless nickel deposited on a variety of substrates. Procedures for obtaining good adhesion between electroless nickel coatings and a variety of aluminum alloys (1100, 2024, 5083, 6061 and 7075), beryllium-copper, 4340 steel, HP 9-4-20 steel, and U-0.75 Ti are outlined. In addition, data are presented on a procedure for activating electroless nickel for subsequent coating with electrodeposited nickel. 6 tables.

Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

Quantitative adhesion data for electroless nickel deposited on various substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of the literature on quantitative adhesion of electroless nickel coatings is given and recent ring shear quantitative data for the electroless nickel deposited on a variety of substrates are presented. Procedures for obtaining good adhesion between electroless nickel coatings and a variety of aluminum alloys (1100, 2024, 5083, 6061 and 7075), beryllium-copper, 4340 steel and HP 9-4-20 steel are outlined. In addition, data are presented on a procedure for activating electroless nickel for subsequent coating with electrodeposited nickel.

Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.

SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

aerosol characteristic researching: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as they have significant impacts both on localregional air pollution and global climate. Recent for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry, Aerodyne Research, Incorporated, Billerica,...

297

aerosol challenge model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

climate change is important because of its strong capability in causing extinction of solar radiation. A three-dimensional interactive aerosol-climate model has been used to...

298

Iron Speciation and Mixing in Single Aerosol Particles from the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iron from atmospheric aerosol is an essential nutrient that can control oceanic productivity, thereby impacting the global carbon budget and climate. Particles collected on...

299

aircraft exhaust aerosol: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Window Location on a King Air 200 Aircraft:aerosol.atmos.und.edu) Objective A Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200 aircraft has been used to obtain Condensation Particle...

300

aerosol mass spectrometry: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

analysis of aerosol organic nitrates with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry MIT - DSpace Summary: Four hydroxynitrates (R(OH)R'ONO2) representative of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

aerosol assisted chemical: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

302

ambient fine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water:...

303

aerosol chemical characteristion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

304

aerosol characterization experiment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 8 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

305

aerosol generation characterization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

306

aerosol monitor development: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Paris May 2003John Matthews Monitoring the Aerosol Phase Function University of New Mexico 12;AstroParticles & Atmosphere, Paris May 2003John Matthews 12;AstroParticles &...

307

aerosol particle charger: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction The Universal Serial Bus (USB) port Allen, Jont 9 New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry...

308

aerosol mass spectrometer: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2004. The concentration of a species Zhang, Qi 8 Development of a thermal desorption chemical ionization mobility mass spectrometer for the speciation of ultrafine aerosols. Open...

309

aerosol particles generated: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Real-...

310

aerosol monitors including: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical ... Ridley, David Andrew 33...

311

aerosol retrieval validation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

off the coast of Chile and Peru, where aerosol-cloud interactions are important to the energy balance (15), and limitations in current observing and modeling capabilities...

312

aerosol detection equipment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Daniel, Rosenfeld 464 Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites...

313

Aerosol generation and entrainment model for cough simulations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The airborne transmission of diseases is of great concern to the public health community. The possible spread of infectious disease by aerosols is of particular (more)

Ersahin, Cem.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

315

Aerosols, Clouds, and Climate Change Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel combustion. Briefly the options are mitigation work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous

Schwartz, Stephen E.

316

Influence of Combustion Conditions on Yields of Solvent-Extractable Anhydrosugars and Lignin Phenols in Chars: Implications for Characterizations of Biomass Combustion Residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan, galactosan), as well as the solvent-extractable lignin phenols (methoxylated phenols) are thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulos and lignin, respectively. These two groups of biomarkers are often used as unique tracers of combusted biomass inputs in diverse environmental media. However, detail characterization of the relative proportion and signatures of these compounds in highly heterogeneous plant-derived chars/charcoals are still scarce. Here we conducted a systematic study to investigate the yields of solvent-extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols in twenty-five lab-made chars produced from different plant materials under different combustion conditions. Solvent extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols were only observed in chars formed below 350 C and yields were variable across different combustion temperatures. The yields mannosan (M) and galactosan (G) decreased more rapidly than those of levoglucosan (L) under increasing combustion severity (temp. and duration), resulting in variable L/M and L/(M+G) ratios, two diagnostic ratios often used for identification of combustion sources (e.g. hardwoods vs. softwoods vs. grasses). On the other hand, the results of this study suggest that the ratios of the major solvent-extractable lignin phenols (vanillyls (V), syringyls (S), cinnamyls (C)) provide additional source reconstruction potential despite observed variations with combustion temperature. We thus propose using a property property plot (L/M vs. S/V) as an improved means for source characterization of biomass combustion residues. The L/M-S/V plot has shown to be effective in environmental samples (soil organic matter, atmospheric aerosols) receiving substantial inputs of biomass combustion residues.

Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

Worsnop, Douglas R.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solvent dehydration system cuts energy use, improves dewaxed oil yield  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent development can be applied in solvent dewaxing plants to reduce energy requirements, simplify operations, reduce maintenance, improve oil yields, and offer capacity gains. Known as the Nofsinger Solvent Dehydration System, this development is being successfully utilized by Ashland Oil Inc. in its Catlettsburg, Ky., refinery to achieve several of these goals. A net savings of approximately $490,000/year was calculated at design throughput. This yields a return on investment of approximately 20% without consideration of any yield effects. Improvements in yield were not included because simultaneous design changes in the unit did not permit Ashland to quantify any yield savings that may have occurred.

Scalise, J.M.; Button, H.O.; Graves, D.C.

1984-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

A new model for solvent extraction in columns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new model was developed for analyzing solvent extraction processes carried out in columns. Each column is treated as a series of well-defined equilibrium stages where the backmixing (other-phase carryover) between stages can be large. By including all mass transfer effects in the backmixing value, the same number of stages can be used for all extracted components no matter what their distribution coefficients. This greatly simplifies the calculations required when modeling multicomponent solvent extraction processes. Initial testing shows the new model to be better than either the Height of an Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) or the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) method.

Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1989-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - administrado como aerosol Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

del ozono estratosfrico, los aerosoles atmosfricos y... a los cambios en las emisiones que los GEI de larga duracin, como el CO2. Los aerosoles antropgenos... ms...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol robotic network Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

), AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens... Period examining aerosol properties and radiative ... Source: Brookhaven...

322

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol condensation model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Science Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 8 DETERMINING AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING AT ARM SITES Summary: OF AEROSOL DIRECT FORCING By linear model and by...

323

SciTech Connect: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code validation - Test AB5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code...

324

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosolized polymerized type Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spheric aerosol particles and isolated from fog... in atmospheric aerosol particles and rainwater in the 1980's (Si- moneit, 1980; Likens and ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

325

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol radiative forcing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

No. DE- Summary: : WHY MEASUREMENTS ALONE CANNOT QUANTIFY AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz... of radiative forcing of climate change by aerosols,...

326

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosols nanometriques application Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is studying how aerosol particles affect everything from Summary: of aerosol particles on climate change, public health, and renewable energy applications. In particular, he......

327

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol main physical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND INTEGRAL AEROSOL PROPERTIES RETRIEVAL FROM RAMAN LIDAR DATA USING PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS Summary: retrievals of physical aerosol parameters from ground-based and...

328

Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in the Trade Wind Boundary Layer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation includes an overview of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation properties associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed during the Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment (BACEX, (more)

Jung, Eunsil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol light absorption Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND Summary: population centers were used to calculate the aerosol forcing due to light scattering and absorption. Directly... , NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Aerosols influence...

330

Large Aerosols Play Unexpected Role in Ganges Valley | U.S. DOE...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

The data have revealed that large aerosols in this region absorb a greater amount of light than expected. The Science Aerosol particles in the atmosphere may absorb solar...

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol atmospheric interactions Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Climate Summary: order estimates of aerosol-climate interaction But... only Earth System Models can include all... of the interactions (in theory at least) 12;Aerosols <>...

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol size Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for about ten percent of all aerosols in the atmosphere. We... , can actually absorb solar energy and warm the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols are very important... by...

333

aerosol source-receptor relationships: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol particle size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of aerosol over many orders-of-magnitude of particle size range, from subcritical clusters on the molecular... to modeling aerosol dynamics under conditions of new...

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol load study Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions... reserved. Keywords: India; Aerosol loading; Aerosol forcing; MODIS; TOMS; Remote sensing 1. Introduction... heating effect on the earth surface and in turn...

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis od aerosol Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tivanski, Rebecca Hopkins, Yury Desyaterik... of Aerosols 12;Aerosol Transport From Mexico City During MILAGRO T0 T1 T2 Mexico ... Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory,...

337

Adhesion improvement of electroless copper depositions on titanium nitride by low temperature annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

copper depositions onto titanium nitride, a diffusion barrier material. In particular, an effort is made to characterize the adhesion of the electronics copper deposit on titanium nitride and the improvement of the adhesion produced by low temperature...

Eiserer, Rex Anthony

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesively bonded lap Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The lap-shear strengths of adhesively bonded polystyrene (PS), high-density polyethylene (HDPE... bonded in a lap-shear geometry. The bonded area of adhesion was nominally...

339

Targeting of nanoparticles to cell adhesion molecules for potential immune therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cell adhesion molecules including leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses. For circulating leukocytes to ...

Chittasupho, Chuda

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Adhesive activity of Lu glycoproteins is regulated by interaction with spectrin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for polycythemia vera and sickle cell disease. REFERENCES 1.CC, Orringer EP, Parise LV. Sickle cell adhesion to laminin:The receptor critical for sickle cell adhesion to laminin. J

An, Xiuli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive composite joints Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Apr... of Structural Adhesive Joints July 1994 M.A.Sc. D. Plausinis Time-Dependent Fracture of Adhesive Joints Aug... . 1994 Ph.D. G. Fernlund Design of Structural ... Source:...

342

Rate Effects for Mixed-Mode Fracture of Plastically Deforming, Adhesively-Bonded Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a commercial adhesive and a dual-phase steel has been studied under different rates. Since mixed- mode fracture occurs along the interface between the steel and adhesive, the cohesive- parameters

Thouless, Michael

343

Rational enhancement of enzyme performance in organic solvents. Final technical report, 1992--1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on the following: the dependence of enzymatic activity of several model hydrolases in nonaqueous solvents; control of substrate selectivity of the protease subtilisin Carlsberg by the solvent; control of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of this enzyme in organic solvents by immobilization support; lipase-catalyzed acylation of sugars in anhydrous hydrophobic media; the possibility of accelerating enzymatic processes in organic solvents by certain cosolvents; whether lipase catalysis in organic solvents can be enhanced by introducing interfaces in the in the reaction medium; the structure of proteins suspended in organic solvents; improving enzymatic enantioselectivity in organic solvents; analyzing the plunge in enzymatic activity upon replacing water with organic solvents; and the structural basis for the phenomenon of molecular memory of imprinted proteins in organic solvents.

Klibanov, A.M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : II. Atomic and Cluster Scale Models.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the interaction of aerosol particle clusters/flocs with surfaces is an area of interest for a number of processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, and powder manufacturing as well as in steam-tube rupture in nuclear power plants. Developing predictive capabilities for these applications involves coupled phenomena on multiple length and timescales from the process macroscopic scale ({approx}1m) to the multi-cluster interaction scale (1mm-0.1m) to the single cluster scale ({approx}1000 - 10000 particles) to the particle scale (10nm-10{micro}m) interactions, and on down to the sub-particle, atomic scale interactions. The focus of this report is on the single cluster scale; although work directed toward developing better models of particle-particle interactions by considering sub-particle scale interactions and phenomena is also described. In particular, results of mesoscale (i.e., particle to single cluster scale) discrete element method (DEM) simulations for aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls are presented. The particle-particle interaction model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular package in the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Additionally, as mentioned, results from atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations are also described as a means of developing higher fidelity models of particle-particle interactions. Ultimately, the results from these and other studies at various scales must be collated to provide systems level models with accurate 'sub-grid' information for design, analysis and control of the underlying systems processes.

Lechman, Jeremy B.; Takato, Yoichi (State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion molecule stabilization Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Biology and Medicine ; Biotechnology 16 Relating Organic Fouling of Reverse Osmosis Membranes to Summary: , thus lessening intermolecular adhesion among...

346

Contact Mechanics Modeling of Homogeneous and Layered Elastic-Plastic Media: Surface Roughness and Adhesion Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. ASME J. Tribol.microtribology for microelectromechanical systems. Wear 200,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,

Song, Zhichao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex real-world aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

348

Adhesion of benzocyclobutene-passivated silicon in epoxy layered structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

different epoxy underfill resins. The effects of environmental variables were studied with temperature. The underfill is typically an epoxy resin with thermal expansion and elas- tic properties tailoredAdhesion of benzocyclobutene-passivated silicon in epoxy layered structures Robert J. Hohlfelder

Hutchinson, John W.

349

ADHESION IMPROVEMENT OF CARBON FIBRES BY PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matrices for enhancing longitudinal tensile strength of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites of polymer composite materials due to their high strength, high toughness and light weight. An epoxy resinADHESION IMPROVEMENT OF CARBON FIBRES BY PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION Y. Kusanoa* , T.L. Andersenb

350

Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualities for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}--COOH which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces. 8 figs.

King, D.E.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kennedy, C.E.

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualifies for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH.sub.2).sub.11 --COOH Which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces.

King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying D. Alfe`1,2 , M. Pozzo1 , E. Miniussi3 route for governing the interaction between graphene and metal through the selective choice characterization of the properties of graphene on a model PtRu surface alloy on Ru(0001), with a concentration

Alfè, Dario

353

Myosin II-Mediated Focal Adhesion Maturation Is Tension Insensitive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Myosin II-Mediated Focal Adhesion Maturation Is Tension Insensitive Jonathan Stricker1,2 , Yvonne and stability in a force- insensitive fashion. Citation: Stricker J, Beckham Y, Davidson MW, Gardel ML (2013 Received April 10, 2013; Accepted June 20, 2013; Published July 29, 2013 Copyright: ? 2013 Stricker et al

Gardel, Margaret

354

Adhesion and Thin-Film Module Reliability: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the infrequently measured but essential properties for thin-film (T-F) module reliability are the interlayer adhesion and cohesion within a layer. These can be cell contact layers to glass, contact layers to the semiconductor, encapsulant to cell, glass, or backsheet, etc. We use an Instron mechanical testing unit to measure peel strengths at 90{sup o} or 180{sup o} and, in some cases, a scratch and tape pull test to evaluate inter-cell layer adhesion strengths. We present peel strength data for test specimens laminated from the three T-F technologies, before and after damp heat, and in one instance at elevated temperatures. On laminated T-F cell samples, failure can occur uniformly at any one of the many interfaces, or non-uniformly across the peel area at more than one interface. Some peel strengths are << 1 N/mm. This is far below the normal Instron mechanical testing unit Instron mechanical testing unit; glass interface values of >10 N/mm. We measure a wide range of adhesion strengths and suggest that adhesion measured under higher temperature and relative humidity conditions is more relevant for module reliability.

McMahon, T. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Stoichiometry and Adhesion of Al/WC Donald J. Siegel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

involving non-oxide ceramics[4]. Within this class, the transition metal carbides are a particularly notable on Al/WC. This system serves as as a convenient model of simple-metal/transition metal carbide adhesion both W- and C-terminations of the carbide. Based on the surface and interfacial free energies, we find

Adams, James B

356

adhesive dynamics part: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adhesive dynamics part First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Live-cell photoactivated...

357

adhesive dynamics simulation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adhesive dynamics simulation First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A composite time...

358

adhesion dynamics determines: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adhesion dynamics determines First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Coupling of cytoplasm and...

359

adhesion site dynamics: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adhesion site dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Biophys J . Author manuscript...

360

Model coupling friction and adhesion for steel-concrete interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model coupling friction and adhesion for steel- concrete interfaces Michel Raous Laboratoire de: In this paper the interface behaviour between steel and concrete, during pull out tests, is numerically a variable friction coefficient in order to simulate the behaviour of the steel-concrete interface during

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Adhesion energy in carbon nanotube-polyethylene composite: Effect of chirality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adhesion energy in carbon nanotube-polyethylene composite: Effect of chirality M. Al-Haik and M. Y 2005 This work presents a study of the adhesion energy between carbon nanotube-polyethylene matrix adhesion bonds to the polyethylene matrix. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1868060 I

Garmestani, Hamid

362

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction Elena Bonetti) adhesion and of the friction are taken into account. We describe the adhesion phenomenon in terms conditions, and friction by a nonlocal Coulomb law. All the constraints on the internal variables as well

Rossi, Riccarda

363

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction Elena Bonetti) adhesion and of the friction are taken into account. We describe the adhesion phenomenon in terms conditions and the friction by a nonlocal Coulomb law. All the constraints on the internal variables as well

Rossi, Riccarda

364

ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN LINERLESS SELF-ADHESIVE COIL STAMPS: R&D AND RECYCLING STUDIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN LINERLESS SELF-ADHESIVE COIL STAMPS: R&D AND RECYCLING STUDIES Kim K been easy and quick to use, and have offered consistent adhesion. For recyclers, however, these adhesive stamps have caused concern for their paper recycling processes. In addition, there is the issue

Abubakr, Said

365

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths Reaches essentially the same temperature as dry ice/acetone (-77°C vs. -78°C), but the lower volatility of isopropanol minimizes vapor a closed-loop cooling system for condensers Closed-loop cooling systems eliminate wastewater and accidental

Chan, Hue Sun

366

Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents Rahoma S. Mohamed* and Anto. The results indicated possible asphaltene aggregation as well as the probable existence of critical micelle fraction. Average molecular areas for asphaltenes adsorbed at different interfaces estimated from surface

Loh, Watson

367

NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and with the exception of CPVC, no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied. The testing shows no major concerns for compatibility over the short duration of these tests but does indicate that longer duration exposure studies are warranted, especially for Tefzel. However, the physical changes experienced by Tefzel in the improved solvent were comparable to the physical changes obtained when Tefzel is placed in CSSX baseline solvent. Therefore, there is no effect of the improved solvent beyond those observed in CSSX baseline solvent.

Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

368

Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) of the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) is typically between 0.06 and 0.15, while the RMSE between t = 0.1 and t = 0.8. The Department of Energy research satellite instrument, the Multispectral aerosol radiative forcing are known, the predictions of future global warming may remain unacceptably high

369

Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties from Long-term  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%) controlled measurements: sp ­ Aerosol total light scattering coefficient at 450, 550, and 700 nm wavelengths automated generation and review of quality control plots · Weekly editing of data by station scientist]. Indirect Forcing Direct Forcing Carbon Dioxide Forcing Total Forcing Importance of Aerosols #12;Direct

Delene, David J.

370

Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice Toby Svoboda1,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice Toby Svoboda1,* , Klaus Keller2 , Marlos of geoengineering as a means to address global climate change. This paper focuses on the question of whether a particular form of geoengineering, namely deploying sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere to counteract some

371

An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols BY PHILIP J, MD 21218, USA We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation

Robock, Alan

372

aerosol ratio test: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosol ratio test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effect of mineral dust aerosol...

373

Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Nicole ONeill - ATOC 3500 and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. · The lightest chemicals in the oil evaporated within hours, as scientists expected them to do. What they didn't expect

Toohey, Darin W.

374

Spatial and Seasonal Trends in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and Seasonal Trends in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Tracers and Water-Soluble Organic biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC natural and anthropogenic sources and is dominated by terrestrial plant foliage (7). The global

Zheng, Mei

375

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

Napp, Nils

376

Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-47669 Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain Walker of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey A. Siegel Iain S. Walker, Ph.D. ASHRAE Student Member that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems of 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters

377

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in northcentral Oklahoma: 19922008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aerosol models; for identification of aerosols from spe- cific events (e.g., the Central American fires Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most dimming; that is, the decrease in solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Additionally, the wavelength

378

Absorption cross-section 139 Accumulation mode, of aerosol 146  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

133, 151 residence times 153 size distributions 144 Air composition 2 molecular weight 4, 6 Albedo 122 dioxide Coagulation (aerosol) 146 Column model 32 Conditional unstability 56 Continuity equation 75261 INDEX A Absorption cross-section 139 Accumulation mode, of aerosol 146 Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO

Jacob, Daniel J.

379

Laboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Complex Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.5 Coagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4 Sea Salt AerosolsLaboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index Thesis submitted for the degree

Oxford, University of

380

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets

Collins, Gary S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Adhesion in bitumen-aggregate systems and quantification of the effect of water on the adhesive bond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research is intended to contribute toward the understanding, development, and implementation of a more fundamental design process for bituminous pavement materials, utilizing thermodynamic properties of the materials involved.... The theory developed by van Oss, Chaudhury and Good forms the basis of this research. Optimization of techniques to characterize surface energy, as well as consideration and evaluation of additional factors that influence adhesion...

Hefer, Arno Wilhelm

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

382

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline Gallium Oxide Thin Films.AdministrationAerosol Indirect

384

Aerosol Remote Sealing System - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation 2011 Simulation StudiesAerosol Remote Sealing

385

Simultaneous sweetening and dehydration of natural gas using a mixed solvent solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mixed solvent solutions of Solvent X in TEG at various concentrations were developed to simultaneously sweeten and dehydrate a wet, sour natural gas stream. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high pressure gas circulation loop and a low...

Garza, Jaime Javier

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Ionic Liquids as an Attractive Alternative Solvent for Thermal Lens Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in volatile organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane. However, the ILs are more,2 Nonpolar, volative organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane should provide good

Reid, Scott A.

387

Profitability of CCS with flue gas bypass and solvent storage Supplementary Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Profitability of CCS with flue gas bypass and solvent storage #12; 2 Perfect information model formulation Sets t T Time, in hours, from K Capital cost to oversize turbine if solvent storage or bypass are used

Jaramillo, Paulina

388

STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak temperature for volatile evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a wide variety of coals of a wide range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatile evolution was quite a precise indicator of rank and correlated closely wit the rank values obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile materials evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amount of alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolitic products and not volatilization products of coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with TG-PI-MS indicates that the low oiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight and therefor less extractable.

Michael T. Klein

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol from ?-Pinene: Effects of Oxidants, Seed Aerosol Acidity, and Relative Humidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from ozonolysis or NO3 oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532 and 870 nm. Light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed by SOA generated from oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of acidic sulfate seed aerosols, under dry conditions. No absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27%, or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. The light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with organosulfate and organic nitrate groups. The results of this study also indicate that organic nitrates from ?-pinene SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols do not appear to absorb near-UV and UV radiation.

Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

390

Prediction of Corrosion of Alloys in Mixed-Solvent Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion is much less predictable in organic or mixed-solvent environments than in aqueous process environments. As a result, US chemical companies face greater uncertainty when selecting process equipment materials to manufacture chemical products using organic or mixed solvents than when the process environments are only aqueous. Chemical companies handle this uncertainty by overdesigning the equipment (wasting money and energy), rather than by accepting increased risks of corrosion failure (personnel hazards and environmental releases). Therefore, it is important to develop simulation tools that would help the chemical process industries to understand and predict corrosion and to develop mitigation measures. To create such tools, we have developed models that predict (1) the chemical composition, speciation, phase equilibria, component activities and transport properties of the bulk (aqueous, nonaqueous or mixed) phase that is in contact with the metal; (2) the phase equilibria and component activities of the alloy phase(s) that may be subject to corrosion and (3) the interfacial phenomena that are responsible for corrosion at the metal/solution or passive film/solution interface. During the course of this project, we have completed the following: (1) Development of thermodynamic modules for calculating the activities of alloy components; (2) Development of software that generates stability diagrams for alloys in aqueous systems; these diagrams make it possible to predict the tendency of metals to corrode; (3) Development and extensive verification of a model for calculating speciation, phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of mixed-solvent electrolyte systems; (4) Integration of the software for generating stability diagrams with the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, which makes it possible to generate stability diagrams for nonaqueous or mixed-solvent systems; (5) Development of a model for predicting diffusion coefficients in mixed-solvent electrolyte systems; (6) Development of fundamentals of a detailed kinetic model of general corrosion, which includes a detailed treatment of local chemistry changes near the metal/solution interface coupled with transport through a liquid layer and solid phases at the interface; (7) Development of parameters for OLI's kinetic model of general corrosion of common engineering alloys in aqueous systems with a variety of solutes. With this model, the users will be able to predict the effect of various process conditions (such as environment composition, temperature, pressure) on the general corrosion of alloys; (8)Comprehensive review of the fundamentals of the models by an Academic Review Panel, which was performed in conjunction with three annual review meetings; (9)Development and commercial release of the Corrosion Analyzer, a Windows software product that encompasses the thermodynamic model, a facility for generating stability diagrams and the model for predicting the rates of general corrosion of selected alloys in aqueous systems.

A. Anderko, P. Wang, R. D. Young, D. P. Riemer, P. McKenzie and M. M. Lencka (OLI Systems Inc.); S. S. Babu and P. Angelini (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2003-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

391

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

392

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

393

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

394

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

395

spectra from size-resolved particle samples col-lected from the Southeastern Aerosol Visibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and acrolein aerosols. We believe that these transformations are due to acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reac

Bishop, James K.B.

396

Assessment of the Upper Particle Size Limit for Quantitative Analysis of Aerosols Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the vaporization dynamics of individual aerosol particles, such as thermophoretic forces and vapor expulsion. Since

Hahn, David W.

397

Modeling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are conducted under the three aerosol scenarios: 1) the clean case with an aerosol number concentration of 200 cm-1, 2) the polluted case with a number concentration of 1000 cm-1, and 3) the aerosol radiative effects (AR) case with same aerosol concentration...

Lee, Keun-Hee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

398

Biomass to Jetfuel-Solvent Optimization in Biphasic Maheen Khan, Doctor Geoff Tompsett, Professor George Huber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass to Jetfuel- Solvent Optimization in Biphasic Reaction Maheen Khan, Doctor Geoff Tompsett to simulate reactor conditions · Run dehydration reaction with solvents and determine whether partition. REACTOR DECANTOR SEPARATEFEED PRODUCT AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLVENT MAKE-UP FURFURAL Figure 5. Aspen

Mountziaris, T. J.

399

CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

402

Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

Shah, K.B.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

403

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Development of carbon-carbon composites from solvent extracted pitch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are several methods used to fabricate carbon-carbon composites. One used extensively in the fabrication of aerospace components such as rocket nozzles and reentry vehicle nosetips, as well as commercial components for furnace fixturing and glass manufacturing, is the densification of a woven preform with molten pitch, and the subsequent conversion of the pitch to graphite through heat treatment. Two types of pitch are used in this process; coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch. The objective of this program was to determine if a pitch produced by the direct extraction of coal could be used as a substitute for these pitches in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. The program involved comparing solvent extracted pitch with currently accepted pitches and rigidizing a carbon-carbon preform with solvent extracted pitch for comparison with carbon-carbon fabricated with currently available pitch.

NONE

1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

406

Existence and Regularity for Dynamic Viscoelastic Adhesive Contact with Damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for the dynamic process of frictionless adhesive contact between a viscoelastic body and a reactive foundation, which takes into account the damage of the material resulting from tension or compression, is presented. Contact is described by the normal compliance condition. Material damage is modelled by the damage field, which measures the pointwise fractional decrease in the load-carrying capacity of the material, and its evolution is described by a differential inclusion. The model allows for different damage rates caused by tension or compression. The adhesion is modelled by the bonding field, which measures the fraction of active bonds on the contact surface. The existence of the unique weak solution is established using the theory of set-valued pseudomonotone operators introduced by Kuttler and Shillor (1999). Additional regularity of the solution is obtained when the problem data is more regular and satisfies appropriate compatibility conditions.

Kuttler, Kenneth L. [Department of Mathematics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)], E-mail: klkuttler@math.byu.edu; Shillor, Meir [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)], E-mail: shillor@oakland.edu; Fernandez, Jose R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Facultade de Matematicas, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: jramon@usc.es

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

409

Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many global aerosol and climate models, including the widely used Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), have large biases in predicting aerosols in remote regions such as upper troposphere and high latitudes. In this study, we conduct CAM5 sensitivity simulations to understand the role of key processes associated with aerosol transformation and wet removal affecting the vertical and horizontal long-range transport of aerosols to the remote regions. Improvements are made to processes that are currently not well represented in CAM5, which are guided by surface and aircraft measurements together with results from a multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that explicitly represents convection and aerosol-cloud interactions at cloud-resolving scales. We pay particular attention to black carbon (BC) due to its importance in the Earth system and the availability of measurements. We introduce into CAM5 a new unified scheme for convective transport and aerosol wet removal with explicit aerosol activation above convective cloud base. This new implementation reduces the excessive BC aloft to better simulate observed BC profiles that show decreasing mixing ratios in the mid- to upper-troposphere. After implementing this new unified convective scheme, we examine wet removal of submicron aerosols that occurs primarily through cloud processes. The wet removal depends strongly on the sub-grid scale liquid cloud fraction and the rate of conversion of liquid water to precipitation. These processes lead to very strong wet removal of BC and other aerosols over mid- to high latitudes during winter months. With our improvements, the Arctic BC burden has a10-fold (5-fold) increase in the winter (summer) months, resulting in a much better simulation of the BC seasonal cycle as well. Arctic sulphate and other aerosol species also increase but to a lesser extent. An explicit treatment of BC aging with slower aging assumptions produces an additional 30-fold (5-fold) increase in the Arctic winter (summer) BC burden. This BC aging treatment, however, has minimal effect on other under-predicted species. Interestingly, our modifications to CAM5 that aim at improving prediction of high-latitude and upper tropospheric aerosols also produce much better AOD and AAOD over various other regions globally when compared to multi-year AERONET retrievals. The improved aerosol distributions have impacts on other aspects of CAM5, improving the simulation of global mean liquid water path and cloud forcing.

Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun; Vinoj, V.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

410

Solvent Effects in the Hydrogenation of 2-Butanone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In liquid-phase reaction systems, the role of the solvent is often limited to the simple requirement of dissolving and/or diluting substrates. However, the correct choice, either pure or mixed, can significantly influence both reaction rate and selectivity. For multi-phase heterogeneously catalysed reactions observed variations may be due to changes in mass transfer rates, reaction mechanism, reaction kinetics, adsorption properties and combinations thereof. The liquid-phase hydrogenation of 2-butanone to 2- butanol over a Ru/SiO2 catalyst, for example, shows such complex rate behaviour when varying water/isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solvent ratios. In this paper, we outline a strategy which combines measured rate data with physical property measurements and molecular simulation in order to gain a more fundamental understanding of mixed solvent effects for this heterogeneously catalysed reaction. By combining these techniques, the observed complex behaviour of rate against water fraction is shown to be a combination of both mass transfer and chemical effects.

Akpa, B. S.; DAgostino, C.; Gladden, L. F.; Hindle, K.; Manyar, H.; McGregor, J.; Li, Ruoyu; Neurock, Matthew; Sinha, N.; Stitt, E. H.; Weber, D.; Zeitler, J. A.; Rooney, D. W.

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

Polymeric Assembly of Gluten Proteins in an Aqueous Ethanol Solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supramolecular organization of wheat gluten proteins is largely unknown due to the intrinsic complexity of this family of proteins and their insolubility in water. We fractionate gluten in a water/ethanol (50/50 v/v) and obtain a protein extract which is depleted in gliadin, the monomeric part of wheat gluten proteins, and enriched in glutenin, the polymeric part of wheat gluten proteins. We investigate the structure of the proteins in the solvent used for extraction over a wide range of concentration, by combining X-ray scattering and multi-angle static and dynamic light scattering. Our data show that, in the ethanol/water mixture, the proteins display features characteristic of flexible polymer chains in a good solvent. In the dilute regime, the protein form very loose structures of characteristic size 150 nm, with an internal dynamics which is quantitatively similar to that of branched polymer coils. In more concentrated regimes, data highlight a hierarchical structure with one characteristic length scale of the order of a few nm, which displays the scaling with concentration expected for a semi-dilute polymer in good solvent, and a fractal arrangement at much larger length scale. This structure is strikingly similar to that of polymeric gels, thus providing some factual knowledge to rationalize the viscoelastic properties of wheat gluten proteins and their assemblies.

Mohsen Dahesh; Amlie Banc; Agns Duri; Marie-Hlne Morel; Laurence Ramos

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ethylmethylcarbonate, a promising solvent for Li-ion rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethylmethylcarbonate (EMC) has been found to be a promising solvent for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Graphite electrodes, which are usually sensitive to the composition of the electrolyte solution, can be successfully cycled at high reversible capacities in several Li salt solutions in this solvent (LiAsF{sub 6}, LiPF{sub 6}, etc.). These results are interesting because lithium ions cannot intercalate into graphite in diethyl carbonate solutions and cycle poorly in dimethyl carbonate solutions. To understand the high compatibility of EMC for Li-ion battery systems as compared with the other two open-chain alkyl carbonates mentioned above, the surface chemistry developed in both Li and carbon electrodes in EMC solution was studied and compared with that developed on these electrodes in other alkyl carbonate solutions. Basically, the major surface species formed on both electrodes in EMC include ROLi, ROCO{sub 2}Li, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} species. The uniqueness of EMC as a battery solvent is discussed in light of these studies.

Ein-Eli, Y.; Thomas, S.R.; Koch, V. [Covalent Associates Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Aurbach, D.; Markovsky, B.; Schechter, A. [Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Criteria pollutant and acid aerosol characterization study, Catano, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization Study (CPAACS) was to measure criteria pollutant concentrations and acid aerosol concentrations in and around the Ward of Catano, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 1994. Continuous air sampling for criteria pollutants was performed at three fixed stations and one moobile station that was deployed to four locations. Air samples for acid aerosol analyses and particulate matter measurements were collected at three sites. Semicontinuous sulfate analysis was performed at the primary site. Continuous measurements of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity were also made at each site. The study was conducted from June 1 through September 30, 1994.

Edgerton, E.S.; Harlos, D.P.; Sune, J.M.; Akland, G.G.; Vallero, D.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

A New Aerosol Flow System for Photochemical and Thermal Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For studying the formation and photochemical/thermal reactions of aerosols relevant to the troposphere, a unique, high-volume, slow-flow, stainless steel aerosol flow system equipped with 5 UV lamps has been constructed and characterized experimentally. The total flow system length 6 is 8.5 m and includes a 1.2 m section used for mixing, a 6.1 m reaction section and a 1.2 m 7 transition cone at the end. The 45.7 cm diameter results in a smaller surface to volume ratio than is found in many other flow systems and thus reduces the potential contribution from wall reactions. The latter are also reduced by frequent cleaning of the flow tube walls which is made feasible by the ease of disassembly. The flow tube is equipped with ultraviolet lamps for photolysis. This flow system allows continuous sampling under stable conditions, thus increasing the amount of sample available for analysis and permitting a wide variety of analytical techniques to be applied simultaneously. The residence time is of the order of an hour, and sampling ports located along the length of the flow tube allow for time-resolved measurements of aerosol and gas-phase products. The system was characterized using both an inert gas (CO2) and particles (atomized NaNO3). Instruments interfaced directly to this flow system include a NOx analyzer, an ozone analyzer, relative humidity and temperature probes, a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer, an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer, a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, an integrating nephelometer, and a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a long path (64 m) cell. Particles collected with impactors and filters at the various sampling ports can be analyzed subsequently by a variety of techniques. Formation of secondary organic aerosol from ?-pinene reactions (NOx photooxidation and ozonolysis) are used to demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily; Alexander, M. L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Dabdub, Donald; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

Aiken, A. C.

417

Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Sensitivity of aerosol properties to new particle formation mechanism and to primary emissions in a continental-scale chemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aerosol particles and in turn their number concentration and size distribution. Aerosol particles can grow contribution from coagulation. The aerosol mass concentration, which is primarily in the accumulation mode of aerosol number concentration and size distri- bution is important for considerations of the aerosol

419

Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Soot particle aerosol dynamics at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have used detailed calculations to analyze the coagulation dynamics of a soot aerosol at high pressures (20 and 50 atm). They find that the soot size distribution is altered compared to lower-pressure conditions because the mean free path at high pressures is reduced to the point that the particles are similar in size to the mean free path. At lower pressures the form of the size distribution becomes constant (self-preserving) in time, allowing optical measurements to be easily interpreted. However, the authors find that at pressures above about 5 atm the shape of the size distribution continually changes. As a result, proper and accurate interpretation of optical data at high pressures is more difficult than at lower pressures.

Harris, S.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA). Physics Dept.); Kennedy, I.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

423

aerosol content monitoring: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rings, Jrg 2008-01-01 6 The impact of aerosols on simulated ocean temperature and heat content in the 20th century Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: The...

424

Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work investigates the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds and the associated radiative forcing in the Houston area. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) coupled with a spectral-bin microphysics is employed...

Fan, Jiwen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of interest. At the present time we have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and we have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Work on the data processing, display and alarm functions is being done in parallel with the particle sampling work and will be reported separately at a later date. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

427

MELCOR 1. 8. 1 assessment: LACE aerosol experiment LA4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MELCOR code has been used to simulate LACE aerosol experiment LA4. In this test, the behavior of single- and double-component, hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic, aerosols in a condensing environment was monitored. Results are compared to experimental data, and to CONTAIN calculations. Sensitivity studies have been done on time step effects and machine dependencies; thermal/hydraulic parameters such as condensation on heat structures and on pool surface, and radiation heat transfer; and aerosol parameters such as number of MAEROS components and sections assumed, the degree to which plated aerosols are washed off heat structures by condensate film draining, and the effect of non-default values for shape factors and diameter limits. 9 refs., 50 figs., 13 tabs.

Kmetyk, L.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 8a). The IE cooling increases snow/ice by about 10% (Their cooling e?ect on surface temperatures promotes ice androw), cooling from the aerosol DE increases snow/ice cover

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent field and laboratory evidence indicates that the oxidation of isoprene, (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C[subscript 5]H[subscript 8]) forms secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Global biogenic emissions of isoprene (600 Tg ...

Kroll, Jesse

430

atmospheric aerosol limb: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 5 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

431

atmospheric aerosols recorded: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 4 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

432

atmospheric aerosols relation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 4 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

433

aerosol source apportionment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary...

434

aerosolized bacillus anthracis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and remotely sensed aerosol observations. William D. Collins; Phillip J. Rasch; Brian E. Eaton; Boris V. Khattatov; Jean-francois Lamarque; C. Zender 2001-01-01 118 THESE DE...

435

Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facilitys ground-based facilities.

Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

2013-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

436

Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

MICS Asia Phase II - Sensitivity to the aerosol module  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of the model inter-comparison study - Asia Phase II (MICS2), where eight models are compared over East Asia, this paper studies the influence of different parameterizations used in the aerosol module on the aerosol concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in PM10. An intracomparison of aerosol concentrations is done for March 2001 using different configurations of the aerosol module of one of the model used for the intercomparison. Single modifications of a reference setup for model configurations are performed and compared to a reference case. These modifications concern the size distribution, i.e. the number of sections, and physical processes, i.e. coagulation, condensation/evaporation, cloud chemistry, heterogeneous reactions and sea-salt emissions. Comparing monthly averaged concentrations at different stations, the importance of each parameterization is first assessed. It is found that sulfate concentrations are little sensitive to sea-salt emissions and to whether condensation is computed...

Sartelet, Karine; Sportisse, Bruno

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

aerosol optical depths: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AERONET, AVHRR and 3 MODIS 4 A. Hauser, D. Oesch have been used to 9 retrieve the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for 10 central Europe. At eight AERONET sites,...

439

aerosol optical depth: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AERONET, AVHRR and 3 MODIS 4 A. Hauser, D. Oesch have been used to 9 retrieve the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for 10 central Europe. At eight AERONET sites,...

440

aerosol strong acidity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nucleation theories. Citation: Erupe, M. E., et al Lee, Shan-Hu 12 Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia Geosciences...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Results from simulated upper-plenum aerosol transport tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of eight aerosol transport experiments, designated as Aerosol Transport Tests (ATT) A101 through A108, has recently been completed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tests provide a data base for validation of aerosol transport modeling used in the TRAP-MELT2 computer code (Jordan and Kuhlman, 1985), which was developed at Battelle Columbus Laboratories to calculate aerosol/fission-product transport in the reactor coolant system in postulated light-water reactor (LWR) core-melt accidents. Results from tests A103 and A104 have been summarized in a previous paper (Wright and Pattison, 1985a); the present paper discusses results from tests A105 through A108.

Wright, A.L.; Pattison, W.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Thermophoresis and Its Thermal Parameters for Aerosol Collection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K/cm (a) Figure 3. (a). Thermophoretic collection ratio vs.Lin, J. , et al. , Thermophoretic deposition of particles inof a plate- to-plate thermophoretic precipitator, Aerosol

Huang, Z.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

aerosol particle deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits...

444

An investigation of aerosol physical properties in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From June through October 2001, three Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) systems were operated around Houston, Texas, to obtain a large, high-quality dataset in order to explore characteristics of aerosol size distributions...

Gasparini, Roberto

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Aerosol Transport and Deposition Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, various aerosol particle transport and deposition mechanisms were studied through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, including inertial impaction, gravitational effect, lift force, interception, and turbophoresis, within...

Tang, Yingjie

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

446

Climate impacts of carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols: A proposed study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to sulfate aerosols, carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols are potentially significant contributors to global climate change. We present evidence that strongly suggests that current assessments of the effects of aerosols on climate may be inadequate because major aerosol components, especially carbonaceous aerosols, are not included in these assessments. Although data on the properties and distributions of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols are insufficient to allow quantification of their climate impacts, the existing information suggests that climate forcing by this aerosol component may be significant and comparable to that by sulfate aerosols. We propose that a research program be undertaken to support a quantitative assessment of the role in climate forcing of non-sulfate, particularly carbonaceous, aerosols.

Andreae, M.O.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cofer, W.R. III; Hollande, J.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Division] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Balloon-borne photometric studies of the stratospheric aerosol layer after Mt. Pinatubo eruption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using Sun-tracking photometers on board balloons, the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol layer has been studied over Hyderabad (17.5 deg N) during October 1991 and April 1992. From the angular distribution of the scattered radiation intensity measurements the aerosol size parameters is derived. Over a decade of aerosol measurements at Hyderabad, aerosol extinction and number density obtained during October 1991 in the stratosphere are found to be the highest ever obtained with a distinct aerosol layer between 16 and 30 km. The derived aerosol size parameter shows layered structures. Analysis of the size parameter obtained during April 1992 indicates formation of aerosols at higher altitudes by coagulation with a subsequent reduction in the aerosol number density. The obtained results are found to agree well with that of an independent lidar measurement made over Ahmedabad (23 deg N) and with the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II (SAGE II) results.

Ramachandran, S.; Jayaraman, A.; Acharya, Y.B.; Subbaraya, B.H. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Representing Cloud Processing of Aerosol in Numerical Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The satellite imagery in Figure 1 provides dramatic examples of how aerosol influences the cloud field. Aerosol from ship exhaust can serve as nucleation centers in otherwise cloud-free regions, forming ship tracks (top image), or can enhance the reflectance/albedo in already cloudy regions. This image is a demonstration of the first indirect effect, in which changes in aerosol modulate cloud droplet radius and concentration, which influences albedo. It is thought that, through the effects it has on precipitation (drizzle), aerosol can also affect the structure and persistence of planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds. Regions of cellular convection, or open pockets of cloudiness (bottom image) are thought to be remnants of strongly drizzling PBL clouds. Pockets of Open Cloudiness (POCs) (Stevens et al. 2005) or Albrecht's ''rifts'' are low cloud fraction regions characterized by anomalously low aerosol concentrations, implying they result from precipitation. These features may in fact be a demonstration of the second indirect effect. To accurately represent these clouds in numerical models, we have to treat the coupled cloud-aerosol system. We present the following series of mesoscale and large eddy simulation (LES) experiments to evaluate the important aspects of treating the coupled cloud-aerosol problem. 1. Drizzling and nondrizzling simulations demonstrate the effect of drizzle on a mesoscale forecast off the California coast. 2. LES experiments with explicit (bin) microphysics gauge the relative importance of the shape of the aerosol spectrum on the 3D dynamics and cloud structure. 3. Idealized mesoscale model simulations evaluate the relative roles of various processes, sources, and sinks.

Mechem, D.B.; Kogan, Y.L.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

449

Simulation of aerosol dynamics: a comparative review of mathematical models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three modeling approaches used are based-continuous, discrete (sectional), and parameterized representations of the aerosol size distribution. Simulations of coagulation and condensation are performed with the three models for clear, hazy, and urban atmospheric conditions. Relative accuracies and computational costs are compared. Reference for the comparison is the continuous approach. The results of the study provide useful information for the selection of an aerosol model, depending on the accuracy requirements and computational constraints associated with a specific application.

Seigneur, C.; Hudischewskyj, A.B.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Whitby, K.T.; Whitby, E.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

451

Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

The modeling of aerosol dynamics during degraded core events  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is substantial interest in developing simple, yet accurate, models for the prediction of aerosol dynamics during degraded core events. The exact aerosol transport equation is given by {partial derivative}n(v,t)/{partial derivative}t = 1/2 {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}} K(u,v {minus} u)n(u,t)n(v {minus} u,t)du {minus} {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}} K(u,v)n(v,t)n(u,t)du {minus} n(v,t)c(v)/h + n{sub p}(v), where n(v,t) is the particle size density distribution function. The kernel, K(v,u), is related to the frequency of coagulation between aerosol particles of volume u and v, and the quantity c(v) is the deposition velocity. The quantity h is the effective height for deposition of aerosol; it is the volume of the aerosol cloud divided by the projected horizontal area A. Finally, the term n{sub p} (v) is the source rate of aerosol. Evaluation of the above equation is discussed.

Clausse, A.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

Pesic, B.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Investigations of cloud altering effects of atmospheric aerosols using a new mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian aerosol model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industry, urban development, and other anthropogenic influences have substantially altered the composition and size-distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles over the last century. This, in turn, has altered cloud ...

Steele, Henry Donnan, 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

adhesion kinase-mediated regulation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

film, and exhibit ultralow protein adsorption and cell attachment with the coating. This "stealth" or "non 389 Caspase-8 Association with the Focal Adhesion Complex Promotes Tumor...

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesively bonded joints Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 53 MIXED-MODE FRACTURE ANALYSES OF PLASTICALLY-DEFORMING ADHESIVE JOINTS Summary: mechanics approach to...

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion model burgers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 53 (2005) 19511983 Summary: in adhesive joint fracture are investigated by modelling the adherents as well as a finite thickness...

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive factor srap Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formale Spezifikation (TFS) Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 22 SMITH, GLEN. Bond Characteristics and Qualifications of Adhesives for Marine Applications...

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive failure pattern Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source: Ris National Laboratory Collection: Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources 3 SMITH, GLEN. Bond Characteristics and Qualifications of Adhesives for Marine Applications...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive strength Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prediction... of Structural Adhesive Joints July 1994 M.A.Sc. D. Plausinis Time-Dependent Fracture of ... Source: Sun, Yu - Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive bonded joints Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 53 MIXED-MODE FRACTURE ANALYSES OF PLASTICALLY-DEFORMING ADHESIVE JOINTS Summary: mechanics approach to...

462

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive hard sphere Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Qualifications of Adhesives for Marine Applications and Steel Pipe Repair... Glen Smith, Tarek Hassan, and Sami Rizkalla North Carolina State University, USA Abstract...

463

E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropic conductive adhesive Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liehui Ge, Lijie Ci, Anubha Goyal, Rachel... , Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States ABSTRACT The adhesion and ... Source: Ajayan, Pulickel M. -...

464

Adhesive activity of Lu glycoproteins is regulated by interaction with spectrin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joneckis CC, Orringer EP, Parise LV. Sickle cell adhesion toKI, Orringer EP, Telen MJ, Parise LV. Novel epinephrine and

An, Xiuli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion deficiency-i case Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plant cell. Swimming spores... of the green alga Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Ag. (710 lm) secrete an adhesive glycoprotein which provides rm... anchorage to the substratum....

466

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion blocking antibodies Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: adhesion blocking antibodies Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 11, 10471060, March 2000 Summary: of differential assembly of...

467

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive silver-coated pet Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aged materials: Contributions of surface free... in helium (HeO2) plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as well as on the bacterial adhesion... are shown to...

468

adhesive system self-etching: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the adhesive contact between elastic solids with randomly rough, self affine fractal surfaces. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results for the interfacial stress...

469

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive binding mechanism Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

binding mechanism Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Summary: in metastatic cancers. Adhesion is initiated by the binding of...

470

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion molecule-mediated neuronal Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Force Microscopy Summary: to control effectively the adhesion, growth and interconnectivity of cortical neurons on Au surfaces. We... -4. Moreover, it has been discovered...

471

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive sliding wear-friction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas Collection: Engineering 14 Short Communication Adhesion Strength of Settled Spores of the Green Alga Summary: of gregarious...

472

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesive microstructure friction Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at Berkeley Collection: Physics 20 How to get the yield locus of an adhesive powder from a single numerical experiment Summary: with experiments. The effect of friction...

473

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion process involving Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

epoxy layered structures Robert J. Hohlfelder... ; accepted 10 October 2000) Adhesion and subcritical debonding at interfaces between a ... Source: Hutchinson, John W. - School of...

474

E-Print Network 3.0 - adhesion ligands laser-fabricated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shile Lianga , Margaret J. Slatteryb , Cheng Donga,b,* a The Huck... extravasation M.J. Slattery, C. Dong, Neutrophils influence melanoma adhesion and migration ... Source:...

475

The Air or Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduction of the turbine exhaust air temperature. In this manner the system will boot strap itself down to a very low temperature in just a few minutes. I have observed the 8000 CFM system, which will be described a little later, cool from an ambient... condens~ng temperature for many solvents is colder than -50 F. Such low temperatures require relatively complicated freon refri geration systems. This led to development of the Air Cycle System. Fig. 3 shows a simple schematic of the air cycle. A...

Fox, B. J.

476

Models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many biopolymers such as proteins, DNA, and RNA have been studied because they have important biomedical roles and may be good targets for therapeutic action in treating diseases. This report describes how plastic models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers were made. Computer files containing sets of triangles were calculated, then used on a stereolithography machine to make the models. Small (2 in.) models were made to test whether the computer calculations were done correctly. Also, files of the type (.stl) required by any ISO 9001 rapid prototyping machine were written onto a CD-ROM for distribution to American companies.

Smith, R.E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

novel-solvent-system | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial Carbon CaptureFY08 Joint JOULE J.nbarbeeLarge Volume CarbonPolymerSolvent

478

Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response of the Photo-Electric Aerosol Sensor (PAS) to2008 Abstract. A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusionthe measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA) was

Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 912 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 612 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundancein the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

Kotamarthi, VR

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Ammoniated electron as a solvent stabilized multimer radical anion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The excess electron in liquid ammonia ("ammoniated electron") is commonly viewed as a cavity electron in which the s-type wave function fills the interstitial void between 6-9 ammonia molecules. Herewith an alternative model is examined in which the ammoniated electron is regarded as a solvent stabilized multimer radical anion, as was originally suggested by Symons [Chem. Soc. Rev. 1976, 5, 337]. In this model, most of the excess electron density resides in the frontier orbitals of N atoms in the ammonia molecules forming the solvation cavity; a fraction of this spin density is transferred to the molecules in the second solvation shell. The cavity is formed due to the repulsion between negatively charged solvent molecules. Using density functional theory calculations for small ammonia cluster anions in the gas phase, it is demonstrated that such core anions would quantitatively account for the observed pattern of Knight shifts for 1H and 14N nuclei as observed by NMR spectroscopy and the downshifted stretchin...

Shkrob, I A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

SWITCHABLE POLARITY SOLVENTS AS DRAW SOLUTES FOR FORWARD OSMOSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switchable polarity solvents (SPS), mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and tertiary amines, are presented as viable forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes allowing a novel SPS FO process. In this study substantial osmotic strengths of SPS are measured with freezing point osmometry and were demonstrated to induce competitive ?uxes at high salt concentrations on a laboratory-scale FO unit utilizing a ?at sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. Under the experimental conditions the SPS degrades the CTA membrane; however experiments with polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes display stability towards SPS. Once the draw is diluted the major fraction of the switchable polarity solvent can be mechanically separated from the puri?ed water after polar to nonpolar phase shift induced by introduction of 1 atm carbon dioxide to 1 atm of air or nitrogen with mild heating. Trace amounts of SPS can be removed from the separated water with RO in a process that avoids solution concentration polarization. The separated nonpolar phase can be regenerated to a full strength draw and recycled with the re-addition of 1 atm of carbon dioxide.

Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Cathy Rae

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

OSTEOBLAST ADHESION OF BREAST CANCER CELLS WITH SCANNING ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone. Upon colonizing bone tissue, the cancer cells stimulate osteoclasts (cells that break bone down), resulting in large lesions in the bone. The breast cancer cells also affect osteoblasts (cells that build new bone). Conditioned medium was collected from a bone-metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and cultured with an immature osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Under these conditions the osteoblasts acquired a changed morphology and appeared to adherer in a different way to the substrate and to each other. To characterize cell adhesion, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured with or without MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium for two days, and then assayed with a mechanical scanning acoustic reflection microscope (SAM). The SAM indicated that in normal medium the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were firmly attached to their plastic substrate. However, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium displayed both an abnormal shape and poor adhesion at the substrate interface. The cells were fixed and stained to visualize cytoskeletal components using optical microscopic techniques. We were not able to observe these differences until the cells were quite confluent after 7 days of culture. However, using the SAM, we were able to detect these changes within 2 days of culture with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium

Chiaki Miyasaka; Robyn R. Mercer; Andrea M. Mastro; Ken L. Telschow

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

The effect of chrome adhesion layer on quartz resonator aging.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SAND report documents a late start LDRD designed to determine the possible aging effects of a quartz resonator gold adhesion layer. Sandia uses quartz resonators for applications. These applications require a very stable frequency source with excellent aging (low drift) characteristics. These parts are manufactured by one of our qualified vendors outside Sandia Laboratories, Statek Corp. Over the years we, Sandia and the vendor, have seen aging variations that have not been completely explained by the typical mechanisms known in the industry. One theory was that the resonator metallization may be contributing to the resonator aging. This LDRD would allow us to test and analyze a group of resonators with known differentiating metallization and via accelerated aging determine if a chrome adhesion layer used to accept the final gold plating may contribute to poor aging. We worked with our main vendor to design and manufacture a set of quartz resonators with a wide range of metallization thickness ratios between the chrome and gold that will allow us determine the cause of this aging and which plating thickness ratios provide the best aging performance while not degrading other key characteristics.

Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

RESULTS OF CESIUM MASS TRANSFER TESTING FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT WITH HANFORD WASTE SIMULANT AP-101  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRNL has performed an Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) test using the next generation solvent and AP-101 Hanford Waste simulant. The results indicate that the next generation solvent (MG solvent) has adequate extraction behavior even in the face of a massive excess of potassium. The stripping results indicate poorer behavior, but this may be due to inadequate method detection limits. SRNL recommends further testing using hot tank waste or spiked simulant to provide for better detection limits. Furthermore, strong consideration should be given to performing an actual waste, or spiked waste demonstration using the 2cm contactor bank. The Savannah River Site currently utilizes a solvent extraction technology to selectively remove cesium from tank waste at the Multi-Component Solvent Extraction unit (MCU). This solvent consists of four components: the extractant - BoBCalixC6, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - trioctylamine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. This solvent has been used to successfully decontaminate over 2 million gallons of tank waste. However, recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a basis to implement an improved solvent blend. This new solvent blend - referred to as Next Generation Solvent (NGS) - is similar to the current solvent, and also contains four components: the extractant - MAXCalix, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - LIX-79{trademark} guanidine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. Testing to date has shown that this 'Next Generation' solvent promises to provide far superior cesium removal efficiencies, and furthermore, is theorized to perform adequately even in waste with high potassium concentrations such that it could be used for processing Hanford wastes. SRNL has performed a cesium mass transfer test in to confirm this behavior, using a simulant designed to simulate Hanford AP-101 waste.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

487

Dynamic tests for actinide/lanthanide separation by CMPO solvent in fluorinated diluents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Actinide and lanthanide extraction by new solvent: 0.2 M phenyl-octyl-N,N-diiso-butylcarbamoyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) + 30% TBP + formal of octafluoro-pentanol was studied. A dynamic test with this solvent was performed. It was shown that americium and lanthanides are effectively extracted from PUREX process raffinate. The separation of americium from light lanthanides was confirmed in the modified SETFICS flowsheet with this new solvent. (authors)

Tkachenko, L.; Babain, V.; Alyapyshev, M.; Vizniy, A.; Il'in, A. [V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskiy Ave 28., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Shadrin, A. [A.A. Bochvar High-technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, 5-a, Rogova str., Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Vapor-liquid equilibria of sulfur dioxide in polar organic solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for SO/sub 2/ in eight polar organic solvents and three mixtures of organic solvents were investigated over the temperature range 30-95/sup 0/C and over a concentration range of 0.02-0.16 weight fraction of SO/sub 2/. The solvents investigated were N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA); quinoline; the dimethyl ethers of diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, and tetraethylene glycol; the monomethyl ether of diethylene glycol (DGM); tetramethylene sulfone; and tributyl phosphate. The mixed solvents investigated were various mixtures of DMA and DGM. The data were correlated by using the UNIQUAC, NRTL, Wilson, and Henry's law phase-equilibrium models.

Demyanovich, R.J.; Lynn, S.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in ?Drum#2? and ?Drum#4?) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

Peters, T.; Williams, M.

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

490

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated on-line solvent Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is connected to an industrial project on solvent recovery in pharmaceutical production and fine- and ... Source: Skogestad, Sigurd - Department of Chemical Engineering,...

491

Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

technology being tested integrates BASF's advanced aqueous amine-based solvent (OASE blue) and process technology with novel CO2-capture process and engineering innovations...

492

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash solvent extraction Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 4 The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Summary: by solvent extraction of spent shale: experiment and kinetic analysis....

493

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing aerosol retention Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sources of aerosol OC and assessing its transformations before... ACPD 8, 6539-6569, 2008 ESI FT-ICR MS characterization of aerosol WSOC A. S. Wozniak et al. Title... .0 License....

494

Investigation of the aerosol-cloud interaction using the WRF framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Simulations with various aerosol profiles demonstrate that the response of precipitation to the increase of aerosol concentrations is non-monotonic. The maximal cloud cover, core updraft, and maximal vertical velocity exhibit similar responses as precipitation...

Li, Guohui

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

Aerodynamic Focusing of High-Density Aerosols D.E. Ruiza,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerodynamic Focusing of High-Density Aerosols D.E. Ruiza, , L. Gundersona , M.J. Haya , E. Merinob-density aerosol focusing for 1µm silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic

496

Investigation of the optical and cloud forming properties of pollution, biomass burning, and mineral dust aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties of a biomass burning aerosol generated from fires on the Yucatan Peninsula. Measured aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopicity and volatility were used to infer critical supersaturation distributions of the distinct particle types...

Lee, Yong Seob

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

497

Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

Jeong, Gill-Ran

498

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosolized red tide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Summary: in the right panel of Fig. 6. The aerosol scenes spectra are drawn in green, the clear sky scenes in...

499

High Flash-point Fluid Flow System Aerosol Flammability Study and Combustion Mechanism Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understanding of this combustion process. The potential application of the ignition delay will be beneficial to the mitigation timing and detector sensor setting of facilities to prevent aerosol cloud fires. Finally, the scientific method of aerosol...

Huang, Szu-Ying

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

500

CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. ...

Rosenfeld, Daniel