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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings and method of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings, the solvent having a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide as constituents. In some embodiments the solvent consists only of miscible constituents. In some embodiments the carbaldehyde is benzaldehyde and in some embodiments the cyclic amide is N-methylpyrrolidone (M-pyrole). An extender may be added to the solvent. In some embodiments the extender is miscible with the other ingredients, and in some embodiments the extender is non-aqueous. For example, the extender may include isopropanol, ethanol, tetrahydro furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Gamma-butyrolactone or a caprolactone. In some embodiments a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide are heated and used to separate a urethane bonded to a component.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

2

Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including ... Keywords: Aerosols, Aggregation, Particle adhesion, Particulate flow

J. S. Marshall

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Hazardous particle binder, coagulant and re-aerosolization inhibitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copolymer and water/ethanol solvent solution capable of binding with airborne contaminants or potential airborne contaminants, such as biological weapon agents or toxic particulates, coagulating as the solvent evaporates, and adhering the contaminants to a surface so as to inhibit the re-suspension of such contaminants. The solution uses a water or ethanol/water mixture for the solvent, and a copolymer having one of several functional group sets so as to have physical and chemical characteristics of high adhesion, low viscosity, low surface tension, negative electrostatic charge, substantially neutral pH, and a low pKa. Use of the copolymer solution prevents re-aerosolization and transport of unwanted, reactive species thus increasing health and safety for personnel charged with decontamination of contaminated buildings and areas.

Krauter, Paula (Livermore, CA); Zalk, David (San Jose, CA); Hoffman, D. Mark (Livermore, CA)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

4

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

5

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

6

Solvent substitution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectrometer RL : Raman Lidar Field Campaign Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments AEROSOL-TOWER-EML :...

8

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol extinction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments IAP : In-situ Aerosol...

9

Synthesis and Characterization of Phenylethynyl Terminated Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s as Thermosetting Structural Adhesives and Composite Matrices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract High temperature, solvent resistant materials which also display good mechanical properties are desired for use as aerospace structural adhesives and polymer matrix/carbon fiber composites.… (more)

Mecham, Sue Jewel

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

BNL | Aerosol Lifecycle Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

identified strategic process-science foci: aerosol nucleation and growth and aerosol aging and mixing state. BNL is the lead laboratory responsible for the design and...

11

Aerosol Can Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aerosol Can Failure ... Abstract Scope, A three-piece, welded seam aerosol can of liquid undercoating material failed catastrophically, ...

12

Solvent wash solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

Neace, James C. (Blackville, SC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Solvent wash solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

Neace, J.C.

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

14

Classification of Adhesive Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Benefits and limitations of various adhesive types...very good moisture resistance on plastics. (d) Motor oil, toluene, gasoline, automatic transmission fluid. (e) Uncured liquid adhesives may

15

SOLvent | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SOLvent SOLvent Jump to: navigation, search Name SOLvent Place Kamen, Germany Zip 59174 Sector Services, Solar, Wind energy Product Planning and consultancy services for wind and solar projects. References SOLvent[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. SOLvent is a company located in Kamen, Germany . References ↑ "SOLvent" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=SOLvent&oldid=351528" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation:

16

Solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID); Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK); Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

AdhesiveBonding.qrk  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adhesive Bonding Adhesive Bonding Manufacturing Technologies Understanding and controlling the factors that affect adhesion is vital for ensuring consistent successful bonding operations. The Manufacturing Science and Technology Center's research into adhesion is focused on achieving a good initial bond and then understanding the mechanisms leading to eventual bond failure. The department is working to understand crack propagation at the interface and has developed a variety of mechanical testing techniques to evalu- ate this failure mode. The factors affecting wetting and formation of the bond (e.g., contamination, surface roughness) are being explored to further our knowledge. In addition to research into adhesion, we bond and join components for our cus- tomers. Researchers have formulated new

18

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concentration concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol concentration A measure of the amount of aerosol particles (e.g. number, mass, volume) per unit volume of air. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

19

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

absorption absorption ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol absorption The process in which radiation energy is retained by aerosols. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) PSAP : Particle Soot Absorption Photometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer External Instruments OMI : Ozone Monitoring Instrument

20

Aerosols and solar energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief description is presented of the involvement of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in atmospheric research, including aerosol characterization and modeling. The use of both rigorous and simple models for radiation transport is described. Modeled broadband solar irradiance data are shown to illustrate the important influence that aerosols have on the energy available to solar systems and the economics of solar systems design. Standard aerosol measurement methods for solar applications are discussed along with the need for improved instrumentation and methods.

Bird, R. E.; Hulstrom, R. L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study Science Objective This field campaign is designed to increase scientific knowledge about the evolution of black carbon, primary organic...

22

Computational simulation of aerosol behaviour.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, computational methods have been developed for the simulation of aerosol dynamics and transport. Two different coupled aerosol-computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are… (more)

Pyykönen, Jouni

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Continuous countercurrent membrane column for the separation of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse osmosis membrane process or hybrid membrane - complementary separator process for producing enriched product or waste streams from concentrated and dilute feed streams for both solvent/solvent and solute/solvent systems is described.

Nerad, Bruce A. (Longmont, CO); Krantz, William B. (Boulder, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

BNL | Aerosol Lifecycle IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Aerosol Life Cycle IOP The primary objectives that make up the Aerosol Life Cycle IOP can be broken down into three categories: Scientific; Logistical; and GVAX preparation. Scientific Objectives The science goals are to conduct intensive aerosol observations in a region exposed to anthropogenic, biogenic, and marine emissions with atmospheric processing times depending on air mass trajectories and time of day. Take advantage of new instruments in the MAOS (e.g., SP2, HR-PTRMS, ACSM, Trace Gas Suite, PASS-3, Aethelometer, UHSAS). Within this broad umbrella are embedded three main foci: Aerosol light absorption: How does the aerosol mass absorption coefficient (absorption per unit mass of BC) vary with atmospheric processing? Do observations agree with a shell-core model?

26

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

27

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

28

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Separation by solvent extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

Holt, Jr., Charles H. (Kennewick, WA)

1976-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

30

Safe battery solvents  

SciTech Connect

An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Delmastro, Joseph R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

31

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P.M. Forster (2004), The semi-direct aerosol effect: Impactof absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus. Q. J .2005), Global anthropogenic aerosol direct forcing derived

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and atmospheric organic aerosol formation. Envir. Sci.of secondary organic aerosol mass fraction, Atmos. Chem.composition of ambient aerosol particles. Environ. Sci.

Qi, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including smoke particle transport in the lungs, particle clogging of heat exchangers in construction vehicles, industrial nanoparticle transport and filtration systems, and dust fouling of electronic systems and MEMS components. Dust fouling of equipment is of particular concern for potential human occupation on dusty planets, such as Mars. The discrete-element method presented in this paper can be used for prediction of aggregate structure and breakup, for prediction of the effect of aggregate formation on the bulk fluid flow, and for prediction of the effects of small-scale flow features (e.g., due to surface roughness or MEMS patterning) on the aggregate formation. After presentation of the overall computational structure, the forces and torques acting on the particles resulting from fluid motion, particle-particle collision, and adhesion under van der Waals forces are reviewed. The effect of various parameters of normal collision and adhesion of two particles are examined in detail. The method is then used to examine aggregate formation and particle clogging in pipe and channel flow.

Marshall, J.S. [School of Engineering, University of Vermont, 33 Colchecter Avenue, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)], E-mail: jeffm@cems.uvm.edu

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

34

Adhesive particle shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

35

Organic solvent topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

Cowley, W.L.

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

Organic solvent topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

COWLEY, W.L.

1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

37

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

38

Monodisperse aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

Ortiz, L.W.; Soderholm, S.C.

1988-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

39

RACORO aerosol data processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient for Stratospheric Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple empirical formula for the wavelength dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficient is proposed. The relationship between the constants in the formula and the variable parameter in the aerosol size distribution is explicitly expressed. ...

Glenn K. Yue

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Policy Applications Speaker(s): Susanne Bauer Date: December 6, 2011 - 4:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar...

43

Aerosol–CCN Closure at a Semi-rural Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

aerosol size distributions and size-resolved aerosol compositions measured by ... Keywords Cloud condensation nuclei, closure study, organic aerosols, Köhler.

44

Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric submicron aerosol . . . . . . . 2.3 Partitioningon SOA organic aerosol formation alkyl nitrate and secondaryPeroxy radical fate . . . . . . Aerosol . . . . . . . .

Rollins, Andrew Waite

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. Ruedy, Matrix (multiconfiguration aerosol tracker ofmixing state): An aerosol microphysical module for globalAn investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Technol. , Vol. 40,

Bauer, Susanne E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Highly stable aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Clark, Mark L. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Highly stable aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

48

High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO.sub.2 in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

Mead, Judith W. (Peralta, NM); Montoya, Orelio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Willan, Vernon O. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

BNL | Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation Interactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Atmospheric aerosols exert important "indirect effects" on clouds and climate by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei that affect cloud radiative and microphysical properties. For example, an increase in CCN increases the number concentration of droplets enhances cloud albedo, and suppresses precipitation that alters cloud coverage and lifetime. However, in the case of moist and strong convective clouds, increasing aerosols may increase precipitation and enhance storm development. Although aerosol-induced indirect effects on climate are believed to have a significant impact on global climate change, estimating their impact continues to be one of the most uncertain climate forcings.

50

Jankovic Aerosol Characterization.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization, Characterization, Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Interpretation, and Application of Data Application of Data NSRC Symposium NSRC Symposium July 8, 2008 John Jankovic, CIH CIH Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Application of Data Application of Data Department of Energy (DOE) Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) developing Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H - The CNMS Approach * Establish Exposure Control Guideline (ECG) - Characterize Aerosol * Collect and interpret data * Assign Process to a Control Band Aerosol Particle Characterization * Size distribution (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation related to either mass, surface, or number)

51

Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

52

Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black Carbon Reference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous Atmospheric Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HULIS) in biomass-burning aerosols, Atmospheric Chemistrymicroscopical and aerosol dynamical characterizationof soot aerosols, Journal of Aerosol Science , 34 , 1347-

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Policy Applications Speaker(s): Susanne Bauer Date: December 6, 2011 - 4:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, However, understanding the net effect of multi-source emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is

55

ARM - Mobile Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Mobile Aerosol Observing System Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York, using the ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System. Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven

56

Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

Jefferson, A

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

57

THE ROLE OF SOOT IN AEROSOL CHEMISTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characterization of aerosols." in Nature. Aim. and MethodsLAWRENCE THE ROLE OF SOOT IN AEROSOL CHEMISTRY T. NovakovTHE ROLE OF SOOT IN AEROSOL CHEMISTRY* T. Novakov Lawrence

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Flagan, R.C. (1990) Aerosol Sci. and Technol. 13 , 230.and Seinfeld, J.H. (2002) Aerosol Science and Technology ,light absorption by atmospheric aerosol, in preparation for

Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paulson, S. E. ; Chung, A. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2007 , 41,Y. G. ; Daum, P. H. J. Aerosol Sci 2008 , 39, 974-986. (32)Accurate Monitoring of Terrestrial Aerosols and Total Solar

Kim, Hwajin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

Shirey, R.A.

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

Shirey, Ray A. (North Grafton, MA)

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

62

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

63

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Solvent-assisted growth of metal phthalocyanine thin films on Au(111)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin films of metal phthalocyanine (MPc) are grown on an Au(111) support with a newly developed aerosol molecular beam deposition source and characterized in situ via ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. MPcs are delivered to Au(111) in a series of N{sub 2}-entrained microsized solvent droplets of variable surface residence time. Phthalocyanine film registration to the herringbone reconstruction of the Au(111) surface, indicative of thermodynamically favored structure, is observed at submonolayer coverages for aromatic solvents with long residence times. Aerosol-deposited monolayer film structures are noncrystalline with tilted MPc orientations and vacancy nanocavities. Upon annealing, MPc molecules adopt flat-lying orientations with respect to the substrate and vacancies are eliminated. Film morphologies indicate solvation-mediated film nucleation and growth, with less long-range ordering that in vapor-generated films.

Tskipuri, Levan; Shao Qian; Reutt-Robey, Janice [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4454 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

66

Aerosol Metrology for Climate Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the interaction of aerosols with solar radiation ... that will accelerate the development of new ... together experts from government, industry and academia ...

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

67

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May...

68

Swelling of lignites in organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

Data on the swelling of Turkish lignites can be summarized using linear multiparameter equations that take into account various properties of solvents. Factors responsible for the amounts of absorbed solvents are the basicity and cohesion energy density of the solvents.

R.G. Makitra; D.V. Bryk [Institute of the Geology and Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels, Lviv (Ukraine)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

71

Wide Electrochemical Window Solvents - Energy Innovation Portal  

Biomass and Biofuels; ... This solvent has such a wide electrochemical window and such powerful solvating properties that it is an excellent target solvent ...

72

Organic Aerosol Partition Module Documentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM-2.5), data and analytical tools are needed to support their implementation. This report documents an EPRI modeling component for efficiently simulating aspects of organic aerosol formation. Without this component, simulations would tend to overestimate the contribution of power plant emissions to atmospheric aerosol mass.

1999-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

73

Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

arid regions in China and Africa. Such aerosol streams have been shown to travel around the globe with silica aerosols from China impacting air quality in the continental US and #12;2 alumina and titania delivery mechanisms for a variety of drugs as an alternative to injections. As delivery devices

Beaucage, Gregory

74

High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

Aerosol Laboratory - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities > Engineering Capabilities > Engineering Experimentation > Aerosol Laboratory Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Aerosol Laboratory The Aerosol Laboratory (AL) houses equipment to measure and record the physical parameters necessary to characterize the formation and transport of aerosols. Bookmark and Share The Aerosol Laboratory (AL) has extensive analytic and experimental capabilities to characterize the formation and transport of aerosols formed from the condensation of vapors. Computer codes have been developed to

76

Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Relating Secondary Organic Aerosol Characteristics with Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and microphysical characterization of ambient aerosols withthe aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, Mass Spectrom Rev,of secondary organic aerosol under near atmospheric

Tang, Xiaochen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ ][Dca ? ]. Figure 2. Aerosol particle size distribution ofhypergolic ionic liquid aerosols Christine J. Koh † , Chen-ionization of evaporated IL aerosols Isolated ion pairs of a

Koh, Christine J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this room ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH -RECEIVED •I.AWSSKCEDIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTMass and Composition of Aerosol as a Function of Time,

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes T. Novakov, T.W.indicator of anthropogenic aerosols – with observed surfacetemperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends

Novakov, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Aerosol measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Tellus, Ser. A, vol. 43, p.Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols. New York : Elsevier ScientificCo. , 45. B.A. Albrecht, Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Lithgow, Gregg Arthur

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTLow-Z Elements in Atmospheric Aerosol Particles by Nuclearof sulfur dioxide by aerosols of manganese sulfate," Ind.

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimations in global aerosol models, Atmos. Chem. Phys. ,Cloud mi- crophysics and aerosol indirect efefcts in theuncertainties in assessing aerosol effects on climate, Ann.

Menon, Surabi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the ?rst indirect aerosol effect, Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 5,Cloud susceptibility and the ?rst aerosol indirect forcing:to black carbon and aerosol concentrations, J. Geophys.

Lohmann, Ulrike

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

GCM Aerosol Radiative Effects Using Geographically Varying Aerosol Sizes Deduced from AERONET Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical properties, and hence the direct radiative effects, are largely determined by the assumed aerosol size distribution. In order to relax the fixed aerosol size constraint commonly used in general circulation models (GCMs), ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

87

Analyzing signatures of aerosol-cloud interactions from satellite retrievals and the GISS GCM to constrain the aerosol indirect effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud developmentclouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,1014– Albrecht, B. A. , Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate, and as having a crystalline orientation defined as predominantly C-axis oriented by x-ray diffraction is disclosed.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1990-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

89

ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Surface Aerosol Observing System The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is equipped to quantify the interaction between clouds and aerosol particles. A counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) is used to selectively sample cloud drops. The CVI takes advantage of the

90

Two-Column Aerosol Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Research Facility is conducting the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod National Seashore. From July 2012 to June 2013, the ARM Mobile Facility-a portable...

91

Mesoscale Variations of Tropospheric Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropospheric aerosols are calculated to cause global-scale changes in the earth's heat balance, but these forcings are space/time integrals over highly variable quantities. Accurate quantification of these forcings will require an unprecedented ...

Theodore L. Anderson; Robert J. Charlson; David M. Winker; John A. Ogren; Kim Holmén

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Method for producing monodisperse aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Background Stratospheric Aerosol Variations Deduced from Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products from 1998 to 2004 have been analyzed for the tendency of changes in background stratospheric aerosol properties. The aerosol extinction coefficient E has apparently ...

Yu Liu; Xuepeng Zhao; Weiliang Li; Xiuji Zhou

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol during MILAGRO 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol duringA computationally efficient thermodynamic equilibrium modelurban aerosols determined by thermodynamic equilibrium? An

Fountoukis, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Subarctic atmospheric aerosol composition: 1. Ambient aerosol characterization  

SciTech Connect

Sub-Arctic aerosol was sampled during July 2007 at the Abisko Research Station Stordalen field site operated by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Located in northern Sweden at 68º latitude and 385 meters above sea level (msl), this site is classified as a semi-continuous permafrost mire. Number density, size distribution, cloud condensation nucleus properties, and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol were determined. Backtrajectories showed that three distinct airmasses were present over Stordalen during the sampling period. Aerosol properties changed and correlated with airmass origin to the south, northeast, or west. We observe that Arctic aerosol is not compositionally unlike that found in the free troposphere at mid-latitudes. Internal mixtures of sulfates and organics, many on insoluble biomass burning and/or elemental carbon cores, dominate the number density of particles from ~200 to 2000 nm aerodynamic diameter. Mineral dust which had taken up gas phase species was observed in all airmasses. Sea salt, and the extent to which it had lost volatile components, was the aerosol type that most varied with airmass.

Friedman, Beth; Herich, Hanna; Kammermann, Lukas; Gross, Deborah S.; Ameth, Almut; Holst, Thomas; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

97

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

98

NETL: Solvents for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solvents for CO2 Capture Project No.: R&D 048 The most attractive physical solvents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture are those having such properties as high thermal stability,...

99

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol IOP Aerosol IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Stephen Schwartz For data sets, see below. Summary The Aerosol IOP was highlighted by the Gulfstream-1 aircraft flying clear-sky aerosol missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on clear sky radiation fields, with weather particularly favorable for these flights during the first and third weeks of the IOP. A secondary but important goal of this IOP was to fly cloudy-sky missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on cloud microphysics, and the effect of the microphysics on cloud optical properties. The Gulfstream obtained aerosol data in support of some of the

100

ARM - Evaluation Product - Organic Aerosol Component VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsOrganic Aerosol Component VAP ProductsOrganic Aerosol Component VAP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Organic Aerosol Component VAP 2011.01.08 - 2012.03.24 Site(s) SGP General Description Organic aerosol (OA, i.e., the organic fraction of particles) accounts for 10-90% of the fine aerosol mass globally and is a key determinant of aerosol radiative forcing. But atmospheric OA is poorly characterized and its life cycle insufficiently represented in models. As a result, current models are unable to simulate OA concentrations and properties. This deficiency represents a large source of uncertainty in the quantification of aerosol direct and indirect effects and the prediction of future climate change. The Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) value-added product (VAP) uses

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Volcanoes and Climate Effects of Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTENTS 8.1 Importance of volcanoes, natural aerosols, and anthropogenic aerosols 341 8.2 Major scientific questions and hypotheses 342 8.2.1 Stratospheric volcanic aerosols and climate 342 8.2.1.1 Source gases for stratospheric aerosols 342 8.2.1.2 Explosiveness and plume history during individual eruptions 343 8.2.1.3 Frequency of eruptions, tectonic setting, rock/ash vs. SO 2 343 8.2.1.4 Gas-to-particle conversion and removal mechanisms 343 8.2.1.5 Radiative properties and climatic effects of stratospheric aerosols 345 8.2.1.6 Needed satellite and in situ measurements 347 8.2.1.6.1 Global observations of stratospheric aerosol optical properties 347 8.2.1.6.2 Lidar measurements of aerosols 347 8.2.2 Volcanic aerosols and stratospheric ozone depletion 349 8.2.3 Climatic effects of t

Hartmann And Mouginis-Mark; Volcanoes; D. L. Hartmann; P. Mouginis-mark; G. J. Bluth; J. A. Coakley; J. Crisp; R. E. Dickinson; P. W. Francis; J. E. Hansen; P. V. Hobbs; B. L. Isacks; Y. J. Kaufman; M. D. King; W. I. Rose; S. Self; L. D. Travis

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Climate Response to Soil Dust Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols upon climate is calculated. Two atmospheric GCM (AGCM) simulations are compared, one containing a prescribed seasonally varying concentration of dust aerosols, and the other omitting dust. ...

R. L. Miller; I. Tegen

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Indirect and Semi-direct Aerosol Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). ISDAC's ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Steven Ghan; Johannes Verlinde; Alexei Korolev; J. Walter Strapp; Beat Schmid; Jason M. Tomlinson; Mengistu Wolde; Sarah D. Brooks; Dan Cziczo; Manvendra K. Dubey; Jiwen Fan; Connor Flynn; Ismail Gultepe; John Hubbe; Mary K. Gilles; Alexander Laskin; Paul Lawson; W. Richard Leaitch; Peter Liu; Xiaohong Liu; Dan Lubin; Claudio Mazzoleni; Ann-Marie Macdonald; Ryan C. Moffet; Hugh Morrison; Mikhail Ovchinnikov; Matthew D. Shupe; David D. Turner; Shaocheng Xie; Alla Zelenyuk; Kenny Bae; Matt Freer; Andrew Glen

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Single particle characterization, source apportionment, and aging effects of ambient aerosols in Southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

detection efficiencies of aerosol time of flight masscomposition of ambient aerosol particles. Environmentalsize dependent response of aerosol counters, Atmospheric

Shields, Laura Grace

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

Gilles, D.A.

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

107

Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of competition between aerosol particle removal andof secondary organic aerosol. Part I: ?-pinene/ozone system.data when measuring ambient aerosol. Aerosol Science and

Coleman, Beverly K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in secondary organic aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 ,particles from an urban aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26 ,carbonaceous atmospheric aerosols. Journal of Aerosol

Moffet, Ryan C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

110

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

properties properties ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter fraction. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

111

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

backscattered radiation backscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System MPL : Micropulse Lidar NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer

112

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

113

Real time infrared aerosol analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical ...  

Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical devices and electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents United States Patent

115

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

Seaborg, G.T.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

116

Evaluation of Empirical Aerosol Correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examined the adequacy of novel scaling and correlation methods used to analyze aerosol behavior in versions 2.0 and 3.0 of the MAAP computer code. The results show that the MAAP 2.0 method suffers from inaccurate scaling. The method used in MAAP 3.0 is theoretically superior and more consistent with experimental data.

1986-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

117

Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A system for simulating aerosols has been developed using a chemical transport model together with an assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals. The methodology and model components are described in this paper, and the modeled distribution of aerosols for the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) is presented by Rasch et al. [this issue]. The system generated aerosol forecasts to guide deployment of ships and aircraft during INDOEX. The system consists of the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) combined with an assimilation package developed for applications in atmospheric chemistry. MATCH predicts the evolution of sulfate, carbonaceous, and mineral dust aerosols, and it diagnoses the distribution of sea salt aerosols. The model includes a detailed treatment of the sources, chemical transformation, transport, and deposition of the aerosol species. The aerosol forecasts involve a two-stage process. During the assimilation phase the total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) is estimated from the model aerosol fields. The model state is then adjusted to improve the agreement between the simulated AOD and satellite retrievals of AOD. During the subsequent integration phase the aerosol fields are evolved using meteorological fields from an external model. Comparison of the modeled AOD against estimates of the AOD from INDOEX Sun photometer data show that the differences in daily means are #0.03 # 0.06. Although the initial application is limited to the Indian Ocean, the methodology could be extended to derive global aerosol analyses combining in situ and remotely sensed aerosol observations.

William D. Collins; Phillip J. Rasch; Brian E. Eaton; Boris V. Khattatov; Jean-francois Lamarque; C. Zender

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

PG+W vs. Stoddard Solvent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... It is a synthetic organic solvent that comes from the refining of crude oil. It is a petroleum mixture made from distilled alkanes ...

2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

119

Production and Handling Slide 11: Solvent Extraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extraction Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents Solvent Extraction Refer to caption below for image description...

120

Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents  

SciTech Connect

A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

Tarrer, Arthur R. (Auburn, AL); Shridharani, Ketan G. (Auburn, AL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Ethyl Lactate Solvents - Argonne National Laboratory  

Technology Development and Commemrcialization ETHYL LACTATE SOLVENTS: Low-Cost and Environmentally Friendly Argonne National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy

122

Design and Sampling Characteristics of a New Airborne Aerosol Inlet for Aerosol Measurements in Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design of a new submicron aerosol inlet (SMAI) for airborne sampling of aerosol particles is introduced and its performance characteristics under a range of sampling conditions are presented. Analysis of inlet performance in clear-air and cloud ...

Lucas Craig; Allen Schanot; Arash Moharreri; David C. Rogers; Suresh Dhaniyala

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A Community Tool to Objectively Evaluate Aerosol Process Modules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current paradigm of developing and testing new aerosol process modules is haphazard and slow. Aerosol modules are often tested for short simulation periods using limited data so that their overall performance over a wide range of ...

Jerome D. Fast; William I. Gustafson Jr.; Elaine G. Chapman; Richard C. Easter; Jeremy P. Rishel; Rahul A. Zaveri; Georg A. Grell; Mary C. Barth

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Another Look at the Influence of Absorbing Aerosols in Drops on Cloud Absorption: Large Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since as early as 1969, solar absorbing aerosols inside of cloud drops have been suggested to influence cloud radiative properties. The absorbing aerosols were invoked to help explain two “anomalies”: 1) the maximum visible albedo of thick ...

Carynelisa Erlick; Dana Schlesinger

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Assessment of Aerosol Modes Used in the MODIS Ocean Aerosol Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coastal and island Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites are used to determine characteristic aerosol modes over marine environments. They are compared with the assumed modes used in the operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (...

Jiacheng Wang; Qiang Zhao; Shengcheng Cui; Chengjie Zhu

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in

127

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Campaign Links TCAP website Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2013.04.15, Scott, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter Aerosol Effects on Cloud Formation 2013.02.04, Cziczo, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): CU GMAX-DOAS Deployment 2012.07.15, Volkamer, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerosol Light Extinction Measurements 2012.07.15, Dubey, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial Campaign 2012.07.07, Berg, AAF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic Particle Sizer 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): KASPRR Engineering Tests 2012.07.01, Mead, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and RSP Measurements

128

Using MODIS and AERONET to Determine GCM Aerosol Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol size is still a poorly constrained quantity in general circulation models (GCMs). By using the modal radii of the coarse and fine mode retrieved from 103 stations in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the fine mode aerosol optical ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Aerosol Remote Sensing over Clouds Using A-Train Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The detection of aerosol above clouds is critical for the estimate of both the aerosol and cloud radiative impacts. In this study, the authors present a new method to retrieve the aerosol properties over clouds that uses the multiangle ...

F. Waquet; J. Riedi; L. C. Labonnote; P. Goloub; B. Cairns; J-L. Deuzé; D. Tanré

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

AEROSOL ANALYSIS FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY - FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beta-Gauge Methods Applied to Aerosol Samples." Submitted toHusar and B.Y.H. Liu. "The Aerosol Size Distribution of LosAngeles Smog." In: Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry, G.M.

Jaklevic, J.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 1. Aerosol Characteristics Species Emissions Burdenc and h), IE (d, i) and BAE (e, f). List of Tables AerosolEmission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning,

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

OH-initiated heterogeneous aging of highly oxidized organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. ; Jimenez, J. L. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004, 38,A. G. Highly dispersed aerosols; Halsted Press, New York,highly oxidized organic aerosol Sean H. Kessler 1 , Theodora

Kessler, Sean H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

SPURIOUS SULFATE FORMATION ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FORMATION ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES B. W. Loo, R.FORMATION ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES Billy W. Lao,ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES* _B_il_l~y ___ W_. _L~o

Loo, B.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Descriptions are provided of the aerosol classification algorithms and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) selection schemes for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) aerosol products. One ...

Ali H. Omar; David M. Winker; Mark A. Vaughan; Yongxiang Hu; Charles R. Trepte; Richard A. Ferrare; Kam-Pui Lee; Chris A. Hostetler; Chieko Kittaka; Raymond R. Rogers; Ralph E. Kuehn; Zhaoyan Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

136

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

change. Tiny Specks with Large Effects Most people equate aerosols with hairspray and household cleaning products, but a large portion of these microscopic particles floating...

137

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

over the southwest summer monsoon region, Meteorol. Atmos.Absorbing aerosols and summer monsoon evolution over SouthK. M. Kim (2006), Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Micro Aerosol-based Decontamination System - Available ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Micro Aerosol-based Decontamination System. Battelle Number(s): 15847. ...

139

Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

range transport of biomass combustion aerosols. Environ.6 6.1 Introduction Biomass combustion emissions contributeparticles from the combustion of biomass fuels. Environ.

Qi, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Aerosol Retrieval Using Remote-sensed Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electromagnetic solar radiation. The amount of atmosphericas the amount of solar radiation that aerosols scatter andbased on reflected solar radiation field measurements

Wang, Yueqing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

142

A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION Title THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report...

144

Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate twentieth century transient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate twentieth century transient model investigation: Trends in short-lived species and climate responses Title Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate...

145

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

146

OLIGOMERIZATION OF LEVOGLUCOSAN IN PROXIES OF BIOMASS BURNING AEROSOLS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass burning aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere and therefore, affect global climate. Biomass burning aerosols are generally… (more)

Holmes, Bryan J.

147

Evaluating the Direct and Indirect Aerosol Effect on Climate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

one of the largest uncertainties in climate forcing studies is the effect of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. Aerosols affect the radiation budget under both clear...

148

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aerosol Jet printing, is finding wide use in a number of ... The Aerosol Jet systems deposit a wide variety of functional materials onto a wide ...

149

Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols-Interim...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols-Interim Report. Title Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols-Interim Report. Publication Type Report...

150

Modeling Corrosion of a Metal under an Aerosol Droplet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deposition of aerosol droplets produced either by marine or industrial activity on the ... The atmospheric corrosion caused by aerosols is a result of a complex ...

151

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton,...

152

Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin Title Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin...

153

The Transformation of Outdoor Ammonium Nitrate Aerosols in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Transformation of Outdoor Ammonium Nitrate Aerosols in the Indoor Environment Title The Transformation of Outdoor Ammonium Nitrate Aerosols in the Indoor Environment...

154

Retrieval of Aerosol Mass Concentration from Elastic Lidar Data.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Agricultural aerosol sources can contribute significantly to air pollution in many regions of the country. Characterization of the aerosol emissions of agricultural operations is required… (more)

Marchant, Christian C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Studies of urban atmospheric aerosols using lidar and sky radiometer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

???This thesis discusses the remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, the corresponding instrumental technology and inversion algorithm. The urban aerosol optical properties in Hong Kong have… (more)

Yang, Xun (??)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waterflooding has become standard practice for extending the productive life of many solution gas drive reservoirs, but has the disadvantage of leaving a substantial residual oil volume in the reservoir. Solvent flooding has been offered as a method whereby oil may be completely displaced from the reservoir, leaving no residual volume. Field results have demonstrated that solvent floods suffer from early solvent breakthrough and considerable oil by-passing owing to high solvent mobility. The injection of both water and solvent has been demonstrated to offer advantages. Water partially mitigates both the adverse mobility and high cost of solvent floods, while solvent mobilizes oil which would be left in the reservoir by water alone. The process is equally applicable to reservoirs currently at residual oil saturation (tertiary floods) and to reservoirs at maximum oil saturation (secondary floods). In stratified reservoirs high permeability layers may be preferentially swept by solvent floods, while low permeability layers may be scarcely swept at all. Presence or absence of transverse communication between layers can modify overall sweep efficiency. This work is a study of water-solvent injection in stratified reservoirs based on computer simulation results. Fractional oil recovery as a function of injected solvent fraction, permeability contrast between layers, initial oil saturation, and presence or absence of transverse communication between strata has been determined. Results are presented as a series of optimization curves. Permeability contrast between layers is shown to be the dominant control on fractional oil recovery. Transverse communicating reservoirs are shown to require a higher solvent-water ratio in order to attain recoveries comparable to transverse noncommunicating reservoirs. In actual field projects, water and solvent are injected alternately as discrete slugs. This process is known as "WAG" for "water-alternating-gas". In the simulations used in this study, continuous water-solvent injection at a fixed fraction rather than true WAG was employed. It is demonstrated that the two methods give equivalent results. In summary, this work is the first comprehensive study of the behavior of stratified reservoirs undergoing water-solvent injection.

Moon, Gary Michael

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

METHOD FOR SOLVENT-ISOSTATIC PRESSING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method for producing densely compacted bodies having relatively large dimensions. The method comprises the addition of a small quantity of a suitable solvent to a powder which is to be compacted. The solvent- moistened powder is placed inside a flexible bag, and the bag is suspended in an isostatic press. The solvent is squeezed out of the powder by the isostatic pressure, and the resulting compacted body is recovered. The presence of the solvent markedly decreases the proportion of void space in the powder, thereby resulting in a denser, more homogeneous compact. Another effect of the solvent is that it allows the isostatic pressing operation to be conducted at substantially lower pressures than are conventionally employed. (AEC)

Archibald, P.B.

1962-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

158

Longwave radiative forcing by aqueous aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a great deal of interest has been focused on the role of aerosols in climatic change because of their potential cooling impacts due to light scattering. Recent advances in infrared spectroscopy using cylindrical internal reflectance have allowed the longwave absorption of dissolved aerosol species and the associated liquid water to be accurately determined and evaluated. Experimental measurements using these techniques have shown that dissolved sulfate, nitrate, and numerous other aerosol species will act to cause greenhouse effects. Preliminary calculations indicate that the longwave climate forcing (i.e., heating) for sulfate aerosol will be comparable in magnitude to the cooling effect produced by light scattering. However, more detailed modeling will clearly be needed to address the impact of the longwave forcing due to aerosols as a function of atmospheric height and composition. Their work has shown that aerosol composition will be important in determining longwave forcing, while shortwave forcing will be more related to the physical size of the aerosol droplets. On the basis of these studies, it is increasingly apparent that aerosols, fogs, and clouds play a key role in determining the radiative balance of the atmosphere and in controlling regional and global climates.

Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

BNL | Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) The Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) is a platform and instrument suite for Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) to conduct in situ measurements of aerosols and their precursors. MAOS is part of the ARM Climate Research Facility. Physically MAOS is contained in two 20' SeaTainers custom adapted to provide a sheltered laboratory environment for operators and instruments even under harsh conditions. The two structures are designated MAOS-A and MAOS-C for Aerosol and Chemistry respectively. Although independent, with separate data systems, inlets and power distribution, the two structures are normally a single operating unit. The two enclosures comprising MAOS are designed for rapid deployment. All components (except for the Radar Wind Profiler) are transported internally

160

The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC) The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC) Speaker(s): Harmony Gates Date: February 22, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Melissa Lunden A new differential mobility classifier will be described. The instrument classifies aerosol particles in a channel flow between porous (or screen) electrodes. The aerosol enters the channel parallel to the porous electrodes, while a larger, particle-free cross-flow enters through one of the porous electrode. A potential difference between electrodes causes the charged aerosol particles to migrate upstream against the cross-flow. Only particles whose upward migration velocity balances the cross flow will be transmitted along the path of the classifier. Simulations of the OMAC show that it should give the same resolution at the traditional

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Genomic and Genetic Approaches to Solvent Tolerance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proposed research is to understand and exploit the molecular basis that determines tolerance of the industrially important anaerobic clostridia to solvents. Furthermore, we aim to develop general genomic and metabolic engineering strategies for understanding the molecular basis of tolerance to chemicals and for developing tolerant strains. Our hypothesis is that the molecular basis of what makes bacterial cells able to withstand high solvent concentrations can be used to metabolically engineer cells so that they can tolerate higher concentrations of solvents and related chemicals.

Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

162

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

SciTech Connect

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

A Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction  

SciTech Connect

The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

166

Solvent composition and process for the isolation of radium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent extraction composition for radium including a high molecular weight organophilic carboxylic acid and an organophilic macrocycle dissolved in a suitable solvent. 2 figs.

McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

1988-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

167

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

168

Pollution Prevention Applications for Solvent Use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are working to eliminate or minimize the production of waste in power plant and auxiliary operations. This report presents a six-step process for pollution prevention and case studies with five utilities demonstrating successful applications for solvent uses.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

169

How solvent vapors can improve steam floods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal recovery methods depend for their success on the viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils at high temperatures. The viscosity of a heavy oil can also be reduced if it is diluted with a low-viscosity solvent, such as one of the lighter hydrocarbons. It is not surprising that there has been considerable interest in combining the two methods. The process of injecting vaporized solvent with the steam for a gravity drainage type recovery is described here along with a description of the particular phase behavior of steam/solvent mixtures which is beneficial to the process. And computer simulations which compare steam-only and steam/solvent floods under Athabasca-type conditions are overviewed.

Vogel, J. [Vogel, (Jack), Seabrook, TX (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Novel Solvent System for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solvent System for CO Solvent System for CO 2 Capture Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental

171

Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Method of stripping metals from organic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St.-Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasily A. (St-Petersburg, RU); Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M. (St-Petersburg, RU)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

173

Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME burning events. It is found that the regional AAI data follow the regional tropospheric NO2 data well sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

175

Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Seinfeld, J. H. : Organic aerosol formation from theJ. : A large organic aerosol source in the free troposphereand Worsnop, D. R. : Organic aerosol components observed in

Cappa, Christopher D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Aerosol effects on red blue ratio of clear sky images, and impact on solar forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

urban, and desert dust aerosols ." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICALand K. V. S. Badarinath. "Aerosol climatology: dependence ofUsing a Sky Imager for aerosol characterization."

Ghonima, Mohamed Sherif

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in press), Organic aerosols in the earth's atmosphere,loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratoryproperties of biomass burn aerosols, Geophysical Research

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. : A parameterization of aerosol activation - 3. Sectionalclouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,2004. Albrecht, B. A. : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Quaas, Johannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Primary Aliphatic Amines with Nitrate Radical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

back- ground atmospheric aerosol in the UK determined inof secondary organic aerosols, Atmos. Environ. , 31, 3921–et al. : Secondary organic aerosol formation from amines

Malloy, Q G J; Qi, L; Warren, B; Cocker III, D R; Erupe, M E; Silva, P J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Impacts of aerosol-cloud interactions on past and future changes in tropospheric composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of gas-phase chemistry-aerosol interactions on directforcing by anthropogenic aerosols and ozone, J. Geophys.GCM to constrain the aerosol indirect effect, J. Geophys.

Menon, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

instruments and photoelectric aerosol sensors in source-sampling of black carbon aerosol and particle-bound PAHsAirborne minerals and related aerosol particles: Effects on

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Composition, sources, and formation of secondary organic aerosols from urban emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles200 5.1v aerosol Chapter 3 Meteorological conditions during theSecondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources

Liu, Shang; Liu, Shang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

X-RAY METHODS FOR THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Goulding Fine Particles: Aerosol Generation, Sampling andCHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS J.M. Jaklevic andCHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS J.M. Jaklevic and

Jaklevic, J.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud susceptibility and the first aerosol indirect forcing:Sensitivity to BC and aerosol concentrations. J. Geophys.of cloud droplet and aerosols number concentrations:

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Characterization of the Molecular Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene, Proc.biogenic secondary organic aerosol, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112(in secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 41(

Sellon, Rachel Elizabeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition of ambient aerosol particles, EnvironmentalParticle Measurement of Ambient Aerosol Particles Containingfor quantifying direct aerosol forcing of climate, Bull. Am.

Moffet, Ryan Christopher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

DETERMINATION OF CARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deuteron irradiation of an atmospheric aerosol sample.CARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEARCARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEAR

Clemenson, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

On the Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols, J. Geophys. Res. -particulate diesel exhaust, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 25: 221-climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols, J. Geophys. Res. -

Pang, Y.; Turpin, B.J.; Gundel, L.A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oscillation influence aerosol variability? , J. Geophys.clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,2004. Albrecht, B. A. : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Quaas, Johannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008,H. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from reactionsec- ondary organic aerosol yields. Atmospheric Chemistry

Rollins, Andrew W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Radical-Initiated Reactions of Alkenes: Development of Mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Secondary Organic Aerosols in Southern California duringSources of Organic Carbon Aerosols in the Free Troposphere21 co-authors), 2005. Organic Aerosol and Global Climate

Matsunaga, Aiko

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ryu (2004), Carbonaceous aerosol characteristics ofPM 2.5Allen (1990), Transported acid aerosols measured in southernconference international aerosol carbon round robin test

Novakov, T.; Menon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Koch, D.; Hansen, J.E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH FY-1979, CHAPTER IN THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT, 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California atmospheric aerosols," Environ. Sci. Technol. ll•suspensions," in Atmospheric Aerosol Research Annual Report,formation," in Atmospheric Aerosol Research Annual Report,

Authors, Various

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

195

Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Aerosols over Land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of accurate polarized reflectance measurements over a broad spectral (410 -2250 nm) and angular (±60° from nadir) range to the presence of aerosols over land is analyzed and the consequent ability to retrieve the aerosol burden and microphysical model is assessed. Here we present a new approach to the correction of polarization observations for the effects of the surface that uses longer wavelength observations to provide a direct estimate of the surface polarized reflectance. This approach to surface modeling is incorporated into an optimal estimation framework for retrieving the particle number density and a detailed aerosol microphysical model: effective radius, effective variance and complex refractive index of aerosols. A sensitivity analysis shows that the uncertainties in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) increase with AOT while the uncertainties in the microphysical model decrease. Of particular note is that the uncertainty in the single scattering albedo is less than 0.05 by the time the AOT is greater than 0.2. We also find that calibration is the major source of uncertainty and that perfect angular and spectral correlation of calibration errors reduces the uncertainties in retrieved quantities compared with the case of uncorrelated errors. Finally, in terms of required spectral range, we observe that shorter wavelength (aerosols from polarized reflectance observations. The optimal estimation scheme is then tested on observations made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter during the Aerosol Lidar Validation experiment and over Southern California wild fires. These two sets of observations test the retrieval scheme under pristine and polluted conditions respectively. In both cases we find that the retrievals are within the combined uncertainties of the retrieval and the Aerosol Robotic Network Cimel products and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index that we are comparing to. This confirms the validity of the sensitivity analysis of the polarized reflectance observations to the aerosol number density and microphysical model and demonstrates the unique capability to accurately retrieve aerosol optical depths under pristine conditions and also the single scattering albedo of aerosols at higher optical depths.

Waquet, F.; Cairns, Brian; Knobelspiesse, Kirk D.; Chowdhary, J.; Travis, Larry D.; Schmid, Beat; Mishchenko, M.

2009-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

196

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Emerging Technology for Measuring Atmospheric Aerosol Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven Laboratory and with funding from the DOE STTR program. DMT is developing a new technique for measuring aerosol size distributions in the sub-0.1 um size range. The...

198

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

199

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

200

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

202

BNL | Two-Column Aerosol Program (TCAP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) There remain many key knowledge gaps despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. Many climatically important processes depend on particles that undergo continuous changes within a size range spanning a few nanometers to a few microns, and with compositions that consist of a variety of carbonaceous materials, soluble inorganic salts and acids and insoluble mineral dust. Primary particles, which are externally-mixed when emitted, are subject to coagulation and chemical changes associated with the condensation of semi-volatile gases to their surface resulting in a spectrum of compositions or mixing-states with a range of climate-affecting optical and hygroscopic properties. The numerical treatments of aerosol transformation

203

Exploring Atmospheric Aerosols by Twilight Photometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instrument twilight photometer was designed, developed, and installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India (18°43?N, 73°51?E), to monitor the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The instrument, based ...

B. Padma Kumari; S. H. Kulkarni; D. B. Jadhav; A. L. Londhe; H. K. Trimbake

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions are widely held to be the largest single source of uncertainty in climate model projections of future radiative forcing due to increasing anthropogenic emissions. The underlying causes of this uncertainty among modeled ...

Lynn M. Russell; Armin Sorooshian; John H. Seinfeld; Bruce A. Albrecht; Athanasios Nenes; Lars Ahlm; Yi-Chun Chen; Matthew Coggon; Jill S. Craven; Richard C. Flagan; Amanda A. Frossard; Haflidi Jonsson; Eunsil Jung; Jack J. Lin; Andrew R. Metcalf; Robin Modini; Johannes Mülmenstädt; Greg Roberts; Taylor Shingler; Siwon Song; Zhen Wang; Anna Wonaschütz

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

ARM - Campaign Instrument - aerosol-tower-eml  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsaerosol-tower-eml Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : EML Tower based Aerosol...

206

Remote Sensing of Aerosol Properties during CARES  

SciTech Connect

One month of MFRSR data collected at two sites in the central California (USA) region during the CARES campaign are processed and the MFRSR-derived AODs at 500 nm wavelength are compared with available AODs provided by AERONET measurements. We find that the MFRSR and AERONET AODs are small ({approx}0.05) and comparable. A reasonable quantitative agreement between column aerosol size distributions (up to 2 um) from the MFRSR and AERONET retrievals is illustrated as well. Analysis of the retrieved (MFRSR and AERONET) and in situ measured aerosol size distributions suggests that the contribution of the coarse mode to aerosol optical properties is substantial for several days. The results of a radiative closure experiment performed for the two sites and one-month period show a favorable agreement between the calculated and measured broadband downwelling irradiances (bias does not exceed about 3 Wm-2), and thus imply that the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are reasonable.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Jobson, Bertram Thomas

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The ...

Patrick Hamill; Eric J. Jensen; P. B. Russell; Jill J. Bauman

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

On the Background Stratospheric Aerosol Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near ...

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile...

210

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during SHADE: 1. Solar spectrum, J. Geophys. Res . , 108(sensed data in the solar spectrum, J. Geophys. Res , 106 (a scattering aerosol in the solar spectrum with a SSA=1 and

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

A New Method for Measuring Aerosol Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique has recently been developed to measure aerosol absorption by means of a microdensitometer. Black particulate material is collected into six spots on membrane filters by a laboratory-tested impaction/concentration technique. Follow-...

B. B. Murphey; S. I. Reynolds

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Aerosol Transport in the Southern Sierra Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol transport and meteorology were investigated during 10 days in August 1985, at three elevations in the southern Sierra. Ground weather station and pilot balloon data revealed the diurnal variation of the topographic winds to be remarkably ...

D. M. Ewell; R. G. Flocchini; L. O. Myrup; T. A. Cahill

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol concentrations on convective storm development and precipitation over and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri, are investigated. This is achieved through the use of a cloud-resolving mesoscale model, in which ...

Susan C. van den Heever; William R. Cotton

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.

Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

215

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Lidar Validation Experiment - ALIVE Campaign Links ALIVE Website Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

216

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: A decade long aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A decade long aerosol and cloud statistics and aerosol indirect effect at A decade long aerosol and cloud statistics and aerosol indirect effect at the ARM SGP site Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Harrison, Lee State University of New York Joseph, Everette Howard University Twelve-year data of MFRSR and MWR have been used to derive aerosol and cloud optical properties at the ARM SGP. Diurnal, monthly, seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol (optical depth and Angstrom coefficient) and cloud (optical depth and effective radius) have been analyzed. We specially focused on aerosol-cloud interactions. We found a signature of indirect aerosol effect for summer data: increased aerosol index has a statistically-significant anti-correlation with mean effective radius. No

217

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL Campaign Links Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle: Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer - CIMS 2011.07.10, Lee, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS 2011.06.15, Zhang, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: ARM Mobile Facility 2 Aerosol Observing System 2011.06.15, Sedlacek, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10, Hallar, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01 - 2011.08.31 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below.

218

DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL SIZE DISTRIBUTION FROM MEASUREMENTS OF LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE AND SCATTERING Ernie R. Lewis and Stephen E. Schwartz Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11933 ses@bnl.gov elewis@bnl.gov MOMENTS FROM MEASUREMENTS As each of the measured quantities is linear in the size distribution dn/dr, it is possible to construct linear combinations of measurements that yield

219

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage t

Dunn, P.F.; Herceg, J.E.; Klocksieben, R.H.

1984-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

220

Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite decades of study, we still do not fully understand aerosols and their interactions among gases or other aerosols in the atmosphere. Among their impacts, they influence radiative transfer in the atmosphere and contribute to cloud formation. There are many different types of aerosols, including dust particles, soot particles, and microscopic particles containing inorganic compounds such as sulfates. Most of these particles have natural origins, but many are anthropogenic. The eventual purpose of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases such as ozone, reactive nitrogen, mercury, and sulfur containing compounds. Urban areas are most impacted by these trace gases, which is a concern because ozone especially affects the health of citizens. Experiments have three basic parts. First we generate mono-disperse 3 aerosols. That aerosol is then injected into the aerosol chambers with sea salt aerosols and prescribed concentrations of trace gases to characterize relevant interactions. However, those chambers are still under construction and not used during my study. The processed aerosols are then analyzed with a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) and other equipment. Different concentrations of sea salt aerosols, Cl, NOx, and other gases were planned to be introduced during the experiments. Concentrations of other gases and intensity of solar radiation would mimic those outside. Because these reactions have proved to increase localized concentrations of ozone in other work, this could have important implications. Future work will be designed to find study these interactions. This is important because the EPA has considered tightening the standards for both ozone and particulate matter. Industries would then need to reduce emissions or move farther from current sources of Cl or NOx pollution.

Benoit, Mark David

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Brayton Solvent Recovery Heat Pump Technology Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Brayton cycle technology was developed to reduce the temperature of gas streams containing solvents in order to condense and recover them. While the use of turbo compressor/expander machinery in conjunction with an energy recuperator is the basis for this heat pump process, many variations can be incorporated to optimize the total process for specific applications. Several process schemes will be discussed including both direct condensation and adsorption approaches. For situations where the solvent is at a relatively high concentration, such as tank filling operations, the direct condensation system is chosen. If the concentrations are low, which would be the case for an oven drying operation, activated carbon beds are used to concentrate the solvent. Many improvements on the first generation designs have been made in both process and the equipment components used for various commercial installations. Several specific applications have been identified as being well suited to take advantage of the features of this type of equipment.

Enneking, J. C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial  

SciTech Connect

This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC{reg_sign} to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications.

Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W. [Washington Savannah River Company, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We present here a fully coupled global aerosol and chemistry model for the troposphere. The model is used to assess the interactions between aerosols and chemical oxidants in the troposphere, including (1) the conversion from gas-phase oxidants into the condensed phase during the formation of aerosols, (2) the heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of aerosols, and (3) the effect of aerosols on ultraviolet radiation and photolysis rates. The present study uses the global three-dimensional chemical/ transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), in which aerosols are coupled with the model. The model accounts for the presence of

Xuexi Tie; Sasha Madronich; Stacy Walters; David P. Edwards; Paul Ginoux; Natalie Mahowald; Renyi Zhang; Chao Lou; Guy Brasseur

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

226

Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly Large Contribution of Coarse Mode to Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The majority of previous studies dealing with effect of coarse-mode aerosols on the radiation budget have focused primary on polluted regions with substantial aerosol loadings. We reexamine this effect for a relatively "pristine" area using a unique 1-month dataset collected during recent Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). We demonstrate that the coarse-mode (supermicron) particles can contribute substantially (more than 50%) and frequently (up to 85% of time) to the total volume. In contrast to the conventional expectations that the radiative impact of coarse-mode aerosols should be small for "pristine" regions, we find that the neglecting of the large particles may lead to significant overestimation (up to 45%) of direct aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of atmosphere despite of very small aerosol optical depth (about 0.05 at 0.5 ). Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of the coarse-mode aerosols on the pristine radiative properties over land and the need for more explicit inclusion of the coarse-mode aerosols in climate-related observational and model studies.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Barnard, James C.

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

227

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Plasma Surface Modification of Electrospun Fibers for Adhesion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potential strategy is segregation based on adhesion strength. ... Nanowire Templates Facilitates Neural Stem Cell Adhesion, Proliferation and Differentiation ... Sol-Gel Synthesis of Bio-Active Nanoporous Sodium Zirconate Coated on 316L ...

229

ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and MFRSR Measurements ARM STM 2008 Norfolk, VA Connor Flynn 1 , Annette Koontz 1 , Anne Jefferson 2 , Jim Barnard 1 , Sally McFarlane 1 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder Progress towards ARM DOE 2008 Performance Metric 3 & 4 * Produce and make available new continuous time series of aerosol total column depth, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. * Produce and make available new continuous time series of retrieved dust properties, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. 0 100 200 300 400 0 20 40 60 80 100 ITF movement and surface RH % RH day of year (2006) 0 100 200 300 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 day of year wind direction (N = 0, E = 90) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Wind speed m/s 0 100 200 300 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 MFRSR Vo for filter2, Niamey

230

Aerosol Data Sources and Their Roles within PARAGON  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We briefly but systematically review major sources of aerosol data, emphasizing suites of measurements that seem most likely to contribute to assessments of global aerosol climate forcing. The strengths and limitations of existing satellite, ...

Ralph A. Kahn; John A. Ogren; Thomas P. Ackerman; Jens Bösenberg; Robert J. Charlson; David J. Diner; Brent N. Holben; Robert T. Menzies; Mark A. Miller; John H. Seinfeld

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systematic characterization of aerosol over the oceans is needed to understand the aerosol effect on climate and on transport of pollutants between continents. Reported are the results of a comprehensive optical and physical characterization of ...

Alexander Smirnov; Brent N. Holben; Yoram J. Kaufman; Oleg Dubovik; Thomas F. Eck; Ilya Slutsker; Christophe Pietras; Rangasayi N. Halthore

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26, Zaveri, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering 2010.05.26, Arnott, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES): SMPS & CCN counter deployment during CARES/Cal-NEx 2010.05.04, Wang, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01, Cziczo, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

234

Optical Properties of Aerosol Particles over the Northeast Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In July 2002, atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted over the northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enhancement Study (SERIES). The following aerosol quantities were measured: particle number size ...

Julia Marshall; Ulrike Lohmann; W. Richard Leaitch; Nicole Shantz; Lisa Phinney; Desiree Toom-Sauntry; Sangeeta Sharma

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and joint-type leaks Title Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and joint-type leaks Publication Type...

236

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) will be deployed on Cape Cod (MA) for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol...

237

Dynamical Effects of Aerosol Perturbations on Simulated Idealized Squall Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical effects of increased aerosol loading on the strength and structure of numerically simulated squall lines are explored. Results are explained in the context of RKW theory. Changes in aerosol loading lead to changes in rain drop size ...

Zachary J. Lebo; Hugh Morrison

238

Light Extinction by Aerosols during Summer Air Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to utilize satellite measurements of optical thickness over land for estimating aerosol properties during air pollution episodes the optical thickness was measured from the surface and investigated. Aerosol optical thicknesses have been ...

Yoram J. Kaufman; Robert S. Fraser

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon–snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol–climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model ...

Dorothy Koch; Surabi Menon; Anthony Del Genio; Reto Ruedy; Igor Alienov; Gavin A. Schmidt

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Quantifying and Minimizing Uncertainty of Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic aerosols are composed of a variety of aerosol types and components including water-soluble inorganic species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), condensed organic species, elemental or black carbon, and mineral dust. Previous ...

J. E. Penner; R. J. Charlson; S. E. Schwartz; J. M. Hales; N. S. Laulainen; L. Travis; R. Leifer; T. Novakov; J. Ogren; L. F. Radke

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Overview of the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) was to characterize and contrast freshly emitted aerosols below, within, and above fields of cumuli, and to study changes to the cloud microphysical structure within these ...

Larry K. Berg; Carl M. Berkowitz; John M. Hubbe; John A. Ogren; Chris A. Hostetler; Richard A. Ferrare; Johnathan W. Hair; Manvendra K. Dubey; Claudio Mazzoleni; Elisabeth Andrews; Richard L. Coulter; Yin-Nan Lee; Jasono Olfert; Stephen R. Springston

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Aerosol Impacts on the Microphysical Growth Processes of Orographic Snowfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System was used to simulate four winter snowfall events over the Park Range of Colorado. For each event, three hygroscopic aerosol sensitivity simulations were performed with initial aerosol profiles representing ...

Stephen M. Saleeby; William R. Cotton; Douglas Lowenthal; Joe Messina

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Aerosol Impacts on the Diurnal Cycle of Marine Stratocumulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent large-eddy simulation (LES) studies of the impact of aerosol on the dynamics of nocturnal marine stratocumulus revealed that, depending on the large-scale forcings, an aerosol-induced increase of the droplet concentration can lead to ...

Irina Sandu; Jean-Louis Brenguier; Olivier Geoffroy; Odile Thouron; Valery Masson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A Critical Examination of the Observed First Aerosol Indirect Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative change in cloud droplet number concentration with respect to the relative change in aerosol number concentration, ?, is an indicator of the strength of the aerosol indirect effect and is commonly used in models to parameterize this ...

Hongfei Shao; Guosheng Liu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method for making adhesive from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin. 2 figures.

Russell, J.A.; Riemath, W.F.

1984-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method for making adhesive from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin.

Russell, Janet A. (Richland, WA); Riemath, William F. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crutzen, P. : Atmospheric Aerosols: Biogeochemical sourcesof optically active aerosol particles over the Amazonproperties of Amazonian aerosol particles: Rev. Geophys. ,

Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Sensitivity of aerosol radiative forcing calculations to spectral resolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential impacts of aerosol radiative forcing on climate have generated considerable recent interest. An important consideration in estimating the forcing from various aerosol components is the spectral resolution used for the solar radiative transfer calculations. This paper examines the spectral resolution required from the viewpoint of overlapping spectrally varying aerosol properties with other cross sections. A diagnostic is developed for comparing different band choices, and the impact of these choices on the radiative forcing calculated for typical sulfate and biomass aerosols was investigated.

Grant, K.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Mechanical properties of Hysol EA-9394 structural adhesive  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dextor`s Hysol EA-9394 is a room temperature curable paste adhesive representative of the adhesives used in wind turbine blade joints. A mechanical testing program has been performed to characterize this adhesive. Tension, compression stress relaxation, flexural, butt tensile, and fracture toughness test results are reported.

Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D.; Stavig, M.E.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Solvent-assisted NMR imaging or heterogeneous coal macromolecular networks  

SciTech Connect

Solvent swelling has been employed to probe the physical structure of coal (1). The swelling behavior of bituminous coals in various solvents has been used to assess different strengths or types of secondary interactions which determine their macromolecular structures (2-5). The phenomenon of solvent transport into coal during solvent swelling has also been extensively investigated by numerous researchers (6-10). Recently, we have obtained important information concerning solvent accessibility in coals and maceral domains by proton NMR imaging of mobile proton distributions resulting from solvent swelling (11). Images of coals swollen with perdeuterated solvents were used to map mobile phases in the coal macromolecular structure, while images obtained with protic solvents mapped distributions of the ingressed solvent. For the present purposes 2-D images are sufficient and their acquisition is suitably fast. In order to ensure that the transport process was also two-dimensional, the upper and lower sample surfaces were protected from solvent infiltration by glass coverslips which restricted the flow of solvent to cross only the exposed faces of the sample. Each sample is rectangular with initial dimensions on the order of 2 {times} 2 {times} 1 mm. The experimental protocol involved immersing the sample in the solvent for a period of time, removing it from the solvent bath, acquiring an image, and re-immersing it. Figure 1 presents transient images together with one-dimensional projections for each of the three macromolecular systems.

French, D.C.; Cody, G.D.; Botto, R.E.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic ...

S. J. Ghan; X. Liu; R. C. Easter; R. Zaveri; P. J. Rasch; J.-H. Yoon; B. Eaton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Observations of Saharan Aerosols: Results of ECLATS Field Experiment. Part I: Optical Thicknesses and Aerosol Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ground-based and airborne observations of desert aerosols, the ECLATS experiment was carried out in December 1980 in the vicinity of Niamey (Niger). This paper deals with aerosol optical thicknesses and size distributions derived from ...

Y. Fouquart; B. Bonnel; M. Chaoui Roquai; R. Santer; A. Cerf

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Emission-Induced Nonlinearities in the Global Aerosol System: Results from the ECHAM5-HAM Aerosol-Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a series of simulations with the global ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model, the response to changes in anthropogenic emissions is analyzed. Traditionally, additivity is assumed in the assessment of the aerosol climate impact, as the underlying ...

Philip Stier; Johann Feichter; Silvia Kloster; Elisabetta Vignati; Julian Wilson

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Possible Aerosol Effects on Ice Clouds via Contact Nucleation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The indirect effect of aerosols on water clouds, whereby aerosol particles change cloud optical properties, is caused by aerosol-induced changes of the size and number of cloud droplets. This affects the lifetime of the water clouds as well as ...

Ulrike Lohmann

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Campaign Campaign For the month of April, researchers are descending on and above Barrow, Alaska, to obtain data from the atmosphere that will help them understand the impacts that aerosols have on Arctic clouds and climate. Scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are using a heavily instrumented aircraft to collect data from the sky, while instruments based at surface sites in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, are obtaining measurements from the ground. Information obtained during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, will help scientists analyze the role of aerosols in climate, and represents a key contribution to Arctic climate research during International Polar Year.

256

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Model Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, (510) 495-2404 LosAngelesSmogv1.jpg Smog over downtown Los Angeles. Aerosols are microscopic particles-like dust, pollen and soot-that ubiquitously float around in our atmosphere. Despite their tiny stature, these particles can have a huge impact on human health, climate and the environment. So scientists from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Colorado State University and the California Air Resources Board have set out to characterize the roles of various particles as atmospheric change agents on a regional scale.

257

Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework that describes the atmospheric evolution of OA and is constrained and motivated by new, high time resolution, experimental characterizations of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of large amounts of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass that has comparable concentrations to sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. Our new model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in the atmosphere and the laboratory and can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Qi; Kroll, Jesse H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, Allison; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Dunlea, E. J.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, Paul I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Yutaka; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, Robert; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, Joel; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, Scott C.; Trimborn, Achim; Williams, L. R.; Wood, Ezra C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

Morphology effects on polydispersed aerosol deposition rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the analysis of severe nuclear accidents, accurate prediction of aerosol deposition is important since, among other things, this influences the distribution of radioactive decay heat within the primary system and containment compartments. The fact that the aerosol cloud is not comprised of dense isolated spherical particles of only one size inevitably complicates such calculations but must be taken into account. Some particle deposition mechanisms are more sensitive to particle size and morphology than others so that simplifying assumptions valid for one mechanism [such as particle thermophoresis (notoriously size and morphology insensitive)] may be seriously in error for others (e.g., convective Brownian diffusion or eddy impaction). This paper deals with aggregate aerosol deposition.

Rosner, D.E.; Tandon, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Khalil, Y.F. [Northeast Utilities Service Co., Berlin, CT (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Can aerosols be trapped in open flows?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fate of aerosols in open flows is relevant in a variety of physical contexts. Previous results are consistent with the assumption that such finite-size particles always escape in open chaotic advection. Here we show that a different behavior is possible. We analyze the dynamics of aerosols both in the absence and presence of gravitational effects, and both when the dynamics of the fluid particles is hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic. Permanent trapping of aerosols much heavier than the advecting fluid is shown to occur in all these cases. This phenomenon is determined by the occurrence of multiple vortices in the flow and is predicted to happen for realistic particle-fluid density ratios.

Rafael D. Vilela; Adilson E. Motter

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

260

Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A high-resolution estimate of monthly 3D aerosol solar heating rates and surface solar fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2004 is described here. This product stems from an Asian aerosol assimilation project, in which a) the PNNL regional model bounded by the NCEP reanalyses was used to provide meteorology, b) MODIS and AERONET data were integrated for aerosol observations, c) the Iowa aerosol/chemistry model STEM-2K1 used the PNNL meteorology and assimilated aerosol observations, and d) 3D (X-Y-Z) aerosol simulations from the STEM-2K1 were used in the Scripps Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR) model to produce total and anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing for average cloudy skies. The MACR model and STEM both used the PNNL model resolution of 0.45º×0.4º in the horizontal and of 23 layers in the troposphere. The 2001–2004 averaged anthropogenic all-sky aerosol forcing is ?1.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +7.3 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?8.6 Wm-2 (surface) averaged in Asia (60?138°E & Eq. ?45°N). In the absence of AERONET SSA assimilation, absorbing aerosol concentration (especially BC aerosol) is much smaller, giving ?2.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +4.5 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?6.8 Wm-2 (surface), averaged in Asia. In the vertical, monthly forcing is mainly concentrated below 600hPa with maxima around 800hPa. Seasonally, low-level forcing is far larger in dry season than in wet season in South Asia, whereas the wet season forcing exceeds the dry season forcing in East Asia. The anthropogenic forcing in the present study is similar to that in Chung et al.’s [2005] in overall magnitude but the former offers fine-scale features and simulated vertical profiles. The interannual variability of the computed anthropogenic forcing is significant and extremely large over major emission outflow areas. In view of this, the present study’s estimate is within the implicated range of the 1999 INDOEX result. However, NCAR/CCSM3’s anthropogenic aerosol forcing is much smaller than the present study’s estimate at the surface, and is outside of what the INDOEX findings can support.

Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V.; Carmichael, Gregory; Kulkarni, S.; Tang, Youhua; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Construction of prototype system for directional solvent extraction desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Directional solvent extraction has been demonstrated as a low temperature, membrane free desalination process. This method dissolves the water into an inexpensive, benign directional solvent, rejects the contaminants, then ...

Fowler, Michael James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

between Photolytic Aerosols and Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the early 70’s chemistry and transport models (ChTMs) have been proposed and improved. Tropospheric ChTMs for trace species are detailed numerical formulations intended to represent the atmospheric system as a whole, accounting for all the individual processes and phenomena that influence climate changes. The development of computer resources and the retrieval of emission inventories and observational data of the species of interest have enhanced the model evolution towards three-dimensional global models that account for more complicated chemical mechanisms, wet and dry deposition phenomena, and interactions and feedback mechanisms between meteorology and atmospheric chemistry. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the sensitivity of the solar radiative field in the atmosphere to absorption and scattering by aerosols. This effort is preliminary to the study of feedback mechanisms between photolytic processes that create and destroy aerosols and the radiation field itself. In this study, a cloud of water-soluble aerosols, randomly distributed in space within hypothetical 1-cm cubes of atmosphere, is generated. A random radius is assigned to each aerosol according to a lognormal size distribution function. The radiative field characterization is analyzed using a Mie scattering code to determine the scattering phase function and the absorption and scattering coefficients of sulfate aerosols, and a Monte Carlo ray-trace code is used to evaluate the radiative exchange. The ultimate goal of the effort is to create a tool to analyze the vertical distribution of absorption by aerosols in order to determine whether or not feedback between photolytic processes and the radiation field needs to be included in a Third Generation Chemistry and Transport model. ii

María Santa; María Iruzubieta; María Santa; María Iruzubieta

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] This study simulates the direct radiative forcing of organic aerosol using the GFDL AM2 GCM. The aerosol climatology is provided by the MOZART chemical transport model (CTM). The approach to calculating aerosol optical properties explicitly considers relative humidity–dependent hygroscopic growth by employing a functional group– based thermodynamic model, and makes use of the size distribution derived from AERONET measurements. The preindustrial (PI) and present-day (PD) global burdens of organic carbon are 0.17 and 1.36 Tg OC, respectively. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) forcings (PI to PD) are estimated as 0.34 and 0.71 W m 2, respectively. Geographically the radiative cooling largely lies over the source regions, namely part of South America, Central Africa, Europe and South and East Asia. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky surface forcings are 0.63 and 0.98 W m 2, respectively. A series of sensitivity analyses shows that the treatments of hygroscopic growth and optical properties of organic aerosol are intertwined in the determination of the global organic aerosol forcing. For example, complete deprivation of water uptake by hydrophilic organic particles reduces the standard (total-sky) and clearsky TOA forcing estimates by 18 % and 20%, respectively, while the uptake by a highly soluble organic compound (malonic acid) enhances them by 18 % and 32%, respectively. Treating particles as non-absorbing enhances aerosol reflection and increases the total-sky and clear-sky TOA forcing by 47 % and 18%, respectively, while neglecting the scattering brought about by the water associated with particles reduces them by 24% and 7%, respectively.

Yi Ming; V. Ramaswamy; Paul A. Ginoux; Larry H. Horowitz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis - Energy ...  

The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods. Inventors: Molnar; Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA), ...

265

Available Technologies: Recovery of Sugars by Solvent Extraction  

The process minimizes toxic byproducts and facilitates ionic liquid reuse. The JBEI invention uses solvent extraction technology, ...

266

Spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing in summer 2006: 2. Local and column aerosol optical properties  

SciTech Connect

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-chem model calculations were conducted to study aerosol optical properties around Beijing, China, during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) period. In this paper, we interpret aerosol optical properties in terms of aerosol mass concentrations and their chemical compositions by linking model calculations with measurements. In general, model calculations reproduced observed features of spatial and temporal variations of various surface and column aerosol optical parameters in and around Beijing. Spatial and temporal variations of aerosol absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficient corresponded well to those of elemental carbon (primary aerosol), sulfate (secondary aerosol), and the total aerosol mass concentration, respectively. These results show that spatial and temporal variations of the absorption coefficient are controlled by local emissions (within 100 km around Beijing during the preceding 24 h), while those of the scattering coefficient are controlled by regional-scale emissions (within 500 km around Beijing during the preceding 3 days) under synoptic-scale meteorological conditions, as discussed in our previous study of aerosol mass concentration. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction revealed that the contribution of secondary aerosols and their water uptake increased with altitude within the planetary boundary layer, leading to a considerable increase in column aerosol optical depth (AOD) around Beijing. These effects are the main factors causing differences in regional and temporal variations between particulate matter (PM) mass concentration at the surface and column AOD over a wide region in the northern part of the Great North China Plain.

Matsui, Hitoshi; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Fast, Jerome D.; Poschl, U.; Garland, R. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Wiedensohler, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Zhu, T.

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

267

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage to the next. Mounted within each collection stage are one or more particle collection frames.

Dunn, Patrick F. (Downers Grove, IL); Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Klocksieben, Robert H. (Park Forest, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

269

Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal. 2 figs.

Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.

1986-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

271

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Near-Real-Time Measurement of Sea-Salt Aerosol during the SEAS Campaign: Comparison of Emission-Based Sodium Detection with an Aerosol Volatility Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first deployment of an emission-based aerosol sodium detector (ASD), designed to chemically characterize marine aerosols on a near-real-time basis, is reported. Deployment occurred as part of the Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS) ...

P. Campuzano-Jost; C. D. Clark; H. Maring; D. S. Covert; S. Howell; V. Kapustin; K. A. Clarke; E. S. Saltzman; A. J. Hynes

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Radially Classified Aerosol Detector for Aircraft-Based Submicron Aerosol Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radially classified aerosol detector (RCAD) for fast characterization of fine particle size distributions aboard aircraft has been designed and implemented. The measurement system includes a radial differential mobility analyzer and a high-flow,...

Lynn M. Russell; Shou-Hua Zhang; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld; Mark R. Stolzenburg; Robert Caldow

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

Kroll, Jesse

276

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Understanding Brown Carbon Aerosols and Their Role in Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brown Carbon Aerosols Brown Carbon Aerosols Tiny aerosol particles in the atmosphere are a possible cause of climate change. Among the many contributors to climate change are aerosols in the atmosphere. These tiny particles suspended in the air come from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Some aerosols are organic (containing carbon), while others are inorganic (such as sea salt and sulfates). Most aerosols reflect sunlight, and some also absorb it. Many of these nanoparticles have severe health effects in addition to climate effects. Human activities that produce aerosols include transportation, industry, and agriculture. Black carbon particles (a component of soot) originating from combustion processes have been known for some time to absorb sunlight and warm the

278

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Title Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Novakov, Tihomir, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Surabi Menon, and Jeffery Aguiar Journal Geophysical Research Letters Volume 35 Issue 19 Abstract In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC) - an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols - with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

279

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules  

SciTech Connect

This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Development of Screenable Pressure Sensitive Adhesives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An industrial research area of high activity in recent years has been the development of pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) products that do not interfere with the processing of post-consumer waste. The problem of PSA contamination is arguably the most important technical challenge in expanding the use of recycled fiber. The presence of PSAs in recovered paper creates problems that reduce the efficiency of recycling and papermaking operations and diminish product quality. The widespread use of PSAs engineered to avoid these problems, often referred to as environmentally benign PSAs, could greatly increase the commercial viability of utilizing secondary fiber. Much of the research efforts in this area have focused on the development of PSAs that are designed for enhanced removal with cleaning equipment currently utilized by recycling plants. Most removal occurs at the pressure screens with the size and shape of residual contaminants in the process being the primary criteria for their separation. A viable approach for developing environmentally benign PSAs is their reformulation to inhibit fragmentation. The reduction of adhesives to small particles occurs almost exclusively during repulping; a process in which water and mechanical energy are used to swell and reduce paper products to their constituent fiber. Engineering PSA products to promote the formation of larger adhesive particles during repulping will greatly enhance their removal and reduce or eliminate their impact on the recycling process.

Steven J. Severtson

2003-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR: CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of various urban sulfate aerosol production mechanisms.radius of an evaporating aerosol droplet in which oxidationEnvironment THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR:

Toossi, R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The radiative influence of aerosol effects on liquid-phase cumulus clouds based on sensitivity studies with two climate models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A global black carbon aerosol model. J Geophys Res 101:of interactions between aerosols and cloud microphysics overby anthropogenic sulfate aerosol. J Geophys Res 106: 5279-

Menon, Surabi; Rotstayn, Leon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

Hohaus, T.

285

RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE BY AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nonbelievers. #12;Level of Scientific Understanding 2 1 0 1 2 3 Radiativeforcing(Wattspersquaremetre) Cooling scattering -- Cooling influence Light absorption -- Warming influence, depending on surface Indirect Effects is highly sensitive to modest aerosol loadings. Global-average AOT 0.1 corresponds to global-average forcing

Schwartz, Stephen E.

286

Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements have been made of aerosol particle size distributions (>0.01 ?m) in aged air masses, in the plumes from several coal power plants and a large Kraft paper mill, and in the emissions from a volcano, before and after rain or ...

Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Mark W. Eltgroth

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Scanning 6-Wavelength 11-Channel Aerosol Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transportable multiple-wavelength lidar is presented, which is used for the profiling of optical and physical aerosol properties. Two Nd:YAG and two dye lasers in combination with frequency-doubling crystals emit simultaneously at 355, 400, 532,...

Dietrich Althausen; Detlef Müller; Albert Ansmann; Ulla Wandinger; Helgard Hube; Ernst Clauder; Steffen Zörner

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Environmental Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric particles influence many aspects of climate, air quality and human health. Understanding the composition, chemistry and behavior of atmospheric aerosols is a key remaining challenge in improving climate models. Furthermore, particles may be traced back to a particular source based on composition, stable isotope ratios, or the presence of particular surface chemistries. Finally, the characterization of atmospheric particles in the workplace plays an important role in understanding the potential for exposure and environmental and human health effects to engineered and natural nanoscale particles. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a useful tool in determining any of several aspects of the structure, composition and chemistry of these particles. Often used in conjunction with other surface analysis and electron microscopy methods, SIMS has been used to determine or confirm reactions on and in particles, the presence of particular organic species on the surface of atmospheric aerosols and several other interesting and relevant findings. Various versions of SIMS instruments – dynamic SIMS, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry or TOF-SIMS, nanoSIMS – have been used to determine specific aspects of aerosol structure and chemistry. This article describes the strengths of each type of SIMS instrument in the characterization of aerosols, along with guidance on sample preparation, specific characterization specific to the particular information sought in the analysis. Examples and guidance are given for each type of SIMS analysis.

Gaspar, Daniel J.; Cliff, John B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Aerosol Condensational Growth in Cloud Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A code for the quasi-stationary solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations for aerosols in a finite volume was developed. Both mass and heat are conserved effectively in the volume, which results in a competitive aerosol condensation growth computational model. A further model that couples this competitive aerosol condensation growth computational model with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (ANSYS FLUENT) enables the simulation of the realistic atmospheric environment. One or more air parcels, where the aerosols reside, are placed in a very big volume in order to mimic the large atmospheric environment. Mass (water vapor) and heat transportat between the air parcels and the environment facilitates the growth and prevents the parcels from unrealistically overheating. The suppression of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) growth by high number densities was quantified by our model study. Model study with organic particles (Lmalic acid and maleic acid) indicates that when these organic species and ammonium sulfate are internally mixed, the particles can grow much more than if they are separately associated with distinct particles. Moreover, by using more multiple air parcels, which are randomly assigned with different initial relative humidity values according to a power law distribution, we studied the effects of atmospheric stochastic RH distribution on the growth of CCN.

Geng, Jun

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

A Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) is an optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring size-resolved particle concentrations in 16 user-defined size bins spanning diameters in the range 0.24 < D < 18.5 ?m at a rate of ...

Martin K. Hill; Barbara J. Brooks; Sarah J. Norris; Michael H. Smith; Ian M. Brooks; Gerrit de Leeuw

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

293

Next Generation Solvent Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University developed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Inter Laboratory efforts were coordinated in complementary fashion with engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological University; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Hill, Talon G [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL; Stoner, Erica L [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V [ORNL

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

295

Aerosol size distribution using Lidar data and a typical Lidar assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is developed and detailed in this paper which determines atmospheric aerosol parameters such as backscatter and extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, and the aerosol size distribution. The algorithm uses the power profile data ... Keywords: LIDAR system, aerosol optical depth, aerosol size distribution, remote sensing

Hamed Parsiani; Javier Mèndez

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA  

SciTech Connect

Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and journal articles, as well as in the technical and regulatory documents being developed within the ITRC.

Vangelas, Karen; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell; Brian Looney

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

297

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

1958-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

299

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

300

Recent activities in the Aerosol Generation and Transport Program  

SciTech Connect

General statements may be made on the behavior of single-component and multi-component aerosols in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant vessel. The removal processes for U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols are enhanced in a steam-air atmosphere. Steam-air seems to have little effect on removal of concrete aerosol from the vessel atmosphere. A steam-air environment causes a change in aerosol shape from chain-agglomerate to basically spherical for U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol; for concrete the change in aerosol shape is from chain-agglomerate to partially spherical. The mass ratio of the individual components of a multi-component aerosol seems to have an observable influence on the resultant behavior of these aerosols in steam. The enhanced rate of removal of the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and the mixed U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols from the atmosphere of the NSPP vessel by steam-air is probably caused by the change in aerosol shape and the condensation of steam on the aerosol surfaces combining to increase the effect of gravitational settling. The apparent lack of an effect by steam-air on the removal rate of concrete aerosol could result from a differing physical/chemical response of the surfaces of this aerosol to condensing steam.

Adams, R.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

Peter Zalupski

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

INVESTIGATION OF PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM UPTAKE INTO MCU SOLVENT AND NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the request of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) customer, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) examined the plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) uptake into the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) that will be used at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). SRNL examined archived samples of solvent used in Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests, as well as samples from new tests designed explicitly to examine the Pu and U uptake. Direct radiocounting for Pu and U provided the best results. Using the radiocounting results, we found that in all cases there were Pu/g of NGS and <1.17E-05 g U/g of NGS in multiple samples, even after extended contact times and high aqueous:organic volume phase ratios. These values are conservative as they do not allow for release or removal of the actinides by scrub, strip, or solvent wash processes. The values do not account for extended use or any increase that may occur due to radiolytic damage of the solvent.

Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

303

INVESTIGATION OF PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM UPTAKE INTO MCU SOLVENT AND NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) customer, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) examined the plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) uptake into the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) that will be used at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). SRNL examined archived samples of solvent used in Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests, as well as samples from new tests designed explicitly to examine the Pu and U uptake. Direct radiocounting for Pu and U provided the best results. Using the radiocounting results, we found that in all cases there were <3.41E-12 g Pu/g of NGS and <1.17E-05 g U/g of NGS in multiple samples, even after extended contact times and high aqueous:organic volume phase ratios. These values are conservative as they do not allow for release or removal of the actinides by scrub, strip, or solvent wash processes. The values do not account for extended use or any increase that may occur due to radiolytic damage of the solvent.

Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

Aerosol Modeling at LLNL - Our capability, results, and perspective  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Parameterizations in Short-Range Weather Forecasts with CAM3 Over the Southern Great Plains during May 2003 IOP Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 Catherine Chuang, James Boyle Shaocheng Xie and James Kelly LLNL-POST-401948 March 11, 2008 Why are aerosol/cloud interactions important? The greatest uncertainty in the assessment of radiative forcing arises from the interactions of aerosols with clouds. Radiative forcing of climate between 1750 and 2005 (IPCC, 2007) Sources of uncertainty Emissions Gas to particle conversion Aerosol size distribution Linkage between aerosols

305

ARM - Field Campaign - 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 7 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 2007.06.04 - 2007.06.25 Lead Scientist : Carl Berkowitz For data sets, see below. Description The primary goal of this campaign was to characterize and contrast freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus, FWC) and to use these observations to address how below-cloud and above-cloud aerosol optical and cloud nucleating properties differ downwind of a mid-size city relative to similar aerosols in air less affected by emissions. The observations from this campaign can also be used to aid in the development and evaluation of parameterizations of the

306

ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols- Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 2014.04.01 - 2014.06.01 Lead Scientist : Joel Thornton Description The ultimate goal of this work is to connect field and laboratory observations of organic aerosol chemical and physical properties during the nascent growth stage to the diurnal and vertical distributions of aerosol abundance measured over the boreal forest by the ARM Mobile Facility 2

307

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Role of Giant and Ultragiant Aerosol Particles in Warm Rain Initiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Giant and ultragiant aerosol particles can play an important role in warm rain initiation. Recent aerosol measurements have established that particles as large as 100 ?m are a regular part of the atmospheric aerosol. When ingested in growing ...

David B. Johnson

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

CALIPSO-Derived Three-Dimensional Structure of Aerosol over the Atlantic Basin and Adjacent Continents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate modeling of the impact of aerosols on climate requires a detailed understanding of the vertical distribution of aerosols. The Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) provides continuous high-resolution ...

Aaron M. Adams; Joseph M. Prospero; Chidong Zhang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Comparison of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedos Derived by Diverse Techniques in Two North Atlantic Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol single scattering albedo ? (the ratio of scattering to extinction) is important in determining aerosol climatic effects, in explaining relationships between calculated and measured radiative fluxes, and in retrieving aerosol optical ...

P. B. Russell; J. Redemann; B. Schmid; R. W. Bergstrom; J. M. Livingston; D. M. McIntosh; S. A. Ramirez; S. Hartley; P. V. Hobbs; P. K. Quinn; C. M. Carrico; M. J. Rood; E. Öström; K. J. Noone; W. von Hoyningen-Huene; L. Remer

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Aerosols in Polluted versus Nonpolluted Air Masses: Long-Range Transport and Effects on Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on the physics and chemistry of clouds in the northeastern United State, aerosol and cloud-drop size distributions, elemental composition of aerosols as a function of size, and ionic content of ...

R. F. Pueschel; C. C. Van Valin; R. C. Castillo; J. A. Kadlecek; E. Ganor

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A Method to Estimate Aerosol Radiative Forcing from Spectral Optical Depths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative forcing of aerosols is much more difficult to estimate than that of well-mixed gases due to the large spatial variability of aerosols and the lack of an adequate database on their radiative properties. Estimation of aerosol radiative ...

S. K. Satheesh; J. Srinivasan

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

An Aerosol Climatology at Kyoto: Observed Local Radiative Forcing and Columnar Optical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to evaluate the radiative effect of the atmospheric aerosol at Kyoto, Japan, surface solar irradiance and columnar aerosol optical properties were observed in the period between September 1998 and December 2001. The aerosol optical ...

Takahiro Yabe; Robert Höller; Susumu Tohno; Mikio Kasahara

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOLS IN AMBIENT AIR: CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lltion to tre sol,thll! ' aerosols and sulfur dioxidP. inof snlfur rlioxirle by aerosols of rnanganesP KinPtics ofof various urhan Sillfate aerosols prorluction r1echani sns.

Toossi, R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Characterization of ambient aerosol composition and formation mechanisms and development of quantification methodologies utilizing ATOFMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compounds in fine atmospheric aerosol at the Jungfraujoch,on the Quantification of Aerosol Time-of-Flight MassMass Concentrations from Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass

Qin, Xueying

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sun, Y. et al. Size-resolved aerosol chemistry on Whistlerwith a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer duringBasis Set: 1. Organic-Aerosol Mixing Thermodynamics. Atmos.

Kroll, Jesse H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the multistep heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Kolb, and D. R. Worsnop, Aerosol Science and Technology,Wilson, and D. R. Worsnop, Aerosol Science and Technology,and J. L. Jiménez, Aerosol Sci. Tech. , 2004, 38, 1185–1205.

Kroll, Jesse H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Valley of California, USA. J. Aerosol Science 32, S631-S632.particles of outdoor origin. Aerosol Science and Technology,in Central California. Aerosol Science and Technology, 40,

Lunden, Melissa M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

DETERMINATION OF LOW-Z ELEMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY CHARGED-PARTICLE-INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols . . . . G. IIo I I Is IV aat levels found in aerosols was not available. These errorsreaction on aluminum in the aerosol and degrading foils. rl

Clemenson, Mark Steven

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Quantifying the Reactive Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O. Edney and J. B. Cohen, Aerosol Science and Technology, M.Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flowof sub- micron organic aerosol particles using a continuous

Che, Dung L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate. InGeophys. Res. . ”In review”. Aerosol climate e?ects and airChem. Phys. 6, 4427–4459. Aerosol climate e?ects and air

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Application of Sun/star photometry to derive the aerosol optical depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in the radiative transfer and chemical processes that control the Earth's climate. Aerosol optical depth and other related aerosol characteristics are widely known during daytime through Sun photometers, and so ...

D. Perez-Ramirez; B. Ruiz; J. Aceituno; F. J. Olmo; L. Alados-Arboledas

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS J. M. Jaklevic andOF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS X~RAY J. M. Jaklevic and A. C.from the atmospheric aerosol. Modern air sampling technology

Jaklevic, J. M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Experimental investigations of photochemically-generated organic aerosols and applications to early Earth and Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Titan’s atmospheric aerosols from in situ pyrolysis andformation rates of organic aerosols through time-resolved inExperiments of Titan Aerosol Analogues in Preparation for

Chu, Emily Faye

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness from the GOCART Model and Comparisons with Satellite and Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Georgia Institute of Technology–Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the aerosol optical thickness ? for major types of tropospheric aerosols including sulfate, dust, organic carbon ...

Mian Chin; Paul Ginoux; Stefan Kinne; Omar Torres; Brent N. Holben; Bryan N. Duncan; Randall V. Martin; Jennifer A. Logan; Akiko Higurashi; Teruyuki Nakajima

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The CALIPSO Lidar Cloud and Aerosol Discrimination: Version 2 Algorithm and Initial Assessment of Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite was launched in April 2006 to provide global vertically resolved measurements of clouds and aerosols. Correct discrimination between clouds and aerosols ...

Zhaoyan Liu; Mark Vaughan; David Winker; Chieko Kittaka; Brian Getzewich; Ralph Kuehn; Ali Omar; Kathleen Powell; Charles Trepte; Chris Hostetler

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Lidar Observations of the Vertical Aerosol Flux in the Planetary Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical aerosol transport in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is investigated with lidars. Profiles of the vertical wind velocity are measured with a 2-?m Doppler wind lidar. Aerosol parameters are derived from observations with an aerosol ...

Ronny Engelmann; Ulla Wandinger; Albert Ansmann; Detlef Müller; Egidijus Žeromskis; Dietrich Althausen; Birgit Wehner

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

329

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Priorities for In-situ Aerosol Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Priorities for In-situ Priorities for In-situ Aerosol Measurements Parameters * Aerosol light absorption coefficient - spectral, including UV, vis, and IR - as f(RH), and at ambient RH * Phase function - or relevant integral properties (how many?) * Ice nuclei * Scattering vs. RH, for RH>90% * CCN, as f(S, D p ) * Size distribution * Chemical composition - for determining climate forcing, vs. radiative effect Calibration * Number concentration * Size and shape * Light absorption reference method Characterization * Accuracy and precision - need well-understood error bars * Algorithm comparisons * Closure studies * Facilities for method testing - aircraft time Methods * Inlets - shattering/splashing - location on airplane - passing efficiency - inletless analyzers/samplers * Packaging - modular/portable "pods" for multiple a/c

331

LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar  

SciTech Connect

The scanning LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar, which is aimed at probing atmosphere at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm, is described. The backscattered light is received simultaneously in two regimes: analogue and photon-counting. Along with the signals of elastic light scattering at the initial wavelengths, a 607-nm Raman signal from molecular nitrogen is also recorded. It is shown that the height range of atmosphere probing can be expanded from the near-Earth layer to stratosphere using two (near- and far-field) receiving telescopes, and analogue and photon-counting lidar signals can be combined into one signal. Examples of natural measurements of aerosol stratification in atmosphere along vertical and horizontal paths during the expeditions to the Gobi Desert (Mongolia) and Lake Baikal areas are presented.

Balin, Yu S; Bairashin, G S; Kokhanenko, G P; Penner, I E; Samoilova, S V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Natural Aerosols in the Global Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 N?ar det kjem til stykket ?Ar ut og ?ar inn har du site bøygd yver bøkene, du har samla deg meir kunnskap enn du treng til ni liv. N?ar det kjem til stykket, er det so lite som skal til, og det vesle har hjarta alltid visst. I Egypt hadde guden for lærdom hovud som ei ape. Olav H. HaugeNatural aerosols in the global atmosphere

Alf Grini; Alf Grini

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

Ross, David S. (Palo Alto, CA); Blessing, James E. (Menlo Park, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.

SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed applications of the analyzed effects to the dynamics of aerosols and droplets in the atmospheric turbulent flow.

T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; M. A. Liberman; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Adhesives and method for making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermosetting mixture for use as an adhesive, as well as other applications, that is substantially nonmutagenic. This mixture is based upon a thermosetting resin selected from polyurethane and epoxy resins, using an improved curing agent that does not contain mutagenic components. Specifically, the curing agent is a multi-mixture of substituted alkylanilines produced by an improved process. These alkylanilines are formed by condensation of at least two 2,6-dialkylanilines with a formaldehyde in an acid solution. Upon purification, at least three aromatic diamines are formed that are used for the curing agent with the polyurethane and epoxy resisn. Pot life, green strength and ultimate strength are comparable to adhesives of the prior art that contain mutagenic constituents. Although several dianilines are described, the preferred curing agents are formed using 2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) and 2,6-diisopropylaniline (DIPA), where the mole % of DEA and DIPA is 38-48 and 62-52, respectively. Curing agents within the preferred range have been designated as "Asilamine 4852" and "Asilamine 4555".

Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

338

Aerosol Duct Sealing : Technologies : From the Lab to the Marketplace...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the California building code changes and increasing availability of the aerosol sealing technology, more homeowners and facilities managers will seal their duct systems and save...

339

Aerosol physics and chemistry: indoor perspective, Chapter 10  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

G. Sextro Secondary Authors Ruzer, Lev S., and Naomi H. Harley Book Title Aerosol Handbook: Measurement, Dosimetry and Health Effects Chapter Chapter Pagination 189-224...

340

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Aerosol Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Research at the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (AFARS): In Search of Indirect Cloud Effects Sassen, Kenneth University of Alaska Fairbanks Tiruchirapalli,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations  

Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations Eoin L. Brodie, Todd Z. DeSantis, Jordan P. Moberg Parker, Ingrid X. Zubietta, Yvette M. Piceno, and ...

342

Relating Secondary Organic Aerosol Characteristics with Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and absorb solar and terrestrial radiation, influence cloudand absorb solar and terrestrial radiation, influence cloudand absorption of solar and thermal radiation by aerosol

Tang, Xiaochen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methods to Maintain Heat Exchanger Coil Cleanliness. ASHRAEEngineering Foundation on Heat Exchanger Fouling, UnitedAerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain

Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Overview of the COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(DAP) - Evelyne Richard, Hans-Stefan Bauer * Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) - Chairs: Susanne Crewell, Dave Turner, Stephen Mobbs ACM Scientific Questions * What...

345

A Mixed Bag of Aerosols over Northeastern China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Bag of Aerosols over Northeastern China For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research Highlight...

346

ARM AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Andrews, and P. J. Sheridan National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado Abstract The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Observing System (AOS)...

347

Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

spectrometry capabilities to analyze the molecular composition of atmospheric organic aerosols, or OA, containing nitrogen- containing organic compounds (NOC) and only carbon,...

348

NETL: Efficient Regeneration of Physical and Chemical Solvents...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the solvent regeneration process. Membrane types that will be investigated in this study. Figure 1: Membrane types that will be investigated in this study. Related Papers and...

349

NETL: Ion Advanced Solvent CO2 Capture Pilot Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Advanced Solvent CO2 Capture Pilot Project Ion Advanced Solvent CO2 Capture Pilot Project Project No.: DE-FE0013303 ION Engineering is conducting small pilot-scale (~ 0.7 MW) testing of an advanced CO2 capture solvent technology that has previously undergone bench-scale testing. The small pilot-scale testing will involve continuous long-term operation in order to gather the necessary data ultimately required for further scale-up. Activities will include the design and fabrication of the 0.5-0.7 MWe (equivalent) slipstream pilot plant; scale-up of solvent manufacturing; testing, data collection, and analysis of solvent performance; degradation and air emission analysis; modeling and simulation for the detailed preliminary and final techno-economic analyses; and decommissioning of pilot plant equipment upon completion of solvent testing. The advanced solvent is anticipated to have significant operating and capital cost advantages over other solvents currently in development. Advantages include significant reductions in parasitic load and liquid flow rates which directly translate to smaller more efficient CO2 capture processes. Make-up water and amine emissions rates will be examined during this project. There is the potential that additional solvent, system, and integration savings will be identified, which could result in further operating and capital cost reductions.

350

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Friedman, S. ,"Conversion of Anthraxylon - Kinetics ofiv- LBL 116807 CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COALand Mechanisms of Coal Conversion to Clean Fuel,iI pre-

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of ...  

A series of ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been applied as new solvents for potentially effective separation of different medical isotopes at ORNL. ...

352

Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

Worsnop, Douglas R.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Overview of the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosols influence climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation and indirectly through their influence on cloud microphysical and dynamical properties. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that the global radiative forcing due to aerosols is large and in general cools the planet. But the uncertainties in these estimates are also large due to our poor understanding of many of the important processes related to aerosols and clouds. To address this uncertainty an integrated strategy for addressing issues related to aerosols and aerosol processes was proposed. Using this conceptual framework, the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) is a stage 1 activity, that is, a detailed process study. The specific focus of CHAPS was to provide concurrent observations of the chemical composition of the activated [particles that are currently serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)] and nonactivated aerosols, the scattering and extinction profiles, and detailed aerosol and droplet size spectra in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during June 2007. Numerous campaigns have examined aerosol properties downwind from large pollution sources, including the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign and the two of the three Aerosol Characterization Experiments, ACE-2 and ACE-Asia. Other studies conducted near cities have examined changes in both aerosols and clouds downwind of urban areas. For example wintertime stratiform clouds associated with the urban plumes of Denver, Colorado, and Kansas City, Missouri, have a larger number concentration and smaller median volume diameter of droplets than clouds that had not been affected by the urban plume. Likewise, a decrease in precipitation in polluted regions along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains was discovered. In a modeling study, it was found that precipitation downwind of urban areas may be influenced by changes in aerosols as well as the convergence pattern caused by the city. Recently, the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS), and the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation, which were conducted during the summer of 2004, examined the transport of pollutants and aerosols eastward from New England over the Atlantic Ocean. The Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS) also looked at relationships between clouds and aerosols in polluted conditions around Houston, Texas. In contrast to these recent studies near large or very dirty cities, CHAPS was conducted near a moderately sized city that is representative of a large number of cities around the United States. CHAPS was also one of the first times that a Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer was used in conjunction with a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet on an aircraft. The AMS provides information on the nonrefractory (i.e., materials that are chemically and physically unstable at high temperatures) composition of aerosols, while the CVI uses a counterflow relative to the main incoming airstream to exclude small droplets and nonactivated particles from the inlet, allowing only larger cloud droplets to enter the inlet. The combination of the CVI and AMS allow the examination of the chemical composition of the dried aerosol kernel from the cloud droplets. A key objective of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s Atmospheric Sciences Program (ASP) is to improve the understanding of aerosol radiative effects on climate. This objective encompasses not only clear sky observations but also studies relating the effects of both aerosols on clouds and clouds on aerosols - in particular, how clouds affect the chemical and optical properties of aerosols. The latter was the science driver in the design of CHAPS. The measurement strategy for CHAPS was intended to provide measurements relevant to four questions associated with the aerosol radiative forcing issues of interest to the ASP: (1) How do the below-cloud and above-cloud aerosol optical and clou

Berg, L. K.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Dubey, M.; Andrews, E.; Coulter, R. L.; Hair, J. W.; Hubbe, J. M.Lee, Y. N.; Mazzoleni, C; Olfert, J; Springston, SR; Environmental Science Division; PNNL; NOAA Earth System Research Lab.; NASA Langley Research Center; LANL; BNL; Univ.of Alberta; Univ. of Colorado

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation ena- Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation ena- bled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Zhiguang Zhu, Y.-H. Percival Zhang PII: S0960-8524(12)00712-2 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.088 Reference: BITE 9966 To appear in: Bioresource Technology Received Date: 29 February 2012 Revised Date: 21 April 2012 Accepted Date: 21 April 2012 Please cite this article as: Sathitsuksanoh, N., Zhu, Z., Percival Zhang, Y.-H., Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent- based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Bioresource Technology (2012), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.088 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers

355

Chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles and their resulting warm cloud-nucleation properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of levoglucosan in biomass combustion aerosol by high-of levoglucosan in biomass combustion aerosol by high-from smoldering biomass combustion, Atmospheric Chemistry

Moore, Meagan Julia Kerry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Self-assembly of Ni-nanoparticles in Aerosols Produced Thermally ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The self-assembly behavior in Ni-aerosols was studied on- ground ... In microgravity, convection within the thermally produced aerosols could be ...

357

Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for2005) include fossil- and biofuel sources from Bond et al. (the impacts of fossil- and biofuel BC aerosols, aerosol-

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state): an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models  

SciTech Connect

A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model (ModelE) are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations. A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 {micro}m, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment. This is more likely due to oversimplifications of the representation of sea salt emissions - sea salt emissions are only calculated for two size classes - than to inherent limitations of MATRIX.

Bauer,S.E.; Wright, D.L.; Koch, D.; Lewis, E.R.; McGraw, R.; Chang, L.-S.; Schwartz, S.E.; Ruedy, R.

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

359

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites: Utility of Trajectory Clustering for Characterizing Aerosol Climatology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites: Utility of Trajectory Clustering for Characterizing Aerosol Climatology E. Andrews Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environment University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, P. J. Sheridan, and J. M. Harris Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado P. K. Quinn Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, Washington Abstract The uncertainties associated with assumptions of generic aerosol properties in radiative transfer codes are unknown, which means that these uncertainties are frequently invoked when models and

360

The electron beam cure of epoxy paste adhesives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently developed epoxy paste adhesives were electron beam cured and experimentally explored to determine their suitability for use in an aerospace-quality aircraft component. There were two major goals for this program. The first was to determine whether the electron beam-curable past adhesives were capable of meeting the requirements of the US Air Force T-38 supersonic jet trainer composite windshield frame. The T-38 windshield frame`s arch is currently manufactured by bonding thin stainless steel plies using an aerospace-grade thermally-cured epoxy film adhesive. The second goal was to develop the lowest cost hand layup and debulk process that could be used to produce laminated steel plies with acceptable properties. The laminate properties examined to determine adhesive suitability include laminate mechanical and physical properties at room, adhesive tack, out-time capability, and the debulk requirements needed to achieve these properties. Eighteen past adhesives and four scrim cloths were experimentally examined using this criteria. One paste adhesive was found to have suitable characteristics in each of these categories and was later chosen for the manufacture of the T-38 windshield frame. This experimental study shows that by using low-cost debulk and layup processes, the electron beam-cured past adhesive mechanical and physical properties meet the specifications of the T-38 composite windshield frame.

Farmer, J.D. [Air Force Advanced Composites Program office, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Janke, C.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology; Lopata, V.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

362

Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these proceedings have been entered already in INIS in the form of individual reports. Among the remaining papers, 60 have been selected from the following sessions: Plenary Lectures, Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction, Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, Analytical and Preparative Applications, Fundamentals, and Novel Reagents, Materials, and Techniques.

Moyer, Bruce A. (ed.)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Density Changes in the Optimized CSSX Solvent System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density increases in caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) solvent have been observed in separate experimental programs performed by different groups of researchers. Such changes indicate a change in chemical composition. Increased density adversely affects separation of solvent from denser aqueous solutions present in the CSSX process. Identification and control of factors affecting solvent density are essential for design and operation of the centrifugal contactors. The goals of this research were to identify the factors affecting solvent density (composition) and to develop correlations between easily measured solvent properties (density and viscosity) and the chemical composition of the solvent, which will permit real-time determination and adjustment of the solvent composition. In evaporation experiments, virgin solvent was subjected to evaporation under quiescent conditions at 25, 35, and 45 C with continuously flowing dry air passing over the surface of the solvent. Density and viscosity were measured periodically, and chemical analysis was performed on the solvent samples. Chemical interaction tests were completed to determine if any chemical reaction takes place over extended contact time that changes the composition and/or physical properties. Solvent and simulant, solvent and strip solution, and solvent and wash solution were contacted continuously in agitated flasks. They were periodically sampled and the density measured (viscosity was also measured on some samples) and then submitted to the Chemical Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the virgin solvent as the baseline. Chemical interaction tests showed that solvent densities and viscosities did not change appreciably during contact with simulant, strip, or wash solution. No effects on density and viscosity and no chemical changes in the solvent were noted within experimental limits. Evaporation test results showed that all solvents were evaporated to densities of greater than 0.90 g/cm{sup 3}. Viscosities increased from 3.5 to >6.5 cP as the densities increased. NMR and HPLC data indicate that diluent loss is the primary reason for density increase and that the ratio of BOBCalixC6 (referred to as calix) to Cs-7SB remained almost constant. Density and viscosity vary linearly with the loss of diluent and the increase in Cs-7SB concentration. Solvent viscosity and density are both sensitive indicators of the loss of diluent, especially when such loss is greater than 10%. However, density is more reliable at low values for diluent loss. The ratio of Cs-7SB to calix appears relatively constant during evaporation to losses of more than 50% of the diluent. A simple density model accurately predicts the composition of the solvent when density is known. Density and viscosity increases can affect the throughput in the centrifugal contactors and, at the extreme, can cause complete loss of flow. The distribution coefficient can also increase, especially in the strip stage, causing the loss of the ability to strip extracted cesium from the solvent. These effects can be addressed by internal changes to the contactor and by adding additional stripping stages in processing. However, these changes are extremely difficult under remote operation and maintenance restrictions.

Lee, D.D.

2002-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

365

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

Moore, R.L.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models Jianwei Che , Joachim. The unique set of such concentrations that minimize this free energy are given by the usual Boltzmann. The variation of the electrostatic free energy with respect to the location change of solute-solvent interfaces

Li, Bo

368

Desorption of pentachlorophenol from soils using mixed solvents  

SciTech Connect

Desorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from contaminated soils in mixed solvents of water and ethanol was investigated using desorption isotherm experiments. The following cosolvent volume fractions of ethanol in the mixed solvent were considered: 0.03, 0.56, 0.79. 0.95, and 1.0. Three fractions of a synthetic soil (Edison soil) with approximately 1% organic matter were the main soils used in this study in addition to K-10 montmorillonite clay and Ottawa sand. The effect of soil organic matter and soil surface area on desorption in mixed solvents was evaluated. Analysis of desorption data revealed that PCP desorption increased with PCP solubility in mixed solvent up to 0.79, 0.95, and 0.56 fraction ethanol for Edison soil, K-10 montmorillonite, and Ottawa sand, respectively. Lower desorption of PCP from Edison soil in solvents with more than 0.79 fraction ethanol resulted from interactions between solvent and soil organic matter. For Edison soil, highest PCP desorption in all mixed solvents was obtained for the soil fraction with the smallest surface area. Desorption of PCP in mixed solvents containing more than 0.79 fraction ethanol was lower for soils with organic matter than for other soils.

Khodadoust, A.P.; Suidan, M.T.; Sorial, G.A.; Dionysiou, D.D.; Brenner, R.C.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

ROSE Process Offers Energy Savings for Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kerr-McGee has developed and commercialized an energy-efficient solvent extraction process known as ROSE (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) in which the extraction solvent is recovered as a supercritical fluid. The energy requirement for supercritical solvent recovery is substantially lower than for conventional solvent processes using evaporation, compression and condensation. The ROSE technology is applicable to a wide variety of both organic and inorganic solvents. Energy savings of forty to fifty percent have been demonstrated commercially with ROSE compared to traditional solvent recovery. The dollar value of the savings is related to the solvent-to-feed ratio employed in the process and the cost of steam, fuel and electricity. Kerr-McGee has a bench scale pilot plant available for feedstock evaluation. Four commercial ROSE units and a large pilot plant have been placed into operation during the past five years. Two additional units are under construction and others are in various stages of design. This paper describes the ROSE process and illustrates its flexibility with respect to the types of feedstocks and variety of solvents which are utilized.

Gearheart, J. A.; Nelson, S. R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Design of a Real-Time Scanning Electrical Mobility Spectrometer and its Application in Study of Nanoparticle Aerosol Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A real-time, mobile Scanning Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (SEMS) was designed using a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) to measure the size distribution of nanoparticles. The SEMS was calibrated using monodisperse Polystyrene Latex (PSL) particles, and was then applied to study the size distribution of TiO2 nanoparticle aerosols generated by spray drying water suspensions of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle aerosol size distribution, the effect of surfactant, and the effect of residual solvent droplets were determined. The SEMS system was designed by integrating the Electrical System, the Fluid Flow System, and the SEMS Software. It was calibrated using aerosolized Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres with nominal diameters of 99 nm and 204 nm. TiO2 nanoparticle aerosols were generated by atomizing water suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles using a Collison nebulizer. Size distribution of the TiO2 aerosol was measured by the SEMS, as well as by TEM. Furthermore, the effect of surfactant, Tween 20 at four different concentrations between 0.01mM and 0.80mM, and stability of aerosol concentration with time were studied. It was hypothesized that residual particles in DI water observed during the calibration process were a mixture of impurities in water and unevaporated droplets. Solid impurities were captured on TEM grids using a point-to-plane Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) and analyzed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) while the contribution of unevaporated liquid droplets to residual particles was confirmed by size distribution measurements of aerosolized DI water in different humidity conditions. The calibration indicated that the mode diameter was found to be at 92.5nm by TEM and 95.8nm by the SEMS for 99nm nominal diameter particles, a difference of 3.6%. Similarly, the mode diameter for 204nm nominal diameter particles was found to be 194.9nm by TEM and 191nm by SEMS, a difference of 2.0%. Measurements by SEMS for TiO2 aerosol generated by Collison nebulizer indicated the mode diameters of 3mM, 6mM, and 9mM concentrations of TiO2 suspension to be 197.5nm, 200.0nm and 195.2nm respectively. On the other hand, the mode diameter was found to be approximately 95nm from TEM analysis of TiO2 powder. Additionally, concentration of particles generated decreased with time. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements indicated agglomeration of particles in the suspension. Furthermore, the emulation of single particle distribution was not possible even after using Tween 20 in concentrations between 0.01mM and 0.80mM. From the study of residual particles in DI water, it was found that residual particles observed during the aerosolization of suspensions of DI water were composed of impurities present in DI water and unevaporated droplets of DI water. Although it was possible to observe solid residual particles on the TEM grid, EDS was not able to determine the chemical composition of these particles.

Singh, Gagan

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF CPC processing  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic-side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and new strip acid will be deployed. Processing will begin with a blend of the current solvent and the NGS. Compositional changes in the NGS solvent and blending with the current solvent require review of previously performed work to determine if additional experimental work is required to address any impacts to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The composition change involved the substitution of the N,N’-dicyclohexyl-N”-isotridecylguanidine LIX® 79 guanidine suppressor with N,N’,N”-tris (3,7-dimethyloctyl) guanidine (TiDG) guanidine suppressor. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by DWPF to evaluate any impacts to offgas generation, solvent buildup or carryover, chemical, thermal, and radiolytic stability of the blended and pure TiDG based NGS. Previous work has been performed by SRNL to evaluate impacts to CPC processing using the next generation solvent containing LIX® 79 suppressor with boric acid strip effluent. Based on previous experimental work and current literature, the following conclusions are made for processing in the CPC: No mechanism for a change in the catalytic hydrogen evolution in the CPC was identified for the NGS TiDG based solvent; The transition from the LIX® 79 based suppressor to the TiDG based suppressor is not expected to have any impact on solvent or Isopar® L accumulation; Transitioning from the current solvent to the TiDG based NGS is not expected to have an impact on solvent carryover or partitioning; No changes to the chemical stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; No changes to the thermal stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; A “worst case” scenario was examined in which all of the hydrogen atoms from the TiDG based NGS and blended solvent form hydrogen gas in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) as a result of radiolytic degradation. This represented a ~4% increase in the volume percent hydrogen in the SRAT. Given the chemical similarity and very low concentrations of the suppressor, it is not recommended that additional experimental work be performed to qualify any impacts to the DWPF CPC from the change in suppressor or the revised value for partitioning of the suppressor into the strip effluent.

Newell, J. D.

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

372

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols I: Uranium Concentration in Aerosols as a Function of Time and Particle Size  

SciTech Connect

During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing depleted uranium were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time particularly within the first minute after the shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% 30 min after perforation. In the Bradley vehicle, the initial (and maximum) uranium concentration was lower than those observed in the Abrams tank and decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in the cyclone samplers, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h post perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages from the Abrams tank tests ranged from 38% to 72% and, in most cases, varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Results with the Bradley vehicle ranged from 18% to 29% and were not specifically correlated with particle size.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Traub, Richard J.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the aerosolassociated water depends on the composition of the #12;3 particles, which is determined by gas in a three dimensional chemical transport model to understand the roles of ammonia chemistry and natural precursors among modeled aerosol species selfconsistently with ambient relative humidity and natural

Zender, Charles

374

The Segregation of Aerosols by Cloud-Nucleating Activity. Part II: Observation of an Urban Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The submicron aerosol of metropolitan Seattle was segregated into CCN and non-CCN fractions by a high-flux thermal diffusion cloud chamber in series with a dichotomous separator. Each segregated fraction of the five-hour daily sample was ...

Lee Harrison

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

SCENARIOS EVALUATION TOOL FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENT MNA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and journal articles, as well as in the technical and regulatory documents being developed within the ITRC. Three topic areas were identified for development during this project. These areas are: mass balance, Enhanced Attenuation (EA), and new characterization and monitoring tools and approaches to support MNA and EA. Each of these topics is documented in stand alone reports, WSRC-STI-2006-00082, WSRC-STI-2006-00083, and WSRC-STI-2006-00084, respectively. In brief, the mass balance efforts are examining methods and tools to allow a site to be evaluated in terms of a system where the inputs and processes within the system are compared to the outputs from the system, as well as understanding what attenuation processes may be occurring and how likely they are to occur within a system. Enhanced Attenuation is a new concept that is a transition step between primary treatments and MNA, when the natural attenuation processes are not sufficient to allow direct transition from the primary treatment to MNA. EA technologies are designed to either boost the level of the natural attenuation processes or decrease the loading of contaminants to the system for a period of time sufficient to allow the remedial goals to be met over the long-term. For characterization and monitoring, a phased approach based on documenting the site specific mass balance was developed. Tools and techniques to support the approach included direct measures of the biological processes and various tools to support cost-effective long-term monitoring of systems where the natural attenuation processes are the main treatment remedies. The effort revealed opportunities for integrating attenuation mechanisms into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites.

Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

376

NMR imaging of anomalous solvent transport in macromolecular materials  

SciTech Connect

Systems in which a change in state accompanies solvent transport, exhibits a sharp solvent front that penetrates the sample like a shock wave; such behavior is called case II transport to distinguish it from Fickian transport. This occurs in macromolecule/solvent systems such as bituminous coals swollen in pyridine; the only requirement for case II behavior is a glassy state in the dry state, crossing over to a rubbery state during solvent uptake. A sharply defined solvent front and a constant front velocity are present. Case II behavior are related to relative magnitudes of characteristic diffusion times and molecular relaxation times. An experimental study of case II transport of methanol in polyethylmethacrylate and pyridine in coal using optical and NMR imaging techniques is reported in this paper.

Cody, G.D.; Botto, R.E.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is propsed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. Our assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubilities of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, and a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, were measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. Preliminary results of initial extraction tests at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi in sub-pilot scale equipment are also presented.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.; Netherton, R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

The Air or Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The required temperature and technique for condensing common industrial solvents from the exhaust air of drying ovens is explained. The benefits of the Air Cycle for this application are discussed. The operation of the 8000 CFM Air Cycle Solvent Recovery System developed by the AiResearch Manufacturing Company of California under contract to the Department of Energy is discussed. Performance data for the recovery of solvents from an industrial drying oven is presented. The advantages of the "free spindle" arrangement as an alternate to the present gear drive are explained. The simple method for adjusting and controlling the turbine exhaust temperature for the "free spindle" arrangement is explained. The application of the Air Cycle for condensing solvent vapors from inert atmosphere ovens and from activated carbon desorbed with nitrogen is also described. Relative merits of the Air Cycle System compared with other available methods of solvent recovery are discussed.

Fox, B. J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR PARSONS  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared a nominal 150 gallon batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) for Parsons. This material was then analyzed and tested for cesium mass transfer efficiency. The bulk of the results indicate that the solvent is qualified as acceptable for use in the upcoming pilot-scale testing at Parsons Technology Center. This report describes the analysis and testing of a batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) prepared in support of pilot-scale testing in the Parsons Technology Center. A total of {approx}150 gallons of NGS solvent was prepared in late November of 2011. Details for the work are contained in a controlled laboratory notebook. Analysis of the Parsons NGS solvent indicates that the material is acceptable for use. SRNL is continuing to improve the analytical method for the guanidine.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

380

THE PLUTONIUM AEROSOL MONITORING PROGRAM AT ANL-IDAHO FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

The physical and radiation characteristics of plutonium aerosols are reviewed briefly. A number of detecting and sampling devices and techniques are discussed for application to plutonium aerosols under conditions of reactor operations. The monitoring program and the Pu-fueled reactors at ANL-Idaho are described. (D.L.C.)

Stoddart, P.G.

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-47669 Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain Walker of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey A. Siegel Iain S. Walker, Ph.D. ASHRAE Student Member that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems of 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters

382

Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols on the Indian Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A six-member ensemble of twentieth-century simulations with changes to only time-evolving global distributions of black carbon aerosols in a global coupled climate model is analyzed to study the effects of black carbon (BC) aerosols on the Indian ...

Gerald A. Meehl; Julie M. Arblaster; William D. Collins

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Characterization of a Modified Hexagonal Silver Iodide Ice Nucleus Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new ice nucleant aerosol was produced by combustion of a 2% AgI-0.5 mole % Bil3-NH4I-acetone-water solution. The ice nucleating effectiveness of this aerosol is an order of magnitude greater than AgI alone at ?10°C. An X-ray powder analysis ...

Paul T. Scott; William G. Finnegan; Peter C. Sinclair

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m/sup 3/ low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m/sup 3/. Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li/sub 2/O, LiOH, and Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m/sup 2/ of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m/sup 2/ at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar to those reported for sodium aerosols except for the lithium aerosol HEPA loading capacity dependence upon flow rate.

Jeppson, D.W.; Barreca, J.R.

1980-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

385

Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work investigates the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds and the associated radiative forcing in the Houston area. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) coupled with a spectral-bin microphysics is employed to investigate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation. First, aerosol indirect effects on clouds are separately investigated under different aerosol compositions, concentrations and size distributions. Then, an updated GCE model coupled with the radiative transfer and land surface processes is employed to investigate the aerosol radiative effects on deep convective clouds. The cloud microphysical and macrophysical properties change considerably with the aerosol properties. With varying the aerosol composition from only (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 with soluble organics, to (NH4)2SO4 with slightly soluble organics, the number of activated aerosols decreases gradually, leading to a decrease in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and an increase in the droplet size. Ice processes are more sensitive to the changes of aerosol chemical properties than the warm rain processes. The most noticeable effect of increasing aerosol number concentrations is an increase of CDNC and cloud water content but a decrease in droplet size. It is indicated that the aerosol indirect effect on deep convection is more pronounced in relatively clean air than in heavily polluted air. The aerosol effects on clouds are strongly dependent on RH: the effect is very significant in humid air. Aerosol radiative effects (ARE) on clouds are very pronounced for mid-visible single-scattering albedo (SSA) of 0.85. Relative to the case without the ARE, cloud fraction and optical depth decrease by about 18% and 20%, respectively. The daytime-mean direct forcing is about 2.2 W m-2 at the TOA and -17.4 W m-2 at the surface. The semi-direct forcing is positive, about 10 and 11.2 W m-2 at the TOA and surface, respectively. Aerosol direct and semi-direct effects are very sensitive to SSA. The cloud fraction, optical depth, convective strength, and precipitation decrease with the increase of absorption, resulting from a more stable atmosphere due to enhanced surface cooling and atmospheric heating.

Fan, Jiwen

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

ARM - Field Campaign - MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsMArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP govCampaignsMArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP Campaign Links Science Plan AMF Point Reyes Website AMF Point Reyes Data Plots Related Campaigns MASRAD: Pt. Reyes Stratus Cloud and Drizzle Study 2005.07.07, Coulter, AMF MASRAD: Cloud Condensate Nuclei Chemistry Measurements 2005.07.01, Berkowitz, AMF MASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties 2005.06.29, Strawa, AMF MASRAD:Sub-Micron Aerosol Measurements 2005.06.20, Wang, AMF MASRAD: Cloud Study from the 2NFOV at Pt. Reyes Field Campaign 2005.06.02, Wiscombe, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP 2005.03.14 - 2005.09.14 Website : http://www.arm.gov/sites/amf/pye/ Lead Scientist : Mark Miller

387

Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter at Barrow. Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Aerosols Efforts are currently underway to run and evaluate the Broadband Heating Rate Profile project at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site for the time period March 2004 - February 2005. The Aerosol Best-Estimate (ABE) Value-Added Procedure (VAP) is to provide continuous estimates of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single-scatter albedo, and asymmetry parameter above the Northern Slopes of Alaska (NSA) facility. In the interest of temporal continuity, we have developed an algorithm that

388

Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on Indian summer monsoon  

SciTech Connect

Using an interactive aerosol-climate model we find that absorbing anthropogenic aerosols, whether coexisting with scattering aerosols or not, can significantly affect the Indian summer monsoon system. We also show that the influence is reflected in a perturbation to the moist static energy in the sub-cloud layer, initiated as a heating by absorbing aerosols to the planetary boundary layer. The perturbation appears mostly over land, extending from just north of the Arabian Sea to northern India along the southern slope of the Tibetan Plateau. As a result, during the summer monsoon season, modeled convective precipitation experiences a clear northward shift, coincidently in agreement with observed monsoon precipitation changes in recent decades particularly during the onset season. We demonstrate that the sub-cloud layer moist static energy is a useful quantity for determining the impact of aerosols on the northward extent and to a certain degree the strength of monsoon convection.

Wang, Chien; Kim, Dongchul; Ekman, Annica; Barth, Mary; Rasch, Philip J.

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

389

Aerosol Retrievals under Partly Cloudy Conditions: Challenges and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect

There are lots of interesting and intriguing features of aerosols near clouds – many of which can be quite engaging, as well being useful and climate-related. Exploring aerosol with the aid of the remote sensing, in situ observations and numerical modeling has piqued our curiosity and led to improve insights into the nature of aerosol and clouds and their complex relationship. This chapter conveys the outstanding issues of cloudy-sky aerosol retrievals of important climate properties and outlines their fruitful connections to other research areas such as in situ measurements and model simulations. The chapter focuses mostly on treating the inverse problems in the context of the passive satellite remote sensing and how they can improve our understanding of the cloud-aerosol interactions. The presentation includes a basis in the inverse problem theory, reviews available approaches and discusses their applications to partly cloudy situations. Potential synergy of observations and model simulations is described as well.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

On the Nonpolar Hydration Free Energy of Proteins: Surface Area and Continuum Solvent Models for the Solute-Solvent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Nonpolar Hydration Free Energy of Proteins: Surface Area and Continuum Solvent Models solvent hydration free energy models are an important component of most modern computational methods aimed. The nonpolar component of the hydration free energy, consisting of a repulsive cavity term and an attractive

391

Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

Plumlee, Karl W. (Baytown, TX)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Transient electrophoretic current in a nonpolar solvent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transient electric current of surfactants dissolved in a nonpolar solvent is investigated both experimentally and theoretically in the parallel-plate geometry. Due to a low concentration of free charges the cell can be completely polarized by an external voltage of several volts. In this state, all the charged micelles are compacted against the electrodes. After the voltage is set to zero the reverse current features a sharp discharge spike and a broad peak. This shape and its variation with the compacting voltage are reproduced in a one-dimensional drift-diffusion model. The model reveals the broad peak is formed by a competition between an increasing number of charges drifting back to the middle of the cell and a decreasing electric field that drives the motion. After complete polarization is achieved, the shape of the peak stops evolving with further increase of the compacting voltage. The spike-peak separation time grows logarithmically with the charge content in the bulk. The time peak is a useful measure of the micelle mobility. Time integration of the peak yields the total charge in the system. By measuring its variation with temperature, the activation energy of bulk charge generation has been found to be 0.126 eV.

Pavel Kornilovitch; Yoocharn Jeon

2011-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

The Effects of Clouds on Aerosol and Chemical Species Production and Distribution. Part III: Aerosol Model Description and Sensitivity Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modeling study of the effects of clouds on the evolution and redistribution of aerosol particles in the troposphere is presented. A two-mode, two-moment aerosol evolution model is coupled with a two-dimensional, mixed-phase, two-moment ...

Yiping Zhang; Sonia Kreidenweis; Gregory R. Taylor

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Temporal Variations of Aerosol Optical Parameters Resulting from the Aging of a Model Aerosol Number Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol number size distributions are subject to aging, i.e., to temporal variations. The aging of a Junge number size distribution due to a multitude of processes was modeled by Junge and Abel. The pertinent changes with time of aerosol optical ...

J. Freund

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Microscale adhesion patterns for the precise localization of amoeba  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to get a better understanding of amoeba-substrate interactions in the processes of cellular adhesion and directional movement, we engineered glass surfaces with defined local adhesion characteristics at a micrometric scale. Amoeba (Dictyostelium dicoideum) are capable to adhere to various surfaces independently on the presence of extracellular matrix proteins. This paper describes the strategy used to create selective adhesion patterns using an appropriate surface chemistry and shows the first results of locally confined amoeba adhesion. The approach is based on the natural ability of Dictyostelium to adhere to various types of surfaces (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) and on its inability to spread on inert surfaces, such as the block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene oxide, named Pluronic. We screened diverse alkylsilanes, such as methoxy, chloro and fluoro silanes for their capacity to anchor Pluronic F127 efficiently on a glass surface. Our results demonstrate that hexylmethyldichlorosilane (HMDCS) was the most appropriate silane for the deposition of Pluronic F127. A complex dependence between the physico-chemistry of the silanes and the polyethylene glycol block copolymer attachment was observed. Using this method, we succeed in scaling down the micro-fabrication of pluronic-based adhesion patterns to the amoeba cell size (10µm). This original pluronic patterning method should prove useful as a tool for controlling cell adhesion and directional movement in amoeba. © 2008 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved Keywords:surface patterning; cell adhesion; Dictyostelium discoideum; amoeba; photolithography; pluronic F127 1.

Tzvetelina Tzvetkova-chevolleau A; Edward Yoxall A; David Fuard A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Humidity Dependence of Adhesion for Silane Coated Microcantilevers  

SciTech Connect

This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}SiCl{sub 3}) or FDTS (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}SiCl{sub 3}) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115{degree}) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112{degree}), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase.

DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; MAYER,THOMAS M.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

397

Adhesion Strength Study of EVA Encapsulants on Glass Substrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An extensive peel-test study was conducted to investigate the various factors that may affect the adhesion strength of photovoltaic module encapsulants, primarily ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), on glass substrates of various laminates based on a common configuration of glass/encapsulant/backfoil. The results show that"pure" or"absolute" adhesion strength of EVA-to-glass was very difficult to obtain because of tensile deformation of the soft, semi-elastic EVA layer upon pulling. A mechanically"strong enough" backing foil on the EVA was critical to achieving the"apparent" adhesion strength. Peel test method with a 90-degree-pull yielded similar results to a 180-degree-pull. The 90-degree-pull method better revealed the four stages of delamination failure of the EVA/backfoil layers. The adhesion strength is affected by a number of factors, which include EVA type, formulation, backfoil type and manufacturing source, glass type, and surface priming treatment on the glass surface or on the backfoil. Effects of the glass-cleaning method and surface texture are not obvious. Direct priming treatments used in the work did not improve, or even worsened, the adhesion. Aging of EVA by storage over~5 years reduced notably the adhesion strength. Lower adhesion strengths were observed for the blank (unformulated) EVA and non-EVA copolymers, such as poly(ethylene-co-methacrylate) (PEMA) or poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) (PEBA). Their adhesion strengths increased if the copolymers were cross-linked. Transparent fluoropolymer superstrates such as TefzelTM and DureflexTM films used for thin-film PV modules showed low adhesion strengths to the EVA at a level of~2 N/mm.

Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

399

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

400

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

402

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Differential response to green algal species to solvents  

SciTech Connect

Unicellular algae in aquatic ecosystems are subjected to a variety of pollutants from sources such as runoff from agricultural lands and industrial outfalls. Organic solvents are natural components of oil deposits and commonly find their way into surface waters as a result discharges from refineries, waste oil, disposal, and accidental spills. Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes. Because of their carcinogenic potential, contamination of soil and water by solvents is cause for serious concern. Relatively few reports have been published on the comparative toxicity of solvents toward test organisms, and these dealt primarily with fish and aquatic invertebrates. However, limited data of toxicity effects of solvents on algae have been published. Algae have been considered to be good indicators of bioactivity of industrial wastes. Unicellular algae vary in their response to a variety of toxicants. Little is known, however, about toxicity of solvents to freshwater unicellular green algae. The work reported here was done to examine the effect of selected solvents on unicellular green algae species to determine whether they differed in their responses to these chemicals. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Tadros, M.G.; Philips, J.; Patel, H.; Pandiripally, V. (Alabama A M Univ., Huntsville, AL (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Fluoro-Carbonate Solvents for Li-Ion Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of fluoro-carbonate solvents were evaluated as electrolytes for Li-ion cells. These solvents are fluorine analogs of the conventional electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate in Li-ion cells. Conductivity of single and mixed fluoro carbonate electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} was measured at different temperatures. These electrolytes did not freeze at -40 C. We are evaluating currently, the irreversible 1st cycle capacity loss in carbon anode in these electrolytes and the capacity loss will be compared to that in the conventional electrolytes. Voltage stability windows of the electrolytes were measured at room temperature and compared with that of the conventional electrolytes. The fluoro-carbon electrolytes appear to be more stable than the conventional electrolytes near Li voltage. Few preliminary electrochemical data of the fluoro-carbonate solvents in full cells are reported in the literature. For example, some of the fluorocarbonate solvents appear to have a wider voltage window than the conventional electrolyte solvents. For example, methyl 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte has a decomposition voltage exceeding 6 V vs. Li compared to <5 V for conventional electrolytes. The solvent also appears to be stable in contact with lithium at room temperature.

NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

406

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Parameter exploration of optically trapped liquid aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When studying the motion of optically trapped particles on the $\\mu s$ time scale, in low viscous media such as air, inertia cannot be neglected. Resolution of unusual and interesting behaviour not seen in colloidal trapping experiments is possible. In attempt to explain the phenomena we use power spectral methods to perform a parameter study of the Brownian motion of optically trapped liquid aerosol droplets concentrated around the critically damped regime. We present evidence that the system is suitably described by a simple harmonic oscillator model which must include a description of Fax\\'{e}n's correction, but not necessarily frequency dependent hydrodynamic corrections to Stokes' law. We also provide results describing how the system behaves under several variables and discuss the difficulty in decoupling the parameters responsible for the observed behaviour. We show that due to the relatively low dynamic viscosity and high trap stiffness it is easy to transfer between over- and under-damped motion by experimentally altering either trap stiffness or damping. Our results suggest stable aerosol trapping may be achieved in under-damped conditions, but the onset of deleterious optical forces at high trapping powers prevents the probing of the upper stability limits due to Brownian motion.

D. R. Burnham; P. J. Reece; D. McGloin

2009-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

408

COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2-1 Figure Schematic of the Exxon Donor Solvent Process forL.W. , and Wilson, E.L. Exxon Donor Solvent Process 1 CEP 1commercialization are (1) the Exxon Donor Solvent process, (

Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. S. , "Solvent Treatment of Coal", Mills and Boon, London,of this solvent with the coal structure. When coupled withis indeed quite an unusual coal solvent. REFEREMCES Oele, A.

Grens III., Edward A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal  

SciTech Connect

A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Centrifugal contractors for laboratory-scale solvent extraction tests  

SciTech Connect

A 2-cm contactor (minicontactor) was developed and used at Argonne National Laboratory for laboratory-scale testing of solvent extraction flowsheets. This new contactor requires only 1 L of simulated waste feed, which is significantly less than the 10 L required for the 4-cm unit that had previously been used. In addition, the volume requirements for the other aqueous and organic feeds are reduced correspondingly. This paper (1) discusses the design of the minicontactor, (2) describes results from having applied the minicontactor to testing various solvent extraction flowsheets, and (3) compares the minicontactor with the 4-cm contactor as a device for testing solvent extraction flowsheets on a laboratory scale.

Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process. 4 figs.

Schweighardt, F.K.

1986-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ion Partitioning at the liquid/vapor interface of a multi-component alkali halide solution: A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model for aqueous sea salt aerosols Sutapa Ghosal, 1 Matthewwith sea salt ice and aerosols has been implicated in theof aqueous sea salt aerosols and particles have been

Ghosal, Sutapa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

416

Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Brass-plated steel tire cords form an essential strengthening component of a radial automobile tire. Adhesion between rubber compound and brass-plated steel tire cord is… (more)

Ashirgade, Akshay

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Brass-plated steel tire cords form an essential strengthening component of a radial automobile tire. Adhesion between rubber compound and brass-plated steel tire cord is crucial… (more)

Ashirgade, Akshay A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Atmospheric Aerosol Limb Scanning Based on the Lunar Eclipses Photometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The work is devoted to the analysis of the surface photometric observations of two total lunar eclipses in 2004. The lunar surface relative brightness distribution inside the umbra was used to retrieve the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction of the solar radiation expanding by a tangent path and its dependence on the location at the limb of the Earth. The upper altitude of troposphere aerosol layer was estimated for different latitude zones. The correlation between additional aerosol extinction in the upper troposphere and cyclones was investigated.

O. S. Ugolnikov; I. A. Maslov

2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Although carbonate solvent systems have been used for CO 2 removal in high-pressure applications such as natural gas sweetening, they have not been considered practical for flue...

423

In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells.

Rabold, D.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Solvent Clustering around Pyrazine Ions in the High-Compressibility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solvent Clustering around Pyrazine Ions in the High-Compressibility Region of Supercritical Ethane R. A. Holroyd, M. Nishikawa, and K. Itoh J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11585-11590...

425

Computer-aided rational solvent selection for pharmaceutical crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvents play an important role in crystallization, a commonly used separation and purification technique in the pharmaceutical, chemical and food industries. They affect crystal properties such as particle size distribution, ...

Chen, Jie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

428

Adhesion of Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis on a Planar Surface  

SciTech Connect

Adhesion of spores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spherical silica particles on surfaces was experimentally and theoretically investigated in this study. Topography analysis via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy indicates that Bt spores are rod shaped, {approx}1.3 {mu}m in length and {approx}0.8 {mu}m in diameter. The adhesion force of Bt spores and silica particles on gold-coated glass was measured at various relative humidity (RH) levels by AFM. It was expected that the adhesion force would vary with RH because the individual force components contributing to the adhesion force depend on RH. The adhesion force between a particle and a planar surface in atmospheric environments was modeled as the contribution of three major force components: capillary, van der Waals, and electrostatic interaction forces. Adhesion force measurements for Bt spore (silica particle) and the gold surface system were comparable with calculations. Modeling results show that there is a critical RH value, which depends on the hydrophobicity of the materials involved, below which the water meniscus does not form and the contribution of the capillary force is zero. As RH increases, the van der Waals force decreases while the capillary force increases to a maximum value.

Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

431

Solvent Extraction for Remediation of Manufactured Gas Plant Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has assessed the feasibility of using a solvent extraction process to remove coal tar from the subsurface or to treat contaminated soil excavated from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. The assessment indicates that in situ solvent extraction may recover a significant amount of tar from the subsurface within a reasonable timeframe, provided subsurface conditions are conducive to process implementation. This work will help utilities searching for cost-effective technologies to remediate MGP sites.

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

432

Development of a Global Validation Package for Satellite Oceanic Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrieval Based on AERONET Observations and Its Application to NOAA/NESDIS Operational Aerosol Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a global validation package for satellite aerosol optical thickness retrieval using the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations as ground truth is described. To standardize the validation procedure, the optimum time–space ...

Tom X-P. Zhao; Larry L. Stowe; Alexander Smirnov; David Crosby; John Sapper; Charles R. McClain

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II CD-ROM Atlas of Global Monthly Aerosols, Ozone, NO2, Water, Vapor, and Relative Humitidy (1985–1993)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual profile measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite have been used to create latitude-longitude maps of monthly mean aerosols, ozone, water vapor, ...

D. Rind; X. Liao

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

Aiken, A. C.

435

Magnetic resonance imaging of solvent transport in polymer networks  

SciTech Connect

The spectroscopic technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently provided a new window into transport of solvents in polymer networks. Diffusion of solvent as a rate-controlling phenomenon is paramount to understanding transport in many important industrial and biological processes, such as upgrading fossil fuels, film casting and coating, development of photoresists, design of drug-delivery systems, development of solvent resistant polymers, etc. By MRI mapping the migration of solvent molecules through various polymer specimens, researchers Robert Botto and George Cody of Argonne National Laboratory, with support from the Division of Chemical Sciences at DOE, were able to characterize and distinguish between different modes of transport behavior associated with fundamentally different types of polymer systems. The method was applied to rubbers, glassy polymers, and coals. In polymers shown to undergo a glass transition from a rigid to rubbery state, a sharply defined solvent front was observed that propagated through specimens in the manner of a constant velocity shock wave. This behavior was contrasted with a smooth solvent concentration gradient found in polymer systems where no glass transition was observed. The results of this analysis have formed the basis of a new model of anomalous transport in polymeric solids and are helping to ascertain fundamental information on the molecular architectures of these materials.

Botto, R.E.; Cody, G.D.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC{reg_sign}, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC{reg_sign} produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC{reg_sign} user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC{reg_sign} so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS.

Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Genetic and biochemical analysis of solvent formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The anaerobic organism Clostridium acetobutylicum has been used for commercial production of important organic solvents due to its ability to convert a wide variety of crude substrates to acids and alcohols. Current knowledge concerning the molecular genetics, cell regulation and metabolic engineering of this organism is still rather limited. The objectives are to improve the knowledge of the molecular genetics and enzymology of Clostridia in order to make genetic alterations which will more effectively channel cell metabolism toward production of desired products. Two factors that limit butanol production in continuous cultures are: (1) The degeneration of the culture, with an increase in the proportion of cells which are incapable of solvent production. Currently isolated degenerate strains are being evaluated to analyze the molecular mechanism of degeneration to determine if it is due to a genetic loss of solvent related genes, loss of a regulatory element, or an increase in general mutagenesis. Recent studies show two general types of degenerates, one which seems to have lost essential solvent pathway genes and another which has not completely lost all solvent production capability and retains the DNA bearing solvent pathway genes. (2) The production of hydrogen which uses up reducing equivalents in the cell. If the reducing power were more fully directed to the reduction reactions involved in butanol production, the process would be more efficient. The authors have studied oxidation reduction systems related to this process. These studies focus on ferredoxin and rubredoxin and their oxidoreductases.

Bennett, G.N.; Rudolph, F.B.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system  

SciTech Connect

A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

439

Aerosol-Based Duct Sealing Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Aerosol-Based Duct Sealing Technology During the past five years, research has quantified the impacts of residential duct system leakage on HVAC energy consumption and peak electricity demand. A typical house with ducts located in the attic or crawlspace wastes approximately 20% of heating and cooling energy through duct leaks and draws approximately 0.5 KW more electricity during peak cooling periods. A 1991 study indicated that sealing leaks could save close to one Quadrillion Btus per year. (see also Commercializing a New Technology) Because the major cost of sealing leaks in existing air distribution systems is the labor for the location and sealing process, reducing the labor could greatly improve the cost-effectiveness of such a retrofit. Field studies of duct sealing programs performed by HVAC contractors show

440

Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico Jump to: navigation, search Name PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico Agency/Company /Organization Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Topics Co-benefits assessment Resource Type Dataset, Maps Website http://www.pnl.gov/atmospheric Country Mexico UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico[1] "MILGARO surface data includes measurements from Supersites, RAMA (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico), Mobile, and Other sites. A description of each site type follows along with a plot of the site locations. Supersites Supersites provide detailed atmospheric chemistry and meteorological measurements; these sites included: T0 (located at the Instituto Mexicano

442

A New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect Shao, Hongfei Florida State University Liu, Guosheng Florida State University Category: Aerosols The aerosol first indirect effect is known to cool the Earth radiatively. However, its magnitude is very uncertain; large discrepancies exist among the observed values published in the literature. In this study, we first survey the published values of those parameters used for describing the first indirect effect. By analyzing the discrepancies among these values, we show that the first indirect effect has been overestimated by many investigators due to an improper parameter being used. Therefore, we introduce a more meaningful parameter to measure this effect. We estimated the first indirect effect using the new parameter based on observational

443

ARM - Field Campaign - 2004 NEAX (Northeast Aerosol Experiment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of particle number concentrations and size distributions (3 nm - 3 m), and a new aerosol inlet. Other Contacts Co-Investigators Larry Kleinman Yin-Nan Lee Gunnar Senum...

444

ARM - Field Campaign - Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods 1998.08.03 - 1998.08.28 Lead Scientist : Warren Wiscombe For data sets, see below. Summary Wednesday, August 5, 1998: IOP Opening Activities: The IOP updates for the Shortwave/Aerosol/BDRF will be composed from notes taken during briefing sessions lead by Don Cahoon and company each night at the Marland Mansion in Ponca City. IOP Status as of 8/4/98 Weather forecasts indicate that cloudy conditions will prevail for the next few days. The Helicopter is on standby for clear sky conditions. Model output indicates clear sky's may move in later this week.

445

Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using multiple measurements from Darwin ARCS Mitchell, Ross CSIRO Category: Aerosols Thin cirrus cloud occurs frequently in the tropics, and is often difficult to distinguish from tropospheric aerosol on the basis of temporal variations in ground based measurements, since both can be rather spatially uniform. In this study we investigate their discrimination by combining data from three instruments at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS): the Cimel sun photometer (CSP), the micropulse lidar (MPL), and the total sky imager (TSI). The study was carried out over the dry season of 2005, with the usual widespread burning of tropical savanna leading to extensive smoke plumes. It is shown that the locus of data in

446

Mobile Climate Observatory for Atmospheric Aerosols in India  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosols in India Atmospheric Aerosols in India Nainital, India, was the site chosen for deployment of a portable climate research laboratory to study how aerosols impact clouds and energy transfer in the atmosphere. The well-being of hundreds of millions of residents in northeastern India depends on the fertile land around the Ganges River, which is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Any disturbance to the monsoon rains could threaten the population. In the same region, increased industrial activities due to economic growth are releasing small aerosol particles, such as soot and dust, that absorb and scatter sunlight and thus can change cloud formation processes and the heat distribution in the atmosphere. Such changes could greatly increase or

447

ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols- Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment 2014.02.01 - 2014.04.30 Lead Scientist : Dmitri Moisseev Description The snowfall measurement campaign, which will take place during AMF2 deployment in Finland, will focus on understanding snowfall microphysics and characterizing performance of surface based snowfall measurement instruments. This will be achieved by combining triple frequency (X, Ka, W -band) radar observations of vertical structure of the precipitation,

448

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Vision Exposes Aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

up exciting possibilities in the study of aerosol dynamics using highly focused X-ray lasers, such as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). "Our study shows that LCLS can...

449

Aerosol Phase Transformation and Growth in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamic behavior of hygroscopic multicomponent aerosols under the influence of changing relative humidity in the atmosphere is investigated. Laboratory measurements of the deliquescence humidity as a function of temperature between 5° and 35°...

I. N. Tang; H. R. Munkelwitz

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. This paper presents the results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4–SOM) ...

Salil Mahajan; Katherine J. Evans; James J. Hack; John E. Truesdale

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

On Modification of Global Warming by Sulfate Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is increasing evidence that the response of climate to increasing greenhouse gases may be modified by accompanying increases in sulfate aerosols. In this study, the patterns of response in the surface climatology of a coupled ocean–...

J. F. B. Mitchell; T. C. Johns

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Tropical Tropospheric-Only Responses to Absorbing Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorbing aerosols affect the earth’s climate through direct radiative heating of the troposphere. This study analyzes the tropical tropospheric-only response to a globally uniform increase in black carbon, simulated with an atmospheric general ...

Geeta G. Persad; Yi Ming; V. Ramaswamy

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Some Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Slant Paths S. M. Sakerin, D. M. Kabanov, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of...

454

Seasonally Modulated Tropical Drought Induced by Volcanic Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Major volcanic events with a high loading of stratospheric aerosol have long been known to cause cooling, but their impact on precipitation has only recently been emphasized, especially as an analog for potential geoengineering of climate. Here, ...

Renu Joseph; Ning Zeng

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the water-soluble organic car- bon (WSOC) components of ambient aerosol particles into hydrophilic and Weber [2006]. In the XAD-8 method, the WSOC components that penetrate the column are hydro- philic

Weber, Rodney

456

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution ... Phase Transformation Hardening by Using High -Power Direct Diode Laser ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC.

457

Upper-Tropospheric Aerosol Sampled during Project FIRE IFO II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the FIRE IFO II project, aircraft were available for airborne sampling in and around cirrus cloud. Aerosols can play a role in the cloud formation process through the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism, and in turn, once formed, cirrus ...

Donald E. Hagen; Josef Podzimek; Max B. Trueblood

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Measured Spectra of the Hygroscopic Fraction of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relation between dry diameter (X0) and critical supersaturation (Sc) for atmospheric submicron aerosol particles is investigated using a long term air sampling program at Rolla, Missouri. The particles are passed through an electrostatic ...

Darryl J. Alofs; Donald E. Hagen; Max B. Trueblood

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Combustion Organic Aerosol as Cloud Condensation Nuclei in Ship Tracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been sampled in marine stratiform clouds to identify the contribution of anthropogenic combustion emissions in activation of aerosol to cloud droplets. The Monterey Area Ship Track experiment provided ...

Lynn M. Russell; Kevin J. Noone; Ronald J. Ferek; Robert A. Pockalny; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

On Surface Temperature, Greenhouse Gases, and Aerosols: Models and Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight ...

J. F. B. Mitchell; R. A. Davis; W. J. Ingram; C. A. Senior

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Saharan Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing Measured from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses data collected from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments to determine Saharan dust broadband shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over ...

F. Li; A. M. Vogelmann; V. Ramanathan

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A Multidimensional Model for Aerosols: Description of Computational Analogs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The numerical algorithms which we use to simulate the advection, diffusion, sedimentation, coagulation and condensational growth of atmospheric aerosols are described. The model can be used in one, two, or three spatial dimensions. We develop the ...

O. B. Toon; R. P. Turco; D. Westphal; R. Malone; M. Liu

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Observed Impact of Atmospheric Aerosols on the Surface Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols scatter and potentially absorb incoming solar radiation, thereby reducing the total amount of radiation reaching the surface and increasing the fraction that is diffuse. The partitioning of incoming energy at the surface into ...

Allison L. Steiner; Dori Mermelstein; Susan J. Cheng; Tracy E. Twine; Andrew Oliphant

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Spectral Signatures of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Sulfate Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiwavelength observations of Antarctic and midlatitude aerosol by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to demonstrate a technique that identifies the location of ...

S. T. Massie; P. L. Bailey; J. C. Gille; E. C. Lee; J. L. Mergenthaler; A. E. Roche; J. B. Kumer; E. F. Fishbein; J. W. Waters; W. A. Lahoz

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Influence of Urban Aerosol on Spectral Solar Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From a dataset of spectral distribution of global and disuse solar irradiances measured in Barcelona during the last three years, the influence of turbidity caused by urban aerosol on spectral composition of solar radiation and transmissivity of ...

J. Lorente; A. Redañ; X. De Cabo

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

SABLE: A South Atlantic Aerosol Backscatter Measurement Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The plans for an atmospheric aerosol field measurement experiment are described. The South Atlantic Backscatter Lidar Experiment (SABLE) is an important step in determining the feasibility of obtaining space-based lidar measurements for the ...

Steven B. Alejandro; George G. Koenig; J. Michael Vaughan; P. Hywel Davies

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Mt. St. Helens' Aerosols: Some Tropospheric and Stratospheric Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical depth measurements based on the attenuation of direct solar radiation before and after the six major explosive eruptions of Mt. St. Helens during 1980 are presented. These automated measurements are from a site 200 km mostly cut ...

J. J. Michalsky; G. M. Stokes

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds, Environ.interactions with mixed-phase and ice clouds can be comparedice nuclei for the indirect aerosol effect on stratiform mixed-phase

Lohmann, Ulrike

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid and 1% decrease in ice phase clouds between 1890 andthat includes aerosol e?ects on ice phase clouds. Similar toas the shift from ice to liquid phase clouds in a warming

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

MELCOR 1. 8. 1 assessment: LACE aerosol experiment LA4  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR code has been used to simulate LACE aerosol experiment LA4. In this test, the behavior of single- and double-component, hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic, aerosols in a condensing environment was monitored. Results are compared to experimental data, and to CONTAIN calculations. Sensitivity studies have been done on time step effects and machine dependencies; thermal/hydraulic parameters such as condensation on heat structures and on pool surface, and radiation heat transfer; and aerosol parameters such as number of MAEROS components and sections assumed, the degree to which plated aerosols are washed off heat structures by condensate film draining, and the effect of non-default values for shape factors and diameter limits. 9 refs., 50 figs., 13 tabs.

Kmetyk, L.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Droplet activation properties of organic aerosols observed at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

activation properties of organic aerosols observed at an urban site during CalNex-LA Fan Mei, 1,7 Patrick L. Hayes, 2,3 Amber Ortega, 2,3 Jonathan W. Taylor, 4 James D. Allan,...

472

Aerosol Effects on Microstructure and Intensity of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving the forecasts of the intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) remains a major challenge. One possibility for improvement is consideration of the effects that aerosols have on tropical clouds and cyclones. The authors have been pursuing this under ...

Daniel Rosenfeld; William L. Woodley; Alexander Khain; William R. Cotton; Gustavo Carrió; Isaac Ginis; Joseph H. Golden

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Aerosol Measurement in the Australian Outback: Intercomparison of Sun Photometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The low background aerosol loadings prevailing over much of the Australian continent necessitate careful attention to the calibration of sun photometers. The validity of such calibrations can only be assessed objectively by intercomparison of ...

R. M. Mitchell; B. W. Forgan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

ARM - Field Campaign - Azores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 2010.01.01, Wood, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

475

About the Rhythms of Variability of the Submicron Aerosol Characterist...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of fewer than 3.5 days decrease, and year-to-year stability of the periodograms is destroyed. The main difference in the spectra of aerosol and BC lies in the fact that the...

476

Thermodynamic and Aerosol Controls in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A near-large-eddy simulation approach with size-revolving (bin) microphysics is employed to evaluate the relative sensitivity of southeast Pacific marine boundary layer cloud properties to thermodynamic and aerosol parameters. Simulations are ...

David B. Mechem; Sandra E. Yuter; Simon P. de Szoeke

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Cloud Activating Properties of Aerosol Observed during CELTIC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were performed during the Chemical Emission, Loss, Transformation, and Interactions with Canopies (CELTIC) field program at Duke ...

Craig A. Stroud; Athanasios Nenes; Jose L. Jimenez; Peter F. DeCarlo; J. Alex Huffman; Roelof Bruintjes; Eiko Nemitz; Alice E. Delia; Darin W. Toohey; Alex B. Guenther; Sreela Nandi

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Sampling Characteristics of an Aircraft-Borne Aerosol Inlet System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When sampling aerosol particles from aircraft, the inlet system is the most critical item because it can strongly modify the number concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the particles. In this investigation, the authors ...

M. Hermann; F. Stratmann; M. Wilck; A. Wiedensohler

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Direct and Indirect Shortwave Radiative Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea salt aerosols play a dual role in affecting the atmospheric radiative balance. Directly, sea salt particles scatter the incoming solar radiation and absorb the outgoing terrestrial radiation. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei, sea salt ...

Tarek Ayash; Sunling Gong; Charles Q. Jia

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Measurement of Aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The air fluorescence detectors (FDs) of the Pierre Auger Observatory are vital for the determination of the air shower energy scale. To compensate for variations in atmospheric conditions that affect the energy measurement, the Observatory operates an array of monitoring instruments to record hourly atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3,000 square km. This paper presents results from four instruments used to characterize the aerosol component of the atmosphere: the Central Laser Facility (CLF), which provides the FDs with calibrated laser shots; the scanning backscatter lidars, which operate at three FD sites; the Aerosol Phase Function monitors (APFs), which measure the aerosol scattering cross section at two FD locations; and the Horizontal Attenuation Monitor (HAM), which measures the wavelength dependence of aerosol attenuation.

S. Y. BenZvi; F. Arqueros; R. Cester; M. Chiosso; B. M. Connolly; B. Fick; A. Filipcic; B. García; A. Grillo; F. Guarino; M. Horvat; M. Iarlori; C. Macolino; M. Malek; J. Matthews; J. A. J. Matthews; D. Melo; R. Meyhandan; M. Micheletti; M. Monasor; M. Mostafá; R. Mussa; J. Pallotta; S. Petrera; M. Prouza; V. Rizi; M. Roberts; J. R. Rodriguez Rojo; D. Rodríguez-Frías; F. Salamida; M. Santander; G. Sequeiros; P. Sommers; A. Tonachini; L. Valore; D. Verberic; E. Visbal; S. Westerhoff; L. Wiencke; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosols solvents adhesives" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Characterizing Diesel Smoke and other Aerosols using Polarized...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing Diesel Smoke and other Aerosols using Polarized Light Scattering Speaker(s): Arlon Hunt Date: November 17, 1998 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Considerable information...

482

Transport of Sub-micron Aerosols in Bifurcations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The convective-diffusive transport of sub-micron aerosols in an oscillatory laminar flow within a 2-D single bifurcation is studied, using order-of-magnitude analysis and numerical simulation using a commercial software ...

Leong, Fong Yew

483

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burning of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, optical and thermal-optical analysis methods Title Evaluation of the...

484

Nonlinear Climate and Hydrological Responses to Aerosol Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equilibrium temperature and hydrological responses to the total aerosol effects (i.e., direct, semidirect, and indirect effects) are studied using a modified version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory atmosphere general circulation ...

Yi Ming; V. Ramaswamy

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Evaporation–Condensation Effects on Resonant Photoacoustics of Volatile Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In determining the optical properties of the atmosphere, the measurement of light absorption by aerosols is particularly challenging, and yet it is important because of the influence of strongly absorbing black carbon on climate and atmospheric ...

Richard Raspet; William V. Slaton; W. Patrick Arnott; Hans Moosmüller

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Aerosols: Smoke and Mirrors of the Climate System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols: Smoke and Mirrors of the Climate System Speaker(s): Dr. Harshvardhan Date: May 16, 2011 - 3:00pm Location: 90-3075 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Surabi Menon Solid and...

488

Volatility of Aerosols in the Arid Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile properties of aerosols at an isolated rural site in south-central New Mexico were measured with a light-scattering particle counter equipped with a temperature-controlled heated inlet. Intermittent measurements throughout a one-year ...

R. G. Pinnick; S. G. Jennings; G. Fernandez

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Two wavelength Lidar instrument for atmospheric aerosol study.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A two-color lidar instrument and inversion algorithms have been developed for the study of atmospheric aerosols. The two-color lidar laser transmitter is based on the… (more)

Hoffman, David Swick.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Observed impact of atmospheric aerosols on the surface energy budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols scatter and potentially absorb incoming solar radiation, thereby reducing the total amount of radiation reaching the surface and increasing the fraction that is diffuse. The partitioning of incoming energy at the surface into ...

Allison L. Steiner; Dori Mermelstein; Susan J. Cheng; Tracy E. Twine; Andrew Oliphant

491

Parametric Resonance of Optically Trapped Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Brownian dynamics of an optically trapped water droplet are investigated across the transition from over to under-damped oscillations. The spectrum of position fluctuations evolves from a Lorentzian shape typical of over-damped systems (beads in liquid solvents), to a damped harmonic oscillator spectrum showing a resonance peak. In this later under-damped regime, we excite parametric resonance by periodically modulating the trapping power at twice the resonant frequency. The power spectra of position fluctuations are in excellent agreement with the obtained analytical solutions of a parametrically modulated Langevin equation.

R. Di Leonardo; G. Ruocco; J. Leach; M. J. Padgett; A. J. Wright; J. M. Girkin; D. R. Burnham; D. McGloin

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

492

Climate impacts of carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols: A proposed study  

SciTech Connect

In addition to sulfate aerosols, carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols are potentially significant contributors to global climate change. We present evidence that strongly suggests that current assessments of the effects of aerosols on climate may be inadequate because major aerosol components, especially carbonaceous aerosols, are not included in these assessments. Although data on the properties and distributions of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols are insufficient to allow quantification of their climate impacts, the existing information suggests that climate forcing by this aerosol component may be significant and comparable to that by sulfate aerosols. We propose that a research program be undertaken to support a quantitative assessment of the role in climate forcing of non-sulfate, particularly carbonaceous, aerosols.

Andreae, M.O.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cofer, W.R. III; Hollande, J.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Division] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

A Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds Gijs de Boer, Tempei Hashino, Edwin W. Eloranta and Gregory J. Tripoli The University of Wisconsin - Madison (1) Introduction (1) Introduction Mixed-phase stratiform clouds are commonly observed at high latitudes (Shupe et al., 2006; de Boer et al., 2009a). These clouds significaly impact the atmospheric radiative

494

Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report  

SciTech Connect

Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

495

Advanced Nuclear Technology: Aerosol Decontamination from Nuclear Containments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under assumed severe accident conditions, fission products are expected to be released to the containment environment. Small particulates, suspended in the containment atmosphere as aerosols, can leave containment through leakage pathways. These leak paths are expected to include imperfections in door or penetration seals, small weld or concrete cracks, or other capillary-type paths.One physical process that will occur during containment leakage is decontamination of the aerosol-laden ...

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

496

The effect of roughness on aerosol deposition in tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental measurements of simulated roughness within tubes and the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 L/min to 169.9 L/min. The relative roughness for each of the tubes tested are as follows: clean aluminum pipe and clean copper tube, F,/D = 10-4; fine sandpaper pipe, F,/D = 0.017-12 helical ridges per linear centimeter copper tube, F,/D = 0.046; coarse sandpaper pipe, F,/D = 0.065. Non-dimensional quantities were used to produce an empirical model relating roughness to aerosol penetration. The dependent variable, aerosol penetration, was encompassed in the non-dimensional deposition velocity (v,) and modeled as a function of the dependent variables, non-dimensional particle relaxation time (,c,) and relative roughness (&/D). In addition, a method was developed for estimating when to remove the sampling transport lines for cleaning due to the roughness within the transport line. The empirical correlation fits the data over the range of 0. I 6 to 112 L/min. For these conditions, the model deviated from the experimental data by less than 10% with one outlier which deviated by 20% for the coarse sandpaper pipe at a flow rate of 1 12 L/min. The correlation was used to show that the transport lines should be removed for cleaning or replacement once the pressure drop has exceeded 7.5 mm Hg. The experimental data has shown that the aerosol penetration decreases below 85% for an internal roughness comparable to this pressure drop limit. The correlation for aerosol penetration in transport lines with internal roughness presented should be a beneficial engineering tool for predicting the aerosol losses in sampling systems where roughness is a concern. The correlation should be a useful sub-model for aerosol penetration prediction computational tools as well.

Chavez, Mario Cesar

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

A New Hypothesis for the Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple model which can explain the observed vertical distribution and size spectrum of atmospheric aerosol has been proposed. The model is based on a new physical hypothesis for the vertical mass exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The vertical mass excange takes place through a gravity wave feedback mechanism. There is a close agreement between the model predicted aerosol distribution and size spectrum and the observed distributions.

A. Mary Selvam; A. S. Ramachandra Murty; Bh. V. Ramanamurty

1999-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

498

Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

499

ARM's Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Data  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The aerosol observing system (AOS) is the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform for in situ aerosol measurements at the surface. The principal measurements are those of the aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of the particle size and radiation wavelength. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration, size distribution, hygroscopic growth, and inorganic chemical composition. The AOS measures aerosol optical properties to better understand how particles interact with solar radiation and influence the earth's radiation balance. The measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. [Copied from http://www.arm.gov/instruments/aos]

The ARM Archive at Oak Ridge National Laboratory holds aerosol data from the AOS for two of the permanent ARM sites, North Slope Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP), as well as from mobile facilities used during specific field campaigns. The AOS has collected data since 1995.

500

Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol during MILAGRO 2006  

SciTech Connect

Fast measurements of aerosol and gas-phase constituents coupled with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model are used to study the partitioning of semivolatile inorganic species and phase state of Mexico City aerosol sampled at the T1 site during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. Overall, predicted semivolatile partitioning agrees well with measurements. PM{sub 2.5} is insensitive to changes in ammonia but is to acidic semivolatile species. For particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m diameter, semi-volatile partitioning requires 30-60 min to equilibrate; longer time is typically required during the night and early morning hours. When the aerosol sulfate-to-nitrate molar ratio is less than unity, predictions improve substantially if the aerosol is assumed to follow the deliquescent phase diagram. Treating crustal species as 'equivalent sodium' (rather than explicitly) in the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations introduces important biases in predicted aerosol water uptake, nitrate and ammonium; neglecting crustals further increases errors dramatically. This suggests that explicitly considering crustals in the thermodynamic calculations is required to accurately predict the partitioning and phase state of aerosols.

Fountoukis, C.; Nenes, A.; Sullivan, A.; Weber, R.; VanReken, T.; Fischer, M.; Matias, E.; Moya, M.; Farmer, D.; Cohen, R.C.

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z