National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for aerosols airborne observations

  1. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  2. New Chemical Aerosol Characterization Methods- Examples Using Agricultural and Urban Airborne Particulate Matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Lijun

    2010-10-12

    This study explored different chemical characterization methods of agricultural and urban airborne particulate matter. Three different field campaigns are discussed. For the agricultural aerosols, measurement of the chemical ...

  3. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  4. Aerosol Observing System Upgraded

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N A NA LY S IDOE Office2 Aerosol

  5. Aerosol Optical Depth Prediction from Satellite Observations by Multiple Instance Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vucetic, Slobodan

    Aerosol Optical Depth Prediction from Satellite Observations by Multiple Instance Regression airborne particles that both reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation and whose effect on the Earth the satellite measure- ments, the common objective is prediction of Aerosol Opti- cal Depth (AOD). An important

  6. Column closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-Asia using airborne Sun photometer and airborne in situ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun photometer and airborne in situ and ship-based lidar measurements B. Schmid,1 D. A. Hegg,2 J. Wang (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne Sun photometry agreement with airborne Sun photometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers

  7. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during to within 0.004­0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/ sky radiometer located on Cabras Dynamics: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS: PRIDE, airborne Sun photometer, aerosol optical depth, columnar water

  8. Airborne observations of methane emissions from rice cultivation in the Sacramento Valley of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Airborne observations of methane emissions from rice cultivation in the Sacramento Valley 2012; accepted 7 October 2012; published 8 December 2012. [1] Airborne measurements of methane (CH4 is not accounted for in the CARB inventory. Citation: Peischl, J., et al. (2012), Airborne observations of methane

  9. Aerosol Retrieval Using Remote-sensed Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    4.1.2 Baltimore and the DRAGONaround Baltimore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4component aerosol 1 for Baltimore-Washington region on June

  10. Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    and desert dust observations from GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12; · Absorbing Aerosol Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12;Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30

  11. An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Antony

    and 6 km over Sagami Bay southwest of Tokyo. The C-130 observation package included a tracking Sun extinction coefficients (sa $ 0.03 kmŔ1 ) derived from the airborne tracking Sun photometer, in situ optical

  12. Airborne aerosol in situ measurements during TCAP: A closure study of total scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Sedlacek, Arthur; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail; Barnard, James; Chand, Duli; Flynn, Connor; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John; et al

    2015-07-31

    We present a framework for calculating the total scattering of both non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol at ambient conditions from aircraft data. Our framework is developed emphasizing the explicit use of chemical composition data for estimating the complex refractive index (RI) of particles, and thus obtaining improved ambient size spectra derived from Optical Particle Counter (OPC) measurements. The feasibility of our framework for improved calculations of total scattering is demonstrated using three types of data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) aircraft during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Namely, these data types are: (1) size distributions measured by amore »suite of OPC’s; (2) chemical composition data measured by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer; and (3) the dry total scattering coefficient measured by a integrating nephelometer and scattering enhancement factor measured with a humidification system. We demonstrate that good agreement (~10%) between the observed and calculated scattering can be obtained under ambient conditions (RH « less

  13. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ? 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  14. Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa related to monsoon of aerosol emissions from the wet surface. 1. Introduction The main aerosol types occurring over Africa Africa can be characterized using Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from Global Ozone Monitoring

  15. AIRBORNE HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION LIDAR AEROSOL MEASUREMENTS DURING CALNEX AND CARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Evgueni Kassianov, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Brent Holben, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ABSTRACT The NASA Langley Research Center layers of dust, likely transported from Asia, were located above urban aerosols. HSRL and ground- based

  16. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  17. Observed Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGasObservation oftheAerosol

  18. Challenge the future 1 Observations of aerosol-cloud-radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    -road Industrial coal Residential solid fuel Biofuel cooking Biofuel heating Coal Open Burning Agricultural fields causes Differences in: · cloud properties · cloud fraction and location · aerosol properties · smoke

  19. Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

  20. Observed Holiday Aerosol Reduction and Temperature Cooling over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Daoyi; Wang, Wenshan; Qian, Yun; Bai, Wenbing; Guo, Yuanxi; Mao, Rui

    2014-06-16

    The Spring Festival air pollution in China was investigated using the long-term observations from 2001-2012 over 323 stations. During the Spring Festival with nearly half of urban population leaving the cities for holidays, the particulate matter (PM10) concentration is about 24.5?gm-3 (23%) lower than normal days. Associated with the national-wide burning of firework, the PM10 concentration sharply increases to 123.8?gm-3 at Chinese New Year Day (increment of 35%). Similar to PM10, the SO2 and NO2 decrease from high values in normal days to a holiday minimum with reduction of 23.3% and 30.6%, respectively. The NO2 has no peak in New Year Day because of the different emission source. The night mean and minimum temperature co-vary with PM10. Both nighttime mean and minimum temperature decrease by about 2.1°C during the holidays. And in association with the pollution jump at New Year Day the night temperature simultaneously increase by about 0.89°C. The in-phase co-variations between PM10 and night temperature suggest an overall warming effect of holiday aerosol during winter in China.

  1. Observational Insights into Aerosol Formation from Isoprene David R. Worton,*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    , Ronald C. Cohen, John H. Seinfeld, and Allen H. Goldstein,$ Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, California 94710, United States § Department of Environmental Sciences

  2. Airborne Multiwavelength High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) Observations During TCAP 2012: Vertical Proles of Optical and Microphysical Properties of a Smoke/Urban Haze Plume Over the Northeastern Coast of the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, Detlef; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Chemyakin, Eduard; Kolgotin, A.; Hair, John; Cook, A. L.; Harper, David; Rogers, R. R.; Hare, Rich; Cleckner, Craig; Obland, Michael; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Berg, Larry K.; Schmid, Beat

    2014-10-10

    We present rst measurements with the rst airborne multiwavelength High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2), developed by NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument was operated during the Department of Energy (DOE) Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) in July 2012. We observed out ow of urban haze and fresh biomass burning smoke from the East Coast of the US out over the West Atlantic Ocean. Lidar ratios at 355 and 532 nm were ... sr indicating moderately absorbing aerosols. Extinctionrelated Angstrom exponents were 1.5{2 pointing at comparably small particles. Our novel automated, unsupervised data inversion algorithm retrieves particle e*ective radii of approximately 0.2 *m, which is in agreement with the large Angstrom exponents. We nd reasonable agreement to particle size parameters obtained from situ measurements carried out with the DOE G-1 aircraft that ew during the lidar observations.

  3. THE 2011 JUNE 23 STELLAR OCCULTATION BY PLUTO: AIRBORNE AND GROUND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Sallum, S. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Dunham, E. W.; Collins, P.; Bida, T.; Bright, L. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.; Amrhein, D. [Williams College-Hopkins Observatory, Williamstown, MA (United States); Tholen, D. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Taylor, B. [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Wolf, J.; Pfueller, E. [Deutsches SOFIA Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 29, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Meyer, A., E-mail: mjperson@mit.edu [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-1, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others

    2013-10-01

    On 2011 June 23, stellar occultations by both Pluto (this work) and Charon (future analysis) were observed from numerous ground stations as well as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This first airborne occultation observation since 1995 with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory resulted in the best occultation chords recorded for the event, in three visible wavelength bands. The data obtained from SOFIA are combined with chords obtained from the ground at the IRTF, the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, and Leeward Community College to give the detailed state of the Pluto-Charon system at the time of the event with a focus on Pluto's atmosphere. The data show a return to the distinct upper and lower atmospheric regions with a knee or kink in the light curve separating them as was observed in 1988, rather than the smoothly transitioning bowl-shaped light curves of recent years. The upper atmosphere is analyzed by fitting a model to all of the light curves, resulting in a half-light radius of 1288 {+-} 1 km. The lower atmosphere is analyzed using two different methods to provide results under the differing assumptions of particulate haze and a strong thermal gradient as causes for the lower atmospheric diminution of flux. These results are compared with those from past occultations to provide a picture of Pluto's evolving atmosphere. Regardless of which lower atmospheric structure is assumed, results indicate that this part of the atmosphere evolves on short timescales with results changing the light curve structures between 1988 and 2006, and then reverting these changes in 2011 though at significantly higher pressures. Throughout these changes, the upper atmosphere remains remarkably stable in structure, again except for the overall pressure changes. No evidence of onset of atmospheric collapse predicted by frost migration models is seen, and the atmosphere appears to be remaining at a stable pressure level, suggesting it should persist at this full level through New Horizon's flyby in 2015.

  4. Aerosol loading in the Southeastern United States: reconciling surface and satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, B.

    We investigate the seasonality in aerosols over the Southeastern United States using observations from several satellite instruments (MODIS, MISR, CALIOP) and surface network sites (IMPROVE, SEARCH, AERONET). We find that ...

  5. Determination of particulate lead using aerosol mass spectrometry: MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salcedo, D.

    We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb) from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations ...

  6. Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axisa, Duncan

    2011-02-22

    This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, ...

  7. Smoke over haze: Comparative analysis of satellite, surface radiometer, and airborne in situ measurements of aerosol optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing over the eastern United States Brian Vant column closure between narrow and broadband measurements and calculations. Citation: Vant-Hull, B., Z. Li

  8. Characterisation of individual airborne particles by using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) at Mace Head, Ireland, 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C S; Kinnersley, Robert P; Harrison, Roy M; Donovan, Robert J; Heal, Mathew R

    2004-01-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer was deployed at Mace Head (Ireland) during August 2002. The measurements provide qualitative chemical composition and size distribution (0.3–3 ?m) information for single ...

  9. Evaluating Clouds, Aerosols, and their Interactions in Three Global Climate Models using COSP and Satellite Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, George; Jin, Ling; Bauer, S.; Bennartz, Ralph; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Ming, Yi; Guo, Huan; Jiang, Jonathan

    2014-09-23

    Accurately representing aerosol-cloud interactions in global climate models is challenging. As parameterizations evolve, it is important to evaluate their performance with appropriate use of observations. In this work we compare aerosols, clouds, and their interactions in three climate models (AM3, CAM5, ModelE) to MODIS satellite observations. Modeled cloud properties were diagnosed using the CFMIP Observations Simulator Package (COSP). Cloud droplet number concentrations (N) were derived using the same algorithm for both satellite-simulated model values and observations. We find that aerosol optical depth tau simulated by models is similar to observations. For N, AM3 and CAM5 capture the observed spatial pattern of higher values in near-coast versus remote ocean regions, though modeled values in general are higher than observed. In contrast, ModelE simulates lower N in most near-coast versus remote regions. Aerosol- cloud interactions were computed as the sensitivity of N to tau for marine liquid clouds off the coasts of South Africa and Eastern Asia where aerosol pollution varies in time. AM3 and CAM5 are in most cases more sensitive than observations, while the sensitivity for ModelE is statistically insignificant. This widely used sensitivity could be subject to misinterpretation due to the confounding influence of meteorology on both aerosols and clouds. A simple framework for assessing the N – tau sensitivity at constant meteorology illustrates that observed sensitivity can change from positive to statistically insignificant when including the confounding influence of relative humidity. Satellite simulated values of N were compared to standard model output and found to be higher with a bias of 83 cm-3.

  10. Airborne measurement of inorganic ionic components of fine aerosol particles using the particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    many important roles in the environment, including visibility, Earth radiation budget and human health on board the NCAR C130 and NASA P-3B aircraft during the 2001 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE)-Asia and the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiments, respectively. Concentrations of NH4

  11. Aerosol Properties from Multi-spectral and Multi-angular Aircraft 4STAR Observations: Expected Advantages and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The airborne Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) is developed to retrieve aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. The necessarily compact design of the 4STAR may cause noticeable apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles. We assess the sensitivity of expected 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval to such enhancement by applying the operational AERONET retrieval code and constructed synthetic 4STARlike data. Also, we assess the sensitivity of the broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing to uncertainties in aerosol retrievals associated with the sky radiance enhancement. Our sensitivity study results suggest that the 4STARbased aerosol retrieval has limitations in obtaining detailed information on particle size distribution and scattering phase function. However, these limitations have small impact on the retrieved bulk optical parameters, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or ±0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 2%, or ±0.02), and the calculated direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 6%, or 2 Wm-2).

  12. Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen, Crystal

    2012-02-14

    of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

  13. Modeling aerosol activation in a tropical, orographic, island setting: Sensitivity tests and comparison with observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The aerosol, updraft and cloud droplet observations from the 2011 Dominica Experiment (DOMEX) field campaign to shortwave radiation (Twomey, 1974) and their lifetime (Albrecht, 1989), affecting Earth's radiation budget are among the most uncertain components of the human impact on Earth's climate (Forster et al., 2007

  14. Emission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds as observed at Chebogue Point,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    acid, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, tentatively identified formic acid and hydroxyacetone organic aerosol production. We clearly show these compounds do not originate from local sources. We also show these compounds match the oxidation products of isoprene observed in smog chamber studies, and we

  15. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station 401. This difference may be the result of using filter media at Station 400 with a smaller pore size than the media used at the other two stations. Average annual gamma exposure at Station 401 is slightly greater than at Station 400 and 402. Average annual gamma exposure at all three TTR stations are in the upper range to slightly higher than values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the TTR. At higher wind speeds, the saltation counts are greater at Station 401 than at Station 402 while the suspended particulate concentrations are greater at Station 402 than at Statin 401. Although these observations seem counterintuitive, they are likely the result of differences in the soil material present at the two sites. Station 401 is located on an interfluve elevated above two adjacent drainage channels where the soil surface is likely to be composed of coarser material. Station 402 is located in finer sediments at the playa edge and is also subject to dust from a dirt road only 500 m to the north. During prolonged high wind events, suspended dust concentrations at Station 401 peaked with the initial winds then decreased whereas dust concentrations at Station 402 peaked with each peak in the wind speed. This likely reflects a limited PM10 source that is quickly expended at Station 401 relative to an abundant PM10 source at Station 402. In CY2013, to facilitate comparisons between radiological analyses of collected dust, the filter media at all three stations will be standardized. In addition, a sequence of samples will be collected at Station 400 using both types of filter media to enable development of a mathematical relationship between the results derived from the two filter types. Additionally, having acquired approximately four years of observations at Stations 400 and 401 and a year of observations at Station 402, a period-of-record analysis of the radiological and airborne dust conditions will be undertaken.

  16. Influence of aerosols on the life cycle of a radiation fog event. A numerical and observational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of aerosols on the life cycle of a radiation fog event. A numerical and observational, develop- ment and dissipation of radiation fog events, uncertainties still exist about the role the sensitivity of fog to aerosols through their impacts on the fog droplets. A radiation fog event that formed

  17. Seasonal and diurnal variations of submicron organic aerosol in Tokyo observed using the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    with carbon monoxide (CO) and fragments of aliphatic and oxygenated organic compounds in the AMS mass spectra. Combustion-related organic aerosol (combustion OA) is defined as the primary organic aerosol (POA) fraction the combustion OA and the background OA from the total OA. The combustion OA and excess OA show good correlation

  18. A geostatistical data fusion technique for merging remote sensing and groundbased observations of aerosol optical thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalak, Anna M.

    that aerosols contrib- ute significantly to reflected solar radiation (the aerosol direct effect) and modify of aerosols in climate and atmospheric chemistry. To date, however, there have been only limited attempts of the growing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Although the radiative forcing of aerosols

  19. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in Western Japan: An Observed Limitation of the f44 Oxidation Indicator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irei, Satoshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Tekemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol mass spectra (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of low volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for d13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the photochemical age estimated by the NOx to NOy ratio revealed that the f44 values distri...

  20. Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    2010-09-01

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1şF, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of ?global warming,? which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  1. Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian (Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department) [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    2010-05-12

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1şF, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of “global warming,” which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  2. CCN Activity of Organic Aerosols Observed Downwind of Urban Emissions during CARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Fan; Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; Wang, J. X.

    2013-12-17

    During the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), activation fraction of size-resolved aerosol particles and aerosol chemical composition were characterized at the T1 site (~60 km downwind of Sacramento, California) from 10 June to 28 June 2010. The hygroscopicity of CCN-active particles (kCCN) with diameter from 100 to 170 nm, derived from the size-resolved activated fraction, varied from 0.10 to 0.21, with an average of 0.15, which was substantially lower than that proposed for continental sites in earlier studies. The low kCCN value was due to the high organic volume fraction, averaged over 80% at the T1 site. The derived kCCN exhibited little diurnal variation, consistent with the relatively constant organic volume fraction observed. At any time, over 90% of the size selected particles with diameter between 100 and 171nm were CCN active, suggesting most particles within this size range were aged background particles. Due to the large organic volume fraction, organic hygroscopicity (korg) strongly impacted particle hygroscopicity and therefore calculated CCN concentration. For vast majority of the cases, an increase of korg from 0.03 to 0.18, which are within the typical range, doubled the calculated CCN concentration. Organic hygroscopicity was derived from kCCN and aerosol chemical composition, and its variations with the fraction of total organic mass spectral signal at m/z 44 (f44) and O:C were compared to results from previous studies. Overall, the relationships between korg and f44 are quite consistent for organic aerosol (OA) observed during field studies and those formed in smog chamber. Compared to the relationship between korg and f44, the relationship between korg and O:C exhibits more significant differences among different studies, suggesting korg may be better parameterized using f44. A least squares fit yielded korg = 2.10 (±0.07) × f44 ?0.11 (±0.01) with the Pearson R2 value of 0.71. One possible explanation for the stronger correlation between korg and f44 is that the m/z 44 signal (mostly contributed by the CO+2 ion) is more closely related to organic acids, which may dominate the overall korg due to their relatively high water solubility and hygroscopicity.

  3. Global observations of UV-absorbing aerosols from ERS-2/GOME Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Absorbing Aerosol Index ­ Theory GOME AAI results Conclusions & Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol Index Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith

  4. White Paper: Airborne Observations in Western North Dakota to Obtain Baseline Measurements for Qualification of Important Atmospheric Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    and aerosols. The production, transportation and storage of crude oil and natural gas can result in methane atoms) vapors from crude oil production form aerosols within the atmosphere. The research objective determine the magnitude of emission rates from the region's oil and gas production (Karion et al. 2013

  5. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  6. Mars aerosol studies with the MGS TES emission phase function observations: Optical depths, particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, Barbara A.

    aerosol properties to date. TES solar band and infrared (IR) spectral EPF sequences are analyzed to obtain and scattering of radiation; 6225 Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars; KEYWORDS: Martian atmosphere, aerosols, radiative forcing from atmo- spheric dust solar absorption and thermal emission was recognized as a primary

  7. Retrieval of Non-Spherical Dust Aerosol Properties from Satellite Observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xin

    2013-08-01

    of the refractive index, which may lead to misinterpretation of the measurements and substantial errors in the retrieved aerosol parameters; (e) Depending signi cantly on the selection of the limited num- ber of xed dust aerosol models, the retrieval quality may...

  8. Aerosol Optical Depth Prediction from Satellite Observations by Multiple Instance Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    streams from multiple instruments. These instruments provide an unprecedented opportunity for long-term airborne particles that both reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation and whose effect on the Earth particles that reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation, on the global scale. The existing algorithms

  9. Analyzing the Contribution of Aerosols to an Observed Increase in Direct Normal Irradiance in Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Vignola, F.; Long, Charles N.

    2009-01-22

    Annual average total irradiance increases by 1-2% per decade at three mon- itoring stations in Oregon over the period from 1980 to 2007. Direct normal irradiance measurements increase by 5% per decade over the same time pe- riod. The measurements show no sign of a dimming before 1990. The impact of high concentrations of stratospheric aerosols following the volcanic erup- tions of El Chich¶on and Mt. Pinatubo are clearly seen in the measurements. Removing these years from the annual average all-sky time series reduces the trends in both total and direct normal irradiance. Clear-sky periods from this long direct normal time series are used in conjunction with radiative trans- fer calculations to test whether part of the increase could be caused by an- thropogenic aerosols. All three sites show relatively low clear-sky measure- ments before the eruption of El Chich¶on in 1982, suggesting higher aerosol loads during this period. After removing the periods most strongly impacted by volcanic eruptions, two of the sites show statistically signiŻcant increases in clear-sky direct normal irradiance from 1987 to 2007. Radiative transfer calculations of the impact of volcanic aerosols and tropospheric water vapor indicate that only about 20% of that clear-sky increase between background aerosol periods before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo can be explained by these two factors. Thus, a statistically signiŻcant clear-sky trend remains between 1987 and 2007 that is consistent with the hypothesis that at least some of the increase in surface irradiance could be caused by a reduction of anthropogenic aerosols. D

  10. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2015-07-10

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In-situ observations of snow cover fraction since the 1960s suggest that the snow pack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 2–2.5 °C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution ocean–atmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover fraction to various anthropogenic factors. Atmore »the Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7 °C, BC 1.3 °C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7 °C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. Especially, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow are coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. These findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.« less

  11. Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring from Satellite Observations: A History of Three Decades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    and energy and water cycles, and the involvement of aerosols with the dynamic system. The synergetic use of data from different satellite sensors provides more comprehen- sive information to better quantify (e.g., pollens, sea- salt, wind-blown dust, volcanic ash) or from man- made sources (e.g., smoke

  12. Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    the advantage of monitoring of the global atmosphere. The disadvantage is often a poor spacial reso- lution quantity, but a radiation difference in the UV. Its main advantages are its insensitivity to scattering in climate physics today is the effect of aerosols on the global energy budget. The amount and sign

  13. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  14. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  15. An aerosol boomerang: Rapid around-the-world transport of smoke from the December 2006 Australian forest fires observed from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    forest fires observed from space Ruud J. Dirksen,1 K. Folkert Boersma,1 Jos de Laat,1 Piet Stammes,1-the-world transport of a smoke aerosol plume released by intense forest fires in southeastern Australia in December of forest fire emissions in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere. Citation: Dirksen, R. J., K. Folkert

  16. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  17. Three Years of Airborne Measurements in Mali, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Three Years of Airborne Measurements in Mali, West Africa David Delene Department of Atmospheric of adapting operational programs from other locations to the Mali region. · Advance local scientific knowledge Measurement Objectives · Determine the variability of aerosol and cloud properties in Mali and how

  18. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  19. Direct observations of N2O5 reactivity on ambient aerosol particles Timothy H. Bertram,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aerosol flow reactor coupled to a custom-built chemical ionization mass spectrometer at two urban currently implemented large-scale model parameterizations would predict. Such discrepancies have likely and thus accurate description of the processes that remove NOx radicals is critical for predicting the down-wind

  20. Relative humidity and its effect on aerosol optical depth in the vicinity of convective clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altaratz, O

    The hygroscopic growth of aerosols is controlled by the relative humidity (RH) and changes the aerosols' physical and hence optical properties. Observational studies of aerosol–cloud interactions evaluate the aerosol ...

  1. Marine aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, ES

    2009-01-01

    proper- ties found in the marine boundary layer over theand R. E. Larson (1994), Marine boundary layer measurementsand T. Hoffmann (2002), Marine aerosol formation from

  2. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  3. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deaton, Juan D. (Menan, ID); Schmitt, Michael J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  4. Stratospheric Albedo Modification by Aerosol Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, J I

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and develops the proposal, widely discussed but not examined in detail, to use stratospheric aerosols to increase the Earth's albedo to Solar radiation in order to control climate change. The potential of this method has been demonstrated by the "natural experiments" of volcanic injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere that led to subsequent observed global cooling. I consider several hygroscopic oxides as possible aerosol materials in addition to oxides of sulfur. Aerosol chemistry, dispersion and transport have been the subject of little study and are not understood, representing a significant scientific risk. Even the optimal altitude of injection and aerosol size distribution are poorly known. Past attention focused on guns and airplanes as means of lofting aerosols or their chemical precursors, but large sounding rockets are cheap, energetically efficient, can be designed to inject aerosols at any required altitude, and involve little technical risk. Sophisticated, mass-opti...

  5. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  6. Airborne Pollution In urban environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broday, David

    Airborne Pollution In urban environments What are the real health effects of urban pollution Air Pollution- relevant Human Exposure in Urban Environments" Funded under the "City of Tomorrow" programme of the European Union: Contract number EVK4-CT-2002-00090 URBAN POLLUTION Airborne pollutants

  7. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendarPressExtendedPre-WorkshopListStratosphere

  8. ARM - Mobile Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach HomepolarizationMeasurementsWarmingMethaneMission

  9. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  10. Evaluation of a photoelectric aerosol sensor for real-time PAH monitoring. Project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramamurthi, M.; Chuang, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    In this study, the performance of a Gossen, GmbH Model PAS 1000i Photoelectric Aerosol Sensors (PAS) was evaluated for monitoring the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on airborne find particles. The response of the PAS to PAH vapors and to airborne particles of various sizes were determined. Estimated levels of PAH provided by the PAS were compared to the concentrations of PAH sampled and measured traditionally.

  11. AIRBORNE HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION LIDAR MEASUREMENTS OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The second major experiment was the Texas Air Quality, A., University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 Air B200 aircraft during several field experiments. Most of the flights were conducted during two

  12. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms.

  13. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  14. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  15. Final Project Report - ARM CLASIC CIRPAS Twin Otter Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John A. Ogren

    2010-04-05

    The NOAA/ESRL/GMD aerosol group made three types of contributions related to airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering and absorption for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) in June 2007 on the Twin Otter research airplane operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS). GMD scientists served as the instrument mentor for the integrating nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) on the Twin Otter during CLASIC, and were responsible for (1) instrument checks/comparisons; (2) instrument trouble shooting/repair; and (3) data quality control (QC) and submittal to the archive.

  16. Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, J.B.; Chan, T.L. )

    1990-03-01

    The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.

  17. Signal processing for airborne bistatic radar 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Kian P

    The major problem encountered by an airborne bistatic radar is the suppression of bistatic clutter. Unlike clutter echoes for a sidelooking airborne monostatic radar, bistatic clutter echoes are range dependent. Using ...

  18. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  19. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  20. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  1. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  2. Transport and mixing patterns over Central California during the carbonaceous aerosol and radiative effects study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast J. D.; Springston S.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Berg, L. K.; Shaw, W. J.; Pekour, M.; Shrivastava, M.; Barnard, J. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. A.; Erickson, M.; Jobson, B. T.; Flowers, B.; Dubey, M. K.; Pierce, R. B.; Dolislager, L.; Pederson, J.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2012-02-17

    We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scale flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 time periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar. WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere that are then entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

  3. Transport and Mixing Patterns over Central California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.; Shaw, William J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Barnard, James C.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Erickson, Matthew H.; Jobson, Tom; Flowers, Bradley; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Springston, Stephen R.; Pirce, Bradley R.; Dolislager, Leon; Pederson, J. R.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2012-02-17

    We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scales flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar; WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere which then can be entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

  4. Investigation of the optical and cloud forming properties of pollution, biomass burning, and mineral dust aerosols 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yong Seob

    2006-08-16

    that were observed during this period. The predicted cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were used in a cloud model to determine the impact of the different aerosol types on the expected cloud droplet concentration. RH-dependent aerosol extinction...

  5. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  6. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  7. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGasObservation of aof

  9. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

  10. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

    2011-12-07

    We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar ecosystems.

  11. Hazardous particle binder, coagulant and re-aerosolization inhibitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula (Livermore, CA); Zalk, David (San Jose, CA); Hoffman, D. Mark (Livermore, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A copolymer and water/ethanol solvent solution capable of binding with airborne contaminants or potential airborne contaminants, such as biological weapon agents or toxic particulates, coagulating as the solvent evaporates, and adhering the contaminants to a surface so as to inhibit the re-suspension of such contaminants. The solution uses a water or ethanol/water mixture for the solvent, and a copolymer having one of several functional group sets so as to have physical and chemical characteristics of high adhesion, low viscosity, low surface tension, negative electrostatic charge, substantially neutral pH, and a low pKa. Use of the copolymer solution prevents re-aerosolization and transport of unwanted, reactive species thus increasing health and safety for personnel charged with decontamination of contaminated buildings and areas.

  12. Hazardous particle binder, coagulant and re-aerosolization inhibitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula; Zalk, David; Hoffman, D. Mark

    2012-07-10

    A copolymer and water/ethanol solvent solution capable of binding with airborne contaminants or potential airborne contaminants, such as biological weapon agents or toxic particulates, coagulating as the solvent evaporates, and adhering the contaminants to a surface so as to inhibit the re-suspension of such contaminants. The solution uses a water or ethanol/water mixture for the solvent, and a copolymer having one of several functional group sets so as to have physical and chemical characteristics of high adhesion, low viscosity, low surface tension, negative electrostatic charge, substantially neutral pH, and a low pKa. Use of the copolymer solution prevents re-aerosolization and transport of unwanted, reactive species thus increasing health and safety for personnel charged with decontamination of contaminated buildings and areas.

  13. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  14. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  15. Airborne Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Airborne Data Processing and Analysis Software Package David J. Delene1 1 Department of Atmospheric-9006 Correspondance Email: delene@aero.und.edu Software Article submitted to Earth Science Informatics on 28 December Measurement, Open Source Scientific Software, Airborne Measurements, Research Aircraft 1 #12;Abstract

  16. MSIV leakage airborne iodine transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, J.E. (Cline Associates Inc., Rockville, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Gaseous iodine deposits on surfaces exposed to vapors. Basic chemical and physical principles predict this behavior, and several laboratory and in-plant measurements demonstrate the characteristic. An empirical model was developed that describes the deposition, resuspension, and transformation of airborne radioiodine molecular species as a stream containing these forms moves along its pathway. The model uses a data base of measured values of deposition and resuspension rates in its application and describes the conversion of the more reactive inorganic iodine species I[sub 2] to the less reactive organic species CH[sub 3]I as the iodine deposits and resuspends along the path. It also considers radioactive decay and chemical surface bonding during residence on surfaces. For the 8-day [sup 131]I, decay during the airborne portion of the transport is negligible. Verification of the model included measurement tests of long gaseous-activity sampling lines of different diameters, operated at different flow rates and stream temperatures. The model was applied to the streams at a boiling water reactor nuclear power plant to describe the transport through leaking main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), following a loss-of-coolant accident.

  17. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  18. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  19. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  20. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  2. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

    2011-07-27

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

  3. RACORO aerosol data processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  4. Measurement of airborne radioactivity from the Fukushima reactor accident in Tokushima, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Fushimi; S. Nakayama; M. Sakama; Y. Sakaguchi

    2012-10-19

    The airborne radioactive isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plan t was measured in Tokushima, western Japan. The continuous monitoring has been carried out in Tokushima. From March 23, 2011 the fission product $^{131}$I was observed. The radioisotopes $^{134}$Cs and $^{137}$Cs were also observed in the beginning of April. However the densities were extremely smaller than the Japanese regulation of radioisotopes.

  5. Atmospheric Measurements of Submicron Aerosols at the California-Mexico Border and in Houston, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Misti E

    2013-04-29

    as the concentration of Mexico, the submicron aerosols are heavily influenced by vehicle emissions. We observe an average single scattering albedo of 0...

  6. Chemistry of airborne particles from metallurgical processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Neil Travis, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particles fall into one of three size ranges. The nucleation range consists of nanoparticles created from vapor atom collisions. The decisive parameter for particle size and composition is the supercooling of the ...

  7. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  8. EJFreney Airborne measurements during MEGAPOLI Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; Airborne1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    sampled passes through a gold converter (8mm Inox tube cover34 of gold) heated at 200°C with H2 as reagent

  9. Flammability and Combustion Behaviors in Aerosols Formed by Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids Produced by the Electrospray Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lian, Peng

    2012-10-19

    in aerosols and the influence of the presence of fuel droplets in the system are studied in the aerosol ignition tests. Flames in aerosols are characterized by non-uniform shapes and discrete flame fronts. Flames were observed in different burning modes...

  10. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-17

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Modelmore »predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  11. Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

    2011-06-21

    The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

  12. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  13. Aerosol collection characteristics of ambient aerosol samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Carlos A

    1978-01-01

    when the sampler is not in operation, both as functions of particle size and wind speed. Wind velocity was a major cause of bias for the four samplers when collecting aerosol particles & 10 um. Characteristic curves were very similar for the 0. 38 m... x 0. 38 m ( 15" x 15") Hi-Vol and the 0. 29 m x 0. 36 m (11&" x 14") Hi-Vol. At 28 um and wind speeds of 2, 8, and 24 km/hr, sampling effectiveness values respectively were 70, 43, and 43 percent for the 0. 38 m x 0. 38 m Hi-Vol and 81, 56, and 43...

  14. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  15. Modeling aerosols and their interactions with shallow cumuli during the 2007 CHAPS field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Laskin, Alexander; Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2013-02-07

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate relationships between aerosols and clouds in the vicinity of Oklahoma City during the June 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The regional scale simulation completed using 2 km horizontal grid spacing evaluates four important relationships between aerosols and shallow cumulus clouds observed during CHAPS. First, the model reproduces the trends of higher nitrate volume fractions in cloud droplet residuals compared to interstitial non-activated aerosols, as measured using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Comparing simulations with cloud chemistry turned on and off, we show that nitric acid vapor uptake by cloud droplets explains the higher nitrate content of cloud droplet residuals. Second, as documented using an offline code, both aerosol water and other inorganics (OIN), which are related to dust and crustal emissions, significantly affect predicted aerosol optical properties. Reducing the OIN content of wet aerosols by 50% significantly improves agreement of model predictions with measurements of aerosol optical properties. Third, the simulated hygroscopicity of aerosols is too high as compared to their hygroscopicity derived from cloud condensation nuclei and particle size distribution measurements, indicating uncertainties associated with simulating size-dependent chemical composition and treatment of aerosol mixing state within the model. Fourth, the model reasonably represents the observations of the first aerosol indirect effect where pollutants in the vicinity of Oklahoma City increase cloud droplet number concentrations and decrease the droplet effective radius. While previous studies have often focused on cloud-aerosol interactions in stratiform and deep convective clouds, this study highlights the ability of regional-scale models to represent some of the important aspects of cloud-aerosol interactions associated with fields of short-lived shallow cumuli.

  16. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hering, Susanne V. (Berkeley, CA); Goldstein, Allen H. (Orinda, CA)

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  17. AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) was integrated into the Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP site in Oklahoma in Nov 2010. This instrument has been measuring concentrations of sulfate, ammonium, nitrate of oxygenated OA with minor contributions from hydrocarbon-like OA, indicating that the OA at the SGP site

  18. Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:486501, 2009 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a NOAA research vessel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition for glutaric acid in mixed glutaric acid/NH4HSO4 test aerosols was 0.22 ng collected mass, which corresponds min­1. During TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS, signals well above the detection limit were observed at a number

  19. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  20. Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric observations-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer data match closely with those from the Cimel sun- photometer data for two of the sunphotometer to retrieve aerosol optical depths, a, along with observed surface flux data from field campaigns

  1. Micro-Electron Spin Resonance for Airborne Soot Measurement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A real-time method for airborne soot concentration measurement using a miniaturized electron spin resonance sensor is presented.

  2. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-09

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in goodmore »agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  3. Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic A. Smirnov,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network A. Smirnov,1,2 B. N. Holben,2 I of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network), Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06204, doi:10

  4. Practical application of in situ aerosol measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    The use of in situ, real-time measurement techniques permits the characterization of airborne droplets and particles under conditions where traditional sampling methods can fail. For example, sampling method rely on the ability to sample and transport particles without biasing the properties of interest, and often are not applicable in harsh environment. Although in situ methods offer unique opportunities in these cases, these techniques introduce new concerns and must be used carefully if accurate measurement are to be made. Several in situ measurement techniques are reviewed here. As the field is rapidly evolving, the discussion is limited to those techniques which: (1) are commercially available, (2) provide real-time output, (3) measure the aerosol size distribution. Discussion is divided between single particle counters (which provide a flux-based or temporal measurement) and ensemble techniques (which provide a concentration-based or spatial measurement). Specific techniques discussed include phase Doppler, Mie scattering, and Fraunhofer diffraction, and commercial instruments based on these techniques.

  5. Airborne observations of the kinematics and statistics of breaking waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleiss, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    O?shore wind forcing in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico: Thetepec, Mexico, which is known for strong o?shore wind jetscoast of Mexico, which is known for its strong o?-shore wind

  6. Airborne observations of the kinematics and statistics of breaking waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleiss, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    E. M. Janssen, 1996: Wave energy dissipation by whitecaps.waves: Surface impulse and wave energy dissipation rates. J.to the ocean, dissipating wave energy that is then available

  7. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  8. In-Containment Thermal-hydraulic and Aerosol Behaviour during Severe Accidents: Analysis of the PHEBUS-FPT2 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herranz, Luis E.; Fontanet, Joan; Vela-Garcia, Monica [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, CIEMAT Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Ongoing work in the area of development and validation of severe accident computer codes, is and will be highly valuable when dealing with safety analysis of some designs of Generation III, III+ and, even, Generation IV. In the experiment PHEBUS-FPT2 a realistic source of nuclear aerosols was generated in the core and transported through a mock-up of the primary circuit up to a containment vessel where weak condensing conditions were imposed in a largely unsaturated atmosphere. By using CONTAIN 2.0, MELCOR 1.8.5 and ASTEC 1.1, the experimental scenario has been modeled. All the codes share similar characteristics and approached the experimental scenario in a quite simple way. The same assumptions have been made and the only major difference has been the three-cell nodalization of the vessel in the case of ASTEC 1.1 (a single cell was used in CONTAIN and MELCOR). No major code-to-code differences have stemmed from the different meshing schemes used in the vessel modeling. However, some minor differences have been observed between ASTEC and the American codes in variables like gas temperature or settled mass. The agreement of code estimates with available data can be said to be acceptable. Slight discrepancies found in steam partial pressure seem to indicate that codes over-estimated steam condensation rate during the first 2000 s. Potential uncertainties in surface temperature could well explain this. Overall evolution of airborne aerosols has been satisfactorily predicted. However, all the codes noticeably overestimate sedimentation. Sensitivity studies carried out on particles size, shape and density have indicated that uncertainties on those variables cannot justify the magnitude of the deviation found. (authors)

  9. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  10. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  12. Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

    2011-11-13

    Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

  13. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  14. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SJ Ghan; B Schmid; JM Hubbe; CJ Flynn; A Laskin; AA Zelenyuk; DJ Czizco; CN Long; G McFarquhar; J Verlinde; J Harrington; JW Strapp; P Liu; A Korolev; A McDonald; M Wolde; A Fridlind; T Garrett; G Mace; G Kok; S Brooks; D Collins; D Lubin; P Lawson; M Dubey; C Mazzoleni; M Shupe; S Xie; DD Turner; Q Min; EJ Mlawer; D Mitchell

    2007-11-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facility’s (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) during period 29 March through 30 April 2008. The deployment period is within the International Polar Year, thus contributing to and benefiting from the many ancillary observing systems collecting data synergistically. We will deploy the Canadian National Research Council Convair 580 aircraft to measure temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, single particle composition, concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, ISDAC will deploy two instruments at the ARM site in Barrow: a spectroradiometer to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius, and a tandem differential mobility analyzer to measure the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity. By using many of the same instruments used during Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during the fall and spring transitions. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary conditions are likely to be very different because of the much more extensive ocean water during M-PACE. The uniformity of the surface conditions during ISDAC greatly simplifies the objective analysis (surface fluxes and precipitation are very weak), so that it can largely rely on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis. The aerosol measurements can also be used as input to the cloud models and to evaluate the aerosol retrievals. By running the cloud models with and without solar absorption by the aerosols, we can determine the semidirect effect of the aerosol on the clouds.

  15. A13B-0215: Case study of the 9 April 2009 `brown' cloud: Observations of unusually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia, David J Delene, University of North Dakota (delene@aero.und.edu; http://aerosol.atmos.und.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    , University of North Dakota (delene@aero.und.edu; http://aerosol.atmos.und.edu) ` Objective Photographs of ice

  16. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  17. MAPPING FELDSPARS WITH AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL SEBASS IMAGERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OSU DEAN RILEY AERO / SPECTIR MARK VAN DER MEIJDE ITC-UT FREEK VAN DER MEER ITC-UT #12;MINERAL MODES://www.lpi.usra.edu/science/kirkland/Mesa/text.html Data courtesy Dr. Dean Riley, Aero.org APPLICATION TO AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE DATA AEROSPACE HECKER ITC-UT JOHN DILLES OSU DEAN RILEY AERO / SPECTIR MARK VAN DER MEIJDE ITC-UT FREEK VAN DER MEER ITC

  18. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Whitney; George Neil

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  19. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundance—in the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

  20. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5'smore »prescribed aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm?3, which is much lower than observed. This finding suggests that CAM5 has problems capturing aerosol effects in this climate regime.« less

  1. The Airborne Metagenome in an Indoor Urban Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tringe, Susannah

    2009-01-01

    independent approaches to microbes harvested from the air ofthat the indoor air microbes are not random transients fromhealth policies. Airborne microbes are often attached to

  2. ccpi-airborne_r2 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COMMERCIAL SCALE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM MUSTANG CLEAN ENERGY, LLC, a subsidiary of PEABODY ENERGY ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI PROJECT FACT SHEET Airborne Process(tm) Commercial Scale...

  3. A multivariate spatial interpolation of airborne -ray data using the geological constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Universitŕ di

    A multivariate spatial interpolation of airborne -ray data using the geological constraints Enrico: Multivariate analysis Airborne -ray spectrometry Collocated cokriging interpolator Elba Island Natural (Italy) obtained with a multivariate spatial interpolation of airborne -ray data using the constraints

  4. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  5. Brief Introduction to Aerosols (Airborne Particulates) and Their Importance in Biosafety Nomenclature RGW 1/04

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In the vernacular of people who design filters and others, nebulized liquids, infectious droplets from coughs

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode DesigngovCampaignsSpring Single Column ModelRSP Measurements

  7. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of aerosols and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of savannas in northern Australia using aerosol optical depth, clouds and radiation data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin and carbon flux data measured from eddy covariance techniques from a site at Howard Springs, 35km southeast of Darwin. Generally we found that the concentration of aerosols in this region was relatively low than observed at other sites, therefore the proportion of diffuse radiation reaching the earths surface was only ~ 30%. As a result, we observed only a modest change in carbon uptake under aerosol laden skies and there was no significant difference for dry season Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) between clear sky, aerosols or thin clouds. On the other hand thick clouds in the wet season produce much more diffuse radiation than aerosols or thin clouds and therefore the initial canopy quantum efficiency was seen to increase 45 and 2.5 times more than under thin clouds and aerosols respectively. The normalized carbon uptake under thick clouds is 57% and 50% higher than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively even though the total irradiance received under thick clouds was reduced 59% and 50% than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively. However, reduction in total irradiance decreases the mean absolute carbon uptake as much as 22% under heavy cloud cover compared to thin clouds or aerosols. Thus, any increase in aerosol concentration or cloud cover that can enhance the diffuse component may have large impacts on productivity in this region.

  8. Aerosol penetration through transport lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    It is very important to minimize the losses in aerosol transport systems for the Continuous Air Monitors (CAM) to have a prompt and a meaningful alarm and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also Currently mandates continuous emissions...

  9. Airborne Electromagnetic Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: Energy ResourcesAir Quality Jump to: navigation,Airborne

  10. The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frédéric

    REVIEW The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere BY SEBASTIEN LEBONNOIS 1'Ae´ronomie, IPSL, CNRS, BP3, 91371 Verrie`res le Buisson, France The atmosphere of Titan is a complex system, where the observed atmospheric structure of Titan's lower atmosphere (mainly in the stratosphere and troposphere

  11. Automatic Extraction of Cartographic Information from Airborne Interferometric SAR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Helmut A.

    Automatic Extraction of Cartographic Information from Airborne Interferometric SAR Data Reinhold cartographic feature extraction by the airborne AeS--1 instrument is presented. We extract regions corresponding to cartographic features for the classes built--up area, forest, water and open area. Water

  12. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibensperger, Eric Michael

    We investigate the climate response to changing US anthropogenic aerosol sources over the 1950–2050 period by using the NASA GISS general circulation model (GCM) and comparing to observed US temperature trends. Time-dependent ...

  13. What controls the recent changes in African mineral dust aerosol across the Atlantic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridley, David Andrew

    Dust from Africa strongly perturbs the radiative balance over the Atlantic, with emissions that are highly variable from year to year. We show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of dust over the mid-Atlantic observed by ...

  14. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-07-12

    The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

  15. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-06-02

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  16. Speciation of Fe in ambient aerosol and cloudwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, L. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-08-15

    Atmospheric iron (Fe) is thought to play an important role in cloudwater chemistry (e.g., S(IV) oxidation, oxidant production, etc.), and is also an important source of Fe to certain regions of the worlds oceans where Fe is believed to be a rate-limiting nutrient for primary productivity. This thesis focuses on understanding the chemistry, speciation and abundance of Fe in cloudwater and aerosol in the troposphere, through observations of Fe speciation in the cloudwater and aerosol samples collected over the continental United States and the Arabian Sea. Different chemical species of atmospheric Fe were measured in aerosol and cloudwater samples to help assess the role of Fe in cloudwater chemistry.

  17. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-03-29

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  18. Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    changes which are evidenced by changes in the temperature of the oceans and rapid melting of the polar and glacial ice packs. Of pollution sources, aerosols represent the least understood and could potentially

  19. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Minnesota...

  20. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of the high spatial resolution airborne Digital Airborne Imaging System (DAIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    with the aid of ancillary topographic data. Image objects as minimum classification units were generatedAbstract In this paper, we evaluate the capability of the high spatial resolution airborne Digital Airborne Imaging System (DAIS) imagery for detailed vegetation classification at the alliance level

  1. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bin

  2. Use of airborne laser scanning to characterise land degradation processes the Dead Sea as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco, Shmuel "Shmulik"

    . Keywords: Airborne laser scanning, Geomorphology, Dead Sea, Land degradation, Channel incision, Sinkholes

  3. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    address: Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Departmenttween phytoplankton, atmospheric chemistry, and climate areno. 12 ? 4601– 4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition

  4. Constraining the atmospheric composition of the day-night terminators of HD 189733b: Atmospheric retrieval with aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Barstow, Joanna K.; Heng, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    A number of observations have shown that Rayleigh scattering by aerosols dominates the transmission spectrum of HD 189733b at wavelengths shortward of 1 ?m. In this study, we retrieve a range of aerosol distributions consistent with transmission spectroscopy between 0.3-24 ?m that were recently re-analyzed by Pont et al. To constrain the particle size and the optical depth of the aerosol layer, we investigate the degeneracies between aerosol composition, temperature, planetary radius, and molecular abundances that prevent unique solutions for transit spectroscopy. Assuming that the aerosol is composed of MgSiO{sub 3}, we suggest that a vertically uniform aerosol layer over all pressures with a monodisperse particle size smaller than about 0.1 ?m and an optical depth in the range 0.002-0.02 at 1 ?m provides statistically meaningful solutions for the day/night terminator regions of HD 189733b. Generally, we find that a uniform aerosol layer provide adequate fits to the data if the optical depth is less than 0.1 and the particle size is smaller than 0.1 ?m, irrespective of the atmospheric temperature, planetary radius, aerosol composition, and gaseous molecules. Strong constraints on the aerosol properties are provided by spectra at wavelengths shortward of 1 ?m as well as longward of 8 ?m, if the aerosol material has absorption features in this region. We show that these are the optimal wavelengths for quantifying the effects of aerosols, which may guide the design of future space observations. The present investigation indicates that the current data offer sufficient information to constrain some of the aerosol properties of HD189733b, but the chemistry in the terminator regions remains uncertain.

  5. Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony D.

    2007-09-03

    Any attempt to reconcile observed surface temperature changes within the last 150 years to changes simulated by climate models that include various atmospheric forcings is sensitive to the changes attributed to aerosols and aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, which are the main contributors that may well balance the positive forcings associated with greenhouse gases, absorbing aerosols, ozone related changes, etc. These aerosol effects on climate, from various modeling studies discussed in Menon (2004), range from +0.8 to -2.4 W m{sup -2}, with an implied value of -1.0 W m{sup -2} (range from -0.5 to -4.5 W m{sup -2}) for the aerosol indirect effects. Quantifying the contribution of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions remain complicated for several reasons some of which are related to aerosol distributions and some to the processes used to represent their effects on clouds. Aerosol effects on low lying marine stratocumulus clouds that cover much of the Earth's surface (about 70%) have been the focus of most of prior aerosol-cloud interaction effect simulations. Since cumulus clouds (shallow and deep convective) are short lived and cover about 15 to 20% of the Earth's surface, they are not usually considered as radiatively important. However, the large amount of latent heat released from convective towers, and corresponding changes in precipitation, especially in biomass regions due to convective heating effects (Graf et al. 2004), suggest that these cloud systems and aerosol effects on them, must be examined more closely. The radiative heating effects for mature deep convective systems can account for 10-30% of maximum latent heating effects and thus cannot be ignored (Jensen and Del Genio 2003). The first study that isolated the sensitivity of cumulus clouds to aerosols was from Nober et al. (2003) who found a reduction in precipitation in biomass burning regions and shifts in circulation patterns. Aerosol effects on convection have been included in other models as well (cf. Jacobson, 2002) but the relative impacts on convective and stratiform processes were not separated. Other changes to atmospheric stability and thermodynamical quantities due to aerosol absorption are also known to be important in modifying cloud macro/micro properties. Linkages between convection and boreal biomass burning can also impact the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, radiation and cloud microphysical properties via transport of tropospheric aerosols to the lower stratosphere during extreme convection (Fromm and Servranckx 2003). Relevant questions regarding the impact of biomass aerosols on convective cloud properties include the effects of vertical transport of aerosols, spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, vertical shift in latent heat release, phase shift of precipitation, circulation and their impacts on radiation. Over land surfaces, a decrease in surface shortwave radiation ({approx} 3-6 W m{sup -2} per decade) has been observed between 1960 to 1990, whereas, increases of 0.4 K in land temperature during the same period that occurred have resulted in speculations that evaporation and precipitation should also have decreased (Wild et al. 2004). However, precipitation records for the same period over land do not indicate any significant trend (Beck et al. 2005). The changes in precipitation are thought to be related to increased moisture advection from the oceans (Wild et al. 2004), which may well have some contributions from aerosol-radiation-convection coupling that could modify circulation patterns and hence moisture advection in specific regions. Other important aspects of aerosol effects, besides the direct, semi-direct, microphysical and thermodynamical impacts include alteration of surface albedos, especially snow and ice covered surfaces, due to absorbing aerosols. These effects are uncertain (Jacobson, 2004) but may produce as much as 0.3 W m{sup -2} forcing in the Northern hemisphere that could contribute to melting of ice and permafrost and change in the length of the season (e.g. early arrival of Spring

  6. CALIOPE and TAISIR airborne experiment platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chocol, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    Between 1950 and 1970, scientific ballooning achieved many new objectives and made a substantial contribution to understanding near-earth and space environments. In 1986, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began development of ballooning technology capable of addressing issues associated with precision tracking of ballistic missiles. In 1993, the Radar Ocean Imaging Project identified the need for a low altitude (1 km) airborne platform for its Radar system. These two technologies and experience base have been merged with the acquisition of government surplus Aerostats by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The CALIOPE and TAISIR Programs can benefit directly from this technology by using the Aerostat as an experiment platform for measurements of the spill facility at NTS.

  7. 4, 20552088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni et al and Physics Discussions Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni1 , P.bonasoni@isac.cnr.it) 2055 #12;ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni

  8. Aerosol source term in high-pressure-melt ejection. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term which has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  9. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  10. Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hospodsky, Denina

    Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study ...

  11. Epidemiology of Airborne Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuskie, Kyle Ryan

    2012-02-14

    Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia, resulting in disease and sometimes death of foals. Infection is thought to occur by inhalation of dust contaminated with virulent R equi. A recent study of 3 horse breeding farms in Ireland found airborne...

  12. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  13. Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    hydrologic responses, whitening of the skies, reduction of solar power, and impacts of diffuse radiation Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol in- jection scenarios, which stated that ``It is extremely likely that human in- fluence has been the dominant cause

  14. Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; McComiskey, Allison C.

    2006-09-30

    The direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosols, the change in net radiative flux due to aerosols in non-cloudy conditions, is an essential quantity for understanding the human impact on climate change. Our work has addressed several key issues that determine the accuracy, and identify the uncertainty, with which aerosol DRF can be modeled. These issues include the accuracy of several radiative transfer models when compared to measurements and to each other in a highly controlled closure study using data from the ARM 2003 Aerosol IOP. The primary focus of our work has been to determine an accurate approach to assigning aerosol properties appropriate for modeling over averaged periods of time and space that represent the observed regional variability of these properties. We have also undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the aerosol properties that contribute most to uncertainty in modeling aerosol DRF, and under what conditions they contribute the most uncertainty. Quantification of these issues enables the community to better state accuracies of radiative forcing calculations and to concentrate efforts in areas that will decrease uncertainties in these calculations in the future.

  15. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  16. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  17. DO AEROSOLS CHANGE CLOUD COVER AND AFFECT CLIMATE?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS;AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL AS SEEN FROM SPACE Fire plumes from southern Mexico transported north into Gulf of Mexico. #12;CLOUD

  18. Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baustian, Kelly J.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Wise, M. A.; Pratt, Kerri; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Hallar, Anna G.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-03-30

    In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei were examined through laboratory investigations using Raman spectroscopy and field measurements by single-particle mass spectrometry. Aerosol sampling took place at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (elevation of 3210 m). A cascade impactor was used to collect coarse-mode aerosol particles for laboratory analysis by Raman spectroscopy; the composition, mixing state, and heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of individual particles were examined. For in situ analysis of fine-mode aerosol, ice nucleation on ambient particles was observed using a compact ice nucleation chamber. Ice crystals were separated from unactivated aerosol using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor, and ice nuclei were analyzed using particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry. For both fine and coarse modes, the ice nucleating particle fractions were enriched in minerals and depleted in sulfates and nitrates, compared to the background aerosol sampled. The vast majority of particles in both the ambient and ice active aerosol fractions contained a detectable amount of organic material. Raman spectroscopy showed that organic material is sometimes present in the form of a coating on the surface of inorganic particles. We find that some organic-containing particles serve as efficient ice nuclei while others do not. For coarse-mode aerosol, organic particles were only observed to initiate ice formation when oxygen signatures were also present in their spectra.

  19. Airborne measured analytic signal for UXO detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamey, T.J.; Holladay, J.S. [Aerodat Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Mahler, R. [Industrieanlagen Betriebsgesellschaft, Deutschland (Australia)

    1997-10-01

    The Altmark Tank Training Range north of Haldensleben, Germany has been in operation since WWI. Weapons training and testing has included cavalry, cannon, small arms, rail guns, and tank battalions. Current plans are to convert the area to a fully digital combat training facility. Instead of using blank or dummy ordnance, hits will be registered with lasers and computers. Before this can happen, the 25,000 ha must be cleared of old debris. In support of this cleanup operation, Aerodat Inc., in conjunction with IABG of Germany, demonstrated a new high resolution magnetic survey technique involving the measurement of 3-component magnetic gradient data. The survey was conducted in May 1996, and covered 500 ha in two blocks. The nominal line spacing was 10 m, and the average sensor altitude was 7 m. The geologic column consisted of sands over a sedimentary basin. Topographic relief was generally flat with approximately 3 m rolling dunes and occasional man-made features such as fox holes, bunkers, tank traps and reviewing stands. Trees were sparse and short (2-3 metres) due to frequent burn off and tank activity. As such, this site was nearly ideal for low altitude airborne surveying.

  20. ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    2013-03-26

    The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

  1. ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

  2. Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

    2000-06-19

    The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

  3. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

    2012-08-22

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data analyses and focused modeling efforts that will facilitate the integration of new knowledge into improved representations of key aerosol processes in climate models.

  4. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.

  5. Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit, Mark David

    2013-02-06

    of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases...

  6. SO[subscript 2] photolysis as a source for sulfur mass-independent isotope signatures in stratospehric aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, B.

    Signatures of sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) have been observed in stratospheric sulfate aerosols deposited in polar ice. The S-MIF signatures are thought to be associated with stratospheric ...

  7. Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:641652, 2009 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:641­652, 2009 Copyright © American Association for Aerosol Differential Mobility Analyzer for Measurement of the Irreversibility of the Hygroscopic Growth Factor T is the irreversibility of the hygroscopic growth fac- tor of aerosol particles. The instrument uses the hysteresis

  8. Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over cloud-free oceans from Terra: 1. Angular models for aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data to obtain near surface wind speed. The new aerosol ADMs are built to obtain aerosol properties within a Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) footprint and Special as functions of near-surface ocean wind speed and MODIS aerosol optical depth at 0.55 mm (t0.55). Among the new

  9. FY 2011 Second Quarter: Demonstration of New Aerosol Measurement Verification Testbed for Present-Day Global Aerosol Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-03-20

    The regional-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is being used by a DOE Earth System Modeling (ESM) project titled “Improving the Characterization of Clouds, Aerosols and the Cryosphere in Climate Models” to evaluate the performance of atmospheric process modules that treat aerosols and aerosol radiative forcing in the Arctic. We are using a regional-scale modeling framework for three reasons: (1) It is easier to produce a useful comparison to observations with a high resolution model; (2) We can compare the behavior of the CAM parameterization suite with some of the more complex and computationally expensive parameterizations used in WRF; (3) we can explore the behavior of this parameterization suite at high resolution. Climate models like the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) being used within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) will not likely be run at mesoscale spatial resolutions (10–20 km) until 5–10 years from now. The performance of the current suite of physics modules in CAM5 at such resolutions is not known, and current computing resources do not permit high-resolution global simulations to be performed routinely. We are taking advantage of two tools recently developed under PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects for this activity. The first is the Aerosol Modeling Testbed (Fast et al., 2011b), a new computational framework designed to streamline the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The second is the CAM5 suite of physics parameterizations that have been ported into WRF so that their performance and scale dependency can be quantified at mesoscale spatial resolutions (Gustafson et al., 2010; with more publications in preparation).

  10. Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu,...

  11. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    they can have either cooling or warming effects. Lighter-colored organic carbon particles cool regions of the planet by scattering sunlight back into space. Other aerosol particles...

  12. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth...

  13. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  14. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-01-01

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  15. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that duringmore »the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.« less

  16. Extending the physicochemical characterization of aerosol particles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zauscher, Melanie Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Combustion Aerosol, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11 (Based Receptor Modeling, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,Aerosols, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 22 (1-2), 19-39.

  17. Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This webinar was presented by research team Building...

  18. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol,...

  20. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  1. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  2. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Urban Air of Fukuoka, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irei, Satoshi; Hara, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies providing quantitative information regarding secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the least understood subject in atmospheric chemistry, are important to evaluating secondary transboundary pollution. To obtain quantitative information of long-range transported SOA in the air of Fukuoka, we conducted simultaneous field studies during December 2010 and March 2012 at a rural site in northern Kyushu and at an urban site in Fukuoka City. During the studies, we collected airborne particulate matter (PM) on filters and extracted the low-volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) component, which is possibly dominated by SOA, from the filter samples and analyzed it to determine the carbon concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio. Under the assumption that the LV-WSOC at Fukuoka had both transboundary and local origins, we then applied end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) to the stable carbon isotope ratio data from both sites to estimate the fraction of LV-WSOCs from these origins in the Fukuoka air. Indep...

  3. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

  4. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  5. Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Li

    2010-01-01

    6 6.1 Introduction Biomass combustion emissions contributeEmissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomassbiomass burning work explored the evolution of organic aerosol emissions as a function of modified combustion efficiency with correlations drawn between levoglucosan emissions

  6. Optimal Estimation Retrieval Aerosol Microphysical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    ) the validation of this algorithm on the basis of synthetic extinction data, and (3) application of the new algorithm to SAGE II measurements of stratospheric background aerosol. The validation results indicate that the new method is able to retrieve the particle size of typical background aerosols reasonably well

  7. Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and polarization peculiarities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patlashenko, Zh I

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers environmental problems of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution and its global and regional monitoring. Efficient aerosol investigations may be achieved by spectropolarimetric measurements. Specifically second and fourth Stokes parameters spectral dependencies carry information on averaged refraction and absorption indexes and on particles size distribution functions characteristics.

  8. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-11-23

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

  9. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Q.; Lee Y.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Fast, J. D.; Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Morrison, H.; Chapman, E. G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

    2011-12-02

    This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and GOES-10) are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October-16 November 2008) WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties), and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL) depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity) and aerosol quantities (e.g., underestimations of accumulation mode aerosol number) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the Southeastern Pacific, and require further investigation. The well-simulated timing and outflow patterns of polluted and clean episodes demonstrate the model's ability to capture daily/synoptic scale variations of aerosol and cloud properties, and suggest that the model is suitable for studying atmospheric processes associated with pollution outflow over the ocean. The overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale clouds and boundary layer properties is encouraging and suggests that reproducing gradients of aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and coupling cloud-aerosol-radiation processes are important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the Southeast Pacific.

  10. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  11. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility PlotsProducts (VAP) VAP38 ARM6Aerosol

  12. Steps towards Quality Improvement of Airborne Laser Scanner Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vosselman, George

    , and forestry management. However, to guarantee this level of data quality the measurements must be as closeSteps towards Quality Improvement of Airborne Laser Scanner Data A Behan1 , H-G Maas2 and G for the acquisition of 2.5D data, mainly for use in topographic and mapping operations. In recent years, however

  13. Automatic Construction of Building Footprints from Airborne LIDAR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    1 Automatic Construction of Building Footprints from Airborne LIDAR Data Keqi Zhang, Jianhua Yan. INTRODUCTION BUILDING footprints are one of the fundamental GIS data components that can be used to estimate, and estimation of building base elevation for flood insurance [2]. In addition, footprint data in combination

  14. Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    on the strength of the wind. This tends to create a layer of less dense water on top of the more dense water below of water with lower density at the surface. This layer is typically mixed with the water below. The airborne lidar detected a thin plankton layer at the bottom of the upper layer of the water

  15. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  16. EPLA: Energy-balancing Packets Scheduling for Airborne Relaying Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We propose an energy-efficient relaying scheme which is able to overcomeEPLA: Energy-balancing Packets Scheduling for Airborne Relaying Networks Kai Li1 Wei Ni2 Xin Wang3 then schedules UAVs' forwarding with guaranteed success rates and balanced energy consumption. Such scheduling

  17. Evaluation of Mali, West Africa Airborne Measurements to Access the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Evaluation of Mali, West Africa Airborne Measurements to Access the Potential of Enhancing if cloud seeding in Mali could be beneficial.c ·Identify optimal seeding method for enhancing precipitation in the Mali region based on conceptual models. #12;Measurement Importance · The potential to enhancing

  18. Evaluation of Mali, West Africa Airborne Measurements to Access the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Evaluation of Mali, West Africa Airborne Measurements to Access the Potential of Enhancing Determine if cloud seeding in Mali could be beneficial.b Help determine what is the optimal seeding method for enhancing precipitation in the Mali region. #12;Measurement Importance The potential to enhancing

  19. Springtime Aerosol Observations at Dongsha Atoll,Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    , and Peng Xian-Lynch · Advanced Light Source program, including Kevin Perry #12;Background · Role? · The (Multi-Partner) Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7 SEAS) Mission: A Program to Study Pollution the transport of smoke and pollution from Indochina to Taiwan, led by National Central Univ of Taiwan ­ Dongsha

  20. Cloud activating properties of aerosol observed during CELTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    the secondary organic aero- sol contribution to PM2.5 usingthe EC tracer method. Aero- sol Sci. Technol. , 38 (S1),to represent 15% of submicron aero- sol mass. The large

  1. AEROSOL OBSERVING SYSTEMS (AOS): NEW CAPABILITIES FOR ASR RESEARCHERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ABSTRACT Three new AOS units, including.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish

  2. AEROSOL ABSORPTION IN CLOUDY SCENES USING PASSIVE SATELLITE INSTRUMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    AEROSOL ABSORPTION IN CLOUDY SCENES USING PASSIVE SATELLITE INSTRUMENTS M. de Graaf, L.G. Tilstra information has become available from active space-based sensors and some dedicated field campaigns on aerosol-absorption, is the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI), which can indicate absorbing aerosols overlying clouds. The AAI is available

  3. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, Christine; Mann, Julia; O Connor, Ewan; Hogan, Robin; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palinkonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  4. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; et al

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulusmore »and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.« less

  5. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saide P. E.; Springston S.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Yang, Q.; Howell, S.; Leon, D. C.; Snider, J. R.; Bandy, A. R.; Collett, J. L.; Benedict, K. B.; de Szoeke, S. P.; Hawkins, L. N.; Allen, G.; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.

    2012-03-29

    We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and three aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign-averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without (NW) wet deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, especially in the activation parameterization, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions, and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, and may do so with the reliability required for policy analysis.

  6. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, Gregory; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Yang, Qing; Howell, S. G.; Leon, Dolislager; Snider, Jefferson R.; Bandy, Alan R.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Benedict, K. B.; de Szoeke, S.; Hawkins, Lisa; Allen, Grant; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.; Springston, S. R.

    2012-03-30

    We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without wet (NW) deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, including the reliability required for policy analysis and geo-engineering applications.

  7. Adaptive observation with vehicle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, David Da

    2011-01-01

    at (a) An environmental-sensor equipped UAV (b) Smoke plumerepresenting airborne (c) UAV gathering environmental

  8. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  9. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D.

    2005-07-16

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

  10. Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

  11. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  12. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  13. Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Franklin, Charmaine N.

    2013-06-05

    To improve the microphysical parameterizations for simulations of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) in regional and global climate models, a double-moment bulk microphysical scheme presently implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is modified and the results are compared against atmospheric observations and simulations produced by a spectral bin microphysical scheme (SBM). Rather than using prescribed aerosols as in the original bulk scheme (Bulk-OR), a prognostic doublemoment aerosol representation is introduced to predict both the aerosol number concentration and mass mixing ratio (Bulk-2M). The impacts of the parameterizations of diffusional growth and autoconversion and the selection of the embryonic raindrop radius on the performance of the bulk microphysical scheme are also evaluated. Sensitivity modeling experiments are performed for two distinct cloud regimes, maritime warm stratocumulus clouds (SC) over southeast Pacific Ocean from the VOCALS project and continental deep convective clouds (DCC) in the southeast of China from the Department of Energy/ARM Mobile Facility (DOE/AMF) - China field campaign. The results from Bulk-2M exhibit a much better agreement in the cloud number concentration and effective droplet radius in both the SC and DCC cases with those from SBM and field measurements than those from Bulk-OR. In the SC case particularly, Bulk-2M reproduces the observed drizzle precipitation, which is largely inhibited in Bulk-OR. Bulk-2M predicts enhanced precipitation and invigorated convection with increased aerosol loading in the DCC case, consistent with the SBM simulation, while Bulk-OR predicts the opposite behaviors. Sensitivity experiments using four different types of autoconversion schemes reveal that the autoconversion parameterization is crucial in determining the raindrop number, mass concentration, and drizzle formation for warm 2 stratocumulus clouds. An embryonic raindrop size of 40 ?m is determined as a more realistic setting in the autoconversion parameterization. The saturation adjustment employed in calculating condensation/evaporation in the bulk scheme is identified as the main factor responsible for the large discrepancies in predicting cloud water in the SC case, suggesting that an explicit calculation of diffusion growth with predicted supersaturation is necessary for further improvements of the bulk microphysics scheme. Lastly, a larger rain evaporation rate below cloud is found in the bulk scheme in comparison to the SBM simulation, which could contribute to a lower surface precipitation in the bulk scheme.

  14. Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

  15. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, D. J.; Pekour, M. S.; Zhang, Q.; Setyan, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-04-17

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles (defined heremore »as particles with aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 2.5 microns), yielding ? = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea-salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.« less

  16. Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR)-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

    2012-10-24

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) being developed for airborne measurements will offer retrievals of aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. In this study, we assess the expected accuracy of the 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval and its sensitivity to major sources of anticipated perturbations in the 4STAR measurements by adapting a theoretical approach previously developed for the AERONET measurements. The major anticipated perturbations are (1) an apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles associated with the necessarily compact design of the 4STAR and (2) and an offset (i.e. uncertainty) of sky radiance calibration independent of scattering angle. The assessment is performed through application of the operational AERONET aerosol retrieval and constructed synthetic 4STAR-like data. Particular attention is given to the impact of these perturbations on the upwelling and downwelling broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The results from this study suggest that limitations in the accuracy of 4STAR-retrieved particle size distributions and scattering phase functions have diminished impact on the accuracy of retrieved bulk microphysical parameters, permitting quite accurate retrievals of properties including the effective radius (up to 10%, or 0.03), and the radiatively important optical properties, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or ±0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 6%, or ±0.04). Also, the obtained results indicate that the uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol optical properties are quite small in the context of the calculated fluxes and direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 15%, or 3 Wm-2).

  17. Group Report: Connections between Aerosol Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effect and causes surface warming. Absorption of solar or thermal radiation within the atmospheric column-influencing constituents (such as green- house gases) by this process, anthropogenic aerosols can contribute to climate

  18. Aerosol Condensational Growth in Cloud Formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Jun

    2010-10-12

    A code for the quasi-stationary solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations for aerosols in a finite volume was developed. Both mass and heat are conserved effectively in the volume, which results in a ...

  19. The MESSy aerosol submodel MADE3 (v2.0b): description and a box model test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, J. C.; Hendricks, J.; Righi, M.; Riemer, Nicole; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Metzger, S.; Aquila, Valentino

    2014-06-17

    We introduce MADE3 (Modal Aerosol Dynamics for Europe, adapted for global applications, version 3), an aerosol dynamics submodel for application in a global chemistry general circulation model, that builds on the predecessor aerosol submodels MADE and MADE-in. The main new features of MADE3 are the explicit representation of coarse particle interactions with fine particles and gases, and the inclusion of the hydrochloric acid (HCl)/chloride (Cl􀀀) partitioning between the gas and condensed phases. The aerosol size distribution is represented in the new model as a superposition of nine lognormal modes: one for fully soluble particles, one for insoluble particles, and one for mixed particles in each of three size ranges (Aitken, accumulation, and coarse mode size ranges). In order to assess MADE3’s performance we compare it to its predecessor MADE and to the much more detailed particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC in a box model application. MADE3 and MADE results are very similar, except when the aerosol is dominated by sea spray particles. In such cases, Cl􀀀 concentrations are lower in MADE3 than in MADE due to the HCl/Cl􀀀 partitioning. Additionally, the aerosol nitrate concentration is higher in MADE3 due to the uptake on coarse particles. MADE3 and PartMCMOSAIC show substantial differences in the fine particle size distributions (sizes . 2?m) that could be relevant when simulating climate effects on a global scale. Nevertheless, the agreement between MADE3 and PartMC-MOSAIC is very good when it comes to coarse particle size distribution, and also in terms of aerosol composition. Considering these results and the well-established ability of MADE in reproducing observed aerosol loadings and composition, MADE3 seems suitable for application within a global model.

  20. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  1. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph; et al

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ĺngström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i)more »a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ĺlesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.« less

  2. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ĺngström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ĺlesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.

  3. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  4. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  5. Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekala, Malla R.

    1993-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

  6. Effects of Sea-Salt Aerosols on Precipitation in Simulations of Shallow Cumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Yefim L.; Mechem, David B.; Choi, Kityan

    2012-02-01

    A suite of large-eddy simulations with size-resolving microphysical processes was performed in order to assess effects of sea-salt aerosols on precipitation process in trade cumulus. Simulations based on observations from the Rain in Cumulus over...

  7. Local Environmental Pollution Strongly Influences Culturable Bacterial Aerosols at an Urban Aquatic Superfund Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uriarte, Maria

    or aquatic environments contaminated with sewage, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other industrial waste communities containing contaminated soil and water. INTRODUCTION In 1978, Bovallius and colleagues observed aerosol fallout rate and surface water bacterial concentrations were at least an order of magnitude

  8. Particle size limits for quantitative aerosol analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Temporal considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, David W.

    dissociation, vaporization and linear analyte response of an individual particle suspended in a gas stream individual silica microspheres in an aerosolized air stream was investigated using laser-induced breakdown of analyte signals for the 2.47 and 4.09-micrometer particles was observed to be approximately constant

  9. 1. Introduction The aerosol DRE at the top-of-atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    is the incident solar irradiance spectrum. The anisotropy factor , a measure for the angular distribution observed aerosol DRE in a case of smoke over clouds off the west coast of Africa was 69±7 Wm-2 (ESA) within the Support to Science Element, project number 22403. µ0E0 Figure 2. CALIOP 1064 nm

  10. Aerosol properties and their influences on marine boundary layer cloud condensation nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    and early spring months had the highest mean surface wind speed (> 5 m sŔ1 ) and greatest contribution of aerosols found in the atmosphere such as mineral dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning, and sea by using observations and model simulations [Rosenfeld et al., 2008; Li et al., 2011; Feingold et al., 2006

  11. Aerosol-cloud radiative effects from passive satellite instruments Mar%n de Graaf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Satellite measurements of absorbing aerosols Reflectance Difference Method Cloud modelling Results Outlook Aerosol-Radiation Interac. Aerosol-Cloud Interac. Total anthropogenic Solar irradiance #12;Absorbing aerosols: SCIAMACHY Results Outlook #12;SCIAMACHY on ESA's Environmetal Satellite: ENVISAT Polar orbi

  12. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-03-27

    Single-column model (SCM) capability is an important tool for general circulation model development. In this study, the SCM mode of version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is shown to handle aerosol initialization and advection improperly, resulting in aerosol, cloud-droplet, and ice crystal concentrations which are typically much lower than observed or simulated by CAM5 in global mode. This deficiency has a major impact on stratiform cloud simulations but has little impact on convective case studies because aerosol is currently not used by CAM5 convective schemes and convective cases are typically longer in duration (so initialization is less important).more »By imposing fixed aerosol or cloud-droplet and crystal number concentrations, the aerosol issues described above can be avoided. Sensitivity studies using these idealizations suggest that the Meyers et al. (1992) ice nucleation scheme prevents mixed-phase cloud from existing by producing too many ice crystals. Microphysics is shown to strongly deplete cloud water in stratiform cases, indicating problems with sequential splitting in CAM5 and the need for careful interpretation of output from sequentially split climate models. Droplet concentration in the general circulation model (GCM) version of CAM5 is also shown to be far too low (~ 25 cm?3) at the southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site.« less

  13. Effects of Aerosols on Autumn Precipitation over Mid-Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Qian, Yun; Ge, Jinming; Su, Jing

    2014-09-20

    Long-term observational data indicated a decreasing trend for the amount of autumn precipitation (i.e. 54.3 mm per decade) over Mid-Eastern China, especially after 1980s (~ 5.6% per decade). To examine the cause of the decreasing trend, the mechanisms associated with the change of autumn precipitation were investigated from the perspective of water vapor transportation, atmospheric stability and cloud microphysics. Results show that the decrease of convective available potential energy (i.e. 12.81 J kg-1/ decade) and change of cloud microphysics, which were closely related to the increase of aerosol loading during the past twenty years, were the two primary factors responsible for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Ours results showed that increased aerosol could enhance the atmospheric stability thus weaken the convection. Meanwhile, more aerosols also led to a significant decline of raindrop concentration and to a delay of raindrop formation because of smaller size of cloud droplets. Thus, increased aerosols produced by air pollution could be one of the major reasons for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Furthermore, we found that the aerosol effects on precipitation in autumn was more significant than in other seasons, partly due to the relatively more stable synoptic system in autumn. The impact of large-scale circulation dominated in autumn and the dynamic influence on precipitation was more important than the thermodynamic activity.

  14. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48:803812, 2014 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 48:803­812, 2014 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol of particle growth in the atmosphere, and many properties of the resulting mixed particles depend on organic. In this article, analytic equations are derived p(;d) for condensational growth in a continuously mixed flow

  15. Aerosol Science and Technology, 45:244261, 2011 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 45:244­261, 2011 Copyright © American Association for Aerosol University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA The hygroscopic phase transitions and growth factors of mixed chemical composition on phase transitions. The hygroscopic growth factors of the mixed particles were

  16. Aerosol Science and Technology, 38:12061222, 2004 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    to Combustion-Generated Soot Aerosols as a Function of Fuel Equivalence Ratio Jay G. Slowik,1 K. Stainken,1 Paul factor, size, and fractal dimension of soot aerosol particles generated in a propane/O2 flame were on the fuel equivalence ratio. Type 1: for propane/O2), dva was nearly constant and independent

  17. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xin [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Song, Yu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Mengmeng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhu, Tong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Qiang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Xiaoye [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO?) per year. SO? is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 ?g m?ł in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 ?g m?ł and 7.3 ?g m?ł, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO? oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO? was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO? reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  18. Chemical Composition and Sources of Coastal Marine Aerosol Particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.- N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Jian; Hubbe, John M.; Senum, Gunnar I.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.

    2014-05-23

    The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO2?4, followed by Na+, Cl?, Org (total organics), NH+4 , and NO?3 , in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO?3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH+4 to SO2?4 equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl? deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO2?4. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO?3 observed as well as the correlation between SO2?4 and NO?3 (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO2?4 aerosol production during VOCALS.

  19. Comparison of Mixed Layer Heights from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar, Ground-based Measurements, and the WRP-Chem Model during CalNex and CARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarino, Amy Jo; Obland, Michael; Fast, Jerome D.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Berg, Larry K.; Lefer, Barry; Haman, C.; Hair, John; Rogers, Ray; Butler, Carolyn; Cook, A. L.; Harper, David

    2014-06-05

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) and Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) field campaigns during May and June 2010 provided a data set appropriate for studying characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed to California onboard the NASA LaRC B-200 aircraft to aid incharacterizing aerosol properties during these two field campaigns. Measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 31 flights, many in coordination with other research aircraft and ground sites, constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, as well as the depth and variability of the daytime mixed layer (ML), which is a subset within the PBL. This work illustrates the temporal and spatial variability of the ML in the vicinity of Los Angeles and Sacramento, CA. ML heights derived from HSRL measurements are compared to PBL heights derived from radiosonde profiles, ML heights measured from ceilometers, and simulated PBL heights from the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) community model. Comparisons between the HSRL ML heights and the radiosonde profiles in Sacramento result in a correlation coefficient value (R) of 0.93 (root7 mean-square (RMS) difference of 157 m and bias difference (HSRL radiosonde) of 5 m). HSRL ML heights compare well with those from the ceilometer in the LA Basin with an R of 0.89 (RMS difference of 108 m and bias difference (HSRL Ceilometer) of -9.7 m) for distances of up to 30 km between the B-200 flight track and the ceilometer site. Simulated PBL heights from WRF-Chem were compared with those obtained from all flights for each campaign, producing an R of 0.58 (RMS difference of 604 m and a bias difference (WRF-Chem HSRL) of -157 m) for CalNex and 0.59 (RMS difference of 689 m and a bias difference (WRF-Chem HSRL) of 220 m) for CARES. Aerosol backscatter simulations are also available from WRF15 Chem and are compared to those from HSRL to examine differences among the methods used to derive ML heights.

  20. Non-intrusive characterization of heat transfer fluid aerosol formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Kiran

    2001-01-01

    in process equipment. Predictive models relating the aerosol formation distances, aerosol droplet size, and volume concentrations to bulk liquid pressure, temperature, fluid properties, leak size and ambient conditions are developed. These models will be used...

  1. The seasonality of aerosol properties in Big Bend National Park 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher Lee

    2007-04-25

    ), to characterize the seasonal variability of the Big Bend regions aerosol optical properties. Mass extinction efficiencies and relative humidity scattering enhancement factors were calculated for both externally and internally mixed aerosol populations for all size...

  2. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  3. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E. (East Setauket, NY); Weber, Rodney J. (Atlanta, GA)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  4. Analysis of mixing layer heights inferred from radiosonde, wind profiler, airborne lidar, airborne microwave temperature profiler, and in-situ aircraft data during the Texas 2000 air quality study in Houston, TX 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Christina Lynn

    2005-08-29

    The mixing layer (ML) heights inferred from radiosondes, wind profilers, airborne lidar, airborne microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and in-situ aircraft data were compared during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study in the Houston area...

  5. AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by GINGER MARIE of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 2011 Department of Geography and Planning #12;AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION and Graduate Studies #12;Copyright by Ginger Marie Kelly 2011 All Rights Reserved #12;iv ABSTRACT AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION

  6. EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE AND SATELLITE ELECTRO-OPTICAL SENSORS PERFORMANCES BY USE OF HIGH-ALTITUDE CLOUDS OCCURRENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE AND SATELLITE ELECTRO-OPTICAL SENSORS PERFORMANCES BY USE OF HIGH, F-91761 Palaiseau, France, email : karine.caillault@onera.fr KEYWORDS: sensor performance require optronic sensors, onboard satellite or airborne platform. Performances limitation of these sensors

  7. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  8. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  9. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  10. ARM - Evaluation Product - Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENA Contacts ENA Related Links(AVIRIS) ProductsAirborne

  11. Category:Airborne Gravity Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,Cammack Village,8199089°, -86.3376761°AnadromousASHRAEAirborneAirborne

  12. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Key goals were to assess the nature of these relationships as they varied between sensors

  13. Non-contact thermoacoustic detection of embedded targets using airborne-capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    Non-contact thermoacoustic detection of embedded targets using airborne-capacitive micromachined to IP: 171.64.84.210 On: Thu, 26 Feb 2015 05:19:31 #12;Non-contact thermoacoustic detection of embedded provides permittivity contrast, and ultra- sensitive airborne-ultrasound detection measures thermoacoustic

  14. Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety and a thumb-drive sized prototype system. I. INTRODUCTION xposure to air pollution consistently ranks among to occupational safety as energy demands rise. Airborne pollutants and explosive gases vary in both time and space

  15. Airborne Volcanic Ash--A Global Threat to Aviation U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Airborne Volcanic Ash--A Global Threat to Aviation U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological on the aviation industry. Airborne volcanic ash can be a serious hazard to aviation even hundreds of miles from an eruption. Encounters with high-concentration ash clouds can diminish visibility, damage flight control

  16. Airborne MAX-DOAS measurements over California: Testing the NASA OMI tropospheric NO2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Airborne MAX-DOAS measurements over California: Testing the NASA OMI tropospheric NO2 product Hilke] Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMAX-DOAS) measurements of NO2 are compared to the NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric vertical columns (data product v2

  17. Near-coastal surface water velocity field estimation using airborne remote sensing11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Near-coastal surface water velocity field estimation using airborne remote sensing11 Tim J Malthus1. With airborne remote sensing, however, it is possible to determine synoptic changes in velocity fields because properties of successive remotely sensed images may be used to estimate velocity vectors associated

  18. Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne lidar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646­655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne biomass and bio-energy feedstocks. The overall goal of this study was to develop a method for assessing aboveground biomass and component biomass for individual trees using airborne lidar data in forest settings

  19. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  20. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created by the interaction of UF/sub 6/ with atmospheric moisture in a contained volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1984-12-31

    Several experiments have been performed in which UF/sub 6/ was released into air under static conditions in a 6 m/sup 3/ release chamber in order to characterize the solid products of hydrolysis as the amount of UF/sub 6/ released was increased. An aerosol concentration of approx. 25 gm/m/sup 3/ (150 gm) was the largest achieved. Electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology of the aerosol particles and to obtain geometric size measurements from micrographs and a cascaded impactor was used to obtain aerodynamic size measurements by measuring particle masses. Particle sizes and rate of particle size change were observed to be dependent on aerosol concentration.

  1. Analyses of in-situ airborne volcanic ash from the February 2000 eruption of Hekla Volcano, Iceland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Chi

    Analyses of in-situ airborne volcanic ash from the February 2000 eruption of Hekla Volcano, Iceland-8 NASA research aircraft inadvertently flew into an airborne volcanic ash plume from the 26 February spectrophotometer analyses. These analyses confirm that the DC-8 encountered airborne volcanic ash from Hekla

  2. Flattening coefficient of aerosols collected on treated slides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olan-Figueroa, Excel

    1981-01-01

    was found to be 1. 338, and for DOP, 1. 354. There is no apparent variation of F with particle diameter for aerosols in the 2. 7-29. 1 um range. The slightly lower value of F for oleic acid suggests that the contact angle of oleic acid with respect... monodisoerse aerosols in the 1. 5 to 50 um diameter range, the vibratino j et monodisperse aerosol generator has been used. The monodisperse aerosols generated by this device can be considered as an "aerosol standard" since the size and concentration...

  3. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  4. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Thornton, Joel A.; Madronich, Sasha; Ortega, John V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Laskin, Alexander; Maughan, A. D.

    2007-10-16

    Semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models typically assume a well-mixed organic aerosol phase even in the presence of hydrophobic primary organic aerosols (POA). This assumption significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields as additional organic mass is made available to absorb greater amounts of oxidized secondary organic gases than otherwise. We investigate the applicability of this critical assumption by measuring SOA yields from ozonolysis of ?-pinene (a major biogenic SOA precursor) in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA. The results show that these POA did not enhance the SOA yields. If these results are found to apply to other biogenic SOA precursors, then the semi-empirical models used in many global models would predict significantly less biogenic SOA mass and display reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic POA emissions than previously thought.

  5. Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

    2014-01-20

    Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

  6. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2010-04-09

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m{sup 2} between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m{sup 2} depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  7. Results from simulated upper-plenum aerosol transport and aerosol resuspension experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.L.; Pattison, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    Recent calculational results published as part of the Battelle-Columbus BMI-2104 source term study indicate that, for some LWR accident sequences, aerosol deposition in the reactor primary coolant system (PCS) can lead to significant reductions in the radionuclide source term. Aerosol transport and deposition in the PCS have been calculated in this study using the TRAP-MELT 2 computer code, which was developed at Battelle-Columbus; the status of validation of the TRAP-MELT 2 code has been described in an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report. The objective of the ORNL TRAP-MELT Validation Project, which is sponsored by the Fuel Systems Behavior Research Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is to conduct simulated reactor-vessel upper-plenum aerosol deposition and transport tests. The results from these tests will be used in the ongoing effort to validate TRAP-MELT 2. The TRAP-MELT Validation Project includes two experimental subtasks. In the Aerosol Transport Tests, aerosol transport in a vertical pipe is being studied; this geometry was chosen to simulate aerosol deposition and transport in the reactor-vessel upper-plenum. To date, four experiments have been performed; the results from these tests are presented in this paper. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. INTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    , scattering, and absorbing solar electromagnetic radiation and by modifying cloud properties due to their roleINTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by reflecting to maximum cover a region once in the daytime. In contrary, up-to-date geostationary instruments like

  9. Experimental study of nuclear workplace aerosol samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parulian, Antony

    1995-01-01

    consists of an inlet-elbow, a transport line, and a EL-900 CAM prototype manufactured by EG&G. Results show that only 12% of 10 []m aerodynamic diameter (AD) aerosol particles penetrate through the complete sampling system when it is operated at flow rate...

  10. A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohaus, T.

    In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

  11. Airborne observations and numerical modeling of fetch- limited waves in the Gulf of Tehuantepec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    spectrum obtained from a crosswind track during RF05, wherek 2 are the downwind and crosswind wavenumber compo- nents,which was obtained from crosswind measurements. Figures I.6

  12. Airborne observations of total RONO2: new constraints on the yield and lifetime of isoprene nitrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    of OH radicals with 1,3- butadiene and isoprene, Environ.oxidation of isoprene and 1,3-butadiene in the presence of

  13. Airborne Fourier transform spectrometer observations in support of EOS Aura validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments aboard the EOS Aura measurements of gaseous constituents derived from the absorption of infrared solar radiation by the atmosphere here on comparisons with limb viewing measurements made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) [Waters et

  14. Sunglint observations over land from ground and airborne L-band radiometer data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    100000 K up to several million Kelvin, depending on solar activity. Sun radiation can impact microwave l) integrated over the entire solar disc. For Earth remote sensing, the solar disc is small (at LSun˝ Ľ 8:2210Ŕ5 sr đ2Ţ [7] Ground monitoring stations provide solar flux meas- urements at different

  15. Airborne observations of total RONO2: new constraints on the yield and lifetime of isoprene nitrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    of OH radicals with 1,3- butadiene and isoprene, Environ.of isoprene and 1,3-butadiene in the presence of NO, J.

  16. Modeling Study of the Effect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Late Spring Drought in South China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Ning; Liu, Xiaohong

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the mechanisms underlying the decadal variability of late spring precipitation in south China are investigated using the latest version 1 of Community Earth System Model (CESM1). We aim to unravel the effects of different climate forcing agents, such as aerosols and greenhouse gases (GHGs), on the decadal variation of precipitation with transient experiments from pre-industry (for year 1850) to present-day (for year 2000). Our results reveal that: (1) CESM1 can reproduce the climatological features of atmospheric circulation and precipitation for the late spring in south China; (2) Only simulations including the forcing of anthropogenic aerosols can reproduce the observed decreasing trend of late spring precipitation from 1950-2000 in south China; (3) Aerosols affect the decadal change of precipitation mainly by altering the large scale atmospheric circulation, and to a less extent by increasing the lower-tropospheric stability to inhibit the convective precipitation; and (4) In comparison, other climate forcing agents, such as GHGs, have much smaller effects on the decadal change of spring precipitation in south China. Key words: precipitation, aerosols, climate change, south China, Community Earth System Model

  17. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  18. Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C. L.; Pringle, K. J.; Schulz, M.; Asmi, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Ridley, D. A.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Lee, L. A.; Zhang, Kai; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Stier, P.; Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Bauer, S.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Strunk, A.; Vignati, E.; Bellouin, N.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; Bergman, T.; Kokkola, H.; Von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Petzold, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Clarke, A. D.; Ogren, J. A.; Gras, J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kaminski, U.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D. C.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Ulevicius, V.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Zdimal, V.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Swietlicki, E.; Henzing, J. S.

    2014-05-13

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by twelve global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the results suggest that most global aerosol microphysics models simulate the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree of skill, but some models are in poor agreement with the observations. Further work is required to better constrain size-resolved primary and secondary particle number sources, and an improved understanding of nucleation and growth (e.g. the role of nitrate and secondary organics) will improve the fidelity of simulated particle size distributions.

  19. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; et al

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar tomore »observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds with these models remains uncertain.« less

  20. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; Lin, Yanluan; Morcrette, J. -J.; Mulcahay, Jane; Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar to observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds with these models remains uncertain.

  1. Initial assessment of an airborne Ku-band polarimetric SAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been used for a variety of dual-use research applications since the 1940's. By measuring the direction of the electric field vector from radar echoes, polarimetry may enhance an analyst's understanding of scattering effects for both earth monitoring and tactical surveillance missions. Polarimetry may provide insight into surface types, materials, or orientations for natural and man-made targets. Polarimetric measurements may also be used to enhance the contrast between scattering surfaces such as man-made objects and their surroundings. This report represents an initial assessment of the utility of, and applications for, polarimetric SAR at Ku-band for airborne or unmanned aerial systems.

  2. Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) data management overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiberg, J.D.; Blough, D.K.; Daugherty, W.R.; Hucks, J.A.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Meitzler, W.D.; Melton, R.B.; Shoemaker, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    An overview of the Data Management Plan for the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) pro-grain is provided in this document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been assigned the responsibility of data management for the program, which includes defining procedures for data management and data quality assessment. Data management is defined as the process of planning, acquiring, organizing, qualifying and disseminating data. The AMPS program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (DOE/AN) and is integrated into the overall DOE AN-10.1 technology development program. Sensors used for collecting the data were developed under the on-site inspection, effluence analysis, and standoff sensor program, the AMPS program interacts with other technology programs of DOE/NN-20. This research will be conducted by both government and private industry. AMPS is a research and development program, and it is not intended for operational deployment, although the sensors and techniques developed could be used in follow-on operational systems. For a complete description of the AMPS program, see {open_quotes}Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program Plan{close_quotes}. The primary purpose of the AMPS is to collect high-quality multisensor data to be used in data fusion research to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to derive better information than can be derived from any single sensor. To collect the data for the program, three wing-mounted pods containing instruments with sensors for collecting data will be flight certified on a U.S. Navy RP-3A aircraft. Secondary objectives of the AMPS program are sensor development and technology demonstration. Pod system integrators and instrument developers will be interested in the performance of their deployed sensors and their supporting data acquisition equipment.

  3. Simulation of size-segregated aerosol chemical composition over northern Italy in clear sky and wind calm conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curci, Gabriele

    %, for the urban site during summer. In addition, the model is able to capture both the daily evolution of the bulk and wind calm conditions T.C. Landi a, , G. Curci b , C. Carbone a , L. Menut c , B. Bessagnet d , L-D regional chemistry-transport model (CTM) CHIMERE against observations of the size-resolved aerosol

  4. Interpretation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Diesel Exhaust Photooxidation in an Environmental Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakao, Shunsuke; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Nguyen, Anh; Jung, Hee-Jung; Cocker, David R.

    2011-04-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from diesel exhaust in a smog chamber was investigated. Particle volume measurement based on mobility diameter is shown to underestimate SOA formation from diesel exhaust due to the external void space of agglomerate particles, in which case mass-based measurement technique is necessary. Rapid determination of particle effective density as a function of particle mass was performed by an Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer – Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (APM-SMPS) to obtain particle mass concentration and fractal dimension. Continuous aging of aerosol was observed in terms of atomic ratio (O/C), from 0.05 to 0.25 in 12 hours, underscoring the importance of multi-generational oxidation of low-volatile organic vapors emitted from diesel engine as the significant source of oxygenated SOA. Experimental conditions possibly have strong impacts on physical evolution of diesel particulates in a smog chamber. Higher particle effective densities were observed when raw exhaust was injected into a full bag as opposed to filling a bag with diluted exhaust using an ejector diluter. When longer transfer line was used for injecting diesel exhaust into the smog chamber, rapid particle coagulation was observed, leading to increasing particle volume concentration in dark while its mass concentration is decreasing.

  5. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  6. Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    2013-02-12

    Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

  7. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2008-01-15

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  8. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  9. Design of Aerosol Face Masks for Children Using Computerized 3D Face Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimmel, Ron

    seal to the child's face, and thus may minimize aerosol leakage and dead space. Key words: inhaled supplied with valved aerosol hold- ing chambers used for aerosol therapy. (Adapted with per- mission from

  10. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES Campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, D. J.; Pekour, M. S.; Zhang, Q.; Setyan, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Cappa, C. D.

    2014-12-10

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 CARES study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles, yielding ? = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. Themore »derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.« less

  11. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Zhang, Qi; Setyan, Ari; Zelenyuk, Alla; Cappa, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 CARES study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles, yielding ? = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.

  12. Multisensor Fusion of Ground-based and Airborne Remote Sensing Data for Crop Condition Assessment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Huihui

    2012-02-14

    provide applicators with guidance equipment configurations that can result in herbicide savings and optimized applications in other crops. The main focus of this research was to apply sensor fusion technology to ground-based and airborne imagery data...

  13. Positioning in geophysics : applications to GPS seismology, airborne gravimetry, and the Dawn Spacecraft at Vesta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Centinello, Frank Joseph, III

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents improvements made on position estimation techniques applied to seismology, airborne gravimetry and planetary gravity recovery. In Chapters 2 and 3, a smoothed ionospheric model computed using GPS ...

  14. Implementing technical transitions through schedule-based policy : insights from the Military's Airborne Tactical Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrbach, Amanda K. (Amanda Kaye)

    2013-01-01

    Due to a need for congestion relief, as well as a projected increase in capacity constraints, the US Military's Airborne Tactical Network (ATN) is at the onset of a technical transition of their communication hardware and ...

  15. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  16. BNL-67857-AB AIRBORNE FORMALDEHYDE MEASUREMENT ON A NOAA WP-3 DURING THE 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BNL-67857-AB AIRBORNE FORMALDEHYDE MEASUREMENT ON A NOAA WP-3 DURING THE 1999 SOS SUMMER FIELD, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 15-19, 2000. Atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) concentration was determined

  17. The metal content of airborne particles in Edinburgh: application to epidemiological research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbs, L R; Beverland, Iain J; Heal, Mathew R; Agius, Raymond M; Elton, Robert A; Fowler, D; Cape, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Metals are putative causative agents in the association between ill health and exposure to airborne particles. We present preliminary results from an epidemiological study using exposure metrics of metal contained in ...

  18. Airborne release fractions/rates and respirable fractions for nonreactor nuclear facilities. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document contains compiled data from the DOE Handbook on Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear facilities. Source data and example facilities utilized, such as the Plutonium Recovery Facility, are included.

  19. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  20. Extending the physicochemical characterization of aerosol particles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zauscher, Melanie Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    W. T. (1997).Emissions from Smoldering Combustion of BiomassCombustion generated aerosols, including emissions from diesel and gasoline engines, biomass and

  1. Climatic effects of different aerosol types in China simulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. GU

    2006-01-01

    P. Shettle (1991), Atmospheric Aero- sols—Global ClimatologyEffects of stratospheric aero- sols and preliminarytypes, such as volcanic aero- sols, desert aerosols, or

  2. Relating Secondary Organic Aerosol Characteristics with Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    by V and Ni from heavy oil combustion: Anthropogenic sourcesgeneration from heavy fuel oil (HFO) as an alternative toengines operating with heavy fuel oils. Journal of Aerosol

  3. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Radiative Role...

  4. GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN-OXIDE AEROSOLS AT 1000 C IN FLOWING AIR-STEAM MIXTURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the rates of oxidation and vaporization of pure tungsten rods in flowing air, steam and air-steam mixtures in laminar flow. Also measured were the downstream transport of tungsten-oxide condensation aerosols and their region of deposition, including plateout in the superheated flow tube, rainout in the condenser and ambient discharge which was collected on an array of sub-micron aerosol filters. The nominal conditions of the tests, with the exception of the first two tests, were tungsten temperatures of 1000 C, gas mixture temperatures of 200 C and wall temperatures of 150 C to 200 C. It was observed that the tungsten oxidation rates were greatest in all air and least in all steam, generally decreasing non-linearly with increasing steam mole fraction. The tungsten oxidation rates in all air were more than five times greater than the tungsten oxidation rates in all steam. The tungsten vaporization rate was zero in all air and increased with increasing steam mole fraction. The vaporization rate became maximum at a steam mole fraction of 0.85 and decreased thereafter as the steam mole fraction was increased to unity. The tungsten-oxide was transported downstream as condensation aerosols, initially flowing upwards from the tungsten rod through an 18-inch long, one-inch diameter quartz tube, around a 3.5-inch radius, 90{sup o} bend and laterally through a 24-inch horizontal run. The entire length of the quartz glass flow path was heated by electrical resistance clamshell heaters whose temperatures were individually controlled and measured. The tungsten-oxide plateout in the quartz tube was collected, nearly all of which was deposited at the end of the heated zone near the entrance to the condenser which was cold. The tungsten-oxide which rained out in the condenser as the steam condensed was collected with the condensate and weighed after being dried. The aerosol smoke which escaped the condenser was collected on the sub-micron filter assemblies. There was no aerosol generation for the case of all air, so the plateout, condensate and smoke were all zero. For the case of all steam, there was very little plateout in the superheated regions (several percent) and the rest of the aerosol was collected in the condensate from the condenser. There was no smoke discharge into the filters. For the experiments with intermediate air-steam fractions, there was some aerosol plateout, considerable aerosol in the condensate and aerosol smoke discharged from the condenser with the escaping air.

  5. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

  6. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-11-06

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice numbermore »is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.« less

  7. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice number is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.

  8. Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) The residue method for the detection of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    and calculation Main sensitivities of residue Problems with the residue Conclusions and outlook #12;#12;o = 380 scattering and absorption #12;#12;#12;Nadir View Solar zenith angle = 45o Residue = 3.5 Rayleigh atmosphere View Solar zenith angle = 45o Residue = -1.0 Rayleigh atmosphere, As = 0.16 Scattering aerosol layer

  9. Aerosol Science and Technology, 39:6883, 2005 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Coffman5 1 Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, Sahaajankatu, Helsinki, Finland 2¨ais¨al¨a Foundation (Finland), and the 100th Anniversary Foundation of Helsingin Sanomat (Finland). Address, 00880 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: aki.virkkula@fmi.fi properties of aerosols depend on the wavelength

  10. Aerosol Science and Technology, 38:555573, 2004 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    from motor vehicles are a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants of their emission. This work uses an Aero- dyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to provide size instrumentation, was deployed on the Aero- dyne Research Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory, which was used to "chase

  11. Techniques for Minimizing Aerosols (aerosols are a common source of laboratoryacquired infections)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    " pipettes to avoid blowing out the last drop Drain pipettes gently with the tip against the inner wall glass rod to crack the glass, allow time for air to seep into the ampoule and gently remove the top than glass (less likely to break which generates aerosols) Source: Adapted from

  12. Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Keith

    , the aerosolassociated water depends on the composition of the #12;3 particles, which is determined by gas in a three dimensional chemical transport model to understand the roles of ammonia chemistry and natural precursors among modeled aerosol species selfconsistently with ambient relative humidity and natural

  13. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D'Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  14. Airborne radioactive effluent study at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, R.L.; Broadway, J.A.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Kirk, W.P.; Kahn, B.; Garrett, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 112 and 122 as amended in 1977, the Office of Radiation Programs (OPR) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing standards for radionuclides emitted to the air by several source categories. In order to confirm source-term measurements and pathway calculations for radiation exposures to humans offsite, the ORP performs field studies at selected facilities that emit radionuclides. This report describes the field study conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a laboratory operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for the US Department of Energy. This purpose of the study at ARP was to verify reported airborne releases and resulting radiation doses from the facility. Measurements of radionuclide releases for brief periods were compared with measurements performed by SRP staff on split samples and with annual average releases reported by SRP for the same facilities. The dispersion model used by SRP staff to calculate radiation doses offsite was tested by brief environmental radioactivity measurements performed simultaneously with the release measurements, and by examining radioactivity levels in environmental samples. This report describes in detail all measurements made and data collected during the field study and presents the results obtained. 34 references, 18 figures, 49 tables.

  15. Measurements of aerosol vertical profiles and optical properties during INDOEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Maldives. Sun photometers were used to provide aerosol optical depths (AOD) needed to calibrate the MPL. This study focuses on the height distribution and optical trajectories, radiosonde profiles of temperature and humidity, and aerosol concentration and optical

  16. SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION L. G. Tilstra1- itoring the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) [1] measured by the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY [2]. We find. This we conclude from straightforward calculation of the effect of instrument degradation based

  17. GLOBAL AEROSOL EFFECT RETRIEVAL FROM PASSIVE HYPERSPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    that can be detected using UV reflectance measurements. Since the aerosol extinction optical thickness any instrument, or a combination of instruments, that measures UV, visible and SWIR reflectancesGLOBAL AEROSOL EFFECT RETRIEVAL FROM PASSIVE HYPERSPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS M. de Graaf1,2 , L. G

  18. Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Nicole ONeill - ATOC 3500 and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. · The lightest chemicals in the oil evaporated within hours, as scientists expected them to do. What they didn't expect

  19. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

  20. Supplementary Material1 Characterization of Organic Aerosol Produced during2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    mass spectra of a dominant type (coal) of ambient aerosol in Shanghai using2 ATOFMS (m/z from 1501 Supplementary Material1 Characterization of Organic Aerosol Produced during2 Pulverized Coal diagram of combustion process of a single coal particle5 6 #12;3 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 Oxygen/coal ratio

  1. Effects of operating conditions on a heat transfer fluid aerosol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukmarg, Passaporn

    2000-01-01

    fluids are used as hot liquids at elevated pressures. If loss of containment does occur, the liquid will leak under pressure and may disperse as a fine aerosol mist. Though it has been recognized that aerosol mists can explode, very little is known about...

  2. Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Jiwen

    2009-05-15

    in the droplet size. Ice processes are more sensitive to the changes of aerosol chemical properties than the warm rain processes. The most noticeable effect of increasing aerosol number concentrations is an increase of CDNC and cloud water content but a decrease...

  3. Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation? Daniel Rosenfeld,1 * Ulrike Lohmann,2 and the initiation of precipitation. Large concentrations of human-made aerosols have been reported to both decrease hand, heavily polluted clouds evaporate much of their water before precipitation can occur, if they can

  4. Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive vehicle and industrial emissions, coal combustion (e.g. cooking, heating, power plants) represents

  5. Experiments related to the resuspension of aerosols during hydrogen burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.S.; Guay, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    We have performed seven ''add-on'' experiments in two large combustion facilities to investigate the capability of hydrogen burns to remove simulated structural and fission product aerosols previously deposited on small metal discs that have surfaces prototypical of those found in nuclear reactor containments. Our results suggest that hydrogen combustion provides an especially effective mechanism for removal (and, presumably, resuspension) of sedimented aerosols produced in a hypothetical nuclear reactor core-degradation or core-melting accident. The presence of condensing steam does not seem to assure adhesion of sedimented aerosols during hydrogen burns. Differences are exhibited between different surfaces as well as between types of aerosol. In-depth studies will be required to assess the impact exposure of sedimented aerosols to hydrogen burns might have on the radiological source term.

  6. Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructure andChallenge | Department,Aerosol Indirect Effects in

  7. Source-dependent variation in hydroxyl radical production by airborne particulate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marjan Alaghmand; Neil V. Blough [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest exposure to airborne particles is responsible for a wide range of adverse health effects, potentially arising from particle-induced oxidative stress. A highly sensitive fluorescence method was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical by a broad range of particle types including urban dust, diesel particulate matter, coal fly ash, kaolinite, and silica. Little or no production of OH was observed in the absence of an added electron donor or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the presence of a biological electron donor (NADPH, 3 mM), the rate of OH production (R{sub OH}) for 3 mg/mL of these particles varied from 23 nM s{sup -1} for diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) to 0.20 nM s{sup -1} for coal fly ash (SRM 2689). No detectable OH was produced by kaolinite or silica. Hydroxyl radical formation was eliminated under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of catalase, indicating that O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are required for its generation. Partial inhibition of OH formation by superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also observed in some cases, suggesting that superoxide is also involved. The metal chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFX) in most cases suppressed OH formation, but diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) generally enhanced it, implicating metal ion reactions in OH generation as well. The dependence of R{sub OH} on NADPH concentration further implicates particle surface reactions in OH formation. To the authors' knowledge, these measurements provide the first quantitative estimate of ROH for a broad range of particle types. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  9. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  10. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. Investigation of Aerosol Sources, Lifetime and Radiative Forcing through Multi-Instrument Data Assimilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Juli Irene

    2012-01-01

    of the various radiative mechanims associated with aerosolof the various radiative mechanims associated with aerosol

  13. Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY M. de Graaf,1 of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02206, doi aerosol (DDA) and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) scenes over oceans are presented, measured by the space

  14. UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCES OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    remarks #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS AS SEEN FROM SPACE Fire plumes from southern Mexico transported north into Gulf of Mexico. #12;CLOUD BRIGHTENING BY SHIP TRACKS Satellite photo off

  15. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  16. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  17. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  18. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  19. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AODmore »and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day?1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond differently between Case I and Case II underlying the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.« less

  20. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AODmore »and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day?1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond differently between Case I and Case II underlying the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.« less

  1. Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  2. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-06-02

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  3. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-03-28

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  4. Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; White, B.W.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Corkran, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300/degree/C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 ..mu..m as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 ft/sup 3//min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150/degree/C, and 300/degree/C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. GCM parameterization of radiative forcing by Pinatubo aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacis, A.A.; Mishchenko, M.I.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the question of whether the general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of volcanic aerosol forcing can be adequately described in terms of just two physical aerosol parameters: (1) the aerosol column optical thickness and (2) the effective radius of the aerosol size distribution. Data recorded from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991 was analyzed to attempt to answer this question. The spatial distribution of the particle size showed considerable variability and was found to increase steadily following the eruption. The time evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol particle size distribution as derived from satellite data differed significantly, particularly in the early phases of the eruption, from that assumed in the initial GCM simulation of the Pinatubo eruption. A bimodal distribution was used to examine the possibility that the actual size distribution of the volcanic aerosol was multimodal. However, results suggested that in most cases the aerosol size distribution was essentially monomodal in nature. Results from the radiative model used in the calculations are also presented. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  7. Inverse modelling of cloud-aerosol interactions - Part 2: Sensitivity tests on liquid phase clouds using a Markov chain Monte Carlo based simulation approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partridge, D. G; Vrugt, J. A; Tunved, P.; Ekman, A. M. L; Struthers, H.; Sorooshian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Seinfeld, J. H. : Aerosol, cloud drop concentration closureof aerosol composition on cloud droplet size distribution –aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation, At-

  8. Assessment of multi-decadal WRF-CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gan, C.-M.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Hogrefe, C.; Long, C. N.; Xing, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Wei, C.

    2015-07-01

    Multi-decadal simulations with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 21 years (1990–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analyses conducted by Gan et al. (2014) utilizingmore »observations (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even through it tends to underestimate the AOD. In particular, the sulfate concentration predictions were well matched with the observations. The discrenpancies found in the clear-sky diffuse SW radiation are likely due to several factors such as potential increase of ice particles associated with increasing air traffic, the definition of "clear-sky" in the radiation retrieval methodology and aerosol semi-direct and/or indirect effects which cannot be readily isolated from the observed data.« less

  9. Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval1 evaluation and constraints on the seasonality of biogenic2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval1 evaluation and constraints Information1 2 3 #12; 3 1 FigureS1.Comparison of TES, IASI and airborne methanol measurements using GEOS-Chem as2 an intercomparison platform. Methanol abundance as modeled by GEOS-Chem (base-case3 simulation

  10. *Corresponding author, E-mail: ndelucca@nd.edu The Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory, Recent Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordeyev, Stanislav

    *Corresponding author, E-mail: ndelucca@nd.edu The Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory, Recent Data, Notre Dame, IN USA 46556 ABSTRACT In this paper recent in-flight aero-optical measurements on the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory (AAOL) will be given. Instrumentation and experimental set

  11. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  12. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  13. Preliminary calculations on direct heating of a containment atmosphere by airborne core debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1986-07-01

    Direct heating of the containment atmosphere by airborne core debris may be a significant source of containment pressurization in those accident sequences where the primary system is still at high pressure when the RPV fails. Vigorous blowdown of the primary system may result in nearly complete relocation of core debris out of the reactor cavity and possibly into the containment atmosphere where the liberation of thermal and chemical energy can directly heat the atmosphere. Rate independent and rate dependent models are developed and exercised parametrically to quantify the possible magnitude and rate of containment pressurization from direct heating. The possible mitigative effects of airborne water and subcompartment heating are also investigated.

  14. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports.

  15. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, A. C.

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

  16. Simulated aerosol key optical properties over global scale using an aerosol transport model coupled with a new type of dynamic core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    effects: (a) a direct effect in which aerosol particles scatter and absorb the solar and thermal radiation Atmospheric aerosols greatly impact the Earth's climate in many ways, and to date, not all of them are well

  17. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  18. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    P. R. , and Hao, W. M. : Emissions from forest fires nearM. O. and Merlet, P. : Emission of trace gases and aerosolsW. : Automo- bile Emissions of Acetonitrile: Assessment of

  19. A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    Recent field and laboratory evidence indicates that the oxidation of isoprene, (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C[subscript 5]H[subscript 8]) forms secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Global biogenic emissions of isoprene (600 Tg ...

  20. Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon (BC) with other aerosol components, merging of the MAM7 fine dust and fine sea salt modes into the accumulation mode, merging of the MAM7 coarse dust and coarse sea salt...

  1. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  2. ris-r-1075(en) Quantitative Measurement of Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and implications of deposition of potentially hazardous aerosol directly onto hu- mans. This state, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl

  3. Experimental and numerical studies of aerosol penetration through screens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Tae Won

    2009-05-15

    for one particular type of screen would collapse to a single curve if the collection efficiency is expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. Correlations characterizing the aerosol deposition process on different types of screens were developed...

  4. Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

  5. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, D. B.

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) study around Sacramento, CA are ...

  6. Persistent sensitivity of Asian aerosol to emissions of nitrogen oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharol, S. K.

    We use a chemical transport model and its adjoint to examine the sensitivity of secondary inorganic aerosol formation to emissions of precursor trace gases from Asia. Sensitivity simulations indicate that secondary inorganic ...

  7. REPRESENTING AEROSOLS IN GLOBAL MODELS: FROM MICROMETERS TO MEGAMETERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    mainly from gas-to- particle conversion of low-volatility gaseous species, mainly sulfuric acid to represent aerosol processes and forcing "on-line" in climate models in order to capture the feedbacks

  8. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore »cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.« less

  9. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  10. Table S1: (a) Aircraft, ground and satellite based instruments, the aerosol properties used from these instruments and their availability on the two case study days.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    properties used from these instruments and their availability on the two case studyTable S1: (a) Aircraft, ground and satellite based instruments, the aerosol de Monterrey + Y/N=> Yes/No => AOD observation is/is not available

  11. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  12. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  13. On modification of global warming by sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.F.B.; Johns, T.C.

    1997-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the response of climate to increasing greenhouse gases may be modified by accompanying increases in sulfate aerosols. In this study, the patterns of response in the surface climatology of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model forced by increases in carbon dioxide alone is compared with those obtained by increasing carbon dioxide and aerosol forcing. The simulations are run from early industrial times using the estimated historical forcing and continued to the end of the twenty-first century assuming a nonintervention emissions scenario for greenhouse gases and aerosols. The comparison is made for the period 2030-2050 when the aerosol forcing is a maximum. In winter, the cooling due to aerosols merely tends to reduce the response to carbon dioxide, whereas in summer, it weakens the monsoon circulations and reverses some of the changes in the hydrological cycle on increasing carbon dioxide. This response is in some respects similar to that found in simulations with changed orbital parameters, as between today and the middle Holocene. The hydrological response in the palaeosimulations is supported by palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The results of changes in aerosol concentrations of the magnetic projected in the scenarios would have a major effect on regional climate, especially over Europe and Southeast Asia. 74 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Investigations of cloud altering effects of atmospheric aerosols using a new mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian aerosol model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Henry Donnan, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Industry, urban development, and other anthropogenic influences have substantially altered the composition and size-distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles over the last century. This, in turn, has altered cloud ...

  15. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibensperger, Eric Michael

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model combined with the GISS general circulation model to calculate the aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 ...

  16. The Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory, AAOL Eric J. Jumpera1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordeyev, Stanislav

    The Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory, AAOL Eric J. Jumpera1 , Mike Zenka , Stanislav Gordeyeva Abstract This paper gives a background into aero-optics which is the effect that turbulent flow over discusses the magnitude of the detrimental effects that aero-optics has on optical system performance

  17. An Airborne Pod-mounted Dual Beam Interferometer Dragana Perkovic, Stephen J. Frasier, Russell Tessier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    of Massachusetts (UMass) to study ocean surface waves and currents in coastal regions. This airborne radar operates. Over several years, DBI was flown on a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's WP-3D research aircraft in a number of successful missions collecting the data both over land and ocean. These deployments

  18. Flight Test Evaluation of a Prototype Optical Instrument for Airborne Sense-and-Avoid Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornsey, Richard

    Flight Test Evaluation of a Prototype Optical Instrument for Airborne Sense-and-Avoid Applications sense-and-avoid instrument was constructed from low-cost commercial off-the- shelf components 205 and the Bell 206 (intruder aircraft) were fully instrumented to record position and orientation

  19. Indoor airborne bacterial communities are influenced by ventilation, occupancy, and outdoor air source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohannan, Brendan

    , is an energy-efficient way to simultaneously cool building mass and avoid overnight and weekend microbial an intensive temporal study of indoor airborne bacterial communities in a high-traffic university building associated with differing ventilation strategies relevant to modern building design. Our results indicate

  20. One-dimensional inversion of airborne electromagnetic data: application to oil sands exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farquharson, Colin G.

    One-dimensional inversion of airborne electromagnetic data: application to oil sands exploration, and Larry Mewhort. · Richard Kellett, formerly of Komex International. #12;Oil sands in Canada #12;Source: Mark Savage, "Oil Sands Characteristics - Geology," 9 April 2002 Wabasca Calgary Edmonton Cold Lake

  1. TOMOGRAPHIC RETRIEVAL OF CLOUD WATER DISTRIBUTIONS USING AN AIR-BORNE SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TOMOGRAPHIC RETRIEVAL OF CLOUD WATER DISTRIBUTIONS USING AN AIR-BORNE SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER, for United States Government purposes. BNL-79834-2008-AB #12;ABSTRACT Microwave radiometers have been used, but neither the microwave technology nor the cloud models were mature enough for practical application

  2. Effect of sampling height on the concentration of airborne fungal spores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levetin, Estelle

    and possible sources of air pollution.8 In addition, it is high enough to avoid vandalism and bothering aeroallergens. Airborne fungal spores are commonly collected from the outdoor air at the rooftop level of high respiration level (1.5 m above the ground) and at roof level (12 m height). Methods: Air samples were

  3. Initial Attitude Estimation of Tactical Grade Inertial Measurement Unit for Airborne Environmental Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Won, Chang-Hee

    1 Initial Attitude Estimation of Tactical Grade Inertial Measurement Unit for Airborne alignment depends on the inertial measurement unit's performance. In the case of the tactical grade inertial measurement unit, even though tilt angles can be estimated relatively accurately by using accelerometer

  4. DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES burdens of wind turbines. To detect damage of rotor blades, several research projects focus on an acoustic, rotor blade, wind turbine INTRODUCTION There are several publications of non destructive damage

  5. Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Lawrence H which provides the Center's primary funding. #12;1 STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION.S. cities. This and other scientific and policy information formed the basis on which the U.S. Environmental

  6. Mali 2006/2007 Airborne Measurements (Mali 2006/2007 Mesures Aroportes)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Mali 2006/2007 Airborne Measurements (Mali 2006/2007 Mesures Aéroportées) #12;Measurement Objectives (Objectifs De Mesure) Determine if cloud seeding in Mali could be beneficial. (Déterminer si l'ensemencement des nuages au Mali pourrait être bénéfique.) Help determine what is the optimal seeding method

  7. Airborne thermal remote sensing for water temperature assessment in rivers and streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    ). Stream temperature monitoring presents challenges for water resource managers charged with the taskAirborne thermal remote sensing for water temperature assessment in rivers and streams Christian E are needed to assess spatial patterns of stream temperature at scales relevant to issues in water quality

  8. Computational Concerns in the Integration of Unmanned Airborne Systems into Controlled Airspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Chris

    ], as well as EUROCONTROL's Spec-0102 on the Use of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Operational Air safeguards. Within the US military funding for Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs) development has increased London Olympics. A new generation of unmanned freight vehicles is being deployed to help the US military

  9. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, D. E.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-15

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physico-chemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air quality models. more »Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) concentration was 31.0 ?g m?3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %), followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %). High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C) ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA; O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 28 % of total OA; O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OAs (BBOA1; 13 % of total OA; O / C = 0.33 and BBOA2; 20 % of total OA; O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA; 16 % of total OA; O / C = 0.63) and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA; 24 % of total OA; O / C = 0.90) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Large differences in aerosol chemistry at Fresno were observed between the current campaign (winter 2013) and a~previous wintertime campaign (winter 2010), most notably that PM1 concentrations were nearly three times higher in 2013 than in 2010. These variations were attributed to differences in the meteorological conditions, which influenced primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In particular, COA and BBOA concentrations were greater in 2013 than 2010, where colder temperatures in 2013 likely resulted in increased biomass burning activities. The influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was found to be much more intense in 2013 than 2010, leading to sharp increases in ground-level concentrations of secondary aerosol species including nitrate, sulfate, and OOA, in the morning between 08:00 to 12:00 PST. This is an indication that nighttime chemistry might also be higher in 2013. As solar radiation was stronger in 2013 the higher nitrate and OOA concentrations in 2013 could also be partly due to greater photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. The greater solar radiation and larger range in temperature in 2013 also likely led to both SV-OOA and LV-OOA being observed in 2013 whereas only a single OOA factor was identified in 2010.« less

  10. Final Report for �¢����Cloud-Aerosol Physics in Super-Parameterized Atmospheric Regional Climate Simulations (CAP-SPARCS)�¢��� (DE-SC0002003) for 8/15/2009 through 8/14/2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Russell; Richard C.J. Somerville

    2012-11-05

    Improving the representation of local and non-local aerosol interactions in state-of-the-science regional climate models is a priority for the coming decade (Zhang, 2008). With this aim in mind, we have combined two new technologies that have a useful synergy: (1) an aerosol-enabled regional climate model (Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry WRF-Chem), whose primary weakness is a lack of high quality boundary conditions and (2) an aerosol-enabled multiscale modeling framework (PNNL Multiscale Aerosol Climate Model (MACM)), which is global but captures aerosol-convection-cloud feedbacks, and thus an ideal source of boundary conditions. Combining these two approaches has resulted in an aerosol-enabled modeling framework that not only resolves high resolution details in a particular region, but crucially does so within a global context that is similarly faithful to multi-scale aerosol-climate interactions. We have applied and improved the representation of aerosol interactions by evaluating model performance over multiple domains, with (1) an extensive evaluation of mid-continent precipitation representation by multiscale modeling, (2) two focused comparisons to transport of aerosol plumes to the eastern United States for comparison with observations made as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT), with the first being idealized and the second being linked to an extensive wildfire plume, and (3) the extension of these ideas to the development of a new approach to evaluating aerosol indirect effects with limited-duration model runs by �¢����nudging�¢��� to observations. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Zhan Zhao) for two years and contributed to the training and research of two graduate students. Four peer-reviewed publications have resulted from this work, and ground work for a follow-on project was completed.

  11. Large Enhancement in the Heterogeneous Oxidation Rate of Organic Aerosols by Hydroxyl Radicals in the Presence of Nitric Oxide.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards-Henderson, NK; Goldstein, AH; Wilson, KR

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous Reaction of Hydroxyl Radicals with Sub-Micronof Organic Aerosols by Hydroxyl Radicals in the Presence ofin an aerosol exposed to hydroxyl radicals (OH) is thought

  12. Effects on precipitation, clouds, and temperature from long-range transport of idealized aerosol plumes in WRF-Chem simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Zhan; Pritchard, Michael S; Russell, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    on intense convective precipitation in the northeastern US,aerosols on regional precipitation over East Asia, J.of aerosols on surface precipitation from clouds: An attempt

  13. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inlandmore »sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.« less

  14. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climateOverview of Arctic cloud and radiation characteristics. J.of Arctic low-level clouds observed during the FIRE Arctic

  15. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

  16. Microscopic Characterization of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particle Aging in the Outflow from Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, R. C.; Henn, T. R.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Fast, J.; Barnard, J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Cliff, S.S.; Perry, K. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2009-09-16

    This study was part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area during spring 2006. The physical and chemical transformations of particles aged in the outflow from Mexico City were investigated for the transport event of 22 March 2006. A detailed chemical analysis of individual particles was performed using a combination of complementary microscopy and micro-spectroscopy techniques. The applied techniques included scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (CCSEM/EDX). As the aerosol plume evolves from the city center, the organic mass per particle increases and the fraction of carbon-carbon double bonds (associated with elemental carbon) decreases. Organic functional groups enhanced with particle age include: carboxylic acids, alkyl groups, and oxygen bonded alkyl groups. At the city center (T0) the most prevalent aerosol type contained inorganic species (composed of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and potassium) coated with organic material. At the T1 and T2 sites, located northeast of T0 (~;;29 km and ~;;65 km, respectively), the fraction of homogenously mixed organic particles increased in both size and number. These observations illustrate the evolution of the physical mixing state and organic bonding in individual particles in a photochemically active environment.

  17. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Mechanisms of aerosol-forced AMOC variability in a state of the art climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a new state-of-the-art Earth system model. Anthropogenic aerosols have previously been highlighted anthropogenic aerosols force a strengthening of the AMOC by up to 20% in our state-of-the-art Earth system model

  19. Investigation of the aerosol-cloud interaction using the WRF framework 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Guohui

    2009-05-15

    In this dissertation, a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme with aerosol effects is developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction. Sensitivities ...

  20. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenfeld, Daniel

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. ...

  1. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass is fossil fuel combustion from gasoline- and diesel- powered vehicles and other industrial activities (e

  2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of aerosol in a u-shaped steam generator tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longmire, Pamela

    2009-05-15

    To quantify primary side aerosol retention, an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach was used to investigate aerosol transport in a compressible, turbulent, adiabatic, internal, wall-bounded flow. The ARTIST experimental project ...

  3. Variablity among electronic cigarettes in the pressure drop, airflow rate, and aerosol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01

    on the Ruyan e-cigarette cartridge and inhaled aerosol (pp.drop, length of time cartridges lasted, and production ofdevice that aerosolizes cartridge fluid which is in turn

  4. Variability of aerosol parameters over Kanpur, northern India R. P. Singh,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    Variability of aerosol parameters over Kanpur, northern India R. P. Singh,1 Sagnik Dey, S. N Dynamics: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS: aerosol, remote sensing, Ganga basin Citation: Singh, R. P., S. Dey, S

  5. The impact of pathological ventilation on aerosol deposition : imaging, insight and intervention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Elliot (Elliot Eliyahu)

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol therapies are often used to treat lung diseases in which ventilation is distributed heterogeneously throughout the lung. As therapeutic aerosols are transported by the inhaled air, it is likely that deposition is ...

  6. Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Gill-Ran

    The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

  7. Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

    2014-02-14

    Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

  8. Partial Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Marlow

    2006-10-20

    We attempt to dissolve the measurement problem using an anthropic principle which allows us to invoke rational observers. We argue that the key feature of such observers is that they are rational (we need not care whether they are `classical' or `macroscopic' for example) and thus, since quantum theory can be expressed as a rational theory of probabilistic inference, the measurement problem is not a problem.

  9. CHALLENGE TO ARM AND ASP Determine aerosol radiative forcings at ARM site(s).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    aerosol optical thickness is 0.1: 3 W m-2 cooling. ~50 km Drone Radiometers AMF DIRECT DETERMINATION

  10. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  11. A fast-time study on increasing the capacity of continuous descent approaches through airborne precision spacing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weitz, Lesley Anne

    2005-11-01

    Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, Virginia, two parallel research efforts have focusedon terminal area research: one is Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), and the other is the Quiet Aircraft Technologies (QAT) project. The APS objective is to increase...

  12. Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, Edward Charles

    2009-05-15

    Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) ...

  13. Fuzzy logic approach to supervised segmentation of forest regions infested by Southern Pine Beetle using color airborne images 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Kit-Tong

    1994-01-01

    Digital image processing technique and fuzzy logic approach are used to identify forest areas infested with Southern Pine Beetle, SPB, using normal color airborne imageries in this research. This research will be used as a front end of a larger...

  14. Method for the assessment of airborne off-target pesticide spray concentrations due to aircraft wing-tip vortex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliva, Sergio Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for assessing airborne concentrations caused by off-target pesticide drift. Concentrations are bounded by the worst credible circumstances within a normal aircraft pesticide spraying. It is assumed...

  15. Inorganic aerosols responses to emission changes in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Li, Juan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2014-05-15

    China announced the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality standards (CH-NAAQS) on Feb. 29th, 2012, and PM2.5 is for the very first time included in the standards as a criteria pollutant. In order to probe into PM2.5 pollution over Yangtze River Delta, which is one of the major urban clusters hosting more than 80 million people in China, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system is applied for a full year simulation to examine the PM2.5 concentration and seasonality, and also the inorganic aerosols responses to precursor emission changes. Both simulation and observation demonstrated that, inorganic aerosols have substantial contributions to PM2.5 over YRD, ranging from 37.1% in November to 52.8% in May. Nocturnal production of nitrate (NO3-) through heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 was found significantly contribute to high NO3-concentration throughout the year. We also found that in winter NO3- was even increased under nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction due to higher production of N2O5 from the excessive ozone (O3) introduced by attenuated titration, which further lead to increase of ammonium (NH4+) and sulfate (SO42-), while other seasons showed decrease response of NO3-. Sensitivity responses of NO3- under anthropogenic VOC emission reduction was examined and demonstrated that in urban areas over YRD, NO3- formation was actually VOC sensitive due to the O3-involved nighttime chemistry of N2O5, while a reduction of NOx emission may have counter-intuitive effect by increasing concentrations of inorganic aerosols.

  16. Airborne radioactive material collection, measurement, and data storage for the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Melody Louise

    1982-01-01

    AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL COLLECTION, MEASUREMENT, AND DATA STORAGE FOR THE NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER AT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY A Thesis by MELODY LOUISE JONES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL COLLECTION& MEASUREMENT& AND DATA STORAGE FOR THE NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER AT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY A Thesis by MELODY LOUISE...

  17. Trends in aerosol optical properties over the Bohai Rim in Northeast China from 2004 to 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    Trends in aerosol optical properties over the Bohai Rim in Northeast China from 2004 to 2010 al., 2004). However, the spatial and temporal contributions of aerosol optical properties and aerosol of this growth is driven by new industry that consumes substantially more coal and fossil fuel in the region

  18. Uncertainty and interpretation of aerosol remote sensing due to vertical inhomogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and aerosol column number density. Monomodal aerosol size distribution is assumed. The Cost Function (CF radiance data at the TOA have been created assuming either one or two layers of aerosols using the vector is affected by the radiative forcing associated with various sources, including total solar irradiance

  19. Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was dominated by marine, polluted, volcanic, and dust aerosols. Average total light scattering coefficients (sspMixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties). Aerosol hygroscopicity ranged from deliquescent with hysteresis (marine frequently and polluted variably

  20. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-24

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data.

  1. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic

  2. AEROSOL-CLOUD INTERACTIONS CONTROL OF EARTH RADIATION AND LATENT HEAT RELEASE BUDGETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    AEROSOL-CLOUD INTERACTIONS CONTROL OF EARTH RADIATION AND LATENT HEAT RELEASE BUDGETS D. ROSENFELD simulations show that cloud development is strongly mod- ulated by the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on precipitation forming processes. New insights into the mechanisms by which aerosols dominate the cloud cover

  3. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Woody, M. C.; Baker, K. R.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Koo, B.; Pye, H. O. T.

    2015-10-05

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for organic aerosols (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of organic aerosol (OA) in southern California. CMAQ-VBS (OA lumped by volatility, semivolatile POA) underpredicted total organic carbon (OC) at CSN (?25.5 % Normalized Median Bias (NMdnB)) and IMPROVE (?63.9 % NMdnB) locations and total OC wasmore »underpredicted to a greater degree compared to the CMAQ-AE6 (9.9 and ?55.7 % NMdnB, respectively; semi-explicit OA treatment, SOA lumped by parent hydrocarbon, nonvolatile POA). However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and the primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS secondary organic aerosol (SOA) underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate of SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2 (4.7 ?g m?3 measured vs. 0.9 ?g m?3 modeled), a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions, which were approximately 24× lower than the average AMS OOA concentration. We use two new methods, based on species ratios and on a simplified SOA parameterization from the observations, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to too slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5× lower than observed at Pasadena using ? log (NOx: NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2× for Pasadena), and too low emissions or too high dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3× too low/high). The first and third factors will be similar for CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation efficiency for that model is estimated to be too low by about 7×. For CMAQ-VBS, 90 % of the anthropogenic SOA mass formed was attributed to aged secondary semivolatile vapors (70 % originating from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 20 % from intermediate volatility compounds (IVOCs)). From source-apportioned model results, we found most of the CMAQ-VBS modeled POA at the Pasadena CalNex site was attributable to meat cooking emissions (48 %, and consistent with a substantial fraction of cooking OA in the observations), compared to 18 % from gasoline vehicle emissions, 13 % from biomass burning (in the form of residential wood combustion), and 8 % from diesel vehicle emissions. All "other" inventoried emission sources (e.g. industrial/point sources) comprised the final 13 %. The CMAQ-VBS semivolatile POA treatment underpredicted AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) + cooking-influenced OA (CIOA) at Pasadena by a factor of 1.8 (1.16 ?g m?3 modeled vs. 2.05 ?g m?3 observed) compared to a factor of 1.4 overprediction of POA in CMAQ-AE6, but did well to capture the AMS diurnal profile of HOA and CIOA, with the exception of the midday peak. We estimated that using the National Emission Inventory (NEI) POA emissions without scaling to represent SVOCs underestimates SVOCs by ~1.7×.« less

  4. Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2008-08-22

    Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.

  5. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, John E. (West Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  6. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles: Marine Aerosol Organic Mass Composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-26

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore »reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production« less

  7. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles: Marine Aerosol Organic Mass Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frossard, Amanda A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Russell, Lynn M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Burrows, Susannah M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Elliott, Scott M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bates, Timothy S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Lab. (PMEL); Quinn, Patricia K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Lab. (PMEL)

    2014-11-26

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production

  8. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIsaac, C.V.; Killian, E.W.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Kynaston, R.L.; Johnson, L.O.; Randolph, P.D.

    1996-09-03

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector. 7 figs.

  9. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIsaac, Charles V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Killian, E. Wayne (Idaho Falls, ID); Grafwallner, Ervin G. (Arco, ID); Kynaston, Ronnie L. (Blackfoot, ID); Johnson, Larry O. (Pocatello, ID); Randolph, Peter D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector.

  10. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of the project are to construct a geophysical sensor system based on a remotely operated model helicopter (ROH) and to evaluate the efficacy of the system for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is a geophysical survey system that uses a ROH as the survey vehicle. We have selected the ROH because of its advantages over fixed wing and ground based vehicles. Lower air speed and superior maneuverability of the ROH make it better suited for geophysical surveys than a fixed wing model aircraft. The ROH can fly close to the ground, allowing detection of weak or subtle anomalies. Unlike ground based vehicles, the ROH can traverse difficult terrain while providing a stable sensor platform. ROH does not touch the ground during the course of a survey and is capable of functioning over water and surf zones. The ROH has been successfully used in the motion picture industry and by geology companies for payload bearing applications. The only constraint to use of the airborne system is that the ROH must remain visible to the pilot. Obstructed areas within a site can be characterized by relocating the base station to alternate positions. GAUSS consists of a ROH with radio controller, a data acquisition and processing (DAP) system, and lightweight digital sensor systems. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a DAP and sensors suitable for ROH operation. We have constructed these subsystems and integrated them to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system, referred to as the ``pre-prototype``. We have performed test surveys with the pre-prototype to determine the functionality of the and DAP and sensor subsystems and their suitability for airborne application. The objective of the Phase II effort will be to modify the existing subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. Efficacy of the prototype for geophysical survey of hazardous sites will then be determined.

  11. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, A.K.

    1984-09-07

    This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  12. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, Arlin K. (Halfway, OR)

    1986-01-01

    A method for separating gaseous samples from a contained atmosphere that includes aerosol particles uses the step of repelling particles from a gas permeable surface or membrane by heating the surface to a temperature greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere. The resulting thermophoretic forces maintain the gas permeable surface clear of aerosol particles. The disclosed apparatus utilizes a downwardly facing heated plate of gas permeable material to combine thermophoretic repulsion and gravity forces to prevent particles of any size from contacting the separating plate surfaces.

  13. Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol–climate model intercomparison studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, K.; Wan, H.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging as an assimilation technique has seen increased use in recent years in the development and evaluation of climate models. Constraining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the sensitivity ofmore »simulated ice formation to anthropogenic aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on long-wave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations, and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. Results from both CAM5 and a second aerosol–climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 also indicate that compared to the wind-and-temperature nudging, constraining only winds leads to better agreement with the free-running model in terms of the estimated shortwave cloud forcing and the simulated convective activities. This suggests nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects since it provides well-constrained meteorology without strongly perturbing the model's mean climate.« less

  14. A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Ogunro, O.; Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Elliott, S.

    2014-12-19

    The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll-a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecule. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll-\\textit{a} and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical parameterizations, but can vary between biologically productive and non-productive regions, and seasonally within a given region. Major uncertainties include the bubble film thickness at bursting and the variability of organic surfactant activity in the ocean, which is poorly constrained. In addition, marine colloids and cooperative adsorption of polysaccharides may make important contributions to the aerosol, but are not included here. This organic fractionation framework is an initial step towards a closer linking of ocean biogeochemistry and aerosol chemical composition in Earth system models. Future work should focus on improving constraints on model parameters through new laboratory experiments or through empirical fitting to observed relationships in the real ocean and atmosphere, as well as on atmospheric implications of the variable composition of organic matter in sea spray.

  15. Gamma-analysis of airborne particulates sampled in Youzhno-Sakhalinsk town at March - April 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tertyshnik, E G; Andreev, F A; Artemyev, G B

    2012-01-01

    The experience of discovery of the radioactive products which have released into atmosphere of Sakhalin region from Fukushima Daiichi accident is presented. Sampling of airborne particulates and atmosphere fallout was carried out by means of the air ventilation set and horizontal gauze planchs, respectively. The HPGe detector was used for gamma analyses of the airborne samples. Since 23 March we confidently measured 131I in the airborne samples, after 03.04.2011 we also registered a rise of activity 137Cs and 134Cs. 132Te and 132I were discovered in ashen sample of the planch, which had exposed in Youzhno-Kurilk from 14 to 17 March. The effect of the pairs production when in the samples 208Tl presence, which emits gamma-quanta of 2615 keV, causes a rise in apparatus spectra of the peak corresponding to energy 1593 keV, which could be in error ascribed to 140La. It had been experimentally shown that the systematic reduction of 134Cs content in measuring samples due to effect of gamma - gamma coincidence did no...

  16. Gamma-analysis of airborne particulates sampled in Youzhno-Sakhalinsk town at March - April 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. G. Tertyshnik; V. P. Martynenko; F. A. Andreev; G. B. Artemyev

    2012-03-22

    The experience of discovery of the radioactive products which have released into atmosphere of Sakhalin region from Fukushima Daiichi accident is presented. Sampling of airborne particulates and atmosphere fallout was carried out by means of the air ventilation set and horizontal gauze planchs, respectively. The HPGe detector was used for gamma analyses of the airborne samples. Since 23 March we confidently measured 131I in the airborne samples, after 03.04.2011 we also registered a rise of activity 137Cs and 134Cs. 132Te and 132I were discovered in ashen sample of the planch, which had exposed in Youzhno-Kurilk from 14 to 17 March. The effect of the pairs production when in the samples 208Tl presence, which emits gamma-quanta of 2615 keV, causes a rise in apparatus spectra of the peak corresponding to energy 1593 keV, which could be in error ascribed to 140La. It had been experimentally shown that the systematic reduction of 134Cs content in measuring samples due to effect of gamma - gamma coincidence did not exceed 7 % (for the detector and geometry of the measurement used).

  17. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  18. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2004-05-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  19. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  20. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2013-05-10

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  2. Investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles by partial least

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanier, Charlie

    combustion sources, secondary aerosol, and coal-fired power plants. The size distribution, particle identified: secondary nitrate 1 and 2, remote traffic, secondary sulfate, lead, diesel traffic, coal-fired power plant, steel mill, nucleation, local traffic, and coke plant. Citation: Zhou, L., P. K. Hopke, C

  3. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  4. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  5. Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles David R. Worton to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional

  6. Reduction of photosynthetically active radiation under extreme stratospheric aerosol loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.

    1981-08-01

    The recently published hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions might be caused by an obstruction of sunlight is tested by model calculations. First we compute the total mass of stratospheric aerosols under normal atmospheric conditions for four different (measured) aerosol size distributions and vertical profiles. For comparison, the stratospheric dust masses after four volcanic eruptions are also evaluated. Detailed solar radiative transfer calculations are then performed for artificially increased aerosol amounts until the postulated darkness scenario is obtained. Thus we find that a total stratospheric aerosol mass between 1 and 4 times 10/sup 1/ g is sufficient to reduce photosynthesis to 10/sup -3/ of normal. We also infer from this result tha the impact of a 0.4- to 3-km-diameter asteroid or a close encounter with a Halley-size comet may deposit that amount of particulates into the stratosphere. The darkness scenario of Alvarez et al. is thus shown to be a possible extinction mechanism, even with smaller size asteroids of comets than previously estimated.

  7. Detection of UV-absorbing aerosols using GOME and SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    using GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12;Last step: Only positive residues are considered-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar

  8. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-03-16

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  9. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  10. DIESEL AEROSOL SAMPLING METHODOLOGY -CRC E-43 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ) was to develop Diesel aerosol sampling methods for the laboratory that would produce particle size distributions used to evaluate and select basic options, or to perform feasibility studies or preliminary assessments, and dilution with ambient air. A small amount of these nuclei mode particles contain solid ash from lube oil

  11. Effects of Ocean Ecosystem on Marine Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    Using satellite data for the surface ocean, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and cloud microphysical parameters, we show that statistically significant positive correlations exist between ocean ecosystem productivity, the abundance of submicron aerosols, and cloud microphysical properties over different parts of the remote oceans. The correlation coefficient for remotely sensed surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl- a ]) and liquid cloud effective radii over productive areas of the oceans varies between ? 0.2 and ? 0.6 . Special attention is given to identifying (and addressing) problems from correlation analysis used in the previousmore »studies that can lead to erroneous conclusions. A new approach (using the difference between retrieved AOD and predicted sea salt aerosol optical depth, AOD diff ) is developed to explore causal links between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine atmosphere. We have found that over multiple time periods, 550?nm AOD diff (sensitive to accumulation mode aerosol, which is the prime contributor to CCN) correlates well with [Chl- a ] over the productive waters of the Southern Ocean. Since [Chl- a ] can be used as a proxy of ocean biological productivity, our analysis demonstrates the role of ocean ecology in contributing CCN, thus shaping the microphysical properties of low-level marine clouds. « less

  12. DISSERTATION THE OPTICAL, CHEMICAL, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROSOLS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    AND GASES EMITTED BY THE LABORATORY COMBUSTION OF WILDLAND FUELS Biomass burning is a major source of trace Laboratory at Missoula Experiment. Emission factors are presented as a function of modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the fire combustion conditions. The emissions of many trace gas and aerosol

  13. Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow (Preliminary analysis of 2008 Biomass/poll. Factor: all data Pollution factor: depth data #12;2009 Data set for receptor modeling with limited analytes Factor 1: biomass Factor 2: pollution Factor 3: marine Factor 4: biomass #12;Factor

  14. Design of high efficiency blowers for future aerosol applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadha, Raman

    2007-04-25

    High efficiency air blowers to meet future portable aerosol sampling applications were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A Centrifugal blower was designed to achieve a flow rate of 100 L/min (1.67 x 10^-3 m^3/s) and a pressure rise of WC " 4...

  15. Aerosol Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rapidly over the past decades, such as mechanical milling, spray drying, sol-gel, sonochemistry, etcAerosol Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles D. Kim1,a , E.S. Vasilieva2,b, evaporated and transported by carrier gas flow to the preliminary heated tubular furnace for decomposition

  16. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Curtis; Springer, David

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology. However, this technology is capable of bringing the air leakage of a building that was built with standard construction techniques and HERS-verified sealing down to levels that would meet DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes program requirements. When a developer is striving to meet a tighter envelope leakage specification, this technology could greatly reduce the cost to achieve that goal by providing a simple and relatively low cost method for reducing the air leakage of a building envelope with little to no change in their common building practices.

  17. AEROSOLS AND CLOUDS IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS AND CLIMATE MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Earth's climate system. Clouds are highly reflective in the solar spectrum, yet strongly absorbingAEROSOLS AND CLOUDS IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS AND CLIMATE MODELS Ulrike Lohmann1 and Stephen E Forum: Perturbed Clouds in the Climate System, Frankfurt, Germany March 2-7, 2008 Environmental Sciences

  18. CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation Version 1.0 Date March 2012 Status Final #12;#12;CLARIFI, by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and more importantly, by modifying cloud propertiesCLARIFI CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation M. de Graaf, L

  19. Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Scott

    Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols Dean G. Ellis, Richard W. Bizzoco Hydrothermal vents, known as `fumaroles', are ubiq- uitous features of geothermal areas. Although their geology contained halophilic Archaea closely related to the Haloarcula spp. found in non-geothermal salt mats

  20. LESSONS LEARNED IN AEROSOL MONITORING WITH THE RASA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrester, Joel B.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Eslinger, Paul W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Litke, Kevin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Schrom, Brian T.; Van Davelaar, Peter; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-09-14

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the 1990's and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The RASA operates unattended, save for regularly scheduled maintenance, iterating samples through a three-step process on a 24-hour interval. In its 15-year history, much has been learned from the operation and maintenance of the RASA that can benefit engineering updates or future aerosol systems. On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami rocked the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in power loss and cooling failures at the Daiichi nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture. Aerosol collections were conducted with the RASA in Richland, WA. We present a summary of the lessons learned over the history of the RASA, including lessons taken from the Fukushima incident, regarding the RASA IMS stations operated by the United States.

  1. Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties from Long-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    aerosols and overestimates absorption due to suspended particles by about 20-30%. Green L E D Opal Glas s O Photometer · Principle of operation is to measure the change in light transmission through a filter on which light extinction and light scattering. · Instrument exhibits a significant response to nonabsorbing

  2. Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation: A review of recent and precipitation: A review of recent progresses Chien Wang Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E19-439K, 77 atmospheric circulation, and hence clouds and precipitation. Recent studies have suggested that the changes

  3. IMPACT OF AEROSOLS ON CONVECTIVE CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    IMPACT OF AEROSOLS ON CONVECTIVE CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION Wei-Kuo Tao,1 Jen-Ping Chen,2 Zhanqing Li effects on clouds could further extend to precipitation, both through the formation of cloud particles mechan- isms behind these effects, in particular, the ones connected to precipitation, are not yet well

  4. CLOUD DROPLET NUCLEATION AND ITS CONNECTION TO AEROSOL PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    influence the earth's radiation balance and climate directly, by scanering shortwave (solar) radiation in the earth radiation budget over the industrial period. exerting a radiative forcing that is of comparable. Keywords - Climate. aerosols. clouds, radiation INTRODUcnON In recent years awareness has increased

  5. Fluorescence spectra and biological activity of aerosolized bacillus spores and MS2 bacteriophage exposed to ozone at different relative humidities in a rotating drum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C.; Kinahan, Sean; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Santarpia, Joshua L.

    2015-10-14

    Biological aerosols (bioaerosols) released into the environment may undergo physical and chemical transformations when exposed to atmospheric constituents such as solar irradiation, reactive oxygenated species, ozone, free radicals, water vapor and pollutants. Aging experiments were performed in a rotating drum chamber subjecting bioaerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (BtAH) spores and MS2 bacteriophages to ozone at 0 and 150 ppb, and relative humidities (RH) at 10%, 50%, and 80+%. Fluorescence spectra and intensities of the aerosols as a function of time in the reaction chamber were measured with a single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an Ultra-Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® Spectrometermore »(UV-APS). Losses in biological activity were measured by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assay. For both types of aerosols the largest change in fluorescence emission was between 280 and 400 nm when excited at 263 nm followed by fluorescence emission between 380 and 700 nm when excited at 351 nm. The fluorescence for both BtAH and MS2 were observed to decrease significantly at high ozone concentration and high RH when excited at 263 nm excitation. The decreases in 263 nm excited fluorescence are indicative of hydrolysis and oxidation of tryptophan in the aerosols. Fluorescence measured with the UV-APS (355-nm excitation) increased with time for both BtAH and MS2 aerosols. A two log loss of MS2 bacteriophage infectivity was observed in the presence of ozone at ~50% and 80% RH when measured by culture and normalized for physical losses by q-PCR. Viability of BtAH spores after exposure could not be measured due to the loss of genomic material during experiments, suggesting degradation of extracelluar DNA attributable to oxidation. The results of these studies indicate that the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols change significantly after exposure to ozone and water vapor.« less

  6. Characterization of a real-time tracer for Isoprene Epoxydiols-derived Secondary Organic Aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) from aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, W. W.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Krechmer, J. E.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Liu, Y. J.; et al

    2015-04-16

    Substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), which are oxidation products of isoprene mainly under low-NO conditions. Total IEPOX-SOA, which may include SOA formed from other parallel isoprene low-NO oxidation pathways, was quantified by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The IEPOX-SOA fractions of OA in multiple field studies across several continents are summarized here and show consistent patterns with the concentration of gas-phase IEPOX simulated by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. During the SOAS study, 78% of IEPOX-SOA is accounted for the measured molecular tracers, making itmore »the highest level of molecular identification of an ambient SOA component to our knowledge. Enhanced signal at C5H6O+ (m/z 82) is found in PMF-resolved IEPOX-SOA spectra. To investigate the suitability of this ion as a tracer for IEPOX-SOA, we examine fC5H6O ( fC5H6O = C5H6O+/OA) across multiple field, chamber and source datasets. A background of ~ 1.7 ± 0.1‰ is observed in studies strongly influenced by urban, biomass-burning and other anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA). Higher background values of 3.1 ± 0.8‰ are found in studies strongly influenced by monoterpene emissions. The average laboratory monoterpene SOA value (5.5 ± 2.0‰) is 4 times lower than the average for IEPOX-SOA (22 ± 7‰). Locations strongly influenced by isoprene emissions under low-NO levels had higher fC5H6O (~ 6.5 ± 2.2‰ on average) than other sites, consistent with the expected IEPOX-SOA formation in those studies. fC5H6O in IEPOX-SOA is always elevated (12–40‰) but varies substantially between locations, which is shown to reflect large variations in its detailed molecular composition. The low fC5H6O (< 3‰) observed in non IEPOX-derived isoprene-SOA indicates that this tracer ion is specifically enhanced from IEPOX-SOA, and is not a tracer for all SOA from isoprene. We introduce a graphical diagnostic to study the presence and aging of IEPOX-SOA as a "triangle plot" of fCO2 vs. fC5H6O. Finally, we develop a simplified method to estimate ambient IEPOX-SOA mass concentrations, which is shown to perform well compared to the full PMF method. The uncertainty of the tracer method is up to a factor of ~ 2 if the fC5H6O of the local IEPOX-SOA is not available. When only unit mass resolution data is available, as with the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), all methods may perform less well because of increased interferences from other ions at m/z 82. This study clarifies the strengths and limitations of the different AMS methods for detection of IEPOX-SOA and will enable improved characterization of this OA component.« less

  7. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for assessing aerosol effects on cold season precipitation in California.

  8. Chemical composition of dust storms in Beijing and implications for the mixing of mineral aerosol with pollution aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with pollution aerosol on the pathway Yele Sun,1 Guoshun Zhuang,1,2,3 Ying Wang,1 Xiujuan Zhao,1,4 Jie Li,5 Zifa direction could be seen as the ``polluted'' pathway and the north-northwesterly direction as the relatively ``less-polluted'' one. Dust storms not only delivered large amounts of mineral elements but also carried

  9. DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost Ground8 Gas Hydrate12/21/2012

  10. Aerosol Observing Systems (AOS), New Capabilities for ASR Researchers Stephen R. Springston (srs@bnl.gov)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gases PTRMS Carbon Monoxide Ozone Ozone Ozone Sulfur Dioxide Speciated Odd Nitrogen (NO, NO NO ) o Lab of remote access over the internet allows mentors complete control over AOS infrastructure components/off all subsystems allowing both remote and autonomous restart and shutdown of unit in graded steps o

  11. Bulk and size-segregated aerosol composition observed during INDOEX 1999: Overview of meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    India showed evidence of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and eolian material, with elemental Arabia showed little evidence of biomass burning but had more acidity, mineral dust, and higher nitrate to determine the extent of the impact of anthropogenic emissions in the tropics, the role of the Intertropical

  12. Observations of new aerosol particle formation in a tropical urban Raghu Betha a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spracklen, Dominick

    ), Incoming Solar radiation (SR) on the rate and intensity of nucleation was examined. Strong nucleation.g. petroleum refineries), so when winds blew from that direction nucleation events were prominent. Local bush

  13. An Observed Signature of Aerosol Effect on Cloud Droplet Radii from a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneand LosAmesAmpedIntroductionDecade of

  14. Observations and Modeling of Shallow Convective Clouds: Implications for the Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXuRod Hunt (208) 386-5254 Washington575MAYEventsIn 12 FOR2and

  15. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  16. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gan, C.-M.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Hogrefe, C.; Long, C. N.; Xing, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Wei, C.

    2015-11-03

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analysesmore »conducted by Gan et al. (2014a) utilizing observations (e.g., SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE, and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US, while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF–CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even though it tends to underestimate the AOD. In particular, the sulfate concentration predictions were well matched with the observations. The discrepancies found in the clear-sky diffuse SW radiation are likely due to several factors such as the potential increase of ice particles associated with increasing air traffic, the definition of "clear-sky" in the radiation retrieval methodology, and aerosol semi-direct and/or indirect effects which cannot be readily isolated from the observed data.« less

  17. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  18. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger-scale system tests. An additional finding from this work is that low-amplitude oscillation may provide an alternative, non-invasive, non-contact means of controlling settling and/or suspension of solids. Further investigation would be necessary to evaluate its utility for radioactive waste treatment applications. This project did not uncover a new technology for radioactive waste treatment. While it may be possible that an efficient electrically driven technology for aerosol treatment could be developed, it appears that other technologies, such as steel and ceramic HEPA filters, can suitably solve this problem. If further studies are to be undertaken, additional fundamental experimentation and modeling is necessary to fully capture the physics; in addition, larger-scale tests are needed to demonstrate the treatment of flowing gas streams through the coupling of acoustic agglomeration with electrocoalescence.

  19. Improving Convection Parameterization Using ARM Observations and NCAR Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guang J [Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    2013-07-29

    Highlight of Accomplishments: We made significant contribution to the ASR program in this funding cycle by better representing convective processes in GCMs based on knowledge gained from analysis of ARM/ASR observations. In addition, our work led to a much improved understanding of the interaction among aerosol, convection, clouds and climate in GCMs.

  20. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, Graham; McComiskey, Allison

    2013-09-25

    Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.