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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

EMSL - Mass Spectrometer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mass-spectrometer en Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsphysical-properties-ambient-and...

2

Characterization of an aerodynamic lens for transmitting particles greater than 1 micrometer in diameter into the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have designed and characterized a new inlet and aerodynamic lens for the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) that transmits particles between 80 nm and more than 3 ?m in vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The design of ...

Williams, L. R.

3

Aerosol Mass Spectrometer | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AMS data is shown below in figure 2. This data was acquired by sampling the output of a diesel engine in a laboratory setting allowing for precise control of engine parameters....

4

Rapid scanning mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

Leckey, J.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boeckmann, M.D. [Vacuum Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

5

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

6

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Mass Spectrometer: Orbitrap | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Software (ISIS): A Machine Learning Approach to Tandem Mass Spectral Identification of Lipids. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has gained importance...

8

The Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chemistry Tracers of Diesel Exhaust Emissions and Measurements of Trace gas and Aerosol properties.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chemistry Tracers of Diesel Exhaust exhaust experiment It has previously been difficult to identify the emissions of diesel exhaust until reactive with organic compounds such as alkanes which are present in diesel exhaust emissions. The reaction

Collins, Gary S.

9

Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

Chastagner, P.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements  

SciTech Connect

Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Brown, G.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a time-of-flight mass spectrometer developed for measuring the parameters of a pulsed hydrogen beam. The duration of an electron-beam current pulse in the ionizer of the mass spectrometer can be varied within 2-20 usec, the pulse electron current is 0.6 mA, and the electron energy is 250 eV. The time resolution of the mass spectrometer is determined by the repetition period of the electron-beam current pulses and is 40 usec. The mass spectrometer has 100% transmission in the direction of motion of molecular-beam particles. The dimension of the mass spectrometer is 7 cm in this direction. The mass resolution is sufficient for determination of the composition of the hydrogen beam.

Belov, A.S.; Kubalov, S.A.; Kuzik, V.F.; Yakushev, V.P.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Time of Flight Secondary Ion (TOF SIMS) Mass Spectrometer | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(TOF SIMS) Mass Spectrometer Time of Flight Secondary Ion (TOF SIMS) Mass Spectrometer The Physical Electronics Instruments (PHI) Model T2100 time-of-flight secondary ion mass...

13

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 187}Re, and {sup 238}U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis.

Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R. [IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria). Safeguards Analytical Lab.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Determination of particulate lead using aerosol mass spectrometry: MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb) from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations ...

Salcedo, D.

15

Development and performance of a miniature, low cost mass spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A miniature, low cost mass spectrometer has been developed that is capable of unit resolution over a mass range of 10 to 50 AMU. The design of the mass spectrometer incorporates several new features that enhance the ...

Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

Andresen, Brian D. (Pleasanton, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

1989-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

18

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmins, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Kimmons, James F. (Manteca, CA); Myers, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Linear Electric Field Time-Of-Flight Ion Mass Spectrometers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Linear Electric Field Time-Of-Flight Ion Mass Spectrometers Linear Electric Field Time-Of-Flight Ion Mass Spectrometers Linear Electric Field Time-Of-Flight Ion Mass Spectrometers Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Linear Electric Field Time-Of-Flight Ion Mass Spectrometers Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent

22

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

Coutts, Gerald W. (Livermore, CA); Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

24

Mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus is provided. The sample presentation apparatus has a complex bound to the surface of the sample presentation apparatus. This complex includes a molecule which may chemically modify a biomolecule.

Nelson, Randall W. (Phoenix, AZ)

2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

25

Single-ultrafine-particle mass spectrometer development and application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SINGLE-ULTRAFINE-PARTICLE MASS SPECTROMETER DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION A Thesis by STANISLAV Y. GLAGOLENKO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering SINGLE-ULTRAFINE-PARTICLE MASS SPECTROMETER DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION A Thesis by STANISLAV Y. GLAGOLENKO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

Glagolenko, Stanislav Yurievich

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

27

Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

Tuszewski, Michel G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

Tuszewski, M.G.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

30

Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.  

SciTech Connect

The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to allow for electron injection into, ion ejection from, and optical access to the trapping region.

Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Aerosol Mass Spectrometry via Laser-Induced Incandescence Particle Vaporization Final Report  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully developed and commercialized a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) instrument to measure mass, size, and chemical information of soot particles in ambient environments. The SP-AMS instrument has been calibrated and extensively tested in the laboratory and during initial field studies. The first instrument paper describing the SP-AMS has been submitted for publication in a peer reviewed journal and there are several related papers covering initial field studies and laboratory studies that are in preparation. We have currently sold 5 SP-AMS instruments (either as complete systems or as SP modules to existing AMS instrument operators).

Timothy B. Onasch

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Mass Spectrometer: FT-ICR, 6T (Ion Surface Collisions) | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Spectrometer: FT-ICR, 6T (Ion Surface Collisions) The 6-Tesla High-Field Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR MS), is a unique instrument...

33

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Modeling Semivolatile Organic Aerosol Mass Emissions from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in diluted diesel and wood combustion exhaust are interpreted using a two-component absorptive with dilution of both wood smoke and diesel exhaust can be described by two lumped compounds in roughly equal. Introduction Sources of organic aerosol such as diesel engines and wood stoves emit semivolatile organic

Stanier, Charlie

35

Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol mass spectrometry Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

used in health effects studies by aerosol mass spectrometry Wingen, L... and heats of sublimation using atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS) Bruns E......

37

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

38

Implications of the In?Situ Measured Mass Absorption Cross Section of Organic Aerosols in Mexico City on the Atmospheric Energy Balance, Satellite Retrievals, and Photochemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absorption of short wave incoming solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols has been examined by using data from the MCMA?2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns. Both field efforts took place in and around Mexico City. Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) was derived as a function of wavelength (300–870 nm) by combining irradiance measurements from a Multi?Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and spectrally resolved actinic flux measurements by spectroradiometry with a radiative transfer model (TUV). In addition organic aerosol mass measured by a surface deployed aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer was used to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross?section (MAC) of Organic Carbon (OC). It was found that the MAC for OC is about 10.5? m 2 / g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; these values are roughly consistent with previous MAC estimates of OC and present first in?situ observations of this quantity.

B. Dix; J. C. Barnard; R. Volkamer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Novel endothermic and exothermic ion-molecule reactions as observed in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOVEL ENDOTHERMIC AND EXOTHERMIC ION-MOLECULE REACTIONS AS OBSERVED IN A FOURIER TRANSFORM MASS SPECTROMETER Thesis by DONALD LEE BRICKER II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1986 Major Subject: Chemistry NOVEL ENDOTHERMIC AND EXOTHERMIC ION-MOLECULE REACTIONS AS OBSERVED IN A FOURIER TRANSFORM MASS SPECTROMETER A Thesis by Donald Lee Bricker II Approved as to style and content by...

Bricker, Donald Lee

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Sources and Formation of OrganicSources and Formation of Organic Aerosols in our AtmosphereAerosols in our Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Carnegie Mellon University Smog Chamber Air supply Computer Temperature control Clean air 10 m3 Teflon spectrometer Aerosol mass spectrometerOzone monitor Air supply Computer Temperature control Clean air 10 m3 on temperature Hevap also needed Assumes no interactions among organic aerosol species or with inorganics. #12

Einat, Aharonov

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer(tomlinson-uhsas)  

SciTech Connect

Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSASA) A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

Tomlinson, Jason; Jensen, Mike

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

42

Atmospheric Amines and Ammonia Measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS)  

SciTech Connect

We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a Southeastern U.S. forest in Alabama and a moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1-C6) at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast U.S. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1-C6, from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv) were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

You, Y.; Kanawade, V. P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Madronich, Sasha; Sierra-Hernandez, M. R.; Lawler, M.; Smith, James N.; Takahama, S.; Ruggeri, G.; Koss, A.; Olson, K.; Baumann, K.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Guo, H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Porcelli, L.; Brune, W. H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lee, S.-H

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

43

Design and evaluation of a miniaturized Particle Desorption Mass Spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resolution was dependent upon both mass and sample bias. For a mass of 133 amu and sample bias of 1KV, the mass resolution (m/Am) was 130. Desorbed ions were focused by means of an electrostatic particle guide (EPG). The overall instrument transmission... amu. Since the fission process provides a primary, bombarding particle discretely in time, the temporal relationship between the desorbed, secondary ion and the primary ion can be readily ascertained, resulting in an efficient, simultaneous...

Davis, Kelly Vaughn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Low mass dimuon production with the ALICE muon spectrometer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Low mass vector meson (?, ?,? ) production provides key information on the hot and dense state of strongly interacting matter produced in high-energy heavy… (more)

Casula, Ester Anna Rita

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Chemical Reaction of Metal-Carbon Binary Cluster Anions by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

45 48 51 54 57 60 Number of Carbon Atoms Intensity(arbitrary) (a) as injected (b) SWIFTed (c) NO 1sChemical Reaction of Metal-Carbon Binary Cluster Anions by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer S. Maruyama, M- fullerene and single walled carbon nanotubes are investigated through experimental studies of interaction

Maruyama, Shigeo

46

Marketability and Feasibility of Chair-Side Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer for Dental Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the likelihood of dentists using the product aforementioned, cost structures of production and marketing, and keyMarketability and Feasibility of Chair-Side Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer for Dental metabolite signals when compared to caries-free sites. These signal profiles were determined using Gas

Zhou, Yaoqi

47

Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

48

HD gas analysis with Gas Chromatography and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A gas analyzer system has been developed to analyze Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for producing frozen-spin polarized HD targets, which are used for hadron photoproduction experiments at SPring-8. Small amounts of ortho-H$_{2}$ and para-D$_{2}$ gas mixtures ($\\sim$0.01%) in the purified HD gas are a key to realize a frozen-spin polarized target. In order to obtain reliable concentrations of these gas mixtures in the HD gas, we produced a new gas analyzer system combining two independent measurements with the gas chromatography and the QMS. The para-H$_{2}$, ortho-H$_{2}$, HD, and D$_{2}$ are separated using the retention time of the gas chromatography and the mass/charge. It is found that the new gas analyzer system can measure small concentrations of $\\sim$0.01% for the otho-H$_2$ and D$_2$ with good S/N ratios.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouille; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

49

Coupling and evaluating gas/particle mass transfer treatments for aerosol simulation and forecast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coupling and evaluating gas/particle mass transfer treatments for aerosol simulation and forecast hindcasting and forecasting. The lack of an efficient yet accurate gas/particle mass transfer treatment December 2007; accepted 21 February 2008; published 12 June 2008. [1] Simulating gas/particle mass transfer

Jacobson, Mark

50

Development of a cold cathode ion source for a mass spectrometer type vacuum leak detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPMENT OF A COLD CATHODE ION SOURCE FOR A MASS SPECTROL'ETER TYPE VACUUM LEAK DETECTOR A Dissertation By Harold A. Thomas June 1947 Approval as to style and content recommended* Head Deparanent of Electrical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF A... Investigation of Ion Source ? .......... 6 III. Investigation of Ion Energies ...................... 21 IV. Development of Lrass Spectrometer Tube Utilizing the Cold Cathode Ion S o u r c e ........ 41 V* Conclusions...

Thomas, Harold Albert

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

51

Elimination of ``memory`` from sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This paper describes a method for preparing the sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer for analysis of a subsequent sample following analysis of a previous sample comprising the flushing of the system interior with supercritical CO{sub 2} and venting the interior. The method eliminates the effect of system ``memory`` on the subsequent analysis, especially following persistent samples such as xenon and krypton.

Chastgner, P.

1991-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

52

Advanced Mass Calibration and Visualization for FT-ICR Mass Spectromet...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging. Abstract: Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which...

53

Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

Fries, David P. (St. Petersburg, FL); Browning, James F. (Palm Harbour, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

Fries, David P. (St. Petersburg, FL); Browning, James F. (Palm Harbour, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL Campaign Links Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle: Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer - CIMS 2011.07.10, Lee, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS 2011.06.15, Zhang, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: ARM Mobile Facility 2 Aerosol Observing System 2011.06.15, Sedlacek, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10, Hallar, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01 - 2011.08.31 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below.

56

A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions  

SciTech Connect

We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure ({approx}10{sup -5} Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH{sup +}, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Wang Da; Polfer, Nick C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117200, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photondissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources an electrospray ionization source as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection a reduced pressure (?10?5 Torr) quadrupoleion trap (QIT) for OPOirradiation and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan TrpH+ as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid[W. K. Mino Jr. K. Gulyuz D. Wang C. N. Stedwell and N. C. Polfer J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2 299 (2011)]. Here we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

Kerim Gulyuz; Corey N. Stedwell; Da Wang; Nick C. Polfer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

A Design for a Compact Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The design of a prototype, compact time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) is described. The system primarily consists of an ion acceleration/focusing/steering assembly (AFSA), an 8 cm field-free region, a 4 cm, dual-stage reflectron and a miniature microchannel plate detector. Consequently, the resulting flight length of the system is 12 cm. The system has been designed with the capability to sample directly from atmosphere at ambient pressures. This is accomplished through the use of an electrodynamic ion funnel, housed in an intermediate-vacuum chamber that is coupled to the inlet of the TOF chamber. TOF spectra were obtained using noble gases (Ar, Kr and Xe) as test chemicals. These measured flight times were used to probe the performance of the instrument. A temporal resolution (tflight/?t) of approximately 125, acquired using 129Xe+, has been measured for the system.

Manard, M.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Ultrasensitive leak detection during ultrahigh vacuum evacuation by quadrupole mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

One must do ultrasensitive leak detection during ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) evacuation, especially just before the device is sealed off from the vacuum system, to guarantee the longevity of the sealed high-vacuum or even UHV devices with small volume. A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with an UHV evacuation system can be used under accumulation mode to do the testing. Possible accumulate modes, as well as their advantages and shortcomings, are studied experimentally and discussed in this paper. We found that the opening action of the metal valve during accumulation mode always severely affects the height of the peak indicated by QMS and causes considerable errors. If we determine the leak rate by the peak area instead of the peak height, the situation is much improved. This method has proven quite useful in ensuring the tightness quality for complex sealed UHV devices with small volumes. Ultrasensitive leak detection has been carried out for such real evacuating devices, and a leak rate of 2x10{sup -14} Pa{center_dot}m{sup 3}/s was detected, which is far lower than its dynamic mode and the detection limit of the current advanced commercial leak detectors.

Chen Xu; Huang Tianbin; Wang Ligong; Jin Qiji; Cha Liangzhen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Continuum flow sampling mass spectrometer for elemental analysis with an inductively coupled plasma ion source  

SciTech Connect

The sampling of ions from an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled plasma for mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a supersonic nozzle and skimmer is shown to follow similar behavior found for neutral beam studies and for ion extraction from other plasmas and flames. In particular, highest ion beam intensity is found if the skimmer tip is close to the Mach disk and at a calculated skimming Knudsen number close to the recommended value of 1. Our ICP-MS instrument with an off-axis detector and conventional cylindrical electrostatic ion focusing in the transition flow regime gives intense count rates of 1 to 5 MHz per mg L/sup -1/ of analyte superimposed on a background of 1 to 10 kHz. The dependence of count rates for metal oxide and doubly charged ions on ICP operating parameters, and sampling interface configuration are discussed for this instrument. A simple method is described for the approximate measurement of the ion energy distribution in ICP-MS. The average ion kinetic energy, kinetic energy spread, and maximum kinetic energy are evaluated from a plot of ion signal as a function of retarding voltage applied to the quadrupole mass analyzer. The effects of plasma operating parameters on ion signals and energies are described. In particular, kinetic energy is a sensitive function of aerosol gas flow rate. This behavior is attributed to a non-thermal, possibly electrical, interaction between the plasma and the sampling interface, which is induced by the presence of the axial channel in the ICP. The interference on the ionization of cobalt by five salts, NaCl, MgCl/sub 2/, NH/sub 4/I, NH/sub 4/Br and NH/sub 4/Cl, in an ICP is first considered theoretically and subsequently the theoretical trends are established experimentally by ICP-MS. The interference trends are found to be in the order of the most easily ionized element in the matrix salt, i.e., Na > Mg > I > Br > Cl.

Olivares, J.A.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Combined use of a mass-spectrometer and a UV analyzer in the dynamic study of NH3-SCR for diesel exhaust aftertreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mass spectrometer (MS) and a novel UV analyzer were coupled in the experimental study of the transient Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactivity, aimed at the development of a dynamic numerical model of...

Cristian Ciardelli; Isabella Nova; Enrico Tronconi…

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers: Contrasting nano-composite membranes and conventional inlet systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents the development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers. These nano-composite membranes incorporate anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes as… (more)

Miranda, Luis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Satellite Observation CAS Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei CIP Cloud Imaging Probe CPC Condensation Particle Counter CSPHOT Cimel sunphotometer CVI...

65

Development of A Cryogenic Drift Cell Spectrometer and Methods for Improving the Analytical Figures of Merit for Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cryogenic (325-80 K) ion mobility-mass spectrometer was designed and constructed in order to improve the analytical figures-of-merit for the chemical analysis of small mass analytes using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. The instrument incorporates...

May, Jody C.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

66

Upgrade of the Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Precise Identification of Failed Fuel in a Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic analysis of krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) is an effective tool for identification of failed fuel in fast reactors to achieve their safety operation and high plant availability. Reliability of the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system depends on the precise determination of {sup 78}Kr/{sup 80}Kr, {sup 82}Kr/{sup 80}Kr and {sup 126}Xe/{sup 129}Xe isotopic ratios, which is mainly hampered by statistical errors for detection of the corresponding isotopes except {sup 82}Kr generated in large amounts during operation of fast reactors. In this paper, we report on improvements of the laser optical system of our spectrometer to increase the resonance ionization efficiency of Kr and Xe atoms, focusing on (i) utilization of the uniform YAG laser beam to improve the wavelength conversion efficiency of sum frequency generation and (ii) reflection of the ultraviolet light by a concave mirror to increase the photon density. The results indicate that our upgraded resonance ionization mass spectrometer has enough performance for isotopic analysis of Kr and Xe required in the Monju FFDL system.

Iwata, Yoshihiro; Ito, Chikara [Experimental Fast Reactor Department, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Harano, Hideki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Aoyama, Takafumi [Experimental Fast Reactor Department, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

67

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerator mass spectrometer Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for environmental research Mass ... Source: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Building Systems Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 4...

68

High-Resolution Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated by Ozonolysis of Isoprene  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of isoprene (C5H8) in the presence of an OH scavenger was examined using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The chemical composition of SOA is complex, with more than 1000 assigned peaks observed in the positive and negative ion mode spectra. Only a small fraction of peaks corresponds to known products of isoprene oxidation, such as pyruvic acid, glycolic acid, methylglyoxal, etc. The absolute majority of the detected peaks correspond to highly oxidized oligomeric constituents of SOA, with an average O:C molar ratio of ~0.6. The corresponding organic mass (OM) to organic oxygen (OO) ratio is OM/OO?2.4. Approximately 8% of oxygen atoms in SOA are in the form of peroxides as quantified with an iodide test. Double bond equivalency (DBE) factors, representing the sum of all double bonds and rings, increase by 1 for every 2-3 additional carbon atoms in the molecule. The prevalent oligomer building blocks are therefore carbonyls or carboxylic acids with a C2-C3 skeleton. Kendrick analysis suggests that simple aldehydes, specifically formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and methylglyoxal can serve as monomeric building blocks in the observed oligomers. The large number of reactive functional groups, especially organic peroxides and carbonyls, suggests that isoprene/O3 SOA should be prone to chemical and photochemical aging.

Nguyen, Tran B.; Bateman, Adam P.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Characterization of submicron particles influenced by mixed biogenic and anthropogenic emissions using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: results from CARES  

SciTech Connect

The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) took place in the Sacramento Valley of California in summer 2010. We present results obtained at Cool, CA, the T1 site of the project ({approx}40 km downwind of urban emissions from Sacramento), where we deployed an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) in parallel with complementary instrumentation to characterize the sources and processes of submicron particles (PM1). Cool is located at the foothill of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where intense biogenic emissions are periodically mixed with urban outflow transported by daytime southwesterly winds from the Sacramento metropolitan area. The particle mass loading was low (3.0 {micro}gm{sup -3} on average) and dominated by organics (80% of the PM1 mass) followed by sulfate (9.9 %). Organics and sulfate appeared to be externally mixed, as suggested by their different time series (r2 = 0.13) and size distributions. Sulfate showed a bimodal distribution with a droplet mode peaking at {approx}400nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter (Dva), and a condensation mode at {approx}150 nm, while organics generally displayed a broad distribution in 60-600nm (Dva). New particle formation and growth events were observed almost every day, emphasizing the roles of organics and sulfate in new particle growth, especially that of organics. The organic aerosol (OA) had a nominal formula of C{sub 1}H{sub 1.38}N{sub 0.004}O{sub 0.44}, thus an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC) ratio of 1.70. Two different oxygenated OA (OOA, 90% of total OA mass) and a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 10 %) were identified by Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high resolution mass spectra. The more oxidized MO-OOA (O/C = 0.54) corresponded to secondary OA (SOA) primarily influenced by biogenic emissions, while the less oxidized LO-OOA (O/C = 0.42) corresponded to SOA associated with urban transport. The HOA factor corresponded to primary emissions mainly due to local traffic. Twenty three periods of urban plumes from T0 (Sacramento) to T1 (Cool) were identified using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The average PM1 mass loading was much higher in urban plumes (3.9 {micro}gm{sup -3}) than in air masses dominated by biogenic SOA (1.8 {micro}gm{sup -3}). The change in OA mass relative to CO ({Delta}OA/{Delta}CO) varied in the range of 5-196 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1}, reflecting large variability in SOA production. The highest {Delta}OA/{Delta}CO were reached when urban plumes arrived at Cool in the presence of a high concentration of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs=isoprene+monoterpenes+2-methyl-3-buten-2- ol [MBO]+methyl chavicol). This ratio, which was 77 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1} on average when BVOCs > 2 ppb, is much higher than when urban plumes arrived in a low biogenic VOCs environment (28 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1} when BVOCs < 0.7 ppb) or during other periods dominated by biogenic SOA (40 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1}). The results from this study demon10 strate that SOA formation is enhanced when anthropogenic emissions interact with biogenic precursors.

Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; Merkel, M.; Knighton, Walter B.; Sun, Y.; Song, Chen; Shilling, John E.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Herndon, Scott C.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berg, Larry K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Subramanian, R.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

70

An industrial hygiene survey of acetonitrile using a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIST OF TABLES Page Table I. Characteristics of the Three Common MS Instruments . . . Table II. Compounds with Ions of Mass 39 to 41 AMU. . . 15 Table III. Micropole System Components. . . 18 Table IV. Charcoal Tube Results for Samples Taken... and multi-charged ions, the mass-charge ratio will be simply referred to as mass, or atomic mass unit (AMU), in this thesis, Between pairs of opposite and electrically connected rods, a DC voltage and superimposed RF potential are applied (see Pigure 4...

Bruss, Stacy M

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

72

Optically detected, single nanoparticle mass spectrometer with pre-filtered electrospray nanoparticle source  

SciTech Connect

An instrument designed for non-destructive mass analysis of single trapped nanoparticles is described. The heart of the instrument is a 3D quadrupole (Paul) trap constructed to give optical access to the trap center along ten directions, allowing passage of lasers for particle heating and detection, particle injection, collection of scattered or fluorescent photons for particle detection and mass analysis, and collection of particles on TEM grids for analysis, as needed. Nanoparticles are injected using an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, and conditions are described for spraying and trapping polymer particles, bare metal particles, and ligand stabilized particles with masses ranging from 200 kDa to >3 GDa. Conditions appropriate to ESI and injection of different types of particles are described. The instrument is equipped with two ion guides separating the ESI source and nanoparticle trap. The first ion guide is mostly to allow desolvation and differential pumping before the particles enter the trap section of the instrument. The second is a linear quadrupole guide, which can be operated in mass selective or mass band-pass modes to limit transmission to species with mass-to-charge ratios in the range of interest. With a little experience, the design allows injection of single particles into the trap upon demand.

Howder, Collin R.; Bell, David M.; Anderson, Scott L. [Chemistry Department, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Chemistry Department, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

Ion fragmentation in an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer interface with different gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the gas phase. However, particularly in multi- component samples, this may not be enough to unambigu predicts that the degree of ion fragmentation increases with increasing mass of the curtain gas. However with argon and krypton is caused by condensation of the gases within the free jet expansion between

Chen, David D.Y.

76

Determination of Zofenopril and Its Active Metabolite in Human Plasma Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined With a Triple-Quadruple Tandem Mass Spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Chromatography Combined With a Triple-Quadruple Tandem Mass Spectrometer Yuan Tian 1 Jing Cao 1 Lifang Luo 1 Zunjian Zhang 1 2 * Pengcheng Ma 3 * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: zunjianzhangcpu@hotmail.com 1 Key Laboratory of Drug......

Yuan Tian; Jing Cao; Lifang Luo; Zunjian Zhang; Pengcheng Ma

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Real-time quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis of gas in boreholefluid samples acquired using the U-Tube sampling methodology  

SciTech Connect

Sampling of fluids in deep boreholes is challenging becauseof the necessity to minimize external contamination and maintain sampleintegrity during recovery. The U-tube sampling methodology was developedto collect large volume, multiphase samples at in situ pressures. As apermanent or semi-permanent installation, the U-tube can be used forrapidly acquiring multiple samples or it may be installed for long-termmonitoring applications. The U-tube was first deployed in Liberty County,TX to monitor crosswell CO2 injection as part of the Frio CO2sequestration experiment. Analysis of gases (dissolved or separate phase)was performed in the field using a quadrupole mass spectrometer, whichserved as the basis for determining the arrival of the CO2 plume. Thepresence of oxygen and argon in elevated concentrations, along withreduced methane concentration, indicate sample alteration caused by theintroduction of surface fluids during borehole completion. Despiteproducing the well to eliminate non-native fluids, measurementsdemonstrate that contamination persists until the immiscible CO2injection swept formation fluid into the observationwellbore.

Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

78

High-efficiency cross-beam magnetic electron-impact source for improved miniature Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrometer performance  

SciTech Connect

We describe a newly designed cross-beam magnetic electron-impact ion source (CBM-EI). We demonstrate its superiority in comparison with a conventional source (CB-EI) when used with a commercial miniature sector-field-type, non-scanning mass spectrometer featuring Mattauch-Herzog geometry (MH-MS) and a permanent sector-field magnet. This paper clearly shows the value of the CBM-EI for enhancing MH-MS sensitivity. Unlike secondary electron-multiplier type detectors, the pixelated detector (IonCCD Trade-Mark-Sign ) used in the commercial MH-MS has no gain. The MH-MS/IonCCD system is therefore challenged to compete with time-of-flight and quadrupole MS systems due to their higher ion transmissions and detector gains. Using the new CBM-EI, we demonstrate an instrument sensitivity increase of 20-fold to 100-fold relative to the CB-EI-equipped instrument. This remarkable signal increase by the simple addition of the magnet assembly arises from the magnet-induced gyromotion of the thermionic electrons, which vastly increases the effective path length of the electrons through the ionization region, and the collimated nature of the electron flux, which optimizes the ion transmission through the 100-{mu}m object slit of the MH-MS. Some or all of the realized sensitivity increase may be exchanged for an increase in resolution and/or mass range through the use of a narrower object slit, or for a reduction in ion-source pressure to limit quenching. The CBM-EI should facilitate development of a differentially pumped ion source to extend the lifetime of the filament, especially in otherwise intractable applications associated with oxidizing and corrosive samples.

Hadjar, O.; Fowler, W. K. [OI Analytical/CMS Field Products, 2148 Pelham Parkway, Bldg. 400, Pelham, Alabama 35124 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced by ozonation of limonenew  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and measured reaction products in the monomer product range. Introduction Atmospheric aerosols impact local air of both monomeric (m/z o 300) and oligomeric (m/z 4 300) condensed products of oxidation. A combination by previous studies. The isomerization reactions yield numerous products with a progressively increasing

Nizkorodov, Sergey

80

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

absorption absorption ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol absorption The process in which radiation energy is retained by aerosols. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) PSAP : Particle Soot Absorption Photometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer External Instruments OMI : Ozone Monitoring Instrument

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Time-Resolved Molecular Characterization of Limonene/Ozone Aerosol using High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Molecular composition of limonene/O3 secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) as a function of reaction time. SOA was generated by ozonation of D-limonene in a reaction chamber and sampled at different time intervals using a cascade impactor. The SOA samples were extracted into acetonitrile and analyzed using a HR-ESI-MS instrument with a resolving power of 100,000 (m/?m). The resulting mass spectra provided detailed information about the extent of oxidation inferred from the O:C ratios, double bond equivalency (DBE) factors, and aromaticity indexes (AI) in hundreds of identified individual SOA species.

Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

Mass Spectrometer | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on the substrate. Because they flatten less upon impaction, particles with higher viscosity and surface tension can be identified by a steeper slope on a plot of TCA vs. size....

83

Mass Spectrometer: Orbitrap | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

productivity over vast regions of the oceans. We... Separation and Classification of Lipids Using Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Correlations between the dimensions...

84

ablation laser spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ablation laser mass spectrometer molecular beam REMPI laser NREL has designed and developed a combined laser ablation/ pulsed sample introduction/mass spectrometry platform that integrates pyrolysis and/or laser ablation with resonance- enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) time-of-flight mass

85

Modeling aerosols and their interactions with shallow cumuli during the 2007 CHAPS field study  

SciTech Connect

The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate relationships between aerosols and clouds in the vicinity of Oklahoma City during the June 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The regional scale simulation completed using 2 km horizontal grid spacing evaluates four important relationships between aerosols and shallow cumulus clouds observed during CHAPS. First, the model reproduces the trends of higher nitrate volume fractions in cloud droplet residuals compared to interstitial non-activated aerosols, as measured using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Comparing simulations with cloud chemistry turned on and off, we show that nitric acid vapor uptake by cloud droplets explains the higher nitrate content of cloud droplet residuals. Second, as documented using an offline code, both aerosol water and other inorganics (OIN), which are related to dust and crustal emissions, significantly affect predicted aerosol optical properties. Reducing the OIN content of wet aerosols by 50% significantly improves agreement of model predictions with measurements of aerosol optical properties. Third, the simulated hygroscopicity of aerosols is too high as compared to their hygroscopicity derived from cloud condensation nuclei and particle size distribution measurements, indicating uncertainties associated with simulating size-dependent chemical composition and treatment of aerosol mixing state within the model. Fourth, the model reasonably represents the observations of the first aerosol indirect effect where pollutants in the vicinity of Oklahoma City increase cloud droplet number concentrations and decrease the droplet effective radius. While previous studies have often focused on cloud-aerosol interactions in stratiform and deep convective clouds, this study highlights the ability of regional-scale models to represent some of the important aspects of cloud-aerosol interactions associated with fields of short-lived shallow cumuli.

Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Laskin, Alexander; Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Carl M.

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

86

Evolution of Asian aerosols during transpacific transport in INTEX-B  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of aerosol composition were made with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B 5 (INTEX-B) field campaign over the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol mass are shown to compare well with other aerosol instrumentation in the INTEX-B field study. Two case studies are described for pollution layers transported across the Pacific from the Asian continent, intercepted 3–4 days and 7–10 days downwind of Asia, respectively. Aerosol chemistry is shown to 10 be a robust tracer for air masses originating in Asia, specifically the presence of sulfate dominated aerosol is a distinguishing feature of Asian pollution layers that have been transported to the Eastern Pacific. We examine the time scales of processing for sulfate and organic aerosol in the atmosphere and show that our observations confirm a conceptual model for transpacific transport from Asia proposed by Brock et al. (2004). 15 Our observations of both sulfate and organic aerosol in aged Asian pollution layers are consistent with fast formation near the Asian continent, followed by washout during lofting and subsequent transformation during transport across the Pacific. Our observations are the first atmospheric measurements to indicate that although secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from pollution happens on the timescale of one day, 20 the oxidation of organic aerosol continues at longer timescales in the atmosphere. Comparisons with chemical transport models of data from the entire campaign reveal an under-prediction of SOA mass in the MOZART model, but much smaller discrepancies with the GEOS-Chem model than found in previous studies over the Western Pacific. No evidence is found to support a previous hypothesis for significant secondary 25 organic aerosol formation in the free troposphere.

Dunlea, E. J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Aiken, Allison; Kimmel, Joel; Peltier, R. E.; Weber, R. J.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Shinozuka, Yohei; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Emmons, L.; Apel, Eric; Pfister, G. G.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Millet, D. B.; Heald, C. L.; Jimenez, J. L.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Monolithic spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

88

Monolithic spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Development and implementation of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer for the investigation of ion conformations of peptide sequence isomers containing basic amino acid residues by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular reactions...

Marini, Joseph Thomas

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass...

91

Direct Surface Analysis of Time-Resolved Aerosol Impactor Samples with Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.; Pan, Y.; Mitloehner, F. M. Atmos. Environ. 2012, Submitted. (21) Lundgren, D. A. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 1967, 17, 225-9. (22) Schultz, G. A.; Corso, T. N.; Prosser, S. J.; Zhang, S. Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 4058-4063. 19... in negative health effects caused by air pollution and are linked to increases in respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases2,3. All these particle effects are influenced by the chemical composition of the aerosol particles. A major fraction, often more than 50...

Fuller, Stephen J.; Zhao, Yongjing; Cliff, Steven S.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Kalberer, Markus

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

92

Measurements of the mass and isotopic yields of the {sup 233}U(n{sub th},f) reaction at the Lohengrin spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 10 years, a vast campaign of measurements has been initiated to improve the precision of neutron data for the involved key nuclei ({sup 232}Th, {sup 233}Pa and {sup 233}U) of the innovative Th -{sup 233}U cycle. This latter might indeed provide cleaner nuclear energy than the present U-Pu one. New measurements of charge and mass distributions of the fission products have been achieved at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the Inst. Laue-Langevin (ILL) during fall 2010 to complete the experimental data of {sup 233}U(n,f) that exist mainly for light fission fragments. That is why we performed measurements of mass and isotopic yields with a special focus on the heavy fission fragment part. Mass yields were measured by ion counting with an ionization chamber after separation by the Lohengrin spectrometer. Isotopic yields were derived from gamma spectrometry of mass-separated beams using HPGe clover detectors. This paper will present the results of these fission yield measurements along with details on the experimental set-up and the chosen analysis method. (authors)

Martin, F.; Sage, C.; Kessedjian, G. [LPSC, UJF Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France); Bacri, C. O. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud (France); Bidaud, A.; Billebaud, A.; Capellan, N.; Chabod, S. [LPSC, UJF Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France); Cywinski, R. [Dept. Chemical and Biological Sciences, Univ. Ruddersfield (United Kingdom); Doligez, X. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud (France); Faust, H.; Koester, U. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Letourneau, A.; Materna, T. [DSM/IRFU/SPhN, CEA Saclay (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, Universite de Bordeaux 1 (France); Meplan, O. [LPSC, UJF Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France); Panebianco, S. [DSM/IRFU/SPhN, CEA Saclay (France); Serot, O. [DEN/DER/SPRC/LEPh, CEA Cadarache (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Sources and Composition of Submicron Organic Mass in Marine Aerosol Particles  

Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMAP) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production

Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, P. K.

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

94

Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67 ± 0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (?30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1 ? 1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2 ? 2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions.

Prashant Rajput; M.M. Sarin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Use of the ECL-CAMAC trigger processor system for recoil missing mass triggers at the Tagged Photon Spectrometer at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

A trigger processor in operation since May 1980 at the Tagged Photon Spectrometer at Fermilab will be described. The processor, based on the Fermilab ECL-CAMAC system, allows fast selection of high mass diffractive events from the total hadronic cross section. Data from a recoil detector, consisting of 3 wire chambers and 4 layers of scintillator concentric about a 1.5 m liquid hydrogen target, is digitized and presented to the processor within 3 sec. From the chamber data are found the vertices and angles of all recoiling tracks.

Martin, J.; Bracker, S.; Hartner, G.; Appel, J.; Nash, T.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

Berg, Larry

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

97

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory Audio Dictionary: Spectrometer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectrometer? Now Playing: What's a Spectrometer? Enable Javascript and Flash to stream the Magnet Minute Munir Humayun Associated Links Mass Spectrometry: How to Weigh an Atom...

98

Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples  

SciTech Connect

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

Leach, J.

1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

Correlation spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb H. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Gary D. (Tijeras, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

100

A New Aerosol Flow System for Photochemical and Thermal Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

For studying the formation and photochemical/thermal reactions of aerosols relevant to the troposphere, a unique, high-volume, slow-flow, stainless steel aerosol flow system equipped with 5 UV lamps has been constructed and characterized experimentally. The total flow system length 6 is 8.5 m and includes a 1.2 m section used for mixing, a 6.1 m reaction section and a 1.2 m 7 transition cone at the end. The 45.7 cm diameter results in a smaller surface to volume ratio than is found in many other flow systems and thus reduces the potential contribution from wall reactions. The latter are also reduced by frequent cleaning of the flow tube walls which is made feasible by the ease of disassembly. The flow tube is equipped with ultraviolet lamps for photolysis. This flow system allows continuous sampling under stable conditions, thus increasing the amount of sample available for analysis and permitting a wide variety of analytical techniques to be applied simultaneously. The residence time is of the order of an hour, and sampling ports located along the length of the flow tube allow for time-resolved measurements of aerosol and gas-phase products. The system was characterized using both an inert gas (CO2) and particles (atomized NaNO3). Instruments interfaced directly to this flow system include a NOx analyzer, an ozone analyzer, relative humidity and temperature probes, a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer, an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer, a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, an integrating nephelometer, and a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a long path (64 m) cell. Particles collected with impactors and filters at the various sampling ports can be analyzed subsequently by a variety of techniques. Formation of secondary organic aerosol from ?-pinene reactions (NOx photooxidation and ozonolysis) are used to demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily; Alexander, M. L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Dabdub, Donald; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Reduction of plyatomic ion interferences in indictively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation  

SciTech Connect

A desolvation scheme for introducing aqueous and organic samples into an argon inductively coupled plasma is described; the aerosol generated by nebulizer is heated (+140 C) and cooled ({minus}80 C) repeatedly, and the dried aerosol is then injected into the mass spectrometer. Polyatomic ions are greatly suppressed. This scheme was validated with analysis of seawater and urine reference samples. Finally, the removal of organic solvents by cryogenic desolvation was studied.

Alves, L.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

An Airborne Spectrometer and Retrieval Development Project for Air Quality Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The NASA-funded GeoTASO Instrument Incubator project will develop an airborne spectrometer, participate in field campaigns, and test trace gas and aerosol retrieval performance in...

Leitch, James; Valle, Tim; Hardesty, Chuck; Delker, Tom; Baker, Brian; Eskin, Joshua; Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Janz, Scott; Pickering, Ken; Wang, Jun

103

The Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study, Part 3: Continuous measurements of fine particulate matter mass and composition  

SciTech Connect

Deployment of continuous analyzers in the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study (SEARCH) network began in 1998 and continues today as new technologies are developed. Measurement of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass is performed using a dried, 30 {sup o}C tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). TEOM measurements are complemented by observations of light scattering by nephelometry. Measurements of major constituents include: (1) SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} via reduction to SO{sub 2}; (2) NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} via respective catalytic oxidation and reduction to NO, (3) black carbon (BC) by optical absorption,(4) total carbon by combustion to CO{sup 2}, and (5) organic carbon by difference between the latter two measurements. Several illustrative examples of continuous data from the SEARCH network are presented. A distinctive composite annual average diurnal pattern is observed for PM2.5 mass, nitrate, and BC, likely indicating the influence of traffic-related emissions, growth, and break up of the boundary layer and formation of ammonium nitrate. Examination of PM2.5 components indicates the need to better understand the continuous composition of the unmeasured 'other' category, because it contributes a significant fraction to total mass during periods of high PM2.5 loading. Selected episodes are presented to illustrate applications of SEARCH data. An SO{sub 2} conversion rate of 0.2%/hr is derived from an observation of a plume from a coal-fired power plant during early spring, and the importance of local, rural sources of NH{sub 3} to the formation of ammonium nitrate in particulate matter (PM) is demonstrated. 41 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Edgerton, E.S.; Hartsell, B.E.; Saylor, R.D.; Jansen, J.J.; Hansen, D.A.; Hidy, G.M. [Atmospheric Research & Analysis, Inc., Cary, NC (United States)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Aerodyne Develops an Aircraft-Deployable Precision Aerosol Analyzer | U.S.  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Aerodyne Develops an Aircraft-Deployable Precision Aerosol Aerodyne Develops an Aircraft-Deployable Precision Aerosol Analyzer Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIR/STTR Home About Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) Applicant and Awardee Resources Commercialization Assistance Other Resources Awards SBIR/STTR Highlights Reporting Fraud Contact Information Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer U.S. Department of Energy SC-29/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-5707 F: (301) 903-5488 E: sbir-sttr@science.doe.gov More Information » January 2013 Aerodyne Develops an Aircraft-Deployable Precision Aerosol Analyzer Aerodyne Research Inc. develops an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) that fills a critical need for size-resolved, quantitative chemical composition

105

Bio-oil Analysis Using Negative Electrospray Ionization: Comparative Study of High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers and Phenolic versus Sugaric Components  

SciTech Connect

We have previously demonstrated that a petroleomic analysis could be performed for bio-oils and revealed the complex nature of bio-oils for the nonvolatile phenolic compounds (Smith, E.; Lee, Y. J. Energy Fuels 2010, 24, 5190?5198). As a subsequent study, we have adapted electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode to characterize a wide variety of bio-oil compounds. A comparative study of three common high-resolution mass spectrometers was performed to validate the methodology and to investigate the differences in mass discrimination and resolution. The mass spectrum is dominated by low mass compounds with m/z of 100–250, with some compounds being analyzable by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). We could characterize over 800 chemical compositions, with only about 40 of them being previously known in GC–MS. This unveiled a much more complex nature of bio-oils than typically shown by GC–MS. The pyrolysis products of cellulose and hemicellulose, particularly polyhydroxy cyclic hydrocarbons (or what we call “sugaric” compounds), such as levoglucosan, could be effectively characterized with this approach. Phenolic compounds from lignin pyrolysis could be clearly distinguished in a contour map of double bond equivalent (DBE) versus the number of carbons from these sugaric compounds.

Smith, Erica A.; Park, Soojin; Klein, Adam T.; Lee, Young Jin

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

X-ray Vision for Aerosol Scientists: LCLS Snapshots of Soot (Narrated)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

This short conceptual animation depicts how scientists can now simultaneously capture fractal morphology (structure), chemical composition and nanoscale imagery of individual aerosol particles in flight. These particles, known as "PM2.5" because they are smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter, affect climate by interacting with sunlight and impact human health by entering the lungs. The single LCLS laser pulses travel to the Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences (AMO) laboratory in the Near Experimental Hall. As we zoom in, we see deep inside a simplified aerosol inlet, where the complex fractal structure of the soot particles, each one completely unique, is shown. Individual soot particles are then delivered into the pulses of the LCLS beam, which destroys them. X-rays are scattered to the detector before the particle is destroyed, giving information about the morphology of the particle. Ion fragments released in the explosion are sent into a mass spectrometer, which measures their mass-to-charge ratio -- giving scientists information about the chemical composition of the particle. Many different particles are analyzed in this manner, allowing scientists to probe variations in the particles due to changes in their environment before being sent through the aerosol inlet. The final visual of aerosols emitted from a factory is representative of the goal that such LCLS aerosol dynamics experiments can provide critical feedback into modeling and understanding combustion, aerosol processes in manufacturing or aerosol effects on climate change.

None

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

107

BNL | Aerosol Lifecycle IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Aerosol Life Cycle IOP The primary objectives that make up the Aerosol Life Cycle IOP can be broken down into three categories: Scientific; Logistical; and GVAX preparation. Scientific Objectives The science goals are to conduct intensive aerosol observations in a region exposed to anthropogenic, biogenic, and marine emissions with atmospheric processing times depending on air mass trajectories and time of day. Take advantage of new instruments in the MAOS (e.g., SP2, HR-PTRMS, ACSM, Trace Gas Suite, PASS-3, Aethelometer, UHSAS). Within this broad umbrella are embedded three main foci: Aerosol light absorption: How does the aerosol mass absorption coefficient (absorption per unit mass of BC) vary with atmospheric processing? Do observations agree with a shell-core model?

108

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concentration concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol concentration A measure of the amount of aerosol particles (e.g. number, mass, volume) per unit volume of air. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

109

Dustbuster: a compact impact-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ analysis of cosmic dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a large target area with a reflectron, simultaneously optimizing mass resolution, particle detection. The resulting ions, with broad energy and angular distributions, are accelerated through a modified reflectron remote sensing, collection and analysis of dust grains that have survived impact on the Earth, capture

Stewart, Sarah T.

110

aerosols | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

aerosols aerosols Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate material for...

111

On-line Analysis of Organic Compounds in Diesel Exhaust Using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS)  

SciTech Connect

Chemical ionization mass spectrometry using H3O+ proton transfer in an ion drift tube (PTR-MS) was used to measure volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations on-line in diesel engine exhaust as a function on engine load. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the PTR-MS instrument as an analytical tool for diesel engine emissions abatement research. Measured sensitivities determined from gas standards were found to be between 30% and 100% greater than calculated sensitivities. A slight humidity dependent sensitivity was observed for non-polar species, implying that reactions with H+(H2O)2 were important for some organics. The mass spectra of diesel exhaust were complex but displayed a pattern of strong ion signals at 14n+1 (n=3..8) masses, with a relative ion abundance similar to that obtained from electron impact ionization of alkanes. Laboratory experiments verified that C8-C16 n-alkanes and C8-C13 1-alkenes react with H3O+ in dissociative proton transfer reaction resulting in alkyl cation ion products, primarily m/z 41, 43, 57, 71 and 85. Monitoring the sum of these ions signals may be useful for estimating alkane emissions from unburnt diesel fuel. Alkane fragmentation likely simplified the diesel exhaust mass spectrum and reduced potential mass interferences with isobaric aromatic compounds. It is shown that the relative abundances of VOCs changed as a function of engine load. Concentrations of aldehydes and ketones dominated those of aromatic species with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde estimated to be the most abundant VOCs in the PTR-MS mass spectrum at all engine loads. The relative abundances of benzene and toluene increased with engine load indicating their pyrogenic origin. The relative abundance of alkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, and alcohols was broadly consistent with literature publications of diesel exhaust analysis by gas chromatography. About 75% of the organic ion signal could be assigned. On line analysis of diesel exhaust using this technology may be valuable tool for diesel engine emission research.

Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Maupin, Gary D.; Muntean, George G.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A MODULAR STEADY STATE GLOW DISCHARGE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE AT-LINE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

SciTech Connect

Historically, glow discharge mass and optical spectrometric techniques have been used in industry for the characterization of processed metals, such as steels and other alloys. This technique is especially well suited for this type of product analysis because the glow discharge ionization source accommodates solid conducting samples with minimal or no sample preparation. This characteristic along with minimal matrix effect considerations makes the glow discharge source well suited for these types of applications.

R. STEINER; D. WAYNE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Spectrometer gun  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

114

Spectrometer gun  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Jankovic Aerosol Characterization.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization, Characterization, Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Interpretation, and Application of Data Application of Data NSRC Symposium NSRC Symposium July 8, 2008 John Jankovic, CIH CIH Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Application of Data Application of Data Department of Energy (DOE) Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) developing Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H - The CNMS Approach * Establish Exposure Control Guideline (ECG) - Characterize Aerosol * Collect and interpret data * Assign Process to a Control Band Aerosol Particle Characterization * Size distribution (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation related to either mass, surface, or number)

116

Chemical Analysis of Diesel Engine Nanoparticles Using a Nano-DMA/Thermal Desorption Particle Beam Mass Spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modern combustion engines burn cleaner and produce less particulate mass than older models, but it has also been observed that some engines, for example, diesels, emit high number concentrations of a subset of fine particles called nanoparticles (diameter cycle, turbocharged diesel engine that produced a peak torque of 350 N-m at an intermediate engine speed of 1400 rpm, which is generally used for short-duration work periods of heavy lifting or material handling. ... However, general trends from past studies can be applied to the analysis of this work. ...

Herbert J. Tobias; Derek E. Beving; Paul J. Ziemann; Hiromu Sakurai; Miriam Zuk; Peter H. McMurry; Darrick Zarling; Robert Waytulonis; David B. Kittelson

2001-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

117

Antiviral therapy with small particle aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The generation and use of small particle aqueous aerosols (1.23 µm aerodynamic mass median diameter, GSD=2.0 µm) containing ribavirin is described. Administered via aerosol, ribavirin will be deposited rather ...

V. Knight; B. Gilbert

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Canadian Penning Trap Spectrometer at Argonne  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a nove...

G. Savard; R. C. Barber; C. Boudreau…

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The Canadian Penning Trap Spectrometer at Argonne  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a nove...

G. Savard; R. C. Barber; C. Boudreau; F. Buchinger; J. Caggiano…

120

New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-2% of the oil mass, however the calcium ion peak at m/z 40and elemental carbon (EC) peaks. The HDDV oil mass spectraoil mass spectra were characterized by an intense Ca + ion peak and

Spencer, Matthew Todd

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Effects of anthropogenic activities on the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: an ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, DK-8000, Denmark 11 4Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, BE-9000 12 Ghent, Belgium 13 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-14... ). 95 The objective of the current study is to apply nanoESI UHRMS to determine the molecular 96 composition of urban PM2.5 (particles with ?2.5µm). Aerosol samples were collected at the 97 industrial site in Cork Ireland during summer with the aim...

Kourtchev, I.; O'Connor, I. P.; Giorio, C.; Fuller, S.; Kristenen, K.; Maenhaut, W.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Glasius, M.; Kalberer, M.

2014-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

122

New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-2% of the oil mass, however the calcium ion peak at m/z 40lubricating oil is characterized by a very intense Ca + peakand elemental carbon (EC) peaks. The HDDV oil mass spectra

Spencer, Matthew Todd

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

Jefferson, A

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

124

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

126

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Improving aerosol distributions below clouds by assimilating satellite-retrieved cloud droplet number  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...remainder of the map to the...distributions for mass, number, composition...such as vertical velocity and aerosol composition...updated aerosol mass for each compound...aerosols in trade wind cumulus observed by...spectrum of updraft velocities and the internally...Starting from aerosol mass (M) and number...

Pablo E. Saide; Gregory R. Carmichael; Scott N. Spak; Patrick Minnis; J. Kirk Ayers

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

ARM - Evaluation Product - Organic Aerosol Component VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsOrganic Aerosol Component VAP ProductsOrganic Aerosol Component VAP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Organic Aerosol Component VAP 2011.01.08 - 2012.03.24 Site(s) SGP General Description Organic aerosol (OA, i.e., the organic fraction of particles) accounts for 10-90% of the fine aerosol mass globally and is a key determinant of aerosol radiative forcing. But atmospheric OA is poorly characterized and its life cycle insufficiently represented in models. As a result, current models are unable to simulate OA concentrations and properties. This deficiency represents a large source of uncertainty in the quantification of aerosol direct and indirect effects and the prediction of future climate change. The Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) value-added product (VAP) uses

129

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

130

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

properties properties ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter fraction. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

131

Mass Spectral Evidence That Small Changes in Composition Caused by Oxidative Aging Processes Alter Aerosol CCN Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mass Spectral Evidence That Small Changes in Composition Caused by Oxidative Aging Processes Alter that small changes in particle chemical composition caused by oxidation could increase the CCN activity increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity compared to their hydro- phobic counterparts. At present

132

Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:13131327, 2012 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer Coupled to a Micro Orifice Volatilization Impactor) high- resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToFMS) coupled to a micro-orifice volatilization = 5000 above m/Q 250 Th) and mass accuracy (±20 ppm) enabling estimation of compound elemental

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

133

Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

135

Mobile Ice Nucleus Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This first year report presents results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to assess the flow and temperature profiles within the mobile ice nucleus spectrometer.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Kok, G. L.

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

EMSL - fluorescence spectrometer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fluorescence-spectrometer en Structures and Stabilities of (MgO)n Nanoclusters. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsstructures-and-stabilities-mgon-nanoclusters

137

Instrument Series: Mass Spectrometry SPLAT II  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry SPLAT II SPLAT II is a one-of-a-kind single particle mass spectrometer that was designed, constructed, and deployed at EMSL to allow users to precisely characterize the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles. SPLAT II yields quantitative information on particle physical and chemical properties in the laboratory or in the field-even aboard an aircraft. In the context of EMSL's integrated problem-solving environment, the unique capabilities of SPLAT II enable vital research across a range of scientific fields. Research Applications Fundamental science - characterizing the properties and behavior of matter on the nanoscale Atmospheric chemistry - understanding the processes that control atmospheric aerosol life cycle Climate change - uncovering and helping

138

New perspectives in laser analytics: Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in a Paul ion trap combined with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new laser analytical device has been developed that is based on resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in the very center of a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap. Applications in speciation anlaysis of biological and enviromental samples and in materials science will all benefit from laser-optical selectivity in the resonance excitation process, combined with mass-spectropic sensivity which is further enhanced by the ion accumulation and storage capability.

Bisling, Peter; Heger, Hans Joerg; Michaelis, Walfried; Weitkamp, Claus; Zobel, Harald [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Postfach 11 60, D-21494 Geesthacht (Germany)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles composition, mass distribu- tion, and organic aerosol formation potential of emissions from gasoline

Silver, Whendee

140

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

EMSL - Mass Spectrometry  

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mass-spectrometry Proteomics Capabilities High resolution and mass accuracy Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) spectrometers, from 6 Tesla (T) to 15T and 21T in...

142

Mass Spectrometer: Single Particle (SPLAT II) | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and micro-scales. SPLAT II's applications include but are not limited to climate, air pollution, human health, bioterrorism, and emerging nanotechnologies. Portability is a...

143

LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY LOGIC DIAGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

point (A) to (F). The block diagram also defines the reliability functions for the purpose of FMEA 1

Rathbun, Julie A.

144

Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol from ?-Pinene: Effects of Oxidants, Seed Aerosol Acidity, and Relative Humidity  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from ozonolysis or NO3 oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532 and 870 nm. Light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed by SOA generated from oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of acidic sulfate seed aerosols, under dry conditions. No absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27%, or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. The light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with organosulfate and organic nitrate groups. The results of this study also indicate that organic nitrates from ?-pinene SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols do not appear to absorb near-UV and UV radiation.

Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

145

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei were examined through laboratory investigations using Raman spectroscopy and field measurements by single-particle mass spectrometry. Aerosol sampling ...

Baustian, Kelly J.

147

Neutron range spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

Manglos, S.H.

1988-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols I: Uranium Concentration in Aerosols as a Function of Time and Particle Size  

SciTech Connect

During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing depleted uranium were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time particularly within the first minute after the shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% 30 min after perforation. In the Bradley vehicle, the initial (and maximum) uranium concentration was lower than those observed in the Abrams tank and decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in the cyclone samplers, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h post perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages from the Abrams tank tests ranged from 38% to 72% and, in most cases, varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Results with the Bradley vehicle ranged from 18% to 29% and were not specifically correlated with particle size.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Traub, Richard J.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid  

SciTech Connect

MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; /Fermilab; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): fine-grained, global-scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...emissions to human activity or natural processes, in a variety...new features of trace gas and aerosol emissions...surface fluxes of trace gases and aerosols. 2. HIAPER...sensor drift. The quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS...CO2 sensor using an IR gas analyser (IRGA), which...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and absorption of light by aerosols. At the ground sites, a new Humidigraph, a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, and an upgraded 915-MHz...

152

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1989-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

154

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

155

Neutron range spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

Manglos, Stephen H. (East Syracuse, NY)

1989-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

156

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

158

Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR): Instrument Technology  

SciTech Connect

The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy, to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution/climate. Direct beam hyper-spectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements will tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. Technical challenges include compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage. Test results establishing the performance of the instrument against the full range of operational requirements are presented, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and scientific field campaign data and results.

Dunagan, Stephen; Johnson, Roy; Zavaleta, Jhony; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Livingston, J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

159

Aerosol Cans? -Aerosol cans use a pressurized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

? - The waste generated in the processing of images/photos contains silver. Silver is a toxic heavy metal the product. Propellants are often flammable and/or toxic. Therefore, never store aerosol cans near ignition of this pamphlet. -Carefully transfer the old paint thinner from the one gallon closable can to the 30 gallon metal

Jia, Songtao

160

A World-wide Stratospheric Aerosol Layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Massachusetts An aerosol layer has been identified by a stratospheric balloon and aircraft aerosol collection program. Measurements...Abstract. An aerosol layer has been identified by a stratospheric balloon and aircraft aerosol collection program. Meas-urements...

Christian E. Junge; Charles W. Chagnon; James E. Manson

1961-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle Abstract: This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a...

162

Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Influence of Fog and Airmass History on Aerosol Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties at Pt. Reyes National Seashore  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analysis of the aerosol chemical composition, optical properties and size distributions for a range of conditions encountered during a field measurement campaign conducted between July 7-29, 2005 at Point Reyes National Seashore, north of San Francisco, CA. Observations are partitioned into one-hour periods when conditions were ‘clear’ or ‘foggy’ to identify evidence of cloud processing of aerosols. During the first half of the campaign (July 7-18), conditions at the site were largely maritime. However flow during the second half of the campaigns (July 18-29) was influenced by a thermal trough that added a cyclonic twist to the incoming marine air, bringing it from the south with a more extensive over-land trajectory. Neither flow regime was associated with air coming from the San Francisco Bay area to the south. Measurements by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) of the equivalent molar ratio of ammonium to the sum of sulfate, nitrate and chloride made before the onset of the thermal trough on July 18th were associated with acidic or near-neutral particles. Measurements made after July 18th appear to have excess ammonium. The AMS measurements of mass loading were an order of magnitude less than those reported by a nearby IMPROVE station. However, the AMS measures only non-refractory particles between 0.1 µm and 1 µm, which would not include sea salt. In contrast, the IMPROVE station employs filter-based techniques to measure mass for all particles < 2.5 µm. Assuming chlorine is associated with large sea salt particles at Pt. Reyes and removing this value from the IMPROVE data resulted in good agreement in the total mass fraction between these two techniques,, indicating the importance of sea salt mass in particles greater than 1 µm. Model calculations of the equilibrium gas-phase mixing ratio of NH3 suggest very high values which we attribute to agricultural practices within the park. Reported as an incidental finding is evidence for the cloud droplet activation of large particles (diameter >0.2 mm) with a corresponding reduction in the single scattering albedo of the non-activated particles, followed by a return in the particle size spectrum to the pre-fog conditions immediately afterwards.

Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alexander, M. L.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Jobson, Bertram Thomas; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

164

ADEPT. aerosol deposition in cylindrical pipes  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT calculates the deposition of aerosols in straight cylindrical pipes during turbulent air flow. Aerosol deposition is calculated in a time-dependent manner based on empirical correlations for turbulent flow in pipes. The calculated deposition during a single time interval is cumulative with that of previous time intervals and results in a decreasing inner diameter of the pipe. The calculated deposition is assumed uniform over the length of the pipe. The entering aerosol distribution is specified by the user in the form of a log-normal distribution of accumulated mass versus particle size and may be time dependent. Entering flow conditions are also specified by the user and may also be time dependent. For simplicity and generality, the geometry implicit in the program is that of a cylindrical pipe with no bends or fittings. The flow is turbulent and monodirectional; only one set of inlet conditions may be applied at a given time. The flow parameters are not calculated along the length of pipe; therefore, the dynamic behavior of the aerosol within the pipe as well as the effects of reentrainment cannot be determined explicitly. A typical problem requires 2 minutes of CPU time.

Fazekas, P.; Tewarson, S.C (Burns and Roe, Oradell, NJ (United States))

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ADEPT. Aerosol Deposition in Cylindrical Pipes  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT calculates the deposition of aerosols in straight cylindrical pipes during turbulent air flow. Aerosol deposition is calculated in a time-dependent manner based on empirical correlations for turbulent flow in pipes. The calculated deposition during a single time interval is cumulative with that of previous time intervals and results in a decreasing inner diameter of the pipe. The calculated deposition is assumed uniform over the length of the pipe. The entering aerosol distribution is specified by the user in the form of a log-normal distribution of accumulated mass versus particle size and may be time dependent. Entering flow conditions are also specified by the user and may also be time dependent. For simplicity and generality, the geometry implicit in the program is that of a cylindrical pipe with no bends or fittings. The flow is turbulent and monodirectional; only one set of inlet conditions may be applied at a given time. The flow parameters are not calculated along the length of pipe; therefore, the dynamic behavior of the aerosol within the pipe as well as the effects of reentrainment cannot be determined explicitly. A typical problem requires 2 minutes of CPU time.

Fazekas, P.; Tewarson, S.C [Burns and Roe, Oradell, NJ (United States)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with greater than 1% relative abundance in either phase are shown. Pyrolysis of solid biomass, in this case: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization of nitrogen-containing species identified in the peanut hull pyrolysis oil by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

Weston, Ken

167

Pickup for pulse NMR spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a single-coil pickup for a pulse NMR spectrometer. The pickup is alternately connected by rf diode switches to the transmitter (in transmit mode) and to the receiver (in receive mode). The dead time of a receiver with this pickup is less than or equal to 10 usec.

Zaitsev, V.N.; Podsekin, A.K.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress  

SciTech Connect

The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atomic absorption is the capability for simultaneous multielement analysis. It can be used colleges had acquired atomic absorption instruments by the year 1990.[2] In contrast, atomic emission with the acetylene-air flame source taken from an existing atomic absorption instrument. Two spectrometer units

Nazarenko, Alexander

170

Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights  

SciTech Connect

4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

171

Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

172

BNL | Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation Interactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Atmospheric aerosols exert important "indirect effects" on clouds and climate by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei that affect cloud radiative and microphysical properties. For example, an increase in CCN increases the number concentration of droplets enhances cloud albedo, and suppresses precipitation that alters cloud coverage and lifetime. However, in the case of moist and strong convective clouds, increasing aerosols may increase precipitation and enhance storm development. Although aerosol-induced indirect effects on climate are believed to have a significant impact on global climate change, estimating their impact continues to be one of the most uncertain climate forcings.

173

Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (5–20 Pa). In the spectrometer the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed.

A. V. Tyunkov; K. P. Savkin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

aerosols and climate : uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contributes to creating a level playing field. (BC emissions tradeble like CO2 emissions?) OUTLINE #12;size. policy measures, is even more uncertain (emissions & their chemical fingerprint are uncertain (not just aerosol emissions, not just climate impacts) OUTLINE #12;- Standardization doesn't reduce

175

Measurement of Fukushima Aerosol Debris in Sequim and Richland, WA and Ketchikan, AK  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol collections were initiated at several locations by PNNL shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake of May 2011. Aerosol samples were transferred to laboratory high-resolution gamma spectrometers for analysis. Similar to treaty monitoring stations operating across the Northern hemisphere, iodine and other isotopes which could be volatilized at high temperature were detected. Though these locations are not far apart, they have significant variations with respect to water, mountain-range placement, and local topography. Variation in computed source terms will be shown to bound the variability of this approach to source estimation.

Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kiddy, Robert A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Landen, Jonathan W.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Litke, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thompson, Robert C.; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Biegalski, Steven R.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Policy Applications Speaker(s): Susanne Bauer Date: December 6, 2011 - 4:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, However, understanding the net effect of multi-source emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is

177

Design of and data reduction from compact Thomson parabola spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Thomson parabola spectrometers are used to characterize MeV ion beams produced in high intensity laser interactions. These spectrometers disperse multiple ion species according to their charge to mass ratio through the use of parallel electric and magnetic fields. Analytical solutions for ion deflection in electric and magnetic fields have been used to extract ion spectra with the assumption that fringing effects are negligible. Experimental space restrictions and dynamic range requirements necessitate designs that stress the analytical assumptions. Depending on design parameters, the error in the analytical assumption can be comparable to the energy resolution. Estimates are provided to approximate the error on the total ion deflection. A method for modeling ion trajectories including fringing effects is presented using software freely available or in common use. The magnetostatic fields are modeled in 3D, including material properties of nearby magnetic materials using RADIA. Electrostatic fields are modeled in 2D for a spectrometer implementing angled plates using the partial differential equation toolbox in MATLAB. Using these models to calculate the ion trajectory allows for analysis of a Thomson parabola spectrometer with an arbitrary field configuration.

Morrison, J. T.; Willis, C.; Freeman, R. R.; Van Woerkom, L. [Physics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

ARM - Mobile Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Mobile Aerosol Observing System Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York, using the ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System. Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven

179

Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92.

Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Alberth, David P.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Experimental study of nuclear workplace aerosol samplers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LITERATURE REVIEW Aerosol Losses in an Inlet . Aerosol Losses in a Transport System Aerosol Losses in CAMs Critical Flow Venturi 8 13 15 16 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 18 CAM Evaluation Consideration FAS Evaluation Consideration Test Protocol Mixing... Chamber Setup High Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Low Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Critical Flow Venturi 18 19 21 22 24 25 27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Page 28 Aerosol Penetration through Transport Systems and CAM Areal Uniformity Deposits...

Parulian, Antony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

182

Two-Column Aerosol Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

help find the answer, the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is conducting the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod...

183

Multi-year Satellite and Surface Observations of AOD in support of Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign  

SciTech Connect

We use combined multi-year measurements from the surface and space for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol properties within a large (~400x400 km) region centered on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, along the East Coast of the United States. The ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements at Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) site and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on board the Terra and Aqua satellites provide horizontal and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, while the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) offers the altitudes of aerosol-layers. The combined ground-based and satellite measurements indicated several interesting features among which were the large differences in the aerosol properties observed in July and February. We applied the climatology of aerosol properties for designing the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The TCAP field campaign involves 12-month deployment (started July 1, 2012) of the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod and complimentary aerosol observations from two research aircraft: the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) B200 King Air. Using results from the coordinated G-1 and B200 flights during the recent (July, 2012) Intensive Observation Period, we demonstrated that the G-1 in situ measurements and B200 active remote sensing can provide complementary information on the temporal and spatial changes of the aerosol properties off the coast of North America.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

SAGE II long-term measurements of stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument has been making measurements on stratospheric aerosols and gases continually since October 1984. Observations from the SAGE II instrument provide a valuable long-term data set for study of the aerosol in the stratosphere and aerosol and cloud in the upper troposphere. The period of observation covers the decay phase of material injected by the El Chichon volcanic eruption in 1982, the years 1988--1990 when stratospheric aerosol levels approached background levels, and the period after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The Mount Pinatubo eruption caused the largest perturbation in stratospheric aerosol loading in this century, with effects on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. The SAGE II data sequence shows the global dispersion of aerosols following the Mount Pinatubo eruption, as well as the changes occurring in stratospheric aerosol mass and surface area. The downward transfer of stratospheric aerosols into the upper troposphere following the earlier eruption of El Chichon is clearly visible. Estimates have been made of the amount of volcanic material lying in the upper troposphere and the way in which this varies with latitude and season.

Wang, P.H.; Kent, G.S. [Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States); McCormick, M.P.; Thomason, L.W. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Bruce H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

187

Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

Postma, A.K.

1984-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Design and Construction of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the MICE spectrometer solenoid is to provide a uniform field for a scintillating fiber tracker. The uniform field is produced by a long center coil and two short end coils. Together, they produce 4T field with a uniformity of better than 1% over a detector region of 1000 mm long and 300 mm in diameter. Throughout most of the detector region, the field uniformity is better than 0.3%. In addition to the uniform field coils, we have two match coils. These two coils can be independently adjusted to match uniform field region to the focusing coil field. The coil package length is 2544 mm. We present the spectrometer solenoid cold mass design, the powering and quench protection circuits, and the cryogenic cooling system based on using three cryocoolers with re-condensers.

Wang, Bert; Wahrer, Bob; Taylor, Clyde; Xu, L.; Chen, J. Y.; Wang, M.; Juang, Tiki; Zisman, Michael S.; Virostek, Steve P.; Green, Michael A.

2008-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

189

4, 58315854, 2004 Fluorescing aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

released by combustion into the atmosphere absorbs radiation and therefore heats the climate counteracting such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons sticking to the aerosol particles, or bioaerosol such as bacteria, spores) or by combustion processes (soot), or they form in situ by gas to particle conversion, like sulphate aerosol. While

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Progress on the Design and Fabircation of the MICE SpectrometerSolenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) willdemonstrate ionization cooling in a short section of a realistic coolingchannel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in theUK. A five-coil, superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet at each endof the cooling channel will provide a 4 T uniform field region for thescintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore tubes. The trackermodules are used to measure the muon beam emittance as it enters andexits the cooling channel. The cold mass for the 400 mm warm bore magnetconsists of two sections: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coilmatching section that matches the uniform field of the solenoid into theMICE cooling channel. The spectrometer solenoid detailed designandanalysis has been completed, and the fabrication of the magnets is wellunder way. The primary features of the spectrometer solenoid magnet andmechanical designs are presented along with a summary of key fabricationissues and photos of the construction.

Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Lia, D.; Sizman, M.S.

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

191

The High-Acceptance Dielectron Spectrometer HADES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion induced collisions. Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a multiplicity and electron trigger array for additional electron-hadron discrimination and event characterization. A two-stage trigger system enhances events containing electrons. The physics program is focused on the investigation of hadron properties in nuclei and in the hot and dense hadronic matter. The detector system is characterized by an 85% azimuthal coverage over a polar angle interval from 18 to 85 degree, a single electron efficiency of 50% and a vector meson mass resolution of 2.5%. Identification of pions, kaons and protons is achieved combining time-of-flight and energy loss measurements over a large momentum range. This paper describes the main features and the performance of the detector system.

The HADES Collaboration; G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; B. Bannier; R. Bassini; D. Belver; A. V. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Boehmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Braun-Munzinger; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; M. Destefanis; J. Diaz; F. Dohrmann; A. Dybczak; T. Eberl; W. Enghardt; L. Fabbietti; O. V. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Froehlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzon; R. Gernhaeuser; A. Gil; C. Gilardi; M. Golubeva; D. Gonzalez-Diaz; F. Guber; M. Heilmann; T. Heinz; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; A. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kaempfer; K. Kanaki; T. Karavicheva; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; R. Kotte; F. Krizek; R. Kruecken; W. Kuehn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; D. Mishra; E. Moriniere; J. Mousa; C. Muentz; L. Naumann; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; T. PerezCavalcanti; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; M. Roy-Stephan; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; B. Sailer; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; E. Schwab; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Stroebele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; P. Tlusty; M. Traxler; R. Trebac; H. Tsertos; V. Wagner; M. Weber; M. Wisniowski; T. Wojcik; J. Wuestenfel; S. Yurevich; Y. V. Zanevsky; P. Zhou; P. Zumbruch

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

192

The High-Acceptance Dielectron Spectrometer HADES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion induced collisions. Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a multiplicity and electron trigger array for additional electron-hadron discrimination and event characterization. A two-stage trigger system enhances events containing electrons. The physics program is focused on the investigation of hadron properties in nuclei and in the hot and dense hadronic matter. The detector system is characterized by an 85% azimuthal coverage over a polar angle interval from 18 to 85 degree, a single electron efficiency of 50% and a vector meson mass resolution of 2.5%. Identification of pions, kaons and protons is achieved combining time-of-flight and energy loss measurements over a large momentum range. This paper describes the main featur...

Agakichiev, G; Bannier, B; Bassini, R; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Blanco, A; Boehmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Enghardt, W; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, Paulo J R; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil1, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Guber, F; Heilmann, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, Lutz; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; PerezCavalcanti, T; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebac, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wuestenfel, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhou, P; Zumbruch, P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Aerosol Laboratory - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities > Engineering Capabilities > Engineering Experimentation > Aerosol Laboratory Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Aerosol Laboratory The Aerosol Laboratory (AL) houses equipment to measure and record the physical parameters necessary to characterize the formation and transport of aerosols. Bookmark and Share The Aerosol Laboratory (AL) has extensive analytic and experimental capabilities to characterize the formation and transport of aerosols formed from the condensation of vapors. Computer codes have been developed to

194

Mass Spectrometer: Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), Multi...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

was completed in February 2011. Although no research has been performed beyond an initial exploration of the Neptune's capabilities, potential users have been contacted in both the...

195

The Mass Spectrometer as a Detector for Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......derivatives of amines were detected in oil-shale process water by use of EIPC plots...bottom trace) from an anlysis of oil shale process water. The value of this...total ion current in the analysis of oil-shale process water for compound-specific......

Michael A. Grayson

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Mass Spectrometer: Linear Ion Trap Quadrupole (LTQ) Orbitrap...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Trap Quadrupole (LTQ) Orbitrap MS - for environmental research (nanoDESI) Instrument ID: 34068 Availability: 10 hours a day, 5 days a week Quick Specs Science Contact Science...

197

Fossil packrat middens and the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... glacial standard date (15.7 kyr, A-1581)14. The presence of this low desert shrub in a pinyon-juniper-oak woodland, an anomalous association by current standards, remains ... bigelovii) woodland/chaparral community which presently occurs much higher in elevation than the present Sonoran desert- ...

Thomas R. Van Devender; Paul S. Martin; Robert S. Thompson; Kenneth L. Cole; A. J. Timothy Jull; Austin Long; Laurence J. Toolin; Douglas J. Donahue

1985-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

198

Side-by-Side Comparison of Particle Count and Mass Concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Side-by-Side Comparison of Particle Count and Mass Concentration Side-by-Side Comparison of Particle Count and Mass Concentration Measurements in a Residence Title Side-by-Side Comparison of Particle Count and Mass Concentration Measurements in a Residence Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2011 Authors Chan, Wanyu R., and Federico Noris Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract Particulate matter (PM) is a contaminant of concern in many indoor environments, including residential and commercial buildings. Health guidelines for exposure to particles are in units of mass concentrations. Relative to time-integrated mass measurements collected on filters, real-time particle counters are less time-consuming to operate. Studies found reasonable correlation between these two measurement techniques, but agreement may vary in different sampling environments, and depends on the instruments used. We performed a side-by-side comparison of particle counts and mass concentrations estimated by three types of real-time instruments: MetOne BT-637 optical particle counter (OPC), TSI DustTrak aerosol monitor, and TSI aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer. In addition to these real-time instruments, time-integrated particle mass was also collected using PM2.5 and PM10 Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) manufactured by SKC. Sampling was conducted for two consecutive days in an occupied single-family house in Berkeley, California. Concentration profiles had similar trends, with DustTraks reporting higher particle mass concentrations, partially explained by the density value assumed in the calibration. We made assumptions for particle size and density to calculate the PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations for the MetOne and APS, and compared with the filter-based measurements. Despite uncertainties and assumptions, there was generally good agreement for the different methods.

199

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

200

SPEC-DOC: A USER'S GUIDE TO SPECTROMETER SOFTWARE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SPECTROMETER SOFTWARE S. Sinton, J.R. Garbow, J.L. Ackerman,to Spectrometer Software" S. Sinton, J. R. Garbow, J. L.

Sinton, S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Mass spectrometry: analytical capabilities and potentials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...INSULIN AND OTHER LARGE PEPTIDES, JOURNAL...MASS-SPECTROMETRY OF LARGE, FRAGILE, AND INVOLATILE...APPLICATIONS IN THE AREA OF MOLECULAR MODIFICATIONS...I-127-LABELED PLASMA DESORPTION MASS-SPECTROMETRY...PIONEER VENUS LARGE PROBE NEUTRAL MASS-SPECTROMETER...HORNING, E.C., ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE IONIZATION...

RG Cooks; KL Busch; GL Glish

1983-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Surface Aerosol Observing System The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is equipped to quantify the interaction between clouds and aerosol particles. A counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) is used to selectively sample cloud drops. The CVI takes advantage of the

203

Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season Title Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-50880 Year of Publication 2003 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., Tihomir Novakov, and Peter V. Hobbs Journal Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres Keywords black carbon, evolved gas analysis, light absorption, organic carbon, positive sampling artifact, SAFARI Abstract Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60% larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60% more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18±0.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25±0.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

204

Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Optical Calibration For Jefferson Lab HKS Spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to accept very forward angle scattering particles, Jefferson Lab HKS experiment uses an on-target zero degree dipole magnet. The usual spectrometer optics calibration procedure has to be modified due to this on-target field. This paper describes a new method to calibrate HKS spectrometer system. The simulation of the calibration procedure shows the required resolution can be achieved from initially inaccurate optical description.

L. Yuan; L. Tang

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

206

Chip-scale quadrupole mass filters for a Micro-Gas Analyzer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mass spectrometers are powerful analytical instruments that serve as the gold standard for chemical analysis. This tool has numerous applications ranging from national security, industrial processing, environmental monitoring, ...

Cheung, Kerry

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

208

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP  

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Aerosol IOP Aerosol IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Stephen Schwartz For data sets, see below. Summary The Aerosol IOP was highlighted by the Gulfstream-1 aircraft flying clear-sky aerosol missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on clear sky radiation fields, with weather particularly favorable for these flights during the first and third weeks of the IOP. A secondary but important goal of this IOP was to fly cloudy-sky missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on cloud microphysics, and the effect of the microphysics on cloud optical properties. The Gulfstream obtained aerosol data in support of some of the

209

Reflective Aerosols and the Greenhouse Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contributions of atmospheric aerosols to add to either a climate-warming effect or climate-cooling effect depend on the chemical composition of the aerosol and the local environment. The best estimation is...

Kathryn E. Kautzman

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne aerosol prediction Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

profiles of aerosol extinction and optical depth Evaluate predictions from aerosol transport... aerosol measurements. Comparison of AOT ... Source: Brookhaven National...

212

Inter-Comparison and Synergy Between the Two Long-Term Gloval Aerosol Products Derived from AVHRR and TOMS  

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Inter-Comparison and Synergy Between the Inter-Comparison and Synergy Between the Two Long-Term Global Aerosol Products Derived from AVHRR and TOMS M.-J. Jeong and Z. Li Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland D. A. Chu and S.-C. Tsay National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Eighteen years of satellite-based monthly aerosol products have been derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and total ozone mapping experiment spectrometer (TOMS) sensors. The two products differ in many regards rendering a great potential for developing an integrated product for climate studies. Presented here are some preliminary results of inter-comparison and synergy analyses. Global Aerosol Climatology

213

2, 20952131, 2002 Below-cloud aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). In addition, the understanding of wet removal processes remains crucial in local and regional pollutionACPD 2, 2095­2131, 2002 Below-cloud aerosol removal C. Andronache Title Page Abstract Introduction-cloud aerosol removal by rainfall for observed aerosol size distributions C. Andronache Boston College, Chestnut

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

backscattered radiation backscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System MPL : Micropulse Lidar NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer

216

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

217

EMSL: Capabilities: Mass Spectrometry: Next-Generation Mass Spectrometry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Next-Generation Mass Spectrometry Next-Generation Mass Spectrometry Additional Information Meet the Mass Spectrometry Experts Related EMSL User Projects Mass Spectrometry Tools are Applied to all Science Themes Next-Generation Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Research Resource for Integrative Biology Biological and Environmental Research - PNNL Proteomics PNNL's Biological MS Data and Software Distribution Center Mass Spectrometry brochure EMSL is committed to offering state-of-the-art instruments to its users. At a workshop in January of 2008, EMSL mass spectrometry experts joined experts from many universities, private companies, and government institutions and laboratories at a conference held at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee Florida. Workshop participants reviewed the state of the art of high-performance mass spectrometers,

218

Final Report for LDRD Project ''A New Era of Research in Aerosol/Cloud/Climate Interactions at LLNL''  

SciTech Connect

Observations of global temperature records seem to show less warming than predictions of global warming brought on by increasing concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. One of the reasonable explanations for this apparent inconsistency is that the increasing concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols may be partially counteracting the effects of greenhouse gases. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the solar radiation, directly change the planetary albedo. Aerosols, unlike CO{sub 2}, may also have a significant indirect effect by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Increases in CCN can result in clouds with more but smaller droplets, enhancing the reflection of solar radiation. Aerosol direct and indirect effects are a strong function of the distributions of all aerosol types and the size distribution of the aerosol in question. However, the large spatial and temporal variabilities in the concentration, chemical characteristics, and size distribution of aerosols have made it difficult to assess the magnitude of aerosol effects on atmospheric radiation. These variabilities in aerosol characteristics as well as their effects on clouds are the leading sources of uncertainty in predicting future climate variation. Inventory studies have shown that the present-day anthropogenic emissions contribute more than half of fine particle mass primarily due to sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols derived from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Parts of our earlier studies have been focused on developing an understanding of global sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol abundances and investigating their climate effects [Chuang et al., 1997; Penner et al., 1998]. We have also modeled aerosol optical properties to account for changes in the refractive indices with relative humidity and dry aerosol composition [Grant et al., 1999]. Moreover, we have developed parameterizations of cloud response to aerosol abundance for use in global models to evaluate the importance of aerosol/cloud interactions on climate forcing [Chuang and Penner, 1995]. Our research has been recognized as one of a few studies attempting to quantify the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate in the IPCC Third Assessment Report [IPCC, 2001]. Our previous assessments of aerosol climate effects were based on a general circulation model (NCAR CCM1) fully coupled to a global tropospheric chemistry model (GRANTOUR). Both models, however, were developed more than a decade ago. The lack of advanced physics representation and techniques in our current models limits us from further exploring the interrelationship between aerosol, cloud, and climate variation. Our objective is to move to a new era of aerosol/cloud/climate modeling at LLNL by coupling the most advanced chemistry and climate models and by incorporating an aerosol microphysics module. This modeling capability will enable us to identify and analyze the responsible processes in aerosol/cloud/climate interactions and therefore, to improve the level of scientific understanding for aerosol climate effects. This state-of-the-art coupled models will also be used to address the relative importance of anthropogenic and natural emissions in the spatial pattern of aerosol climate forcing in order to assess the potential of human induced climate change.

Chuang, C; Bergman, D J; Dignon, J E; Connell, P S

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Modeling aerosol growth by aqueous chemistry in nonprecipitating stratiform cloud  

SciTech Connect

A new microphysics module based on a two-dimensional (2D) joint size distribution function representing both interstitial and cloud particles is developed and applied to studying aerosol processing in non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds. The module is implemented in a three-dimensional dynamical framework of a large-eddy simulation (LES) model and in a trajectory ensemble model (TEM). Both models are used to study the modification of sulfate aerosol by the activation - aqueous chemistry - resuspension cycle in shallow marine stratocumulus clouds. The effect of particle mixing and different size-distribution representations on modeled aerosol processing are studied in a comparison of the LES and TEM simulations with the identical microphysics treatment exposes and a comparison of TEM simulations with a 2D fixed and moving bin microphysics. Particle mixing which is represented in LES and neglected in the TEM leads to the mean relative per particle dry mass change in the TEM simulations being about 30% lower than in analogous subsample of LES domain. Particles in the final LES spectrum are mixed in from different “parcels”, some of which have experienced longer in-cloud residence times than the TEM parcels, all of which originated in the subcloud layer, have. The mean relative per particle dry mass change differs by 14% between TEM simulations with fixed and moving bin microphysics. Finally, the TEM model with the moving bin microphysics is used to evaluate assumptions about liquid water mass partitioning among activated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of different dry sizes. These assumptions are used in large-scale models to map the bulk aqueous chemistry sulfate production, which is largely proportional to the liquid water mass, to the changes in aerosol size distribution. It is shown that the commonly used assumptions that the droplet mass is independent of CCN size or that the droplet mass is proportional to the CCN size to the third power do not perform well in the considered case. The explicitly predicted water partitioning indicates that the mean mass of droplets participating in the models aqueous chemistry calculations is proportional to the dry CCN size.

Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Easter, Richard C.

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

220

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

Glissmeyer, J.A.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

222

Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Napersville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

224

Influence of local waste burning on atmospheric aerosol properties in urban environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerosols affect the radiative energy budget on both the regional and global scales. The wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a fundamental determinant of the amount by which extra-terrestrial incoming sunlight and outgoing terrestrial radiation are being attenuated in the atmosphere. The present study addresses the influence of local waste burning on aerosol characteristics, black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration and spectral solar irradiance using ground-based measurements over the tropical urban environment of Hyderabad, India. AOD has been observed to be maximum during burning days compared to normal days. Aerosol size spectra suggest bimodal distributions during pre-and post-burning periods and trimodal distributions during burning periods. Angstrom wavelength exponent estimated from spectral variation of AOD suggested dominance of accumulation mode particle loading during burning days compared to normal days. Diurnal variation of BC on normal days showed a broad nocturnal peak during ?20:00 to ?24:00 h with a maximum value of BC aerosol concentration of ?14,000 ng m?3 whereas on local waste burning days enormous increases in BC concentrations have been observed with a peak at ?60,000 ng m?3. Relative attenuation of global solar irradiance during burning days has been found to be of the order of 30% in the visible and 28% in the near-infrared regions. The results are discussed in detail in this paper.

K. Madhavi Latha; K.V.S. Badarinath

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

MICROMACHINED FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER ON SILICON OPTICAL BENCH PLATFORM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MICROMACHINED FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER ON SILICON OPTICAL BENCH PLATFORM Kyoungsik Yu1 a miniaturized Fourier transform spectrometer implemented on a silicon optical bench platform. The optical is becoming increasingly important in a number of applications such as environmental monitoring, chemical

Park, Namkyoo

226

High Precision Atomic Mass Spectrometry with Applications to Neutrino Physics, Fundamental Constants and Physical Chemistry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The Florida State University single-ion cryogenic Penning trap mass spectrometer has been used to precisely measure the masses of the doublets 76Ge/76Se and 74Ge/74Se… (more)

Mount, Brianna Jane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Unambiguous mass determination of major stratospheric positive ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... with a balloon-borne mass spectrometer, flown on 16 June 1980 with a 100,000m3 stratospheric balloon at mid-latitude (CNES launching base at Gap-Tallard, France, 4433'N). ...

E. Arijs; D. Nevejans; J. Ingels

1980-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

228

Study of elementary reactions with the HADES dielectron spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results obtained with the HADES dielectron spectrometer at GSI are discussed, with emphasis on dilepton production in elementary reactions.

B. Ramstein

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

Study of elementary reactions with the HADES dielectron spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results obtained with the HADES dielectron spectrometer at GSI are discussed, with emphasis on dilepton production in elementary reactions.

,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects using a Cumulus Microphysics Parameterization in a Regional Climate Model  

SciTech Connect

A new Zhang and McFarlane (ZM) cumulus scheme includes a two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for convective clouds. This allows aerosol effects to be investigated more comprehensively by linking aerosols with microphysical processes in both stratiform clouds that are explicitly resolved and convective clouds that are parameterized in climate models. This new scheme is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is coupled with the physics and aerosol packages from the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). A test case of July 2008 during the East Asian summer monsoon is selected to evaluate the performance of the new ZM scheme and to investigate aerosol effects on monsoon precipitation. The precipitation and radiative fluxes simulated by the new ZM scheme show a better agreement with observations compared to simulations with the original ZM scheme that does not include convective cloud microphysics and aerosol convective cloud interactions. Detailed analysis suggests that an increase in detrained cloud water and ice mass by the new ZM scheme is responsible for this improvement. To investigate precipitation response to increased anthropogenic aerosols, a sensitivity experiment is performed that mimics a clean environment by reducing the primary aerosols and anthropogenic emissions to 30% of that used in the control simulation of a polluted environment. The simulated surface precipitation is reduced by 9.8% from clean to polluted environment and the reduction is less significant when microphysics processes are excluded from the cumulus clouds. Ensemble experiments with ten members under each condition (i.e., clean and polluted) indicate similar response of the monsoon precipitation to increasing aerosols.

Lim, Kyo-Sun; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Guang; Song, Xiaoliang

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

231

Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases...

Benoit, Mark David

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

232

Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (June 27-29, 2010), when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter) increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30%) was larger than at the CARES urban site (10%) and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro-microscopic measurements will allow for a comprehensive evaluation of aerosol process models used in climate research.

Moffet, Ryan C.; Rodel, Tobias; Kelly, Stephen T.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Carroll, Gregory; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

233

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in

234

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Campaign Links TCAP website Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2013.04.15, Scott, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter Aerosol Effects on Cloud Formation 2013.02.04, Cziczo, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): CU GMAX-DOAS Deployment 2012.07.15, Volkamer, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerosol Light Extinction Measurements 2012.07.15, Dubey, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial Campaign 2012.07.07, Berg, AAF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic Particle Sizer 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): KASPRR Engineering Tests 2012.07.01, Mead, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and RSP Measurements

235

Laboratory investigation of chemical and physical properties of soot-containing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SO4-coated soot aerosols; (3) effect of H2SO4 coating on scattering and extinction properties of soot particles. A low-pressure laminar-flow reactor, coupled to ion driftchemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-CIMS) detection, is used to study...

Zhang, Dan

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

236

Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and GOES-10) are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October-16 November 2008) WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties), and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL) depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity) and aerosol quantities (e.g., underestimations of accumulation mode aerosol number) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the Southeastern Pacific, and require further investigation. The well-simulated timing and outflow patterns of polluted and clean episodes demonstrate the model's ability to capture daily/synoptic scale variations of aerosol and cloud properties, and suggest that the model is suitable for studying atmospheric processes associated with pollution outflow over the ocean. The overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale clouds and boundary layer properties is encouraging and suggests that reproducing gradients of aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and coupling cloud-aerosol-radiation processes are important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the Southeast Pacific.

Yang Q.; Lee Y.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Fast, J. D.; Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Morrison, H.; Chapman, E. G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

237

Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

238

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

239

Acceptance and resolution simulation studies for the dielectron spectrometer HADES at GSI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design studies for a second generation Dilepton Spectrometer to be built at the SIS accelerator of GSI are presented. The basic design parameters of this system are specified and the different detector components for charged particle tracking and for lepton identification are described. The geometrical acceptance for lepton pairs is given. Results on single track momentum resolution and on lepton pair mass resolution are reported.

R. Schicker; A. Brenschede; K. Garrow; H. Schoen; A. Balanda; H. Bokemeyer; J. Friese; W. Karig; P. Kienle; W. Koenig; W. Kuehn; F. Lefevre; V. Metag; G. Roche; P. Salabura; A. Schroeter; J. Stroth; H. Tsertos

1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

240

Separating Cloud Forming Nuclei from Interstitial Aerosol  

SciTech Connect

It has become important to characterize the physicochemical properties of aerosol that have initiated the warm and ice clouds. The data is urgently needed to better represent the aerosol-cloud interaction mechanisms in the climate models. The laboratory and in-situ techniques to separate precisely the aerosol particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), termed as cloud nuclei (CN) henceforth, have become imperative in studying aerosol effects on clouds and the environment. This review summarizes these techniques, design considerations, associated artifacts and challenges, and briefly discusses the need for improved designs to expand the CN measurement database.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

particles from the combustion of biomass fuels. Environ.range transport of biomass combustion aerosols. Environ.during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.

Qi, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

243

Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

Chrisp; Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

244

Thermophoresis and its thermal parameters for aerosol collection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermophoresis and its thermal parameters for aerosol collection Thermophoresis and its thermal parameters for aerosol collection Title Thermophoresis and its thermal parameters for aerosol collection Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Huang, Zhuo, Michael G. Apte, and Lara A. Gundel Journal U.S. Department of Energy Journal of Undergraduate Research Volume 7 Pagination 37-42 Abstract The particle collection effi ciency of a prototype environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sampler based on the use of thermophoresis is determined by optimizing the operational voltage that determines its thermal gradient. This sampler's heating element was made of three sets of thermophoretic (TP) wires 25µm in diameter suspended across a channel cut in a printed circuit board and mounted with collection surfaces on both sides. The separation between the heating element and the room temperature collection surface was determined in a numerical simulation based on the Brock-Talbot model. Other thermal parameters of this TP ETS sampler were predicted by the Brock-Talbot model for TP deposition. From the normalized results the optimal collection ratio was expressed in terms of operational voltage and fi lter mass. Prior to the Brock-Talbot model simulation for this sampler, 1.0V was used arbitrarily. The operational voltage was raised

245

Aerosol-Derived Bimetallic Alloy Powders: Bridging the Gap  

SciTech Connect

We present aerosol-derived alloy powders as a uniquely useful platform for studying the contribution of the metal phase to multifunctional supported catalysts. Multimetallic heterogeneous catalysts made by traditional methods are usually nonhomogenous while UHV-based methods, such as mass selected clusters or metal vapor deposited on single crystals, lead to considerably more homogeneous, well-defined samples. However, these well-defined samples have low surface areas and do not lend themselves to catalytic activity tests in flow reactors under industrially relevant conditions. Bimetallic alloy powders derived by aerosol synthesis are homogeneous and single phase and can have surface areas ranging 1-10 m2/g, making them suitable for use in conventional flow reactors. The utility of aerosol-derived alloy powders as model catalysts is illustrated through the synthesis of single phase PdZn which was used to derive the specific reactivity of the L10 tetragonal alloy phase for methanol steam reforming. Turnover frequencies on unsupported PdZn were determined from the experimentally determined metal surface area to be 0.21 molecules of methanol reacted per surface Pd at 250 °C and 0.06 molecules of CO oxidized to CO2 per surface Pd at 185 °C. The experimentally measured activation energies for MSR and CO-oxidation on PdZn are 48 and 87 kJ/mol, respectively.

Halevi, Barr; Peterson, Eric; DelaRiva, Andrew; Jeroro, E.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Wang, Yong; Vohs, John M.; Kiefer, Boris; Kunkes, Edward L.; Havecker , Michael; Behrens, Malte; Schlogl, Robert; Datye, Abhaya K.

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

246

Compact, self-contained optical spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

We describe the construction and performance of a self-contained, battery-operated, hand-held optical spectrometer. This unit contains an on-board optical excitation source, miniaturized monochromator, CCD detector, Peltier cooler, LCD display module, and microprocessor control. We demonstrate capabilities for qualitative fluorescence determinations and semiquantitative fluorescence and absorption measurements. Resolution is {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}1200 at 434 nm. {copyright} {ital 1995 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.}

Baird, W.; Nogar, N.S. [Chemical Sciences and Technology, CST-1 MSJ565, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

248

The Two-Column Aerosol Project Definitions TCAP Educational  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's the big deal about aerosols? The Two-Column Aerosol Project Definitions TCAP Educational Outreach Activity About ARM: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate...

249

Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

250

The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

Ghan, Steve

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

251

Overview of the COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

properties of orographically induced clouds and how do these depend on dynamics, thermodynamics, and aerosol microphysics? * What is the role of aerosols and changing cloud...

252

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in...

253

High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for exact mass elemental formula assignment. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 ?m spatial resolution (75 ?m primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/?m50%) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/?m50% > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 ?m. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging.

Smith, Donald F.; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

CLOUD AND HAZE IN THE WINTER POLAR REGION OF TITAN OBSERVED WITH VISUAL AND INFRARED MAPPING SPECTROMETER ON BOARD CASSINI  

SciTech Connect

A large cloud in the north polar region of Titan was first observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) in 2005 and then in 2006. This cloud, confined beyond the latitude 62 Degree-Sign N, is surrounded by a mixture of aerosol and mist probably lying in the low stratosphere and troposphere. Subsequent images of this region of Titan show a gradual vanishing of this cloud which was reported previously. In this paper, we characterize the physical properties of this cloud, haze, and mist as well as their time evolutions. We note several details on the images such as a secondary cloud above the main cloud and latitudes beyond 70 Degree-Sign N. We also show that the cloud disappearance leaves the polar region poorly loaded in aerosols, yielding an annular zone of aerosols between 50 Degree-Sign N and 65 Degree-Sign N. Our analysis suggests that this structure observed by VIMS in the near-IR is an annular structure observed by ISS on board Voyager one Titan year ago in 1980.

Rannou, P. [GSMA, UMR CNRS 7331, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Le Mouelic, S. [LPGN, UMR CNRS 6112, Universite de Nantes (France); Sotin, C. [JPL, California Institute of Technology, PA (United States); Brown, R. H., E-mail: pascal.rannou@univ-reims.fr [LPL, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

255

Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects  

SciTech Connect

To improve the microphysical parameterizations for simulations of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) in regional and global climate models, a double-moment bulk microphysical scheme presently implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is modified and the results are compared against atmospheric observations and simulations produced by a spectral bin microphysical scheme (SBM). Rather than using prescribed aerosols as in the original bulk scheme (Bulk-OR), a prognostic doublemoment aerosol representation is introduced to predict both the aerosol number concentration and mass mixing ratio (Bulk-2M). The impacts of the parameterizations of diffusional growth and autoconversion and the selection of the embryonic raindrop radius on the performance of the bulk microphysical scheme are also evaluated. Sensitivity modeling experiments are performed for two distinct cloud regimes, maritime warm stratocumulus clouds (SC) over southeast Pacific Ocean from the VOCALS project and continental deep convective clouds (DCC) in the southeast of China from the Department of Energy/ARM Mobile Facility (DOE/AMF) - China field campaign. The results from Bulk-2M exhibit a much better agreement in the cloud number concentration and effective droplet radius in both the SC and DCC cases with those from SBM and field measurements than those from Bulk-OR. In the SC case particularly, Bulk-2M reproduces the observed drizzle precipitation, which is largely inhibited in Bulk-OR. Bulk-2M predicts enhanced precipitation and invigorated convection with increased aerosol loading in the DCC case, consistent with the SBM simulation, while Bulk-OR predicts the opposite behaviors. Sensitivity experiments using four different types of autoconversion schemes reveal that the autoconversion parameterization is crucial in determining the raindrop number, mass concentration, and drizzle formation for warm 2 stratocumulus clouds. An embryonic raindrop size of 40 ?m is determined as a more realistic setting in the autoconversion parameterization. The saturation adjustment employed in calculating condensation/evaporation in the bulk scheme is identified as the main factor responsible for the large discrepancies in predicting cloud water in the SC case, suggesting that an explicit calculation of diffusion growth with predicted supersaturation is necessary for further improvements of the bulk microphysics scheme. Lastly, a larger rain evaporation rate below cloud is found in the bulk scheme in comparison to the SBM simulation, which could contribute to a lower surface precipitation in the bulk scheme.

Wang, Yuan; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Franklin, Charmaine N.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

256

ARM - Field Campaign - 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Order Data Hubbe Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Order Data Hubbe Infrared Thermometer Order Data Hubbe Nephelometer Order Data Hubbe Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer...

257

Fast In Situ Airborne Measurement of Ammonia Using a Mid-Infrared Off-Axis ICOS Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new ammonia (NH3) spectrometer was developed based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. Its feasibility was demonstrated in airborne test flights in the troposphere on board of the Department of Energy (DOE) Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft. This ammonia gas analyzer consists of an optical cell, a quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, electronics for control and data acquisition, and data-analysis software. The NH3 mixing ratio is determined from high-resolution NH3 absorption line shapes by tuning the laser wavelength over the sR(3,K) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 9.67 ?m. Excellent linearity is obtained in a wide range (0- 101 ppb) during calibration. The instrument is capable of collecting data at 2 Hz. Two research flights were conducted over Sunnyside, Washington. In the first test flight, the ammonia gas sensor was used to identify signatures of feedstock from local dairy farms with high vertical spatial resolution under low wind and stable atmospheric conditions. In the second flight, the NH3 spectrometer showed high sensitivity in capturing feedstock emission signals under windy and less stable conditions. Our results demonstrate that this new ammonia spectrometer is airborne feasible and that it has the capability to provide fast in situ observations of ammonia to advance our understanding of atmospheric compositions and aerosol formation.

Leen, Brian; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S.; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbell, Michael R.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

BNL | Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) The Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) is a platform and instrument suite for Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) to conduct in situ measurements of aerosols and their precursors. MAOS is part of the ARM Climate Research Facility. Physically MAOS is contained in two 20' SeaTainers custom adapted to provide a sheltered laboratory environment for operators and instruments even under harsh conditions. The two structures are designated MAOS-A and MAOS-C for Aerosol and Chemistry respectively. Although independent, with separate data systems, inlets and power distribution, the two structures are normally a single operating unit. The two enclosures comprising MAOS are designed for rapid deployment. All components (except for the Radar Wind Profiler) are transported internally

259

The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC) The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC) Speaker(s): Harmony Gates Date: February 22, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Melissa Lunden A new differential mobility classifier will be described. The instrument classifies aerosol particles in a channel flow between porous (or screen) electrodes. The aerosol enters the channel parallel to the porous electrodes, while a larger, particle-free cross-flow enters through one of the porous electrode. A potential difference between electrodes causes the charged aerosol particles to migrate upstream against the cross-flow. Only particles whose upward migration velocity balances the cross flow will be transmitted along the path of the classifier. Simulations of the OMAC show that it should give the same resolution at the traditional

260

Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without wet (NW) deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, including the reliability required for policy analysis and geo-engineering applications.

Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, Gregory; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Yang, Qing; Howell, S. G.; Leon, Dolislager; Snider, Jefferson R.; Bandy, Alan R.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Benedict, K. B.; de Szoeke, S.; Hawkins, Lisa; Allen, Grant; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.; Springston, S. R.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

262

Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock  

SciTech Connect

The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

Relationship between Particle Mass and Mobility for Diesel Exhaust Particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used the aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM) to measure the mass of mobility-classified diesel exhaust particles. This information enabled us to determine the effective density and fractal dimension of diesel particles as a function of engine load. We ...

Kihong Park; Feng Cao; David B. Kittelson; Peter H. McMurry

2002-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

264

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

265

Ultra-high-mass mass spectrometry with charge discrimination using cryogenic detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultra-high-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a cryogenic particle detector as an ion detector with charge discriminating capabilities. Cryogenic detectors have the potential for significantly improving the performance and sensitivity of time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and compared to ion multipliers they exhibit superior sensitivity for high-mass, slow-moving macromolecular ions and can be used as "stop" detectors in time-of-flight applications. In addition, their energy resolving capability can be used to measure the charge state of the ions. Charge discrimination is very valuable in all time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Using a cryogenically-cooled Nb-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction (STJ) detector operating at 1.3 K as an ion detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for large biomolecules it was found that the STJ detector has charge discrimination capabilities. Since the cryogenic STJ detector responds to ion energy and does not rely on secondary electron production, as in the conventionally used microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, the cryogenic detector therefore detects large molecular ions with a velocity-independent efficiency approaching 100%.

Frank, Matthias (Berkeley, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Oakland, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Aerosol analysis for the regional air pollution study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of an aerosol sampling and analysis program implemented during the 1975 to 1977 St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study is described. A network of ten samplers were operated at selected sites in the St. Louis area and the total mass and elemental composition of the collected particulates were determined. Sampling periods of 2 to 24 hours were employed. The samplers were capable of collecting aerosol particles in two distinct size ranges corresponding to fine (< 2.4 ..mu..m diameter) and coarse (> 2.4 ..mu..m diameter) particles. This unique feature allowed the separation of the particulate samples into two distinct fractions with differing chemical origins and health effects. The analysis methods were also newly developed for use in the St. Louis RAPS study. Total particulate mass was measured by a beta-particle attenuation method in which a precision of +- 5 ..mu..m/cm/sup 2/ could be obtained in a one minute measurement time. Elemental compositions of the samples were determined using an energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence method in which detectable limits of 5 ng/cm/sup 2/ or less were routinely achieved for elements ranging in atomic number from Al to Pb. The advantages of these analytical methods over more conventional techniques arise from the ability to automate the measurements. During the course of the two year study, a total of more than 35,000 individual samples were processed and a total of 28 concentrations measured for each sample.

Jaklevic, J.M.; Gatti, R.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Loo, B.W.; Thompson, A.C.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

268

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

269

Software Polarization Spectrometer "PolariS"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a software-based polarization spectrometer, PolariS, to acquire full-Stokes spectra with a very high spectral resolution of 61 Hz. The primary aim of PolariS is to measure the magnetic fields in dense star-forming cores by detecting the Zeeman splitting of molecular emission lines. The spectrometer consists of a commercially available digital sampler and a Linux computer. The computer is equipped with a graphics processing unit (GPU) to process FFT and cross-correlation using the CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) library developed by NVIDIA. Thanks to a high degree of precision in quantization of the analog-to-digital converter and arithmetic in the GPU, PolariS offers excellent performances in linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, bandpass flatness and stability. The software has been released under the MIT License and is available to the public. In this paper, we report the design of PolariS and its performance verified through engineering tests and commissioning observations.

Mizuno, Izumi; Kano, Amane; Kuroo, Makoto; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M; Kuji, Seisuke; Kuno, Nario

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Electro-optic Phase Grating Streak Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The electro-optic phase grating streak spectrometer (EOPGSS) generates a time-resolved spectra equivalent to that obtained with a conventional spectrometer/streak camera combination, but without using a streak camera (by far the more expensive and problematic component of the conventional system). The EOPGSS is based on a phase, rather than an amplitude grating. Further, this grating is fabricated of electro-optic material such as, for example, KD*P, by either etching grooves into an E-O slab, or by depositing lines of the E-O material onto an optical flat. An electric field normal to the grating alters the material’s index of refraction and thus affects a shift (in angle) of the output spectrum. Ramping the voltage streaks the spectrum correspondingly. The streak and dispersion directions are the same, so a second (static, conventional) grating disperses the spectrum in the orthogonal direction to prevent different wavelengths from “overwriting” each other. Because the streaking is done by the grating, the streaked output spectrum is recorded with a time-integrating device, such as a CCD. System model, typical design, and performance expectations will be presented.

Goldin, F. J.

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol chemical composition Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol on Clouds Summary: chemical composition and mixing stateTime-Resolved Aerosol Collector CCSEMEDX (ASP) Single particle... Sizer CCN spectrum Aerosol absorptionDRI...

272

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol number distributions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

inorganic composition PILS-IC Summary: 3563 nephelometers Aerosol number concentration CNC (TSI 3010, 3025) Aerosol size distribution DMA... and APS Non-volatile aerosol size...

273

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic...  

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Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Abstract: A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic...

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol jet system Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-controlled laminar aerosol jets and their application for studying aerosol combustion processes Author(s): Shoshin Y... 2002 Times Cited: 6 48. Title: Exhaust aerosol of a...

275

ORISS Isomer and Isobar Spectrometer and Separator for Study of Exotic Decays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORISS Isomer ORISS Isomer and Isobar Spectrometer and Separator for Study of Exotic Decays A. Piechaczek for the 2 EMIS 2007 UNIRIB Consortium * The purpose is to provide a nuclear research facility at ORNL for consortium members * Consortium members: 3 EMIS 2007 * Our Deliverable is Science - Nuclear Physics * We do research * We give scientific reports at meetings * We train students * UNIRIB, with ORISE and ORAU, provides a university atmosphere in a national laboratory 4 Motivation to build ORISS - Oak Ridge Isomer/Isobar Spectrometer and Separator: * Decay studies often possible from yield considerations, but limited by background from isobaric/isomeric contamination * Need high resolution separator for background suppression ORISS predicted performance: * High mass resolving power, M/∆M

276

2014 TUNL REU PROJECTS 1. Commissioning the Enge Spectrometer...  

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TUNL REU PROJECTS 1. Commissioning the Enge Spectrometer's Focal Plane Detector Advisor: Richard Longland REU Student: Robert Leonard (Georgia Tech) The Enge Split-Pole...

277

A Low Cost Spectrographic Attachment for an Echelle Spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The report describes a simple, low cost photographic attachment for an echelle spectrometer. The crossed dispersion prism/echelle grating system provides a high resolution spectrum...

Brackett, John M; Mitchell, Joel C; Vickers, Thomas J

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Making Mobile Measurement Using an EEPS Spectrometer | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: TSI Incorporated 2004deerjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications An Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM Spectrometer for...

279

High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration  

SciTech Connect

A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 ..mu.. x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10/sup 4/) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail.

Thoe, R.S.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

Lyons, J. R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem  

SciTech Connect

In the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model, we have coupled the Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme with interactive aerosols so that full two-way aerosol-cloud interactions are included in simulations. We have used this new WRF-Chem functionality in a study focused on assessing predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus clouds, and their interactions over the Southeast Pacific using measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals. This study also serves as a detailed analysis of our WRF-Chem simulations contributed to the VOCALS model Assessment (VOCA) project. The WRF-Chem 31-day (October 15-November 16, 2008) simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations assumed by the default in Morrison microphysics scheme with no interactive aerosols. The well-predicted aerosol properties such as number, mass composition, and optical depth lead to significant improvements in many features of the predicted stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness, and cloud macrostructure such as cloud depth and cloud base height. These improvements in addition to the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, in turn, feed back to the prediction of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengths temperature and humidity gradients within capping inversion layer and lowers the MBL depth by 150 m from that of the MET simulation. Mean top-of-the-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity over the remote ocean) and aerosol quantities (e.g., overestimations of supermicron sea salt mass) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the SEP, and require further investigations. Although not perfect, the overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale aerosol-cloud interactions is encouraging and suggests that the inclusion of spatially varying aerosol characteristics is important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the southeastern Pacific.

Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Morrison, H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

282

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

283

Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization  

SciTech Connect

In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

284

Chemical Composition and Sources of Coastal Marine Aerosol Particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO2?4, followed by Na+, Cl?, Org (total organics), NH+4 , and NO?3 , in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO?3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH+4 to SO2?4 equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl? deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO2?4. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO?3 observed as well as the correlation between SO2?4 and NO?3 (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO2?4 aerosol production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.- N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Jian; Hubbe, John M.; Senum, Gunnar I.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

Semi-Continuous Measurements of Aerosol Chemical Composition During the Summer 2002 Yosemite National Park Special Study  

SciTech Connect

Semi-continuous measurements of fine particle composition were made over a period of several weeks in summer 2002 in Yosemite National Park, California. These included measurement of aerosol ionic composition (by PILS- Particle-Into-Liquid System) and aerosol carbon (by dual wavelength aethalometer and an R&P particulate carbon monitor). The data reveal that aerosol composition at the site is highly :variable in time, with a strong diurnal cycle. Interestingly, however, different diurnal cycles were sometimes observed for different chemical constituents of the particles. Organic carbon was observed to dominate fine particle mass, with some periods apparently associated with influx of smoke from wildfires in the western U.S. Measurements of fine particle carbon isotopes revealed the fraction of carbon from biogenic sources to range from approximately 73 to 95%. The ionic fraction of the aerosol was usually dominated by ammoniated sulfate. During most periods, PM{sub 2.5} nitrate was found primarily in sea salt particles from which chloride had been displaced. Strong variations in the extent of ammonia neutralization of sulfate were also observed. The ability to observe rapid changes in aerosol composition using these semi-continuous aerosol composition measurements is helpful for understanding the dynamic chemical composition of fine particles responsible for regional haze.

Collette, J; Lee, T; Heath, J; Carrico, C; Herckes, P; Engling, G; McMeeking, G; Kreidenweis, S; Day, D; Malm, W; Cahill, T

2003-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

286

Southern hemisphere tropospheric aerosol microphysics  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol particle size distribution data have been obtained in the southern hemisphere from approximately 4{degree}S to 44{degree}S and between ground level and 6 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 {mu}m was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.

Gras, J.L. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Aspendale (Australia))

1991-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

287

LANL/Green Star spectrometer tests  

SciTech Connect

The US and Russia have agreed to the joint development of a nondestructive assay system for use to support the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in Russia. This nondestructive assay system will be used to measure plutonium produced by the conversion of Russian nuclear weapons. The NDA system for Russia will be patterned after the ARIES NDA system being constructed at Los Alamos. One goal of the program is to produce an NDA system for use in Russia that maximizes the use of Russian resources to facilitate maintenance and future upgrades. The Green Star SBS50 Single Board Spectrometer system (Green Star Ltd., Moscow, Russia) has been suggested for use as the data acquisition component for gamma ray instruments in the system. Possible uses are for plutonium isotopic analysis and also segmented gamma scanning. Green Star has also developed analysis software for the SBS50. This software, both plutonium isotopic analysis and uranium enrichment analysis, was developed specifically for customs/border inspection applications (low counting rate applications and identification as opposed to quantification) and was not intended for MC and A applications. Because of the relative immaturity of the Green Star plutonium isotopic analysis software (it has been under development for only one year and is patterned after US development circa 1980), it was tentatively agreed, before the tests, that the Russian NDA system would use the Los Alamos PC/FRAM software for plutonium isotopic analysis. However, it was also decided to include the Green Star plutonium isotopic software in the testing, both to quantify its performance for MC and A applications and also to provide additional data to Green Star for further development of their software. The main purpose of the testing was to evaluate the SBS-50 spectrometer as a data acquisition device for use with LANL software.

Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.; Vo, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Seldiakov, Y.P.; Dorin, A.B.; Kondrashov, M.V. [Green Star, Moscow (Russian Federation); Timoshin, V.I. [VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Compact imaging Bragg spectrometer for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

A compact imaging x-ray spectrometer has been designed for tokamaks and stellarators to measure the plasma parameters at different spatial chords. It has been optimized for high spectral resolution and high sensitivity. High spectral resolution is obtained by using solid state detectors and minimizing the imaging errors of the spherical crystals. It is shown, that using spherical crystals the solid angle and hence the throughput can be increased significantly, without compromising the spectral resolution. The design is useful for the measurement of the spectra of He- and H-like ions from Si to Kr. The spectral resolution is sufficient for the measurement of plasma parameters. The temporal resolution is high enough for transport studies by gas puff and laser ablation experiments. The design is based on a modified Johann spectrometer mount, utilizing a spherically bent crystal instead of the cylindrically bent crystal in the traditional Johann mount. The astigmatism of the wavelength selective reflection on the spherical crystal is applied to obtain imaging of an extended plasma source on a two-dimensional detector. For each element, a separate crystal is required, only in few cases, a crystal can be used for the spectra of two elements. For the spectra of most of the He-like ions from Si up to Kr, suitable crystal cuts have been found on quartz, silicon and germanium crystals with Bragg angles in a small interval around the design value of 53.5 deg. All of the crystals have the same radius. They are fixed on a rotational table. The distance to the detector is adjusted by an x-y table to fit to the Rowland circle.

Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.; Jaegers, H.; Marchuk, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

290

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

291

BNL | Two-Column Aerosol Program (TCAP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) There remain many key knowledge gaps despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. Many climatically important processes depend on particles that undergo continuous changes within a size range spanning a few nanometers to a few microns, and with compositions that consist of a variety of carbonaceous materials, soluble inorganic salts and acids and insoluble mineral dust. Primary particles, which are externally-mixed when emitted, are subject to coagulation and chemical changes associated with the condensation of semi-volatile gases to their surface resulting in a spectrum of compositions or mixing-states with a range of climate-affecting optical and hygroscopic properties. The numerical treatments of aerosol transformation

292

NASA's Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE) Mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plans for NASA’s Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission is described. Recommended by Earth Science Decadal Survey in 2007, ACE is nominally planned for a 2021 launch. ACE is...

Starr, David O'C

293

Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.

Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

295

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea) and J. P. Eisenstein Condensed Matter contained in a cryogenic environment. Cyclotron emission from a two-dimensional electron gas 2DEG heated microwave to optical frequencies.2 In this article an all-cryogenic spectrometer is presented that bypasses

Eisenstein, Jim

296

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: A decade long aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A decade long aerosol and cloud statistics and aerosol indirect effect at A decade long aerosol and cloud statistics and aerosol indirect effect at the ARM SGP site Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Harrison, Lee State University of New York Joseph, Everette Howard University Twelve-year data of MFRSR and MWR have been used to derive aerosol and cloud optical properties at the ARM SGP. Diurnal, monthly, seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol (optical depth and Angstrom coefficient) and cloud (optical depth and effective radius) have been analyzed. We specially focused on aerosol-cloud interactions. We found a signature of indirect aerosol effect for summer data: increased aerosol index has a statistically-significant anti-correlation with mean effective radius. No

297

DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL SIZE DISTRIBUTION FROM MEASUREMENTS OF LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE AND SCATTERING Ernie R. Lewis and Stephen E. Schwartz Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11933 ses@bnl.gov elewis@bnl.gov MOMENTS FROM MEASUREMENTS As each of the measured quantities is linear in the size distribution dn/dr, it is possible to construct linear combinations of measurements that yield

298

Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

300

Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

Mekala, Malla R.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer: Demonstration of feasibility  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer (AACA) that will provide a continuous, real-time analysis of the elemental (major, minor and trace) composition of atmospheric aerosols. The AACA concept is based on sampling the atmospheric aerosol through a wet cyclone scrubber that produces an aqueous suspension of the particles. This suspension can then be analyzed for elemental composition by ICP/MS or collected for subsequent analysis by other methods. The key technical challenge was to develop a wet cyclone aerosol sampler suitable for respirable particles found in ambient aerosols. We adapted an ultrasonic nebulizer to a conventional, commercially available, cyclone aerosol sampler and completed collection efficiency tests for the unit, which was shown to efficiently collect particles as small as 0.2 microns. We have completed the necessary basic research and have demonstrated the feasibility of the AACA concept.

Mroz, E.J.; Olivares, J.; Kok, G.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol microphysical characteristics Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new particle formation, aerosol microphysical evolution, three-dimensional transport, and wet... of aerosol microphysical properties. Some of ... Source: Brookhaven...

303

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol chemical vapor Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical and microphysical properties influence aerosol optical properties and radiative effects... distribution of aerosol extensive and intensive properties will aid ......

304

Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

Phillips, Vaughan T. J.

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

Stochastic Heating by ECR as a Novel Means of Background Reduction in the KATRIN Spectrometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary objective of the KATRIN experiment is to probe the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90% C.L.) by precision spectroscopy of tritium beta-decay. To achieve this, a low background of the order of 10 mHz in the region of the tritium beta-decay endpoint is required. Measurements with an electrostatic retarding spectrometer have revealed that electrons, arising from nuclear decays in the volume of the spectrometer, are stored over long time periods and thereby act as a major source of background exceeding this limit. In this paper we present a novel active background reduction method based on stochastic heating of stored electrons by the well-known process of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). A successful proof-of-principle of the ECR technique was demonstrated in test measurements at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer, yielding a large reduction of the background rate. In addition, we have carried out extensive Monte Carlo simulations to reveal the potential of the ECR technique t...

Mertens, S; Bornschein, L; Drexlin, G; Fränkle, F M; Furse, D; Glück, F; Görhardt, S; Krömer, O; Leiber, B; Schlösser, K; Thümmler, T; Wandkowsky, N; Wüstling, S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Detection Efficiency of a ToF Spectrometer from Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection  

SciTech Connect

The detection efficiency of a time-of-flight system based on two micro-channel plates (MCP) time zero detectors plus a conventional silicon surface barrier detector was obtained from heavy ion elastic recoil measurements (this ToF spectrometer is mainly devoted to measurements of total fusion cross section of weakly bound projectiles on different mass-targets systems). In this work we have used beams of {sup 7}Li, {sup 16}O, {sup 32}S and {sup 35}Cl to study the mass region of interest for its application to measurements fusion cross sections in the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 27}Al systems at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier (0.8V{sub B{<=}}E{<=}2.0V{sub B}). As the efficiency of a ToF spectrometer is strongly dependent on the energy and mass of the detected particles, we have covered a wide range of the scattered particle energies with a high degree of accuracy at the lowest energies. The different experimental efficiency curves obtained in that way were compared with theoretical electronic stopping power curves on carbon foils and were applied.

Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Mingolla, M. G. [Laboratorio ANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Partido de San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J. M.; Pacheco, A. J.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Carnelli, P. F. F. [Laboratorio ANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Partido de San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J. O. [Laboratorio ANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Partido de San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Ayacucho 2197, B1650BWA Partido de San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

307

Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEterminiation in fission Research (SPIDER) is a $2E-2v$ spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with $\\alpha$-particles from $^{229}$Th and its decay chain and $\\alpha$-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from $^{252}$Cf. Each detector module is comprised of a thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flight times on the order of 70 ns were measured with 200 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to precision of 0.5%. An ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.

C. W. Arnold; F. Tovesson; K. Meierbachtol; T. Bredeweg; M. Jandel; H. J. Jorgenson; A. Laptev; G. Rusev; D. W. Shields; M. White; R. E. Blakeley; D. M. Mader; A. A. Hecht

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

308

Using Levoglucosan as a Molecular Marker for the Long-Range Transport of Biomass Combustion Aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Widespread biomass burning in the tropics has been identi fied as a major source of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere (1?3). ... Corpus?Christi ... The largest primary source contributors to fine particle mass concns. in Los Angeles are found to include diesel engine exhaust, paved road dust, gasoline-powered vehicle exhaust, plus emissions form food cooking and wood smoke, with smaller contributions from tire dust, plant fragments, a natural gas combustion aerosol, and cigarette smoke. ...

Matthew P. Fraser; Kalyan Lakshmanan

2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Composition analyses of size-resolved aerosol samples taken from aircraft downwind of Kuwait, Spring 1991  

SciTech Connect

Analyses are reported for eight aerosol samples taken from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Electra typically 200 to 250 km downwind of Kuwait between May 19 and June 1, 1991. Aerosols were separated into fine (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m) and coarse (2.5 < D{sub p} 10 {mu}m) particles for optical, gravimetric, X ray and nuclear analyses, yielding information on the morphology, mass, and composition of aerosols downwind of Kuwait. The mass of coarse aerosols ranged between 60 and 1971 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and, while dominated by soil derived aerosols, contained considerable content of sulfates and salt (NaCl) and soot in the form of fluffy agglomerates. The mass of fine aerosols varied between 70 and 785 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, of which about 70% was accounted for via compositional analyses performed in vacuum. While most components varied greatly from flight to flight, organic matter and fine soils each accounted for about 1/4 of the fine mass, while salt and sulfates contributed about 10% and 7%, respectively. The Cl/S ratios were remarkably constant, 2.4 {+-} 1.2 for coarse particles and 2.0 {+-} 0.2 for fine particles, with one flight deleted in each case. Vanadium, when observed, ranged from 9 to 27 ng/m{sup 3}, while nickel ranged from 5 to 25 ng/m{sup 3}. In fact, fine sulfates, vanadium, and nickel occurred in levels typical of Los Angeles, California, during summer 1986. The V/Ni ratio, 1.7 {+-} 0.4, was very similar to the ratios measured in fine particles from combusted Kuwaiti oil, 1.4 {+-} 0.9. Bromine, copper, zinc, and arsenic/lead were also observed at levels between 2 and 190 ng/m{sup 3}. The presence of massive amounts of fine, typically alkaline soils in the Kuwaiti smoke plumes significantly modified their behavior and probably mitigated their impacts, locally and globally. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Cahill, T.A.; Wilkinson, K. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schnell, R. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

310

DOE research on atmospheric aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

Schwartz, S.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and MFRSR Measurements ARM STM 2008 Norfolk, VA Connor Flynn 1 , Annette Koontz 1 , Anne Jefferson 2 , Jim Barnard 1 , Sally McFarlane 1 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder Progress towards ARM DOE 2008 Performance Metric 3 & 4 * Produce and make available new continuous time series of aerosol total column depth, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. * Produce and make available new continuous time series of retrieved dust properties, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. 0 100 200 300 400 0 20 40 60 80 100 ITF movement and surface RH % RH day of year (2006) 0 100 200 300 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 day of year wind direction (N = 0, E = 90) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Wind speed m/s 0 100 200 300 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 MFRSR Vo for filter2, Niamey

312

ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26, Zaveri, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering 2010.05.26, Arnott, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES): SMPS & CCN counter deployment during CARES/Cal-NEx 2010.05.04, Wang, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01, Cziczo, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

313

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon–snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol–climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model ...

Dorothy Koch; Surabi Menon; Anthony Del Genio; Reto Ruedy; Igor Alienov; Gavin A. Schmidt

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Properties in the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerosol optical depth measurements over Bahrain acquired through the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are analyzed. Optical depths obtained from ground-based sun/sky radiometers showed a pronounced temporal trend, with a maximum ...

Alexander Smirnov; Brent N. Holben; Oleg Dubovik; Norm T. O'Neill; Thomas F. Eck; Douglas L. Westphal; Andreas K. Goroch; Christophe Pietras; Ilya Slutsker

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Stable carbon fractionation in size-segregated aerosol particles produced by controlled biomass burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Six different biomass fuel types (wood pellets, sunflower stalk pellets, straw pellets, buckwheat shells, mixed biomass waste pellets, and grain screenings) and wastewater sludge pellets were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size-segregated particles. Aerosol particles were sampled using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles (size <1 µm) in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The isotopic fractionation between aerosol particles and original biomass material varied from ?0.94±0.23‰ to 1.12±0.16‰. The largest negative fractionation ?0.94±0.23‰ was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation (1.12±0.16‰) was observed during the grain screenings combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with the isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in size-segregated aerosol particles suggested that combustion processes could strongly affect isotopic fractionation in aerosol particles of different sizes thereby potentially affecting an interpretation of ambient atmospheric observations.

A. Garbaras; A. Masalaite; I. Garbariene; D. Ceburnis; E. Krugly; V. Remeikis; E. Puida; K. Kvietkus; D. Martuzevicius

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Tracking Elevated Pollution Layers with a Newly Developed Hyperspectral Sun/Sky Spectrometer (4STAR): Results from the TCAP 2012 and 2013 Campaigns  

SciTech Connect

Total columnar amounts of water vapor, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) are derived from a newly developed, hyperspectral airborne sun-sky spectrometer (4STAR) for the first time during the two intensive phases of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) in summer 2012 and winter 2013 aboard the DOE G-1 aircraft. We compare results with coincident measurements. We find 0.045 g/cm2 (4.2%) negative bias and 0.28 g/cm2 (26.3%) root-mean-square (RMS) difference in water vapor layer comparison with in-situ hygrometer, and an overall RMS difference of 1.28 g/m3 (38%) water vapor amount in profile by profile comparisons, with differences distributed evenly around zero in most cases. The RMS differences for O3 values average to 3%, with a 1% negative bias for 4STAR compared with the spaceborne Ozone Measuring Instrument (OMI) along the aircraft flight-track for 14 flights during both TCAP phases. Ground-based comparisons with the Pandora spectrometer system at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland showed excellent agreement between the instruments for both O3 and NO2, further emphasizing 4STAR’s new capabilities. During the summer phase, we have succeeded in identifying variations in elevated pollution layers corresponding to urban pollution outflow and transported biomass burning. This was done using clustering analysis of the retrieved products (e.g. Ångstrom exponent, NO2 and columnar water vapor), and was confirmed by aerosol type identification by HSRL2 aboard the NASA B-200 aircraft. These newly demonstrated 4STAR capabilities are expected to be instrumental in improving our understanding of atmospheric composition variability and aerosol-trace-gas interactions; they open new horizons and opportunities in airborne sunphotometry.

Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Livingston, J. M.; Flynn, Connor J.; Johnson, Roy R.; Dunagan, Stephen; Shinozuka, Yohei; Herman, J. R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Hubbe, John M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Wilson, Jacqueline M.

2014-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

317

Emission-Induced Nonlinearities in the Global Aerosol System: Results from the ECHAM5-HAM Aerosol-Climate Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a series of simulations with the global ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model, the response to changes in anthropogenic emissions is analyzed. Traditionally, additivity is assumed in the assessment of the aerosol climate impact, as the underlying ...

Philip Stier; Johann Feichter; Silvia Kloster; Elisabetta Vignati; Julian Wilson

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic ...

S. J. Ghan; X. Liu; R. C. Easter; R. Zaveri; P. J. Rasch; J.-H. Yoon; B. Eaton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Nonequilibrium atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation and growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mexico City area are shown...inorganic atmospheric aerosols...2005 ) A large organic aerosol source...photochemical and thermal studies of...Characteristic Group Frequencies—Tables and...particle thermal speed...phase-equilibrium in the atmospheric system: Aerosol...Support, Non-U.S...Determination by plasma-based...implications for atmospheric chemistry...2002) A thermal disso-ciation...

Véronique Perraud; Emily A. Bruns; Michael J. Ezell; Stanley N. Johnson; Yong Yu; M. Lizabeth Alexander; Alla Zelenyuk; Dan Imre; Wayne L. Chang; Donald Dabdub; James F. Pankow; Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Organic and Inorganic Aerosol Below-Cloud Scavenging by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrations, with an average gravimetric PM1.0 of 8.2 ( 1.6 µg m-3 and an average Fourier transform infrared-rinsing behavior was unaffected by source type. The aerosol OM was hydrophilic throughout the sampling period the description of aerosol lifetimes in global models. Introduction Wet and dry deposition of aerosol particles

Russell, Lynn

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Project of Aerosol Optical Depth Change in South America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Paraguay Uruguay #12;Statistics of Aerosol M ean D ec 01 to 06 Mean Month AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela

Frank, Thomas D.

322

DO AEROSOLS CHANGE CLOUD COVER AND AFFECT CLIMATE?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AS SEEN FROM SPACE Fire plumes from southern Mexico transported north into Gulf of Mexico. #12;CLOUD IPCC AR4 (2007) 3210-1-2 Forcing, W m-2 CO2 CH4 CFCs N2O Long Lived Greenhouse Gases Tropospheric;AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL

Schwartz, Stephen E.

323

BASIS: Backscattering Spectrometer at SNS | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Backscattering Spectrometer Backscattering Spectrometer View inside the BAIS tank View inside the BASIS tank. BASIS is a near-backscattering, crystal-analyzer spectrometer that provides very fine energy resolution, as low as 3.0 to 3.5 µeV at the elastic peak (depending on sample size). This requires a long initial guide section of 84 m from moderator to sample in order to achieve the timing resolution necessary for obtaining the desired energy resolution. BASIS provides an excellent dynamic range near the elastic peak of about plus and minus 100 µeV in the standard high-intensity operation regime, which, if needed, could be extended to plus and minus 200 µeV and beyond. The spectrometer is optimized for quasielastic scattering but provides about 0.1% resolution in energy transfers up to ~40 meV; the inelastic excitations need to be

324

Gas Analysis with IR-Diode Laser Spectrometers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An IR laser diode spectrometer of modular design with micro-processor control is presented. ... It consists of laser source (vibration decoupled refrigerator with temperature control unit and laser power...

Gerhard Schmidtke; Wolfgang Julius Riedel…

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Gas analysis with IR-diode laser spectrometers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An IR laser diode spectrometer of modular design with micro-processor control is presented. ... It consists of laser source (vibration decoupled refrigerator with temperature control unit and laser power...

Gerhard Schmidtke; Wolfgang Julius Riedel…

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Campaign Campaign For the month of April, researchers are descending on and above Barrow, Alaska, to obtain data from the atmosphere that will help them understand the impacts that aerosols have on Arctic clouds and climate. Scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are using a heavily instrumented aircraft to collect data from the sky, while instruments based at surface sites in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, are obtaining measurements from the ground. Information obtained during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, will help scientists analyze the role of aerosols in climate, and represents a key contribution to Arctic climate research during International Polar Year.

327

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Model Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, (510) 495-2404 LosAngelesSmogv1.jpg Smog over downtown Los Angeles. Aerosols are microscopic particles-like dust, pollen and soot-that ubiquitously float around in our atmosphere. Despite their tiny stature, these particles can have a huge impact on human health, climate and the environment. So scientists from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Colorado State University and the California Air Resources Board have set out to characterize the roles of various particles as atmospheric change agents on a regional scale.

328

High-resolution spectrometer design using spherically curved crystals  

SciTech Connect

A Bragg crystal spectrometer that has a quartz crystal elastically bent into a segment of a sphere has been successfully constructed and calibrated. The principal advantage of the spherical surface over a cylindrical surface is an increase of almost 3 orders of magnitude in spectral intensity, with no corresponding loss in resolving power. This optical system also possesses good imaging properties. The precision components used in constructing the spectrometer are inexpensive and readily available.

Thoe, R.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goeringer, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The ALICE muon spectrometer: trigger detectors and quarkonia detection in p-p collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work was carried out in the context of the optimisation of the performances of the muon spectrometer of the forthcoming ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, CERN). The aim of ALICE is the study of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities ever accessed experimentally. More in detail, the focus is on the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase of matter where the degrees of freedom are those of quarks and gluons: the Quark-Gluon Plasma. The conditions for QGP formation are expected to be achieved in highly relativistic heavy ion collisions. The energy in the centre of mass of Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC will be 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair. The ALICE physics program also includes data-taking in p-p collisions at the centre-of-mass-energy of 14 TeV. The ALICE muon spectrometer has been designed for the detection of heavy quarkonia through their muon decay: both theoretical predictions and experimental data obtained at SPS and RHIC indicate that the production of these resonances sho...

Gagliardi, Martino

331

Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEterminiation in fission Research (SPIDER) is a $2E-2v$ spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with $\\alpha$-particles from $^{229}$Th and its decay chain and $\\alpha$-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from $^{252}$Cf. Each detector module is comprised of a thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flight times on the order of 70 ns were measured with 200 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to precision of 0.5%. An ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for mode...

Arnold, C W; Meierbachtol, K; Bredeweg, T; Jandel, M; Jorgenson, H J; Laptev, A; Rusev, G; Shields, D W; White, M; Blakeley, R E; Mader, D M; Hecht, A A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

333

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

334

Aerosol Science and Technology, 41:202216, 2007 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes, such as con- densation, coagulation, gas-to-particle conversion (Reid et al. 1998), and particle Aerosol size distribution is, along with particle refractive in- dex and shape, one of important

335

Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction  

SciTech Connect

We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: â?¢ Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. â?¢ Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. â?¢ Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.

Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

336

A study on the temporal and spatial variability of absorbing aerosols using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, individual events, such as the Kuwait oil fire and Australian smoke plum, are isolated in individual higher cycle in the two data sets shows that the cycles agree very well both globally and regionally dust and biomass burning source regions, as well as dust transport. Finally, we find that large

337

Ambient measurements of light-absorption by agricultural waste burning organic aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Absorption properties (absorption Ångstrom exponent and mass absorption efficiency) of agricultural waste burning organic aerosols (AWB-OA) and their impact on total absorption were investigated in Cairo (Egypt) during the post-harvest rice straw burning autumn season. At 370 nm, AWB-OA were found to account for more than 25% of total absorption on average for the period of study (and for ?50% during intense biomass burning events), pointing out the major role potentially played by such particles on light absorption at short wavelengths. The absorption exponent obtained for AWB-OA (?3.5) is consistent with values previously reported for biomass burning brown carbon. In addition, AWB-OA were found to exhibit high mass absorption efficiencies at the near ultraviolet/mid-visible regions (e.g. 3.2±1.6 m2 g?1 at 370 nm and 0.8±0.4 m2 g?1 at 520 nm). Such findings clearly illustrate the need to take light absorption by organic aerosols into account for a better estimate of the radiative impact of biomass burning aerosols.

Olivier Favez; Stéphane C. Alfaro; Jean Sciare; Hélène Cachier; Magdy M. Abdelwahab

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol  

SciTech Connect

Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of atmospheric aerosols that can persist in the atmosphere for long periods of time. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long range transport of water soluble N?, S?, P?, and metal?containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle?into?liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR?MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of probable elemental formulae. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba?containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal?containing species that were reemitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, persistence, and dispersion of metal?containing aerosols as well as their environmental effects is needed.

Chang-Graham, Alexandra L.; Profeta, Luisa Tm; Johnson, Timothy J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Research Plans  

SciTech Connect

The MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. The LSDS collaborations suggests that the next step to in empirically testing the feasibility is to conduct measurements on fresh fuel assemblies to understand investigate self-attenuation and fresh mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel rodlets so we may betterto understand extraction of masses for 235U and 239Pu. While progressing toward these goals, the collaboration also strongly suggests the continued development of enabling technology such as detector development and algorithm development, thatwhich could provide significant performance benefits.

Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

340

Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements  

SciTech Connect

Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany and Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Duellmann, Ch. E. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eibach, M. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Hessberger, F. P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ramirez, E. Minaya [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nesterenko, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and others

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Understanding Brown Carbon Aerosols and Their Role in Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brown Carbon Aerosols Brown Carbon Aerosols Tiny aerosol particles in the atmosphere are a possible cause of climate change. Among the many contributors to climate change are aerosols in the atmosphere. These tiny particles suspended in the air come from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Some aerosols are organic (containing carbon), while others are inorganic (such as sea salt and sulfates). Most aerosols reflect sunlight, and some also absorb it. Many of these nanoparticles have severe health effects in addition to climate effects. Human activities that produce aerosols include transportation, industry, and agriculture. Black carbon particles (a component of soot) originating from combustion processes have been known for some time to absorb sunlight and warm the

342

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Title Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Novakov, Tihomir, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Surabi Menon, and Jeffery Aguiar Journal Geophysical Research Letters Volume 35 Issue 19 Abstract In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC) - an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols - with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

343

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules  

SciTech Connect

This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

344

Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are different than the collection of particles from water Filtration has high efficiency for all sizes Size Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Human health Carbonaceous aerosol implicated as important for toxicity and adverse of particulate matter Again, agreement between these two approaches would give a high level of confidence

Einat, Aharonov

345

Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...W. Keith Energy and Environmental...space-based solar scattering...The salient advantage of sulfate aerosols...instrument. Disadvantages of sulfates...concentrating solar power systems...higher energy than molecules...solving the energy balance equation...ratio of solar-spectrum to thermal-spectrum...two of the disadvantages of stratospheric...

David W. Keith

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

3, 59195976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 3, 5919­5976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol field over Europe M. Schaap et al. Title Page Abstract of Utrecht, Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Science, PO Box 80005, 3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands 2, The Netherlands 3 Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands 4 Joint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCES OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.ecd.bnl.gov/steve BOB BRAWDY / AP #12;OVERVIEW Aerosol influences on climate and climate change Earth's energy balance remarks #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS AS SEEN FROM SPACE Fire plumes from southern

Schwartz, Stephen E.

349

ARM - Field Campaign - ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared govCampaignsASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology 2008.07.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Michael Howard For data sets, see below. Description Goals of assist were to intercompare radiance spectra and profile retrievals from a new AERI-like instrument, called "ASSIST" with the SGP site AERI(s) and calculations from Radiosondes measurements. * To bring the ASSIST instrument to the SGP ACRF and perform simultaneous measurements of the sky radiation with those from the AERI. * On relatively cloud-free days, release a special radiosonde at the

350

SPEC-DOC: a user's guide to spectrometer software  

SciTech Connect

SPEC is the name of the operating system designed to control NMR spectrometers. SPEC is actually one large program which handles many functions necessary to control each spectrometer. The SPEC operating system is documented. The general operation of SPEC is discussed, including how to get into the program and how to issue commands. The commands are discussed in detail, as well as the operation of the microprocessor based pulse programmer, spectrometer peripherals, supporting programs, and how to create and load a TEMP program. Appended are details on bootstrapping procedures, hardware specifics, a technical description of SPEC and how to change or recreate it, a description of microcode loading and the procedure for formatting floppies, disks, and recreating RDOS. (LEW)

Sinton, S.; Garbow, J.R.; Ackerman, J.L.; Drobny, G.; Ruben, D.J.; Pines, A.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Photo-Spectrometer Realized In A Standard Cmos Ic Process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spectrometer, comprises: a semiconductor having a silicon substrate, the substrate having integrally formed thereon a plurality of layers forming photo diodes, each of the photo diodes having an independent spectral response to an input spectra within a spectral range of the semiconductor and each of the photo diodes formed only from at least one of the plurality of layers of the semiconductor above the substrate; and, a signal processing circuit for modifying signals from the photo diodes with respective weights, the weighted signals being representative of a specific spectral response. The photo diodes have different junction depths and different polycrystalline silicon and oxide coverings. The signal processing circuit applies the respective weights and sums the weighted signals. In a corresponding method, a spectrometer is manufactured by manipulating only the standard masks, materials and fabrication steps of standard semiconductor processing, and integrating the spectrometer with a signal processing circuit.

Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Ericson, M. Nance (Knoxville, TN); Dress, William B. (Knoxville, TN); Jellison, Gerald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sitter, Jr., David N. (Tucson, AZ); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

CORELLI: the Elastic Diffuse Scattering Spectrometer at SNS | ORNL Neutron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Elastic Diffuse Scattering Spectrometer The Elastic Diffuse Scattering Spectrometer CORELLI The CORELLI instrument. CORELLI is a statistical chopper spectrometer with energy discrimination. It's designed and optimized to probe complex disorder in crystalline materials through diffuse scattering of single-crystal samples. The momentum transfer ranges from 0.5 to 12 Ã…-1, and the energy of incident neutrons ranges from 10 to 200 meV. This instrument combines the high efficiency of white-beam Laue diffraction with energy discrimination by modulating the beam with a statistical chopper. A cross-correlation method is used to reconstruct the elastic signal from the modulated data. Accurate modeling of the short-range order associated with the diffuse scattering requires measurements over large volumes of three-dimensional reciprocal space, with sufficient momentum

353

Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt allows accurate mass measurements of radionuclides, produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated by the velocity filter SHIP from the primary beam. Recently, the masses of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No were determined. These are the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements, which provide new anchor points in this region. The heavy nuclides were produced in cold-fusion reactions by irradiating a PbS target with a {sup 48}Ca beam, resulting in production rates of the nuclei of interest of about one atom per second. In combination with data from decay spectroscopy our results are used to perform a new atomic-mass evaluation in this region.

Dworschak, M.; Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Vorobyev, G. K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, F-91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany); Eliseev, S.; Ketter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fleckenstein, T. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, D-35390 Giessen (Germany); Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, D-35390 Giessen (Germany); Ketelaer, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

A sensitive neutron spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a sensitive neutron spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility laser at Livermore. The spectrometer will consist of a 1020 channel single-neutron-interaction time-of-flight detector array fielded 23 m from the neutron-producing target. It will use an existing detector array together with upgraded electronics for improved time resolution. Measurements of neutron yield, ion and electron temperatures, and density-radius product are all possible under certain conditions using one-, two-, or three-step reaction processes. The locations of the most important potential sources of scattered neutron backgrounds are determined as the first step in designing collimation to reduce these backgrounds.

Watt, R. G.; Chrien, R. E.; Klare, K. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Wilson, D. C.; Haan, S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Development of multichannel low-energy neutron spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A multichannel low-energy neutron spectrometer for down-scattered neutron (DSN) measurements in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments has been developed. Our compact-size 256-channel lithium-glass-scintillator-based spectrometer has been implemented and tested in ICF experiments with the GEKKO XII laser. We have performed time calibration of the 256-channel analog-to-digital convertor system used for DSN measurements via X-ray pulse signals. We have clearly observed the DD-primary fusion neutron signal and have successfully studied the detector's impulse response. Our detector is soon to be implemented in future ICF experiments.

Arikawa, Y., E-mail: arikawa-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagai, T.; Abe, Y.; Kojima, S.; Sakata, S.; Inoue, H.; Utsugi, M.; Iwasa, Y.; Sarukura, N.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Murata, T. [Kumamoto University, 2-40-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Explanatory Optimization of Protein Mass Spectrometry via Genetic Search  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the mass spectrometer settings that accounts for much of this success. Specifically, the conditions of Wales, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3DD, U.K. Optimizing experimental conditions for the effective analy that little or no a priori knowledge of the optimal conditions is available. There is much current interest

Fernandez, Thomas

357

ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols- Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 2014.04.01 - 2014.06.01 Lead Scientist : Joel Thornton Description The ultimate goal of this work is to connect field and laboratory observations of organic aerosol chemical and physical properties during the nascent growth stage to the diurnal and vertical distributions of aerosol abundance measured over the boreal forest by the ARM Mobile Facility 2

358

Aerosol Modeling at LLNL - Our capability, results, and perspective  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Parameterizations in Short-Range Weather Forecasts with CAM3 Over the Southern Great Plains during May 2003 IOP Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 Catherine Chuang, James Boyle Shaocheng Xie and James Kelly LLNL-POST-401948 March 11, 2008 Why are aerosol/cloud interactions important? The greatest uncertainty in the assessment of radiative forcing arises from the interactions of aerosols with clouds. Radiative forcing of climate between 1750 and 2005 (IPCC, 2007) Sources of uncertainty Emissions Gas to particle conversion Aerosol size distribution Linkage between aerosols

359

ARM - Field Campaign - 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 7 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 2007.06.04 - 2007.06.25 Lead Scientist : Carl Berkowitz For data sets, see below. Description The primary goal of this campaign was to characterize and contrast freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus, FWC) and to use these observations to address how below-cloud and above-cloud aerosol optical and cloud nucleating properties differ downwind of a mid-size city relative to similar aerosols in air less affected by emissions. The observations from this campaign can also be used to aid in the development and evaluation of parameterizations of the

360

AEROgui: A graphical user interface for the optical properties of aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols have an uncertain effect on climate, and serious impact on human health. The uncertainty in the aerosols role on climate has several sources. First, aerosols present a great spatial and temporal variability. The spatial variability ...

R. Pedrós; J.L. Gómez-Amo; C.R. Marcos; M.P. Utrillas; S. Gandía; F. Tena; J.A. Martinez Lozano

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness from the GOCART Model and Comparisons with Satellite and Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Georgia Institute of Technology–Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the aerosol optical thickness ? for major types of tropospheric aerosols including sulfate, dust, organic carbon ...

Mian Chin; Paul Ginoux; Stefan Kinne; Omar Torres; Brent N. Holben; Bryan N. Duncan; Randall V. Martin; Jennifer A. Logan; Akiko Higurashi; Teruyuki Nakajima

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

363

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aerosol climate e?ects and air quality impacts from 1980 toAerosol climate e?ects and air quality impacts from 1980 toAerosol climate e?ects and air quality impacts from 1980 to

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

possible pollutant sources. Keywords Atmospheric aerosols . Canonical correlation analysis . Chicago air pollution studies involve collection and anal- ysis of atmospheric aerosols and concurrent meteorol- ogy) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations

O'Brien, Timothy E.

365

Priorities for In-situ Aerosol Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Priorities for In-situ Priorities for In-situ Aerosol Measurements Parameters * Aerosol light absorption coefficient - spectral, including UV, vis, and IR - as f(RH), and at ambient RH * Phase function - or relevant integral properties (how many?) * Ice nuclei * Scattering vs. RH, for RH>90% * CCN, as f(S, D p ) * Size distribution * Chemical composition - for determining climate forcing, vs. radiative effect Calibration * Number concentration * Size and shape * Light absorption reference method Characterization * Accuracy and precision - need well-understood error bars * Algorithm comparisons * Closure studies * Facilities for method testing - aircraft time Methods * Inlets - shattering/splashing - location on airplane - passing efficiency - inletless analyzers/samplers * Packaging - modular/portable "pods" for multiple a/c

366

Aerosol and graphitic carbon content of snow  

SciTech Connect

Snow samples from southern New Mexico, west Texas, Antarctica, and Greenland were analyzed for aerosol and graphitic carbon. Graphitic carbon contents were found to be between 2.2 and 25 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ of snow meltwater; water-insoluble aerosol content varied between 0.62 and 8.5 mg L/sup -1/. For comparison, two samples of Camp Century, Greenland, ice core, having approximate ages of 4,000 and 6,000 years, were also analyzed. Ice core graphitic carbon contents were found to be 2.5 and 1.1 ..mu..g L/sup -1/. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

Chy-acute-accentlek, P.; Srivastava, V.; Cahenzli, L.; Pinnick, R.G.; Dod, R.L.; Novakov, T.; Cook, T.L.; Hinds, B.D.

1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

367

Aerosol generation and entrainment model for cough simulations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The airborne transmission of diseases is of great concern to the public health community. The possible spread of infectious disease by aerosols is of particular… (more)

Ersahin, Cem.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

ARM AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Andrews, and P. J. Sheridan National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado Abstract The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Observing System (AOS)...

369

Method of Preparing Super-Concentrated Jets From Dense Aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Michael J. Hay, Ernest J. Valeo, and Nathaniel J. Fisch This is improvement in aerodynamic focusing of dilute aerosol suspensions. All previous work on this subject has...

370

ARM - Field Campaign - Pajarito Aerosol Coupling to Ecosystems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

properties during the winter-spring transition. Opportunity to investigate fire and automobile emission interactions with biogenic aerosols will also harnessed MAOS will be...

371

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Exhaust Aerosol Particle and Ion Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Exhaust Aerosol Particle and Ion Measurements ... diesel engines have received increasing attention due to their potential health effects. ...

Tero Lähde; Topi Rönkkö; Annele Virtanen; Tanja J. Schuck; Liisa Pirjola; Kaarle Hämeri; Markku Kulmala; Frank Arnold; Dieter Rothe; Jorma Keskinen

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

372

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

modifications reduced but could not eliminate these adverse effects. The Raman lidar water vapor (aerosol extinction) measurements produced by these modified algorithms were,...

373

aerosol influenza transmission: Topics by E-print Network  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Information Sciences Websites Summary: . In preliminary work, we used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to construct global aerosol predictors by learningIntegration...

374

Studying the feedback effects of aerosols on ozone and temperatures in Los Angeles with an Eulerian air pollution model  

SciTech Connect

An Eulerian air pollution model (GATOR/MMTD) was used to study the effects of aerosols on surface solar radiation, surface air temperatures, and ozone mixing ratios. Model results were also compared to data from the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) period of August 27-29, 1987. Gross errors for sulfate, sodium, light absorption, temperature, surface solar radiation, sulfur dioxide gas, formaldehyde gas, and ozone were lowest among parameters compared (1-40%). Gross errors for elemental carbon, organic carbon, total particulate mass, ammonium, ammonia gas, nitric acid gas, and light scattering, were larger (40-61%). Gross errors for particulate nitrate were largest (65-70%). Doubling of the land-based particulate emissions inventory caused gross errors of total particulate mass and elemental carbon to increase by factors of more than two. Also, setting lateral boundary inflow concentrations of particles to zero caused slight (< 1%) erosion of results for most species, large erosion (10%) for sodium and chloride, but slight improvement (< 1%) for a few species. Spinning up the meteorological model 24 hours in advance caused most gross errors to increase. Finally, model predictions for several parameters, with and without the inclusion of aerosols, were compared to data. The presence of aerosols reduced peak daytime surface solar radiation by approximately 6.4% (55 W m-2), increased night-time temperatures by about 0.77 K, decreased daytime temperatures by about 0.08 K, and increased overall temperatures (day plus night during the two day simulation period) by 0.43 K. The relatively small cooling during the day was due to heat trapping by elemental carbon-containing aerosols. The presence of aerosols also caused ozone mixing ratios to decrease by 2%.

Jacobson, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

A fourier spectrometer for studying the radiation from Josephson Junctions  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a Fourier spectrometer designed to study the radiation generated by a Josephson junction in the millimeter and FIR bands with a resolution of {approx}2 GHz in the two-pass mode and {approx}1 GHz in the multipass mode. A feature is that one Josephson junctions operates as both generator and detector at the same time.

Verevkin, A.A.; Il`in, V.A.; Lipatov, A.P. [V.I. Lenin Moscow Pedagogical State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Optical system for high resolution spectrometer/monochromator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical system for use in a spectrometer or monochromator employing a mirror which reflects electromagnetic radiation from a source to converge with same in a plane is disclosed. A straight grooved, varied-spaced diffraction grating receives the converging electromagnetic radiation from the mirror and produces a spectral image for capture by a detector, target or like receiver. 11 figs.

Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.

1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

377

Compact Catadioptric Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a lens that receives said light and reflects said light, a grating that defracts said light back onto said lens which focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. In one embodiment the grating has rulings immersed into a germanium surface.

Lerner, Scott A. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

378

Modulated optical solid-state spectrometer applications in plasma diagnostics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modulated optical solid-state spectrometer applications in plasma diagnostics John Howard Plasma A new electro-optically modulated optical solid-state MOSS interferometer has been constructed for the measurement of the low order spectral moments of line emission from optically thin radiant media

Howard, John

379

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTORCoupled with an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer as a DetectorcOUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol particle size Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: of aerosol over many orders-of-magnitude of particle size range, from subcritical clusters on the molecular... to modeling aerosol dynamics under conditions of new...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol modeling decadal Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geosciences 8 Absorbing aerosols and pre-summer monsoon hydroclimate variability over the Indian subcontinent: The challenge in investigating links Summary: in the aerosol-monsoon...

382

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol radiative forcing Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

No. DE- Summary: : WHY MEASUREMENTS ALONE CANNOT QUANTIFY AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz... of radiative forcing of climate change by aerosols,...

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosols nanometriques application Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is studying how aerosol particles affect everything from Summary: of aerosol particles on climate change, public health, and renewable energy applications. In particular, he......

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol lung inhalation Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

aerosolized by means... is aerosolized upon inhalation by utilizing the ... Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, Department of...

385

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol condensation model Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Science Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 8 DETERMINING AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING AT ARM SITES Summary: OF AEROSOL DIRECT FORCING By linear model and by...

386

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol code comparisons Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Ecology 4 Estimates of global radiative forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL dataset Summary: -sky direct aerosol radiative forcing. The Edwards and Slingo (1996)...

387

Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in the Trade Wind Boundary Layer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation includes an overview of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation properties associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed during the Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment (BACEX,… (more)

Jung, Eunsil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosols harbor diverse Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud & Aerosol Process Group CSDESRLNOAA Presented at: NIST... Aerosol Metrology for Climate Workshop 15th March, 2011 12;Deposition Snow Darkens and Warms BC...

389

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol light absorption Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AND Summary: population centers were used to calculate the aerosol forcing due to light scattering and absorption. Directly... , NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Aerosols influence...

390

Large Aerosols Play Unexpected Role in Ganges Valley | U.S. DOE...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

The data have revealed that large aerosols in this region absorb a greater amount of light than expected. The Science Aerosol particles in the atmosphere may absorb solar...

391

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol atmospheric interactions Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Climate Summary: order estimates of aerosol-climate interaction But... only Earth System Models can include all... of the interactions (in theory at least) 12;Aerosols <>...

392

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali sulfate aerosol Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Formation during... " and "Mechanism of Alkali Sulfate Aerosols Formation during Biomass Combustion" describe the development... the ... Source: Ris National Laboratory...

393

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol size Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for about ten percent of all aerosols in the atmosphere. We... , can actually absorb solar energy and warm the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols are very important... by...

394

Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosols Using Nanospray...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionization-Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (Nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is a promising approach...

395

Results from the NSTX X-ray Crystal Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer has recently been installed at the National Spherical Torus Experiment to record the satellite spectra of helium-like argon, ArXVII, in the wavelength range from 3.94 to 4.00 {angstrom} for measurements of ion and electron temperatures, and measurements of the ionization equilibrium of argon, which is of interest for studies of ion transport. The instrument presently consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal and a conventional one-dimensional position-sensitive multi-wire proportional counter, but it will soon be upgraded to a new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer by the installation of a large size (10 cm x 30 cm) two-dimensional position-sensitive detector that will allow us to obtain temporally and spatially resolved spectra from an 80 cm high cross-section of the plasma. In its present configuration, the spectrometer has been optimized for high throughput so that it is possible to record spectra with small statistical errors with a time resolution of 10 ms by adding only small, nonperturbing amounts of argon to the plasma. The spectrometer is most valuable for measurements of the ion temperature in the absence of a neutral beam in ohmically heated and radio-frequency heated discharges, when charge exchange recombination spectroscopy does not function. Electron temperature measurements from the satellite-to-resonance line ratios have been important for a quantitative comparison with (and verification of) the Thomson scattering data. The paper will describe the instrumental details of the present and future spectrometer configurations, and present recent experimental results.

M. Bitter; K. Hill; L. Roquemore; P. Beiersdorfer; D. Thorn; Ming Feng Gu

2003-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

396

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites: Utility of Trajectory Clustering for Characterizing Aerosol Climatology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites: Utility of Trajectory Clustering for Characterizing Aerosol Climatology E. Andrews Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environment University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado E. Andrews, J. A. Ogren, P. J. Sheridan, and J. M. Harris Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado P. K. Quinn Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, Washington Abstract The uncertainties associated with assumptions of generic aerosol properties in radiative transfer codes are unknown, which means that these uncertainties are frequently invoked when models and

397

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-compton gamma-ray spectrometer Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

compton gamma-ray spectrometer Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anti-compton gamma-ray spectrometer Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1...

398

Cryogenic Fourier spectrometer for measuring trace species in the lower stratosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer has been built to measure thermal emission of the earth’s limb from a balloon-borne platform. Liquid nitrogen cooling of the spectrometer and...

Brasunas, John C; Kunde, Virgil G; Herath, L W

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Upgrade of the neon soft X-ray spectrometer for Alcator C-Mod  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to study plasma rotation, temperature, and impurity density, a Neon Soft X-ray Spectrometer (NeSoXs) was installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. This spectrometer used a spherically bent mica crystal as the ...

Podpaly, Yuri Anatoly

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

E-Print Network 3.0 - alice muon spectrometer Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Sample search results for: alice muon spectrometer Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 (LHC) , 2750 . ALICE, Summary: ., "Stations 4 and 5 of the ALICE muon spectrometer: modular...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

E-Print Network 3.0 - alice dimuon spectrometer Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Sample search results for: alice dimuon spectrometer Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 (LHC) , 2750 . ALICE, Summary: ., "Stations 4 and 5 of the ALICE muon spectrometer: modular...

402

Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer Thomas J. Ahrens, Satish C. Gupta,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Using aluminum alloy as a test sample, each pulse produces a charge of $4.6 pC (mostly Al+1 ), whereas of the instrument. Particles impact a Rh target plate at velocities of 1-100 km/s and produce some 10Ã?8 to 10Ã?5 in the CDA geometry. Employing a multichannel plate detector in this MS yields for Al-Mg-Cu alloy

Stewart, Sarah T.

403

Elastic and Inelastic Polarization Effects Observed with the Argonne Effective Mass Spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Argonne polarized proton beam has been used together...?p??++n we find a left-right production asymmetry of about 40% for ?t ? 0.5 GeV2, independent of energy. Absorbed one-pion-exchange together with quark-m...

D. S. Ayres; D. Cohen; R. Diebold; S. L. Kramer…

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Performance of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer and its Detector Systems at the Holi eld  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA bPhysics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA cDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt L69 3BX, UK eJoint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA f

405

Performance of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer and its Detector Systems at the Holifield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.­H. Yu b , and E. F. Zganjar k a Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA b Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA c Department of Liverpool, P. O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK e Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge

406

Investigation of gamma induced degradation of Amberlite 200 cation resin by mass spectrometer and liquid chromatograph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, provisions were made for collecting samples of any gas produced. The irradiated resin was exposed to total 7 8 8 accumulations of 1. 0129X10 , 1. 0215XIO , and 5. 0168X10 Rads in three separate runs. It should be noted that the same amount of demineral.... (December 1977) Albert Antonio Freitag, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. James 8. Smathers Amberlite 200 cation exchange resin was irradiated by gamma 7 8 radiation to doses of 10 to 5X10 Rads. Results of the analysis...

Freitag, Albert Antonio

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The development of an Omegratron plasma ion mass spectrometer for Alcator C-Mod  

SciTech Connect

A new diagnostic device, the Omegatron Probe, has been developed to investigate relative impurity levels and impurity charge state distribution in the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak edge plasma. The Omegatron probe consists of two principal components, a ``front-end`` of independently biased grids, arranged in a gridded energy analyzer fashion and a large collection cavity. Particles enter the probe in a thin ``ribbon`` through a knife-edge slit. The grids provide a means to measure and control the parallel energy distribution of the ions. In the collection cavity, an oscillating electric field is applied perpendicularly to the ambient magnetic field. Ions whose cyclotron frequencies are resonant with this electric field oscillation will gain perpendicular energy and be collected. In this way, the probe can be operated in two modes: first, by fixing the potentials on the grids and sweeping frequencies to obtain a `` Z/m spectrum`` of ion species and second, by fixing the frequency and sweeping the grid potentials to obtain the distribution function of an individual impurity species. The Omegatron probe performed successfully in tests on a Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) linear plasma column. It obtained measurements of T{sub e} {approx} 5 eV, T{sub i} (H{sup +}) {approx} 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.2 eV, n{sub 0} {approx} 9 {times} 10{sup 15} m{sup {minus}3}, RMS potential fluctuation levels of {approximately} 0.5 {plus_minus} 0.05 {plus_minus} T{sub e}, and obtained ``Z/m`` spectra for the plasma ions (H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, He{sup +}). Additional experiments confirmed the theoretical scalings of the f/{delta}f resolution with the applied electric field and magnetic field strengths. The instrument yielded an absolute level of resolution, f/{delta}f, of approximately 2.5 to 3 times the theoretical values. Finally, the results from the HCD are used to project operation on Alcator C-Mod.

Thomas, E.E. Jr.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The mass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mass of the charged Higgs boson at the 1-loop level is investigated, assuming the CP symmetry to be violated explicitly in the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). It is found that there is a parameter region of the MSSM where the presence of explicit CP violation in the Higgs sector yields negative radiative corrections to the charged Higgs boson mass. Thus, the charged Higgs boson in the MSSM may have as low a mass as 60 GeV at the 1-loop level, if the CP symmetry is violated. This lower bound may be improved by the Higgs search at LEP2, which imposes experimental constraints on the charged Higgs mass, as well as on the masses of the neutral Higgs bosons. Hence, LEP2 can constrain experimentally the charged Higgs mass to be not smaller than 109 GeV under our assumption. In addition, it sets 75 GeV as the lower bound on the mass of the lightest neutral Higgs boson, and 84 GeV for that of the next-to-lightest neutral Higgs boson.

Seung Woo Ham; Sun Kun Oh; Eun Jong Yoo; Hyun Kyu Lee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Mass Spectroscopic Determination of Photoionization Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radio?frequency mass spectrometer of the Bennett type has been utilized to measure the mass of ions formed by photoionization of several gases by the ultraviolet radiation of a hydrogen discharge. Investigations were performed up to 11.4 electron volts the LiF cutoff. The mass spectra were found to be very simple and usually consisted of only one peak representing the mass of the whole molecule. This has been found to be true for acetone butadiene butene carbon disulfide methyl?ethyl ketone nitric oxide propylene and toluene. Only in the case of butane ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol fragment ions have been found. Some of them are even more intense than the parent ions. Undesirable ``secondary spectra '' reported by Lossing and Tanaka can be avoided by grounding of the lithium fluoride window.

Richard F. Herzog; Frederick F. Marmo

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

High-accuracy mass measurements of neutron-rich Kr isotopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atomic masses of the neutron-rich krypton isotopes Kr84,86-95 have been determined with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with uncertainties ranging from 20 to 220 ppb. The masses of the short-lived isotopes Kr94 and Kr95 were measured for the first time. The masses of the radioactive nuclides Kr89 and Kr91 disagree by 4 and 6 standard deviations, respectively, from the present Atomic-Mass Evaluation database. The resulting modification of the mass surface with respect to the two-neutron separation energies as well as implications for mass models and stellar nucleosynthesis are discussed.

P. Delahaye; G. Audi; K. Blaum; F. Carrel; S. George; F. Herfurth; A. Herlert; A. Kellerbauer; H.-J. Kluge; D. Lunney; L. Schweikhard; C. Yazidjian

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

411

Conversion electrons used to monitor the energy scale of electron spectrometer near tritium endpoint - a simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum provides good possibility to determine neutrino mass. This, however, needs a perfect monitoring of the spectrometer energy scale. A parallel measurement of electron line of known energy - in particular the 83mKr conversion K-line - may serve well to this purpose. The 83Rb decaying to 83mKr seems to be a very suitable radioactive source due to its halflife of 86.2 day. In this work, we determine the amount of 83Rb which is necessary for a successful monitoring.

M. Rysavy

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

High-precision CO2 isotopologue spectrometer with a difference-frequency-generation laser source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-precision CO2 isotopologue spectrometer with a difference-frequency-generation laser source A precision laser spectrometer for the detection of CO2 isotopes is reported. The spectrometer measures the fundamental absorption signatures of 13 C and 12 C isotopes in CO2 at 4.32 m using a tunable mid-IR laser

413

Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, New Mexico, USA Michael Mishchenko Goddard Institute for Space Studies, NASA, New York, New York, USA between t = 0.1 and t = 0.8. The Department of Energy research satellite instrument, the Multispectral [Hobbs et al., 1997]. The aerosols' direct effect involves their interaction with solar and terrestrial

414

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

Napp, Nils

415

Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-47669 Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain Walker of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey A. Siegel Iain S. Walker, Ph.D. ASHRAE Student Member that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems of 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters

416

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in northcentral Oklahoma: 19922008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of aerosol models; for identification of aerosols from spe- cific events (e.g., the Central American fires Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most dimming; that is, the decrease in solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Additionally, the wavelength

417

Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter at Barrow. Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Aerosols Efforts are currently underway to run and evaluate the Broadband Heating Rate Profile project at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site for the time period March 2004 - February 2005. The Aerosol Best-Estimate (ABE) Value-Added Procedure (VAP) is to provide continuous estimates of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single-scatter albedo, and asymmetry parameter above the Northern Slopes of Alaska (NSA) facility. In the interest of temporal continuity, we have developed an algorithm that

418

ARM - Field Campaign - MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsMArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP govCampaignsMArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP Campaign Links Science Plan AMF Point Reyes Website AMF Point Reyes Data Plots Related Campaigns MASRAD: Pt. Reyes Stratus Cloud and Drizzle Study 2005.07.07, Coulter, AMF MASRAD: Cloud Condensate Nuclei Chemistry Measurements 2005.07.01, Berkowitz, AMF MASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties 2005.06.29, Strawa, AMF MASRAD:Sub-Micron Aerosol Measurements 2005.06.20, Wang, AMF MASRAD: Cloud Study from the 2NFOV at Pt. Reyes Field Campaign 2005.06.02, Wiscombe, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP 2005.03.14 - 2005.09.14 Website : http://www.arm.gov/sites/amf/pye/ Lead Scientist : Mark Miller

419

Aerosol Retrievals under Partly Cloudy Conditions: Challenges and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect

There are lots of interesting and intriguing features of aerosols near clouds – many of which can be quite engaging, as well being useful and climate-related. Exploring aerosol with the aid of the remote sensing, in situ observations and numerical modeling has piqued our curiosity and led to improve insights into the nature of aerosol and clouds and their complex relationship. This chapter conveys the outstanding issues of cloudy-sky aerosol retrievals of important climate properties and outlines their fruitful connections to other research areas such as in situ measurements and model simulations. The chapter focuses mostly on treating the inverse problems in the context of the passive satellite remote sensing and how they can improve our understanding of the cloud-aerosol interactions. The presentation includes a basis in the inverse problem theory, reviews available approaches and discusses their applications to partly cloudy situations. Potential synergy of observations and model simulations is described as well.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?  

SciTech Connect

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Atmospheric aerosol monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

For a ground based cosmic-ray observatory the atmosphere is an integral part of the detector. Air fluorescence detectors (FDs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols, consisting mainly of clouds and dust, can strongly affect the propagation of fluorescence and Cherenkov light from cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory has a comprehensive program to monitor the aerosols within the atmospheric volume of the detector. In this paper the aerosol parameters that affect FD reconstruction will be discussed. The aerosol monitoring systems that have been deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be briefly described along with some measurements from these systems.

Cester, R.; Chiosso, M.; Chirin, J.; Clay, R.; Dawson, B.; Fick, B.; Filipcic, A.; Garcia, B.; Grillo, A.; Horvat, M.; Iarlori, M.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.; Matthews,; Melo, D.; Meyhandan, R.; Mostafa, M.; Mussa, R.; Prouza, M.; Raefert, B.; Rizi, V.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Experiments related to the resuspension of aerosols during hydrogen burns  

SciTech Connect

We have performed seven ''add-on'' experiments in two large combustion facilities to investigate the capability of hydrogen burns to remove simulated structural and fission product aerosols previously deposited on small metal discs that have surfaces prototypical of those found in nuclear reactor containments. Our results suggest that hydrogen combustion provides an especially effective mechanism for removal (and, presumably, resuspension) of sedimented aerosols produced in a hypothetical nuclear reactor core-degradation or core-melting accident. The presence of condensing steam does not seem to assure adhesion of sedimented aerosols during hydrogen burns. Differences are exhibited between different surfaces as well as between types of aerosol. In-depth studies will be required to assess the impact exposure of sedimented aerosols to hydrogen burns might have on the radiological source term.

Nelson, L.S.; Guay, K.P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

ARM - Evaluation Product - Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging ProductsAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) 1997.08.01 - 1997.08.01 Site(s) SGP General Description AVIRIS is an optical sensor that delivers calibrated images of the upwelling spectral radiance in 224 contiguous spectral channels (bands) with wavelengths from 400 to 2500 nanometers. AVIRIS has been flown on two aircraft platforms: a NASA ER-2 jet and the Twin Otter turboprop. The main objective of the AVIRIS project is to identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures. Research with

424

Analysis and System Design Framework for Infrared Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a preliminary analysis and design framework developed for the evaluation and optimization of infrared, Imaging Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) electro-optic systems. Commensurate with conventional interferometric spectrometers, SHS modeling requires an integrated analysis environment for rigorous evaluation of system error propagation due to detection process, detection noise, system motion, retrieval algorithm and calibration algorithm. The analysis tools provide for optimization of critical system parameters and components including : (1) optical aperture, f-number, and spectral transmission, (2) SHS interferometer grating and Littrow parameters, and (3) image plane requirements as well as cold shield, optical filtering, and focal-plane dimensions, pixel dimensions and quantum efficiency, (4) SHS spatial and temporal sampling parameters, and (5) retrieval and calibration algorithm issues.

Cooke, B.J.; Smith, B.W.; Laubscher, B.E.; Villeneuve, P.V.; Briles, S.D.

1999-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

425

Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, F is the numerical reading from the fluorometer , L is the liquid volume of the measured (23) solution, 8 is the testing time for each filter, and V is the filter flow rate during the sample period. Penetration, P, of aerosol through... defined maxima on the penetration versus Reynolds number (or flow rate, since the diameter is constant for a given tube) curves for each tube size. Also, in order to observe an optimum tube diameter , a (10) fixed flow rate of 86 L/min was tested for a...

Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

A shrouded probe aerosol sampling cyclone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the air stream. In the present design, three concentric shrouds and a probe will be attached to the entrance of the cyclone. The shroud concept was first used in an aircraft-horne sampling device for collecting tropospheric aerosol particles... by A. R. McFarland and S. A. Batterman. College Station, Texas: 1989. 5. Strauss, W. and S. J. Nainwaring: Air Pollution. London, Baltimore, Maryland: Edward Arnold, 1984. pp. 95-96. 6. Moore, N. E. , and A. R. NcFarland: Stairmand-Type Sampling...

Little, Stewart Craig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

427

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Suspended plutonium aerosols near a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll in 1992  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium aerosol monitoring was conducted for one month near the 1992 operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. Pairs of high volume cascade impactors and a high volume air sampler were located at each of three locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quote} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the-hot soil gate of the sorter, and the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, uncontaminated {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The three monitoring locations were extremely dusty, even though there were frequent rains during the period of operation. Total suspended particulate mass loadings were 178 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile, 93 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the plant area, and 79 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the clean pile during this period, when background mass loadings were 41 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There was no practical difference in the aerosol specific activity between the three locations, however, which had a median value of 3.64 pCi/g (135 Bq/kg). The aerosol specific activity is enhanced by a factor of 3 over the specific activity of the processed contaminant soil. This is about the same enhancement factor as found by other studies of road traffic, bulldozing, and agricultural operations. Specific activity of processed soil was 1.35 pCi/g (50 Bq/kg). The median mass-loading of the three downwind sites was 109 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (uncorrected for the sea spray contribution), so that the median concentrations in air using the median aerosol specific activity was calculated to be 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}). Measured Pu concentrations ranged from 280 to 1508 aCi/m{sup 3} (10 to 56 {mu}Bq/m3).

Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.F.; Johnson, J.S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Compact Refractive Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first means for receiving the light and focusing the light, an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the first means and defracts the light, a second means for receiving the light from the immersed diffraction grating and focusing the light, and an image plane that receives the light from the second means

Lerner, Scott A. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA); Bixler, Jay V. (Oakland, CA); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Isabella T. (San Jose, CA)

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

430

Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings With Accessible Entrance Slit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit, a catadioptric lens with a mirrored surface, a grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit directs light to the mirrored surface of the catadioptric lens; the mirrored surface reflects the light back through the lens to the grating. The grating receives the light from the catadioptric lens and diffracts the light to the lens away from the mirrored surface. The lens transmits the light and focuses it onto the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

431

An approximately 4. pi. tracking magnetic spectrometer for RHIC  

SciTech Connect

A tracking magnetic spectrometer based on large Time Projection Chambers (TPC) is proposed to measure the momentum of charged particles emerging from the RHIC beam pipe at angles larger than four degrees and to identify the particle type for those beyond fifteen degrees with momenta up to 700 MeV/c, which is a large fraction of the final charged particles emitted by a low rapidity quark-gluon plasma.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Beryllium Carcinogenesis. I. Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Beryllium Sulfate Aerosol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aerosol at a mean atmospheric concentration of...aerosol at a mean atmospheric concentration of...in the drinking water) for 2 weeks...a glass aerosol generator, with an airflow...chamber, distilled water was disseminated...aerosol generation, atmospheric concentration control...

Andrew L. Reeves; Daniel Deitch; and Arthur J. Vorwald

1967-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

spectra from size-resolved particle samples col-lected from the Southeastern Aerosol Visibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and acrolein aerosols. We believe that these transformations are due to acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reac

Bishop, James K.B.

434

MRO/CRISM Retrieval of Surface Lambert Albedos for Multispectral Mapping of Mars with DISORT-based Rad. Transfer Modeling: Phase 1 - Using Historical Climatology for Temperatures, Aerosol Opacities, & Atmo. Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the DISORT-based radiative transfer pipeline ('CRISM_LambertAlb') for atmospheric and thermal correction of MRO/CRISM data acquired in multispectral mapping mode (~200 m/pixel, 72 spectral channels). Currently, in this phase-one version of the system, we use aerosol optical depths, surface temperatures, and lower-atmospheric temperatures, all from climatology derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) data, and surface altimetry derived from MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The DISORT-based model takes as input the dust and ice aerosol optical depths (scaled to the CRISM wavelength range), the surface pressures (computed from MOLA altimetry, MGS-TES lower-atmospheric thermometry, and Viking-based pressure climatology), the surface temperatures, the reconstructed instrumental photometric angles, and the measured I/F spectrum, and then outputs a Lambertian albedo spectrum. The Lambertian albedo spectrum is valuable geologically since it allows the mineralogical ...

McGuire, P C; Smith, M D; Arvidson, R E; Murchie, S L; Clancy, R T; Roush, T L; Cull, S C; Lichtenberg, K A; Wiseman, S M; Green, R O; Martin, T Z; Milliken, R E; Cavender, P J; Humm, D C; Seelos, F P; Seelos, K D; Taylor, H W; Ehlmann, B L; Mustard, J F; Pelkey, S M; Titus, T N; Hash, C D; Malaret, E R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Interface for the rapid analysis of liquid samples by accelerator mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An interface for the analysis of liquid sample having carbon content by an accelerator mass spectrometer including a wire, defects on the wire, a system for moving the wire, a droplet maker for producing droplets of the liquid sample and placing the droplets of the liquid sample on the wire in the defects, a system that converts the carbon content of the droplets of the liquid sample to carbon dioxide gas in a helium stream, and a gas-accepting ion source connected to the accelerator mass spectrometer that receives the carbon dioxide gas of the sample in a helium stream and introduces the carbon dioxide gas of the sample into the accelerator mass spectrometer.

Turteltaub, Kenneth; Ognibene, Ted; Thomas, Avi; Daley, Paul F; Salazar Quintero, Gary A; Bench, Graham

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation  

SciTech Connect

Before the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was generally assumed that gas-phase chemical reactions controlled the abundance of stratospheric ozone. However, the massive springtime ozone losses over Antarctica first reported by Farman et al in 1985 could not be explained on the basis of gas-phase chemistry alone. In 1986, Solomon et al suggested that chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) could be important for the observed ozone losses. Since that time, an explosion of laboratory, field, and theoretical research in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry has occurred. Recent work has indicated that the most important heterogeneous reaction on PSCs is ClONO[sub 2] + HCl [yields] Cl[sub 2] + HNO[sub 3]. This reaction converts inert chlorine into photochemically active Cl[sub 2]. Photolysis of Cl[sub 2] then leads to chlorine radicals capable of destroying ozone through very efficient catalytic chain reactions. New observations during the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition found stoichiometric loss of ClONO[sub 2] and HCl in air processed by PSCs in accordance with reaction 1. Attention is turning toward understanding what kinds of aerosols form in the stratospheric, their formation mechanism, surface area, and specific chemical reactivity. Some of the latest findings, which underline the importance of aerosols, were presented at a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration workshop in Boulder, Colorado.

Tolbert, M.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

1994-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

438

Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll. [Pulmonary exposure from dust-borne plutonium aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations); (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field; (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic; and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Dust concentrations of 21 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and sea spray of 34 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ were the background throughout the Bikini Island except within 50 m of the windward beach. Background concentrations of /sup 239 +240/Pu were 60 aCi m/sup -3/ in the coconut grove and 264 aCi m/sup -3/ over rain-stabilized bare soil. The ratio of plutonium activity in aerosols relative to the activity in underlying soil, defined as the enhancement factor, EF, was typically less than one. Enhancement factors increased about 3.8 as a result of tilling. Plutonium resuspension flux was estimated at 0.49 pCi m/sup -2/ year/sup -1/ over most of Bikini Island. Aerosol size distributions associated with mass and with plutonium activity were typically log-normal with median aerodynamic diameter 2.44 ..mu..m, which decreased to 2.0 ..mu..m above freshly tilled soil. The Pu concentration in aerosols collected over disturbed soil increased by a factor of 19.1. Vehicular traffic produced dust pulses typically of 10 s duration, 28 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ average concentration, and plutonium enhancement factor 2.5. Personal dosimetry showed that enhancement of dust by a worker was a factor of 2.64 for heavy work outdoors and 1.86 for light work in and around houses. Pulmonary deposition of plutonium was calculated for various exposure conditions. The pulmonary deposition ranged from 1476 aCi h/sup -1/ to 12 aCi h/sup -1/ with intermediate values for heavy outdoor work and for light work in and around houses.

Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

440

Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Focused analyte spray emission apparatus and process for mass spectrometric analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process are disclosed that deliver an analyte deposited on a substrate to a mass spectrometer that provides for trace analysis of complex organic analytes. Analytes are probed using a small droplet of solvent that is formed at the junction between two capillaries. A supply capillary maintains the droplet of solvent on the substrate; a collection capillary collects analyte desorbed from the surface and emits analyte ions as a focused spray to the inlet of a mass spectrometer for analysis. The invention enables efficient separation of desorption and ionization events, providing enhanced control over transport and ionization of the analyte.

Roach, Patrick J. (Kennewick, WA); Laskin, Julia (Richland, WA); Laskin, Alexander (Richland, WA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

442

IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors  

SciTech Connect

A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

443

HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

A 100-kc modulation system for an EPR microwave spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 100-kc FIELD MODULATION SYSTEM FOR AN EPR MICROWAVE SPECTROMETER A Thesis By Frank Edwin Stewart Approved as to style and content by: /I i r Chairman of Committee C ead of Dep rtment Member ember August 1964 ACM ONLEDGi PENT... LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE II-1 Molecular Structure of DPPH 22 II-2 11-3 III-1 IV-1 Hyperfine Splitting in the DPPH EPR Spectrum . 25 Hyperfine Splitting in the Mn EpR Spectrum , . 27 100-kc Field Modulation and Detection System . 4I Typical...

Stewart, Frank Edwin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

445

A 4. pi. tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer for RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The primary physics objective of the 4{pi} TPC magnetic spectrometer proposal is to search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma. In previous workshops we have discussed what the possible hadronic signatures of such a state of matter would be. Succinctly, the QGP is a direct prediction of non-perturbative QCD. Therefore the question of the existence of this new state of matter bears directly on the validity of non-perturbative QCD. However, since non-perturbative QCD has never been established, it is apparent that what may await us is a host of new phenomena that will go beyond the standard model.

Danby, G.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Van Dijk, J.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Lindenbaum, S.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA) City Coll., New York, NY (USA)); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K. (City Coll., New York, NY (USA)); Biswas, N.; Kenney, P.; Piekarz, J. (Notre Dame Univ

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Aerosol-Based Duct Sealing Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Aerosol-Based Duct Sealing Technology During the past five years, research has quantified the impacts of residential duct system leakage on HVAC energy consumption and peak electricity demand. A typical house with ducts located in the attic or crawlspace wastes approximately 20% of heating and cooling energy through duct leaks and draws approximately 0.5 KW more electricity during peak cooling periods. A 1991 study indicated that sealing leaks could save close to one Quadrillion Btus per year. (see also Commercializing a New Technology) Because the major cost of sealing leaks in existing air distribution systems is the labor for the location and sealing process, reducing the labor could greatly improve the cost-effectiveness of such a retrofit. Field studies of duct sealing programs performed by HVAC contractors show

447

PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 014607 (2010) Fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy measured  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of incident neutron energy measured in a lead slowing-down spectrometer C. Romano,1 Y. Danon,1,* R. Block,1 J; published 19 January 2010) A new method of measuring fission fragment mass and energy distributions to measure the neutron-induced fission cross section and fragment mass and energy distributions of 25.3 ± 0

Danon, Yaron

448

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution in helicon plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution analyzer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), has been developed to simultaneously measure the energy) are measured at rf power of 1000 W. The results show that the fairly broad energy distributions of different

Zexian, Cao

449

Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using multiple measurements from Darwin ARCS Mitchell, Ross CSIRO Category: Aerosols Thin cirrus cloud occurs frequently in the tropics, and is often difficult to distinguish from tropospheric aerosol on the basis of temporal variations in ground based measurements, since both can be rather spatially uniform. In this study we investigate their discrimination by combining data from three instruments at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS): the Cimel sun photometer (CSP), the micropulse lidar (MPL), and the total sky imager (TSI). The study was carried out over the dry season of 2005, with the usual widespread burning of tropical savanna leading to extensive smoke plumes. It is shown that the locus of data in

450

Mobile Climate Observatory for Atmospheric Aerosols in India  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosols in India Atmospheric Aerosols in India Nainital, India, was the site chosen for deployment of a portable climate research laboratory to study how aerosols impact clouds and energy transfer in the atmosphere. The well-being of hundreds of millions of residents in northeastern India depends on the fertile land around the Ganges River, which is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Any disturbance to the monsoon rains could threaten the population. In the same region, increased industrial activities due to economic growth are releasing small aerosol particles, such as soot and dust, that absorb and scatter sunlight and thus can change cloud formation processes and the heat distribution in the atmosphere. Such changes could greatly increase or

451

ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols- Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment 2014.02.01 - 2014.04.30 Lead Scientist : Dmitri Moisseev Description The snowfall measurement campaign, which will take place during AMF2 deployment in Finland, will focus on understanding snowfall microphysics and characterizing performance of surface based snowfall measurement instruments. This will be achieved by combining triple frequency (X, Ka, W -band) radar observations of vertical structure of the precipitation,

452

PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico Jump to: navigation, search Name PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico Agency/Company /Organization Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Topics Co-benefits assessment Resource Type Dataset, Maps Website http://www.pnl.gov/atmospheric Country Mexico UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References PNNL-MILAGRO Aerosol Modeling in Mexico[1] "MILGARO surface data includes measurements from Supersites, RAMA (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico), Mobile, and Other sites. A description of each site type follows along with a plot of the site locations. Supersites Supersites provide detailed atmospheric chemistry and meteorological measurements; these sites included: T0 (located at the Instituto Mexicano

453

A New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect Shao, Hongfei Florida State University Liu, Guosheng Florida State University Category: Aerosols The aerosol first indirect effect is known to cool the Earth radiatively. However, its magnitude is very uncertain; large discrepancies exist among the observed values published in the literature. In this study, we first survey the published values of those parameters used for describing the first indirect effect. By analyzing the discrepancies among these values, we show that the first indirect effect has been overestimated by many investigators due to an improper parameter being used. Therefore, we introduce a more meaningful parameter to measure this effect. We estimated the first indirect effect using the new parameter based on observational

454

Effects of operating conditions on a heat transfer fluid aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are made over ranges of temperature, pressure and orifice diameters. Aerosol drop size distributions of a HTF are measured by a non-intrusive method of analysis using a Malvern Laser Diffraction Particle Analyzer (Malvern laser). The Malvern laser employs...

Sukmarg, Passaporn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

455

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

456

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

457

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

458

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

459

Application of computational fluid dynamics to aerosol sampling and concentration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, FLUENT 6 is used to analyze the performance of aerosol sampling and concentration devices including inlet components (impactors), cyclones, and virtual impactors. The ? ? k model was used to predict particle behavior in Inline Cone Impactor (ICI) and Jet...

Hu, Shishan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerosol mass spectrometer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Persistent sensitivity of Asian aerosol to emissions of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a chemical transport model and its adjoint to examine the sensitivity of secondary inorganic aerosol formation to emissions of precursor trace gases from Asia. Sensitivity simulations indicate that secondary inorganic ...

Kharol, S. K.

462

MELCOR 1. 8. 1 assessment: LACE aerosol experiment LA4  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR code has been used to simulate LACE aerosol experiment LA4. In this test, the behavior of single- and double-component, hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic, aerosols in a condensing environment was monitored. Results are compared to experimental data, and to CONTAIN calculations. Sensitivity studies have been done on time step effects and machine dependencies; thermal/hydraulic parameters such as condensation on heat structures and on pool surface, and radiation heat transfer; and aerosol parameters such as number of MAEROS components and sections assumed, the degree to which plated aerosols are washed off heat structures by condensate film draining, and the effect of non-default values for shape factors and diameter limits. 9 refs., 50 figs., 13 tabs.

Kmetyk, L.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figure 8a). The IE cooling increases snow/ice by about 10% (Their cooling e?ect on surface temperatures promotes ice androw), cooling from the aerosol DE increases snow/ice cover

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impacts of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. This paper presents the results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4–SOM) ...

Salil Mahajan; Katherine J. Evans; James J. Hack; John E. Truesdale

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work investigates the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds and the associated radiative forcing in the Houston area. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) coupled with a spectral-bin microphysics is employed...

Fan, Jiwen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Impact of aerosols on convective clouds and precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, E19-411 Cambridge, MA 02139 (USA) Location to form and a significant attenuator of solar radiation, aerosols affect climate in several ways. Current

467

Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect

A new alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of interest. At the present time we have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and we have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Work on the data processing, display and alarm functions is being done in parallel with the particle sampling work and will be reported separately at a later date. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Chemical Composition and Cloud Nucleation Ability of Marine Aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study is focused on the chemical composition and cloud nucleation ability of marine aerosol based on two cruise researches over Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean respectively. Implications of CLAW hypothesis and the factors influencing its...

Deng, Chunhua

2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

469

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Aerosol Transport and Deposition Mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, various aerosol particle transport and deposition mechanisms were studied through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, including inertial impaction, gravitational effect, lift force, interception, and turbophoresis, within...

Tang, Yingjie

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

470

Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

607 Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop Workshop Date: January 30, 2013 Prepared for the U.S. Department of...

472

ARM - Field Campaign - Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods 1998.08.03 - 1998.08.28 Lead Scientist : Warren Wiscombe For data sets, see below. Summary Wednesday, August 5, 1998: IOP Opening Activities: The IOP updates for the Shortwave/Aerosol/BDRF will be composed from notes taken during briefing sessions lead by Don Cahoon and company each night at the Marland Mansion in Ponca City. IOP Status as of 8/4/98 Weather forecasts indicate that cloudy conditions will prevail for the next few days. The Helicopter is on standby for clear sky conditions. Model output indicates clear sky's may move in later this week.

473

Climate impacts of carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols: A proposed study  

SciTech Connect

In addition to sulfate aerosols, carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols are potentially significant contributors to global climate change. We present evidence that strongly suggests that current assessments of the effects of aerosols on climate may be inadequate because major aerosol components, especially carbonaceous aerosols, are not included in these assessments. Although data on the properties and distributions of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols are insufficient to allow quantification of their climate impacts, the existing information suggests that climate forcing by this aerosol component may be significant and comparable to that by sulfate aerosols. We propose that a research program be undertaken to support a quantitative assessment of the role in climate forcing of non-sulfate, particularly carbonaceous, aerosols.

Andreae, M.O.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cofer, W.R. III; Hollande, J.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Division] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

A Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds Gijs de Boer, Tempei Hashino, Edwin W. Eloranta and Gregory J. Tripoli The University of Wisconsin - Madison (1) Introduction (1) Introduction Mixed-phase stratiform clouds are commonly observed at high latitudes (Shupe et al., 2006; de Boer et al., 2009a). These clouds significaly impact the atmospheric radiative

475

Representing Cloud Processing of Aerosol in Numerical Models  

SciTech Connect

The satellite imagery in Figure 1 provides dramatic examples of how aerosol influences the cloud field. Aerosol from ship exhaust can serve as nucleation centers in otherwise cloud-free regions, forming ship tracks (top image), or can enhance the reflectance/albedo in already cloudy regions. This image is a demonstration of the first indirect effect, in which changes in aerosol modulate cloud droplet radius and concentration, which influences albedo. It is thought that, through the effects it has on precipitation (drizzle), aerosol can also affect the structure and persistence of planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds. Regions of cellular convection, or open pockets of cloudiness (bottom image) are thought to be remnants of strongly drizzling PBL clouds. Pockets of Open Cloudiness (POCs) (Stevens et al. 2005) or Albrecht's ''rifts'' are low cloud fraction regions characterized by anomalously low aerosol concentrations, implying they result from precipitation. These features may in fact be a demonstration of the second indirect effect. To accurately represent these clouds in numerical models, we have to treat the coupled cloud-aerosol system. We present the following series of mesoscale and large eddy simulation (LES) experiments to evaluate the important aspects of treating the coupled cloud-aerosol problem. 1. Drizzling and nondrizzling simulations demonstrate the effect of drizzle on a mesoscale forecast off the California coast. 2. LES experiments with explicit (bin) microphysics gauge the relative importance of the shape of the aerosol spectrum on the 3D dynamics and cloud structure. 3. Idealized mesoscale model simulations evaluate the relative roles of various processes, sources, and sinks.

Mechem, D.B.; Kogan, Y.L.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

476

Non-intrusive characterization of heat transfer fluid aerosol formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

providing an ignition source for the fine aerosol droplets. TI&e Malvern Laser Diffraction Particle Analyzer RING DIODE ARRAY DETECTOR BEAM EXPANDER/ SPATIAL FILTER HE- NE LASER FOURIER TRANSFORM LENS Figure II-Z. Diffraction particle analyzer... providing an ignition source for the fine aerosol droplets. TI&e Malvern Laser Diffraction Particle Analyzer RING DIODE ARRAY DETECTOR BEAM EXPANDER/ SPATIAL FILTER HE- NE LASER FOURIER TRANSFORM LENS Figure II-Z. Diffraction particle analyzer...

Krishna, Kiran

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

477

Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

478

GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1 g?cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

479

Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

A. M. Selvam

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

480

On modification of global warming by sulfate aerosols  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that the response of climate to increasing greenhouse gases may be modified by accompanying increases in sulfate aerosols. In this study, the patterns of response in the surface climatology of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model forced by increases in carbon dioxide alone is compared with those obtained by increasing carbon dioxide and aerosol forcing. The simulations are run from early industrial times using the estimated historical forcing and continued to the end of the twenty-first century assuming a nonintervention emissions scenario for greenhouse gases and aerosols. The comparison is made for the period 2030-2050 when the aerosol forcing is a maximum. In winter, the cooling due to aerosols merely tends to reduce the response to carbon dioxide, whereas in summer, it weakens the monsoon circulations and reverses some of the changes in the hydrological cycle on increasing carbon dioxide. This response is in some respects similar to that found in simulations with changed orbital parameters, as between today and the middle Holocene. The hydrological response in the palaeosimulations is supported by palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The results of changes in aerosol concentrations of the magnetic projected in the scenarios would have a major effect on regional climate, especially over Europe and Southeast Asia. 74 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Mitchell, J.F.B.; Johns, T.C. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z