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1

Biodegradation of Triclosan by Aerobic Microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Triclosan, a synthetic antimicrobial agent, is an emerging environmental contaminant. Due to incomplete removal of triclosan by wastewater treatment plants, treated wastewater is one major source of environmental triclosan. Biodegradation of triclosan has been observed in activated sludge and the environment, suggesting that it is possible to develop a cost-effective biotreatment strategy for triclosan removal from wastewater. However, current knowledge on triclosan biodegradation is scarce and limited. To bridge this knowledge gap, this dissertation characterized cultivable triclosan-degrading microorganisms, identified uncultivable triclosan-utilizing bacteria, and elucidated triclosan biodegradation pathways. Furthermore, two treatment strategies were examined to enhance triclosan biodegradation in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS). A wastewater bacterial isolate, Sphingopyxis strain KCY1 (hereafter referred as strain KCY1), can completely degrade triclosan with a stoichiometric release of chloride. This strain can retain its degradation ability toward triclosan when after grown in complex nutrient medium containing triclosan as low as 5 micrograms/L. Based on five identified metabolites, a meta-cleavage pathway was proposed for triclosan biodegradation by strain KCY1. By using [13C12]-triclosan stable isotope probing, eleven uncultured triclosan-utilizing bacteria in a triclosan-degrading microbial consortium were identified. These clones are distributed among alpha-, beta-, or gamma-Proteobacteria, suggesting that triclosan-utilizing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse. None of these clone sequences were similar to known triclosan degraders. Growth substrates affected the triclosan degradation potential of four selected oxygenase-expressing bacteria. Biphenyl-grown Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and propane-grown Rhodococcus ruber ENV425 cannot degrade triclosan. On the other hand, propane- and 2-propanol-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 can degrade triclosan completely. Due to product toxicity, finite transformation capacities for triclosan were observed for Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 grown on biphenyl, propane, and LB medium with dicyclopropylketone (alkane monooxygenase inducer). Four chlorinated metabolites were detected during triclosan degradation by biphenyl-grown RHA1 and a meta-cleavage pathway was proposed. Complete triclosan (5 mg/L) degradation was observed within 96 hrs in NAS receiving ammonia amendment (0 to 75 mg/L of NH4-N). The fastest triclosan degradation was observed in the NAS exhibiting the highest amount of ammonia. When ammonia oxidation was active in NAS, the amendment of strain KCY1 did not further enhance triclosan removal. Overall, the results suggested that triclosan biodegradation can be enhanced by increasing the activity of ammonia oxidation in NAS.

Lee, Do Gyun

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, C.B.

1988-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

4

Evaluation of the In Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Ethenes by Toluene-Utilizing Microorganisms Using Push-Pull Tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Single-well-push-pull tests were used in a contaminated aquifer to evaluate the ability of toluene-oxidizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) such as trichloroethene (TCE). Groundwater containing dissolved toluene was injected into the saturated zone in biostimulate indigenous toluene-utilizers. The test solution was injected into the aquifer using a standard monitoring well and then was transported under natural-gradient conditions. Transport tests demonstrated similar transport characteristics of the conservative tracer and the reactive solutes. Biostimulation tests were then performed by injecting a test solution containing dissolved toluene substrate, hydrogen peroxide, bromide and nitrate in order to increase the biomass of toluene-utilizing microorganisms. During the biostimulation tests, decreases in toluene concentration and the production of o-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product, indicated the simulation of toluene-utilizing microorganisms containing an ortho-monooxygenase enzyme. Transformation tests conducted after biostimulation demonstrated that indigenous microorganisms have the capability to transform the surrogate compounds (e.g. isobutene). Isobutene was transformed to isobutene oxide, indicating transformation by a toluene ortho-monooxygenase.

Azizian, Mohammad F.; Istok, Jonathan; Semprini, Lewis

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

Lam, Raymond H. W.

6

Martian bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Martian bacteria? Martian bacteria? Name: clement Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: Is it possible for there to be life of anaerobic bacteria in the ice caps of the planet Mars? Replies: As far as I know, there is no evidence against such life on Mars, so the short answer is: yes. Jade Sure -- except that it would be pretty limited in its lifestyle - - no cable TV for this bug. Because the temperatures on Mars can reach to below -100 C at the poles, life would be extremely difficult, and the lack of nutrients anywhere except from inorganic chemical constituents in the soil or in the ice around the bacterial colonies would keep the menu fairly short. Oh, and do not rule out aerobes -- Mars has an atmosphere, though admittedly not much of one, and there are such organisms as microaerophiles and also microorganisms known as facultative anaerobes, which can grow in the presence of oxygen but which do not need it to survive

7

Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

8

(Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

Crawford, D.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms. Battelle ...

11

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Response of Prochlorococcus ecotypes to co-culture with diverse marine bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interactions between microorganisms shape microbial ecosystems. Systematic studies of mixed microbes in co-culture have revealed widespread potential for growth inhibition among marine heterotrophic bacteria, but similar ...

Sher, Daniel

14

Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms ...  

Researchers at PNNL have developed a process concept for the use of microorganisms in the production of fuels, chemicals and other products.

15

Expression of Genes Linked to NOx Detoxification in Aerobic Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

operons referred to as the nif cluster. This suite of genesgenes not found in the nif clusters of K. pneumoniae (i.e.is high conservation among nif gene organization based on

Cua, Lynnie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Microorganisms to Speed Production of Biofuels  

ORNL 2011-G00203/jcn UT-B ID 201002408 08.2011 Microorganisms to Speed Production of Biofuels Technology Summary Researchers at ORNL developed microorganisms that can ...

17

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them.

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Basic Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic Bacteria Basic Bacteria Name: Valerie Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I'm doing a science project on bacteria. WHat I'm doing is washing forks with different dishwashing liquids, then wiping any remaining bacteria on to Agar petri dishes. Then incubating it and seeing which soap removed the most. My question is what kind of bacteria would be growing? and also do I just count the colonies to compare? and how long and at what temperature should I incubate this bacteria? Thank you very much for your time. I'll be looking forward to your response. Replies: The temperature is easy: 37 degrees C is optimal for many bacteria. The medium will determine which bacteria grow best. So if you don't see growth on one medium, but you see growth on another, it tells you that there is a difference in nutrients present in those media that is required for that bacteria. Look at your plates after 24 hr, then put them back in the incubator (keep them sterile) and look at them after 48 hrs--do you see the difference? any slow-growing bacteria visible or did the fast-growing take over the complete plate?

19

Bacteria eats radioactive waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria eats radioactive waste Bacteria eats radioactive waste Name: deenaharper Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: In my studies, I have found that everything in this world is balanced. When something dies it is converted into life. Is there anything out there that could convert radioactive material into a harmless substance? Some sort of bacteria that consumes radiation? Replies: The reason why radiation is so harmful is that is produces free radicals in living tissue, that is, it de-stabilizes molecules by tearing off electrons due to intense energies. These free radicals start a chain reaction of destruction, de-stabilizing neighboring molecules. If this continues unchecked, cells die, genetic material are mutated, and tissue aging accelerates. It is somewhat like being burned. Fire oxidizes by a similar free radical reaction. (Hence the term "sun burn.") The natural defenses against free radical reactions in biological systems are antioxidants, which are enzymes, nutrients, and other chemicals, which quench free radical reactions. Without them, life would very quickly cease. To my knowledge, no microorganism has an antioxidant capacity great enough to withstand even minimal exposure to any type of radiation. Microorganisms are actually very susceptible to radiation, which is why heat and gamma irradiation are used to sterilize food, instruments, etc. However, you raise an interesting possibility in that perhaps one can be genetically engineered to have super- antioxidant capacity, but that may be beyond current technology. Plus, if any got loose, given the exponential rate of reproduction, they may become an uncontrollable health hazard, as it would be very difficult to destroy them!

20

Killing Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Killing Bacteria Killing Bacteria Name: alli Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What kills more bacteria for the recommended cooking time in a microwave and a conventional oven? Replies: I hope I understand your question. The time it takes to get your food done is sufficient to kill all bacteria--but not the spores of certain bacteria--both by microwave cooking and in a conventional oven. The spores are not a problem when the food is consumed directly but can be a health hazard when food is bottled and stored. See recommendations at http://www.cfia-acia.agr.ca/english/corpaffr/foodfacts/perfrine.shtml on Clostridium, one of the most dangerous causes of food poinsoning. Or visit the display on Food Safety in the Virtual Museum of Bacteria (www.bacteriamuseum.org) at www.bacteriamuseum.org/niches/foodsafety/foodsafety.shtml

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Disinfection Efficacy of Chlorine on Sulfate-reducing Bacteria and Iron Bacteria in Water Supply Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB) that widely exist in water supply networks are the main microorganisms leading to metal corrosion in pipelines. Chlorine is widely used in drinking water supply systems for sterilization. ... Keywords: Chlorine, SRB, IRB, disinfection efficacy

Qi Beimenr; Wu Chenguang; Chen Xiaoju; Yuan Yixing

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Why Sequence Bacteria from Stromatolites?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria from Stromatolites? Bacteria from Stromatolites? Marine stromatolites are formed by the interactions of several key bacterial groups, which precipitate repeating layers (laminae) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). During 70% of the time life has occupied earth, stromatolites were a dominant biological community. Their associated microbial communities have played a significant role in carbon sequestration, preservation, and cycling during the evolution of life. Present-day marine stromatolite communities consist of cyanobacteria (both free-living filamentous cyanobacteria and coccoid endoliths), sulfate reducers (SRB), sulfur-oxidizers (SOB), and aerobic heterotrophs (including fermenters). The interactions of these key groups drive the organized precipitation of CaCO3. The marine stromatolite system, therefore, provides

23

Bacteria Catalog  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria Catalog Bacteria Catalog Name: Robin Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I would just like to have a list brought up of gram neg. and gram pos. bacteria, names of bacteria and what category they fall under. Such as Staphylococcus aureus is gram positive. This would be very helpful in my MBIO LAB. Thank you, student at NSU, central Louisiana. Replies: Your best bet would be to start with looking in the backs of microbiology text books. Many of them have an index with this information. The internet may also be helpful. Saundra Sample Gram positive: Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Cornyebacterium sp., Clostridium sp. Gram negative: E coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Serratia sp., Citrobacter sp.

24

Water Treatment Strategies: Microorganism Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overview of the fundamental concepts of microorganism control and a discussion about how these concepts can be applied for optimizing current prevention and mitigation strategies in nuclear power plant service water systems. A database has been established to facilitate development of treatment and operation strategies that meet the requirement for preventing microbiological problems while overcoming limitations with current water treatment technologies.

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

25

Counting Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Counting Bacteria Counting Bacteria Name: Tammy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am working with my daughter on her Science Fair Project. We are testing daily items that we come in contact with to see how many germs and bacteria it has. How can we differentiate between the types of bacteria? How can we decide which one has the most? We are using the growth medium Agar in petri dishes. Where can I find more scientific info as to why this happens so we can write up the project? Replies: These are complex questions. First, the agar medium is used as a solid phase so that one can see colonies formed. These are round mounds of growth because bacteria multiply in all directions, but they cannot normally move in or on a solid phase so they remain at the site of multiplication. Every bacterial cell can multiply into a colony. Thus, the number of colonies is a measure for the number of cells present, if you have taken quantitative samples. If you want to quantitate, you should try to standardize your samples (for example, use 1 ml liquid to wash surfaces, food particles, 1 ml of liquids, etc. and add of this one drop (with a micropipette would be more accurate) per agar plate and let the drop form a tear on the plate. The number of colonies that grow in this tear are a measure for the original number of bacteria present in the drop, because each colony is derived from a single bacterial cell.

26

Bacteria Strains  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria Strains Bacteria Strains Name: Michael Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: In the medical setting, how prevalent are strains of Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (bacterium)? Any statistical data would be helpful..... Replies: You can find a report on incidence at http://www.slackinc.com/general/iche/stor1096/thru.htm The Virtual Museum of bacteria, at http://www.bacteriamuseum.org contains general information about bacteria, including antibiotic resistance, and in the near future will contain specialized information on S. aureus Dr. Trudy Wassenaar I don't have those figures for you but you can probably find them at www.CDC.gov. this is the site for the Centers for Disease Control and their job is to keep track of these things. I bet if you go to a search engine (ie yahoo.com, etc.) and search under +"CDC" +"vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus" you might even get to the right page.

27

Aerobic enhanced oil recovery: analysis of the mechanisms and a pilot study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technique that uses microorganisms to improve oil production in petroleum reservoirs is known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery is a method which is based on stimulating indigenous oil degrading bacteria by introducing oxygen (air) and nutrients into the injection water in an existing water flood. The primary emphasis is to promote biological growth in the oil/ water interface, which reduces the interfacial tension and mobilizes the oil. This process is proven to work in laboratory studies, and successful field tests have been reported in USSR. A pilot test on AMEOR has been initiated in the North Brock field in Oklahoma. The treatment, which consists of a continuous injection of air together with an appropriate nutrient supply, has been going on for seven months. So far no increase in oil production has been observed in the full field scale. However, well tests performed on each production well show an increase in oil production from two wells. This increase does not have any effect on the total oil production due to decline periods in the other wells. The most positive observation in the field test is an increase in the differential pressure observed right after the start of oxygen injection. This may be a result of reduced permeability to water in the oil bank, indicating an oil mobilization process in the reservoir. The same effect has also been observed in the laboratory core studies. The process is also proven to be time dependent and independent of the number of pore volumes flooded. It is concluded that it is too early in the process to experience any incremental oil production. The pressure increase may indicate that a mobilization process is going on and that it will only be a matter of time before any additional oil will be experienced in the field. This research involves an analysis of the pilot study in the North Brock field, in addition to a description of the AMEOR technique, effects and limitations. A comparison to other conventional MEOR techniques is also given.

Eide, Karen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB reductive pentose phosphate pathway, whose key enzyme is ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). In addition to providing virtually all cellular carbon during autotrophic metabolism, RubisCO-mediated CO{sub 2} assimilation is also very important for nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria under photoheterotrophic growth conditions since CO{sub 2} becomes the major electron sink under these conditions. In this work, Ensemble Modeling (EM) was developed to examine the behavior of CBB-compromised RubisCO knockout mutant strains of the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mathematical models of metabolism can be a great aid in studying the effects of large perturbations to the system, such as the inactivation of RubisCO. Due to the complex and highly-interconnected nature of these networks, it is not a trivial process to understand what the effect of perturbations to the metabolic network will be, or vice versa, what enzymatic perturbations are necessary to yield a desired effect. Flux distribution is controlled by multiple enzymes in the network, often indirectly linked to the pathways of interest. Further, depending on the state of the cell and the environmental conditions, the effect of a perturbation may center around how it effects the carbon flow in the network, the balancing of cofactors, or both. Thus, it is desirable to develop mathematical models to describe, understand, and predict network behavior. Through the development of such models, one may gain the ability to generate a set of testable hypotheses for system behavior.

James C. Liao

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

29

A combined microfluidic/dielectrophoretic microorganism concentrator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic microorganism concentrator for pathogen detection applications. Interdigitated electrodes lining the bottom of the channel use positive dielectrophoretic ...

Gadish, Nitzan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Microorganisms to Speed Production of Biofuels - Energy ...  

Researchers at ORNL developed microorganisms that can quickly overcome the resistance of biomass to breakdown, and improved both the cost and ...

31

Cofermentation with Cooperative Microorganisms for More Efficient ...  

ORNL 2011-G00205/jcn UUT-B ID 201002454 09.2011 Cofermentation with Cooperative Microorganisms for More Efficient Biomass Conversion Technology Summary

32

Bacteria Odors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria Odors Bacteria Odors Name: Jason Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a science project on food decomposition. I would like to know why food -- especially meat--smells bad when it goes bad. Also Why does bread grow mold and why is it green and blue? Thank you. Replies: Jason, When food is being eaten by bacteria, they produce byproducts just like we do. The compounds they produce cause the smell of rotten meat. There is a reason we don't like that smell: it warns us that that food is probably unsafe to eat. So biology has built in a safety rule: you would not normally eat something that you don't like the smell of. The molds on bread are a special kind that like bread. Their spores are everywhere but only when we leave our bread long enough can they grow to sufficient numbers so that we can see them. Again, you can smell the bread is off, you can see it, and if you hadn't noticed you will taste it. However you should not eat bread with molds on: they produce toxic substances. I don't think there is a reason for them to be green and blue, at least I don't know it.

33

Stomach Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stomach Bacteria Stomach Bacteria Name: pam Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: what kind of bacteria or parasite etc. can come from the water and looks like a hairlike is sticky and gets in your tetth causes stomach problems. and when it is just out of my mouth squishy and when it is dry it scrivals up and is hard. has made my newborn son sick ky daughters sick . why is it that you can litearly put hand soap or anti-bacterial on and within seconds you can see what i call blue hairs. or it seems to have gotten bigger and is is whit or half black white?they are in my snot and flem. in my kids bowel movement i think i have contamiated water but no one believes me. it reminds me of a worm .i have to black things attached to twwo of myteeth (looks like a littli tick) can you halp me or am t really crazy? if you could recommend some one or somplace to help me.

34

Bacteria Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria Types Bacteria Types Name: Evelyn Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What is the significance of S. marcescens,M.luteus, S.epidermidis, and E. Coli? Which of these are gram-positive and gram-negative, and where can these be found? Also, what problems can they cause? When we culture these bacteria, we used four methods: plates, broth, slants, and pour plates. The media was made of TSB, TSA, NAP, and NAD. What is significant about these culturing methods? Replies: I could give you the answer to that question but it is more informative, and fun, to find out yourself. Start with the NCBI library online (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and do a query with the species name, and 'virulence' if you want to know what they're doing to us. Have a look at the taxonomy devision to see how they are related. To find out if they're gram-pos or neg you should do a gram stain if you can. Otherwise you'll find that information in any bacteriology determination guide. Your question about the media is not specific enough so I can't answer it.

35

Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

New Sampling Methods for Airborne Microorganisms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Sampling Methods for Airborne Microorganisms New Sampling Methods for Airborne Microorganisms Speaker(s): Klaus Willeke Date: February 27, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: David Faulkner Klaus Willeke and his international team of engineers, physicists, microbiologists, industrial hygienists and environmental scientists have worked for about 15 years on the development of new methods for sampling airborne microorganisms. The following topics will be highlighted: long-term bioaerosol sampling into liquid by swirling air motion ("Biosampler"); personal aerosol sampling with low wind sensitivity and highfilter deposit uniformity ("Button Aerosol Sampler"); collection of microorganisms by electrostatic means; source testing as a predictor for microorganism release from surfaces; particle concentrating from large air

37

Material to Efficiently and Economically Obtain Microorganism and Microalgae  

Technology provides an economical and efficient process to harvest microorganisms like microalgae from its growth media.

38

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

40

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Bacteria: Good or Bad?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria: Good or Bad? Bacteria: Good or Bad? Name: Talei Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is bacteria good for you? Replies: both good and bad. Without bacteria we would die, but some bacteria could easily kill us: it all depends which ones they are. The good ones, those we need to survive, are there to digest our food (in our intestines) and to live on our skin and in our mouth. By doing so they provide a protection against bad bacteria, that make you sick, and these are called 'pathogenic bacteria'. Those bugs take their chance if your immune system is weakened, or if they manage to get into your body in large amounts, by contaminated food for instance. Anyway, the simple question has a complicated answer. If you're interested, read more about bacteria, both good and bad, at www.bacteriamuseum.org

42

Phylogenetic Distribution of Potential Cellulases in Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project Goals: The main goal of this project is to connect diverse microbial groups with the extracellular enzyme systems that catalyze the decay of organic material. We will also determine whether different groups of microbes and their enzymes respond to environmental changes, and whether they can recover from such changes. Finally, we will develop mathematical models to predict the responses of microbial communities and their associated functions under new environmental conditions. In most terrestrial ecosystems, the depolymerization of plant cell wall is the rate limiting step in the turnover of organic material. The composition of plant detritus is known to depend mainly on enzymes produced by microorganisms. This raises the question: which phylogenetic lineages of microorganisms can degrade plant cell wall material, including cellulose? To address this question, we compared the distribution of Glycoside Hydrolases (GH) potentially related to the cellulose degradation among 3744 bacteria. Some phylogenetic groups are especially rich in GHs whereas some are very poor. For example, in bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum ~40 GHs (from the families 1,

Genomic Science Awardee; Renaud Berlemont

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Hydrogen Based Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Based Bacteria Hydrogen Based Bacteria Name: Ellen Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: i was in my Biology class and a very respectable someone mentioned something about the discovery of a hydrogen based bacteria. my teacher wasnt aware of this study, and assigned me to find out about it. so i thought i would Email you and see if you people knew anything about it. Awaiting your repsonse Replies: I'm not quite sure what you mean by hydrogen based bacteria but I will take a stab that you mean bacteria that use hydrogen for energy. Some bacteria are chemolithotrophs which mean that they are autrophs but don't use the sun as their energy source; they get their energy from chemical sources. There are bacteria that use hydrogen as their energy source. They are diverse as a group and are all facultative. The overall chemical reaction looks like this:

44

Flesh Eating Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flesh Eating Bacteria Flesh Eating Bacteria Name: Jennifer Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I was wondering what the inovations for treating the flesh eating bacteria are if there are any.... Replies: "Flesh eating bacteria" are Streptococci, the ones that cause throat infections but sometimes cause extremely severe subcutaneous (below the skin) infections.In order to do this they have to enter the body through a damaged skin: a cut would be enough The infection is treated with antibiotics and hospitalization is needed for this life-threatening infection. Find more info at http://www.acrylicbath.com/info.html If you want to know more about bacteria, take a look at http://www.bacteriamuseum.org In this site you can find general information about bacteria, both pathogenic and 'good'. Have fun!

45

Mechanisms of oil displacement by microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Mechanisms of oil displacement at the oil-brine-sand interfaces by bacteria were investigated by microscopic observations and capillary pressure changes using unconsolidated, thin, reservoir flow cells. Three genera of bacteria, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium, were injected into water-wet and oil-wet cells of unconsolidated sand, saturated with brine and crude oil. The flow cells were placed under a microscope for visual and photographic observations. The flow cells were connected to a manometer to examine the complete capillary pressure hysteresis loop before and after introduction of bacteria. The thin reservoir flow cells were first saturated with brine, and then displaced to irreducible water saturation with crude oil. Oil and brine displacements were then made to determine the complete capillary pressure relationship. Next, the bacteria and nutrients were introduced and incubated in the flow cell for 24-48 hours. Microscopic observations were recorded photographically. After incubation, oil and brine displacements were again made to determine the capillary pressure hysteresis loop.

Kianipey, S.A.; Donaldson, E.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Ampicillin and Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ampicillin and Bacteria Ampicillin and Bacteria Name: sara Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: could you please explain fully how ampicillian destroys E.coli cells? Replies: Ampicillin is an antibiotic belonging to the group of beta-lactam antibiotics. These will kill Gram-negative bacteria to which E.coli and Salmonella belong. The antibiotic prevents the formation of peptidoglycan, an essential building block of the cell membrane. So the antibiotic prevents growth of cells. You can read more about antibiotics and how bacteria can become resistant against them at the Virtual Bacteria of Bacteria: http://www.bacteriamuseum.org Dr. Trudy wasenaar Unfortunately, I don't have my micro books with me, but I'll try. Bacteria have a unique compound in their cell walls called peptidoglycan. It is made of 2 types of sugar residues that are cross-linked (like a chain link fence) by tetrapeptides. Penicillin prevents the crosslinking of the sugars by breaking the tetrapeptides. These antibiotics are more effective against gram positive organisms (such as Staph.) than gram negative organisms (such as E coli) because gram pos. have more peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Some bacteria have adapted to this situation by having an enzyme called beta-lactamase that breaks the structure of the antibiotic open rendering it ineffective. I'm pretty sure ampicillin is a penicillin derivative and therefore has the same mode of action, but I would check to make sure if I were you.

47

Microwaves and Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwaves and Bacteria Microwaves and Bacteria Name: mike Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Do the microwaves in a microwave kill bacteria or is it the heat that kills the bacteria? I am wondering this because i have a science fair project and i am searching for a project dealing with bacteria. Replies: As far as I'm aware it is the heat that kill bacteria in a microwave, and they need quite some time to be dead. The spores that some kind of bacteria make to survive harsh conditions do not contain much water and they might survive microwaves. I'm not sure what bacteria do that can survive high dosis of radiation, like Deinococcus radiodurans. They can do this by a very efficient repair system for their DNA. My guess is that they would also be killed by the heat generated in a microwave but I haven't found any data on this.

48

Why Sequence Anammox Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anammox Bacteria? Anammox Bacteria? Micrograph courtesy Mike S. Jetten, Radboud Univ. The deep sediments and oxygen minimum zones of the world's oceans are assumed to be responsible for the majority of nitrogen loss on earth. The microbes responsible for the nitrogen loss were long unknown, but compelling evidence is now accumulating that marine anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible, making them very important players in the global nitrogen cycle. In marine ecosystems, the carbon and nitrogen cycles are closely connected. More knowledge of the regulation and mechanism of CO2 sequestration by anammox bacteria in the ocean will contribute to our understanding of the global biogeochemical cycles and their impact on climate change. Anammox bacteria are also able to synthesize the rocket fuel hydrazine from

49

Cat Dish Bacteria Determination  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dish Bacteria Determination Dish Bacteria Determination Name: Ashlyn Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: Is there a simple way to measure bacteria in cat's water dishes without doing something with Agar? To measure bacteria in a water bowl, do I need to use a microscope? I am thinking of using different materials (metal, plastic, and glass) to see which of those has the grows the most bacteria. Replies: Hello Ashlyn, That is a very good idea for a science project. Usually the best way to do a quantitative analysis of bacteria content is to take a measured amount of a liquid, plate it out on some type of agar and do a colony count. This will give a basic indication of bacterial load, but not differentiate the types of bacteria. The most common type of bacteria that causes a pink film to form on water bowls and showers, etc. is Serratia marcescens. It is a fairly harmless organism that reacts with standing water. It may only adhere to the walls of the container and not be 'free floating' in the water. A microscope would not likely help unless you were able to do special stains to help see the bacteria. You might also want to add stoneware or ceramic to your list. Just so you know stoneware or ceramic make the best containers for cats to drink out of. It keeps the water fresher: Maybe less bacteria? You might just have to rely on a visual inspection of the containers to see which has more pink per surface area.

50

Lima Bean Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lima Bean Bacteria Suspension: We place 1-2 handfuls of dry lima beans in a large jar and fill halfway to the top with distilled water. Then, covered and sat in a warn room...

51

Insulin and Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insulin and Bacteria Insulin and Bacteria Name: sid Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can you explain Insulin production in bacteria and its regulation by IPTG. Replies: Information on expression of eukaryotic genes in bacteria can be found in any molecular biology textbook. See for instance 'Recombinant DNA by Watson, Gilman, Witkowski and Zoller, 2nd Ed., chapter 23 where the cloning of insulin is described. The use of an IPTG inducable promoter (the promoter of LacZ is only active when the inductor IPTG is present) is also explained in text books, and even in catalogs of the companies selling the plasmids that are used for such experiments. With a bit of reading you'll become an expert! Dr. Wassenaar I'm not sure what IPTG is. But are you referring to recombinant DNA technology? First a human gene for insulin was isolated and cut out of the human chromosome with restriction enzymes. These are enzymes that cut DNA at very specific spots in the DNA. They are like DNA scissors. Then a small piece of DNA called a plasmid is isolated from a bacteria. The same restriction enzyme is used to cut the plasmid. The insulin gene from the human is inserted into the bacterial DNA and they are sealed together with an enzyme called ligase. The plasmid is reinserted into the bacteria and the bacteria will treat the human insulin gene as its own. When it comes time to make protein it will make the insulin as well. Bacteria reproduce very rapidly and are easily maintained. We can get vats of human insulin by this method.

52

Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

Crawford, D.L.

1992-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

53

Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

Lizama, Hector M. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

Arm Pit Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arm Pit Bacteria Arm Pit Bacteria Name: Kayla Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a science fair project on deodorants and anti-perspirants- to see which one hinders bacterial growth more effectively. Here's my problem, I cannot find what kind of bacteria (mainly) flourishes in the axilla (armpit) region. I have been on many different search engines- medical pages- and microbiology pages, and unfortuantely cannot come up with any answers. My school's science fair is March 3rd- so I am in desperate need of an answer!!! I need to be able to order the type of bacteria soon. Thank you. Replies: Try Staphylococcus epidermidis-it is a common organism that grows on the skin. It is not pathogenic (disease-causing) and can be used by students. You could try culturing your own armpit-use a sterile q-tip. Spread the q-tip on the agar plate and then take some of your antiperspirant or deodorant and make a dot in the middle of the plate. Incubate the plate and see if the bacteria are repelled or are resistant. I would measure the size of the zone so you can compare each type of deodorant, etc. You could also check if different people's bacteria are more or less resistant, ie if the same deodorant works for everyone. Each person's bacterial population are a little different. This would require volunteers who would be willing to stick a q-tip in their armpit! If you decide to do this, I would sample the armpit when it is moist, before a shower (dry, clean skin won't have as much bacteria). Good luck.

56

Lactose intolerant bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lactose intolerant bacteria Lactose intolerant bacteria Name: Carolyn McPherson Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: A student scientist is looking for a method to induce lactose intolerance in E. coli bacteria. Is there a suggestion for a method? Thanks Replies: The prevailing wisdom among geneticists is that we cannot really "induce" lactose intolerance so much a we can "select" or "screen" for mutant bacteria that have become lactose intolerant. The idea is that mutations in particular genes do not occur as a response to some evolutionary or selective pressure; rather, mutations just happen randomly, and those that confer a growth advantage (in a particular situation) will help the bacterium grow faster than its siblings. In a previous session, I suggested one way to identify those bacteria; to induce mutations, any of several mutation-causing agents might be tried, including chemicals and UV light. In fact, one worthwhile experiment might be to see how various exposure to UV light might yield increasing numbers of lactose-intolerant mutants. For more details or discussion, you might write me directly (S. Triezenberg).

57

Fungus or bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fungus or bacteria? Fungus or bacteria? Name: Gordon T Davis Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: My biology class is growing bacteria cultures taken from different areas on the school campus. How can we accurately classify bacteria from fungus in the petri dish? Replies: How advanced is your class? In general, fungi look like they are made of tiny threads, or they appear to have tiny dots on top of the colony. But this isn't fool-proof. There are lots of books out with good pictures of various bacteria and fungi; you need to be careful, though, since you could end up growing some things that you'd rather not have everyone exposed to - be sure to sterilize the culture dishes with bleach or in a pressure cooker (depending on the type of plate you are using!) before throwing them away. Also be sure that everyone uses sterile techniques, washes their hands thoroughly, doesn't get too close to the dishes with their faces, etc.

58

Testing for Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing for Bacteria Testing for Bacteria Name: Danielle Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I have to do a science fair project. What I need to compare the relative bacterial levels in milk samples with different expiration dates. What can I use to test the bacteria? Please help! Replies: You want to see if there are bacteria present in milk of different expiration dates, and if so, what they do to the milk. So buy milk of different dates. You could test what effect storage temperature has on bacterial growth in milk. Use those different milk samples in their original package (don't open it!) and keep them at 37 degrees C, at room temperature, and in the fridge (measure how cold that is) for say 48 hrs.Then open the bottle or pack and see what happened to the milk. Do you see differences? Can you explain them? If you open the milk before the experiment you may get bacteria into the milk that otherwise would not have been there. The experiment with the closed bottles will tell you what is better, storage of milk at room temperature, warm, or cold.

59

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ecovation Inc formerly AnAerobics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ecovation Inc formerly AnAerobics Ecovation Inc formerly AnAerobics Jump to: navigation, search Name Ecovation Inc (formerly AnAerobics) Place Victor, New York Zip 14564 Product The company build and operate organic waste management systems. Coordinates 38.15924°, -81.034233° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.15924,"lon":-81.034233,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

62

Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Selective microorganism concentration using a dielectrophoresis-based microfabricated device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a significant challenge in medicine, environmental protection and biological threat safety because samples are often contaminated. This work presents a method of separating bacterial ...

Pucha?a, Katarzyna Anna

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09  

SciTech Connect

Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

Boden, Rich [University of Warwick, UK; Cunliffe, Michael [University of Warwick, UK; Scanlan, Julie [University of Warwick, UK; Moussard, Helene [University of Warwick, UK; Kits, K. Dimitri [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Jetten, MSM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stein, Lisa Y. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Murrell, Collin [University of Warwick, UK

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Biofuels from Solar Energy and Bacteria: Electrofuels Via Direct Electron Transfer from Electrodes to Microbes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: UMass is feeding renewable electricity to bacteria to provide the microorganisms with the energy they need to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into liquid fuels. UMass energy-to-fuels conversion process is anticipated to be more efficient than current biofuels approaches in part because this process will leverage the high efficiency of photovoltaics to convert solar energy into electricity. UMass is using bacteria already known to produce biofuel from electric current and CO2 and working to increase the amount of electric current those microorganisms will accept and use for biofuels production. In collaboration with scientists at University of California, San Diego, the UMass team is also investigating the use of hydrogen sulfide as a source of energy to power biofuel production.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Why sequence purple sulfur bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

purple sulfur bacteria? purple sulfur bacteria? The process by which plants and some bacteria can convert light energy to sugar, or photosynthesis, is crucial to global food webs, and complicated. Very little is known about the photosynthetic bacteria in the purple sulfur bacteria group, which may represent one of the most primitive photosynthetic organisms and are capable of carbon fixation and sequestration in both light and dark conditions with the help of sulfur compounds. Purple sulfur bacteria are autotrophic and can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic sources. Researchers hope to learn more by sequencing nine type strains of purple sulfur bacteria that are found in freshwater, brackish and marine systems. The information would lead to a better understanding of the process of photosynthesis as well as the global

67

Bacteria in Permafrost  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant numbers of viable ancient microorganisms are known to be present within the permafrost. They have been isolated in both polar regions from the cores up to 400 m deep and ground temperatures of -27 C. The age of the cells corresponds to the longevity of the permanently frozen state of the soils, with the oldest cells dating back to {approx}3 million years in the Arctic, and {approx}5 million years in the Antarctic. They are the only life forms known to have retained viability over geological time. Thawing of the permafrost renews their physiological activity and exposes ancient life to modern ecosystems. Thus, the permafrost represents a stable and unique physicochemical complex, which maintains life incomparably longer than any other known habitats. If we take into account the depth of the permafrost layers, it is easy to conclude that they contain a total microbial biomass many times higher than that of the soil cover. This great mass of viable matter is peculiar to permafrost only.

Gilichinsky, David A [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Petrova, Maya A [Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences; Spirina, Elena V [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences; Mamikin, Vladimir [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences; Rivkina, Elizaveta [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria  

interdisciplinary target molecule selection and testing ... Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria (IN 09001) November 2012 tdc_es_in09001_1112_mn

69

Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea  

SciTech Connect

To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed at systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99 percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janey; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

70

Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed to systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janye; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

71

Nitrogen Removal in Aerobic Granular Sludge SBR: Real?time Control Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granules was operated to determine the effect of different DO concentration on biological nitrogen removal for synthetic sewage treatment

Xiangjuan Yuan; Dawen Gao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Synthesis of poly-(P-aryleneethynylene)s in neat water under aerobic conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Provided are ethyne synthons comprising boron and related methods. Also provided are related water-soluble arylethynylene polymers capable of being synthesized in neat water under aerobic conditions.

Kang, Youn K; Deria, Pravas; Therien, Michael J

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

73

Validation of ice skating protocol to predict aerobic power in hockey players.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Validation ofan Ice Skating Protocol to Predict Aerobic Power in Hockey Players In assessing the physiological capacity of ice hockey players, researchers have often reported (more)

Petrella, Nicholas J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Model-based estimation of time-varying parameters and state variables in aerobic bioprocesses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: adaptive observer, aerobic bioprocess, biomass concentration, biomass growth rate, model-based estimation, observer stability, oxygen comsumption, time-varying parameters, yield coefficient

V. Lubenova

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Exhaustive exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

specify the nature of the crocodilian training response byanalysing effects of training on aerobic [citrate synthase (effects of chronic exercise training on oxygen transport are

Eme, John; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M.; Rourke, Bryan C.; Hicks, James W.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fully deuterated microorganisms: Tools in magnetic resonance and neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

Current work at Argonne emphasizes the use of fully deuterated algae and cyanobacteria as tools in the study of photosynthesis and as a source of complex substrates for the culture of engineered overproducing bacteria. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Crespi, H.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria | Argonne National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria Technology available for licensing: Using photosynthetic bacteria to produce biofuels. 30-70% of the fuel's waste can be used to...

78

Geobiology of marine magnetotactic bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize intracellular membrane-bound crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4), and are abundant in the suboxic to anoxic zones of stratified marine environments worldwide. Their ...

Simmons, Sheri Lynn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Interfacial tension (IFT) decreased in a stepwise manner as biosurfactant concentration increased with marked reductions in IFT occurring at biosurfactant concentrations of 10 and 40 mg/l. When the biosurfactant concentration was greater than 10 mg/l, residual oil recovery linearly increased with biosurfactant concentration. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Our work shows that (1) diverse microorganisms produce biosurfactants, (2) nutrient manipulation may provide a mechanism to increase biosurfactant activity, (3) biosurfactant concentrations in excess of the critical micelle concentration recover substantial amounts of residual oil, and (4) equations that describe the effect of the biosurfactant on IFT adequately predict residual oil recovery in sandstone cores.

M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Why Sequence Biogeochemically Important Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biogeochemically Important Bacteria? Biogeochemically Important Bacteria? DOE-JGI will be sequencing three biogeochemically important bacteria, Diaphorobacter sp. strain TPSY, Ferrutens nitratireducens strain 2002 and Azospira suillum strain PS. These organisms represent diverse genera capable of anaerobically oxidizing both iron(II) and humic acids by using nitrate as the electron acceptor. Two of these organisms, strain 2002 and strain TPSY, are also capable of the anaerobic nitrate-dependent oxidation of uranium(IV) to uranium(VI). Left to right, Azospira suillum PS, Ferrutens nitratireducens 2002, and Diaphorobacter TPSY. Nitrate-dependent microbial metal oxidation is of critical importance because of its potential effect on the fate and transport of radioactive contaminants. Nitrate-dependent Iron(II) oxidation by organisms such as

82

Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1T) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1 T was the first isolate within the phylum ThermusDeinococcus to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1 T is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gu, Wei [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (HT), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was es- tablished as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spi- rochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first com- plete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Stackebrandt, Erko [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Technical Note: Evaluation of Effective Microorganisms (EM) In Solid Waste Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produces a high quality compost, which contributes towardorganic matters, compost, effective microorganisms (EM). Athis point, the finished compost was collected and sieved.

Sekeran, V.; Balaji, C.; Bhagavathipushpa, T.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Operational Aerosol Observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 On Board NOAA-KLM Satellites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 1988, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has provided operational aerosol observations (AEROBS) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2) on board the afternoon NOAA satellites [nominal equator ...

Alexander Ignatov; John Sapper; Stephen Cox; Istvan Laszlo; Nicholas R. Nalli; Katherine B. Kidwell

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Physiological diversity and distributions of heterotrophic bacteria in deep cretaceous sediments of the Atlantic coastal plain  

SciTech Connect

A series of 23 intact core segments was obtained from two distinct deep subsurface geological formations, the Middendorf and the Cape Fear formations, underlying the southeastern coastal plain of South Carolina. Aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria were enumerated on a dilute medium, and populations ranged from 3.1 to 6.4 log CFU g of sediment[sup [minus]1] in the Middendorf cores and from below detection to 4.3 log CFU g[sup [minus]1] in the Cape Fear cores. A total of 198 morphologically distinct colony types were isolated, purified, and subjected to 108 different physiological measurements. The isolates from the two formations were distinct as were those in different core samples from the same formation. Cluster analysis revealed 21 different biotypes based on similarities of 75% or higher in response patterns to 21 physiological assays. One biotype contained 57 of the subsurface isolates, 10 biotypes contained 5 or more isolates, and the remainder had 4 or fewer. The organic compounds that were most commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria included Tween 40 and [beta]-hydroxybutyric acid. Organic acids, in general, were also commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria. Isolates from the Cape Fear core segments were capable of metabolizing a higher percentage of the substrates than were bacteria isolated from the Middendorf formation. Although the heterogeneous distributions of bacteria in deep subsurface sediments may make it difficult to use aquifer microcosms to predict in situ biotransformation rates, the diversity of the physiological properties of these organisms offers promise for in situ remediation of contaminants.

Fredrickson, J.K.; Zachara, J.M.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J.; Simmons, M.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Balkwill, D.L. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (United States))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Why Sequence Cellulose Degrading Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cellulose Degrading Bacteria? Cellulose Degrading Bacteria? One of the major DOE missions is the production of renewable fuels to reduce our dependence on foreign oil, and also to take the place of petroleum-based fuels as these resources dwindle. Biologically produced ethanol is one possible replacement for fossil fuels. Currently, ethanol is produced from corn starch, but there is much research into using lignocellulosic materials (those containing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) as the raw material for ethanol production. Ethanol production from cellulose requires several steps: pretreatment with steam, acid, or ammonia; digestion of cellulose to sugars; and fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The slowest and most expensive step is the breakdown of cellulose, chemically accomplished by cellulases. The second and third

88

Influence of gamma irradiation on the metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

When water is pumped into oil-bearing seams to increase oil production, the microorganisms in the injected water fall into favorable ecological conditions and, quickly adapting, form a biocenosis and begin to actively develop. Among the anaerobic microorganisms, the most hazardous from the corrosion viewpoint are the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which are the main producers of hydrogen sulfide as the product of anaerobic respiration. This paper reports on the effect of gamma rays on the metabolic study of SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in the nutrient medium Postgate B. The radioactive source used is a /sup 60/CoK-125 unit with a power of 700 rad/sec. The required dose of gamma rays was calculated from the exposure times of samples with the test medium in the radiation zone o the isotope /sup 60/Co. The criterion characterizing the effectiveness of suppression of development of the bacteria is the concentration of biogenic hydrogen sulfide produced, as determined by iodometric titration.

Agaev, N.M.; Guseinov, M.M.; Smorodin, A.E.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae  

SciTech Connect

A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

Tornabene, T.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

NEWTON: Bacteria Survival in the Stomach  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria Survival in the Stomach Bacteria Survival in the Stomach Name: Lianne Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: USA Date: Summer 2013 Question: Is H. Pylorii the only bacteria able to survive the acidic condition of the stomach, or are there others? Replies: Hi Lianne, Thanks for the question. Yes, other bacteria are able to survive the acidic conditions in the stomach. For instance, the bacteria that are present in acidopholus yougurt (and milk) are able to survive the stomach's acid and to repopulate the large intestine. These acidopholus bacteria are "good" bacteria and are useful in restoring bacterial colonies in the large intestine after a treatment of antibiotics. I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have more questions. Thanks Jeff I don't know, but I would be very surprised given the number of bacterial species, that H. Pylori is uniquely adapted to low pH environments.

91

Tiny Conspiracies: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tiny Conspiracies: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria. Purpose: Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate ...

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

92

Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were regrown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. We conducted a push-pull test to study in-situ biosurfactant production by exogenous biosurfactant producers to aid in oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Five wells from the same formation were used. Two wells received cells and nutrients, two wells were treated with nutrients onl

M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Quantification of the Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria used as an Intervention to Inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in vitro and on Fresh Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The metabolic activity of bacterial microorganisms may influence the growth and metabolic activities of other microbes that are present in any specific niche. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are antagonistic to some microbial pathogens by the metabolic production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. Consequently, investigators have measured the effects of those antimicrobials to inhibit specific pathogens. However, the mode(s) of action of LAB against foodborne pathogens on products and/or in broth is not completely understood. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to (i) determine the LAB dose required for inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in vitro and on spinach, and (ii) identify and quantify the major antimicrobial substances synthesized by LAB as a function of postinoculation storage conditions. Assays were performed at 7 degrees C under aerobic conditions. The foodborne pathogens dose responses were assessed in a liquid microbiological medium (in vitro) and on spinach leaf surfaces. Different levels of foodborne pathogens and LAB cultures were used. The addition of LAB cultures did not reduce E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella enterica populations when performed in vitro. However, when LAB cultures were sprayed on the surfaces of spinach leaves at 8.0 log10 CFU/g, there were significant reductions on E. coli O157:H7 of 1.62 and 0.73 log10 CFU/g (after 3 days) and on Salmonella enterica of 1.85 and 0.71 log10 CFU/g (after 6 days) for treatments inoculated with an initial level of 2.0 and 4.0 log10 CFU/g, respectively. After quantification of the antimicrobial compounds synthesized by LAB cultures, they were correlated against the population growth of targeted pathogens. The highest Llactic acid (3.71 plus/minus 0.14 micromoles/ml, day 12) and hydrogen peroxide (3.72 plus/minus 3.34 microM, day 6) production were obtained from the in vitro sample inoculated with 8.0 log10 CFU/ml of LAB and 0.0 log10 CFU/ml of pathogens. The highest bacteriocin production (0.1 plus/minus 0.01 mg/ml) was obtained from the in vitro sample with 8.0 log10 CFU/ml of LAB and 2.0 log10 CFU/ml of pathogens. In conclusion, the LAB cultures were able to produce detectable amounts of antimicrobials that may be used as intervention and/or sciencebased practice against foodborne pathogens by producers and the industry.

Calix Lara, Thelma

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Improved hydrogen photoproduction from photosynthetic bacteria and green algae  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photosynthetic bacteria evolve hydrogen at much higher rates than do other classes of photosynthetic microorganisms. In addition, they tolerate harsh environments, grow rapidly, and utilize both visible and near infrared light in photosynthesis. They do not split water, but this does not necessarily eliminate their potential use in future applied systems. They are easily manipulated genetically, and thus might be modified to metabolize common biomass waste materials in place of expensive defined organic substrates. Furthermore, the potential for increasing hydrogen photoproduction via genetic techniques is promising. Strains that partially degrade cellulose, have high photoproduction rates, or contain very large amounts of the enzymes associated with hydrogen metabolism have been isolated. Green algae also produce hydrogen but are capable of using water as a substrate. For example, C. reinhardi can evolve hydrogen and oxygen at a molar ratio approaching 2:1. Based upon effect of dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (a specific inhibitor of photosystem II, PSII) on hydrogen photoproduction in the wild type strain and upon results obtained with PSII mutants, one can demonstrate that water is the major source of electrons for hydrogen production. The potential efficiency of in vivo coupling between hydrogenase and the photosynthetic electron transport system is high. Up to 76% of the reductants generated by the electron transport system can be channeled directly to the enzyme for in vivo hydrogen production. Rates exceeding 170 ..mu..moles of H/sub 2/ mg Chl/sup -1/ hr/sup -1/ have been observed.

Weaver, P.F.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Why Sequence Bacteria That Reduce Sulfur Compounds?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria That Reduce Sulfur Compounds? Combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, contributes significantly to global environmental problems, such...

97

Spectroscopic diagnostics for bacteria in biologic sample  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to analyze and diagnose specific bacteria in a biologic sample using spectroscopy is disclosed. The method includes obtaining the spectra of a biologic sample of a non-infected patient for use as a reference, subtracting the reference from the spectra of an infected sample, and comparing the fingerprint regions of the resulting differential spectrum with reference spectra of bacteria in saline. Using this diagnostic technique, specific bacteria can be identified sooner and without culturing, bacteria-specific antibiotics can be prescribed sooner, resulting in decreased likelihood of antibiotic resistance and an overall reduction of medical costs.

El-Sayed, Mostafa A. (Atlanta, GA); El-Sayed, Ivan H. (Somerville, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

QUANTATITIVE PCR ASSAY FOR MARINE BACTERIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMPLETION REPORT QUANTATITIVE PCR ASSAY FOR MARINE BACTERIApolymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of their smallIdentification of bacteria by PCR amplification is specific

Brunk, Clifford F.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments  

SciTech Connect

In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methanes carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

Valentine, David

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Reduction and Immobilization of Radionuclides and Toxic Metal Ions Using Combined Zero Valent Iron and Anaerobic Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. AN exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes are functional. This work evaluated the hypothesis that a system combining a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with zero valent iron would have a greater cr(VI) removal efficiency and a greater total Cr(VI) removal capacity than a zero valent iron system without the microorganisms. Hence, the overall goal of this research was to compare the performance of these types of systems with regard to their Cr(VI) removal efficiency and total Cr(VI) removal capacity. Both batch and continuous flow reactor systems were evaluated.

Lenly J. Weathers; Lynn E. Katz

2002-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Hydrogen metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria and algae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The metabolism, metabolic pathways and biochemistry of hydrogen in photosynthetic bacteria and algae are reviewed. Detailed information on the occurrence and measurement of hydrogenase activity is presented. Hydrogen production rates for different species of algae and bacteria are presented. 173 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Genome Sequence of "Pedosphaera parvula" Ellin514, an Aerobic Verrucomicrobial Isolate from Pasture Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pedosphaera parvula Ellin514 is an aerobically grown verrucomicrobial isolate from pasture soil. In contrast to the high abundance of members of Verrucomicrobia subdivision 3 based on molecular surveys in terrestrial environments, Ellin514 is one of the few cultured representatives of this group.

Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Janssen, Peter H. [AgResearch Ltd, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its contents; microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to innoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

Hazen, T.C.

1991-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

105

Roles of Naturally Occurring Bacteria in Controlling Iodine-129 Mobility in Subsurface Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

129I is of major concern because of its biophilic nature, excessive inventory, long half-life (~16 million yrs), and high mobility in the natural environment that depends on its chemical speciation. Iodide (I-) has the highest mobility than iodate (IO3-) and is the predominant species in the terrestrial environment due to prevailing pH and Eh conditions. In order to transform I- to less mobile organo-iodine (OI), strong oxidants are necessary to activate the first electron transfer step from I- to reactive intermediates. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of naturally occurring aerobic bacteria isolated from an 129I contaminated aquifer (F-area of the Savannah River Site, SC) on I- oxidation and OI formation. It was demonstrated that 3 of 136 strains accumulated I- (0.2~2%) in the presence of H2O2, when incubated in the presence of an environmentally relevant concentration of I- (0.1 microM). The accumulation was likely through electrophilic substitution resulting in the iodination of cellular constituents. The results indicated that culturable I--accumulating bacteria are not directly responsible for the high fraction of oxidized iodine species (IO3- and OI, >50% of total I) present in the SRS F-area. Several bacterial strains were found to be capable of stimulating I- oxidation through excretion of oxidants and enzymes. Organic acids in spent liquid medium from 27 of 84 aerobic bacterial cultures enhanced H2O2-dependent I- oxidation 2-10 fold. Organic acids enhanced I- oxidation by (1) lowering the pH of the spent medium and (2) reacting with H2O2 to form peroxy carboxylic acids, which are strong oxidizing agents. In the absence of H2O2, spent medium from 44 of 84 bacteria cultures showed I- oxidizing capacities. One I- oxidizing bacterium was studied to characterize its extracellular I- oxidizing component(s). The I- oxidizing capability from the spent medium was inactive by treatments with heat and H2O2 and absent under anaerobic conditions. Conversely, NADH, NADPH and FMN additions stimulated I- oxidation in the spend medium. These results indicate an oxidase(s) catalyzed I- oxidation. Understanding the bacterial activities involved with I- oxidation and OI formation is expected to help reduce 129I mobility in water-soil systems.

Li, Hsiu-Ping

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263+-0.02 g cellulose L{sup -1} for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci [Chemical Engineering Department of Istanbul Technical University, Ayazaga, Maslak, Istanbul, 34469 (Turkey)

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

107

Mtr Extracellular Electron Transfer Pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria: A Genomic Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Originally discovered in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), the Mtr (i.e., metal-reducing) pathway exists in all characterized strains of metal-reducing Shewanella. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway of MR-1 include four multi-heme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts), CymA, MtrA, MtrC and OmcA, and a porin-like, outer membrane protein MtrB. They are strategically positioned along the width of the MR-1 cell envelope to mediate electron transfer from the quinone/quinol pool in the inner-membrane to the Fe(III)-containing minerals external to the bacterial cells. A survey of microbial genomes revealed homologues of the Mtr pathway in other dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Ferrimonas balearica and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and in the Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 and Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1. The widespread distribution of Mtr pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria emphasizes the importance of this type of extracellular electron transfer pathway in microbial redox transformation of Fe. Their distribution in these two different functional groups of bacteria also emphasizes the bi-directional nature of electron transfer reactions carried out by the Mtr pathways. The characteristics of the Mtr pathways may be shared by other pathways used by microorganisms for exchanging electrons with their extracellular environments.

Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYB, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S.wolfei LYB was closely related to S.wolfei subsp. solfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas. Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA of different groups within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all currently known saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, were developed and characterized. The probes were designed to be specific at the family, genus, and species levels and were characterized by temperature-of-dissociation and specificity studies. To demonstrate the usefulness of the probes for the detection and quantification of saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities and microbial numbers determined with most-probable-number estimates. Most of the methanogenic rRNA was comprised of Methanomicrobiales rRNA, suggesting that members of this order served as the main hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. Between 0.2 and 1% of the rRNA was attributed to the Syntrophomonadaceae, or which the majority was accounted for by the genus Syntrophomonas.

Hansen, K.H.; Ahring, B.K.; Raskin, L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Quarterly report ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Oil reservoirs naturally contain inorganic and organic materials which can be exploited through simple supplementation to support the growth of microorganisms which aid in the release of oil from the rock matrix. Other compounds which may serve as nutritional sources for microorganisms are added to reservoirs during production and operation of oil fields. These materials include sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, volatile fatty acids, nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors, phosphorous-containing scale inhibitors and trace elements. Our experiments show that, with minimal supplementation, growth of naturally-occurring microorganisms can be used to produce viscosifying agents to aid oil recovery. This natural microflora is also capable of removing sulfide from oil reservoirs and preventing the formation of new sulfide leading to both more oil recovery and increased value of the produced oil. The metabolic products of these microorganisms are Co{sub 2}, water, N{sub 2} and oxidized forms of sulfur, all of which are environmentally innocuous. Laboratory experiments with both defined mixtures of microorganisms as well as mixed populations both release more oil from sand pack columns.

Sperl, G.T.; Sperl, P.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Why sequence Bacteria from Lake Washington?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

bacteria from Lake Washington? bacteria from Lake Washington? Previous collaborations between the University of Washington team and the DOE JGI involving both single genome and metagenomic sequencing have greatly enhanced the community's ability to explore the diversity of bacteria functionally active in metabolism of single carbon compounds, known as methylotrophs, isolated from Lake Washington (Seattle, Washington) sediment. Sequencing genomes of 50 methylotroph isolates from the Lake Washington will further enhance the methylotroph community knowledge database providing a much higher level of resolution of global (meta)transcriptomic and (meta)proteomic analyses, as well as species interaction studies, informing a better understanding of biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen.

111

Motility fractionation of bacteria by centrifugation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Centrifugation is a widespread laboratory technique used to separate mixtures into fractions characterized by a specific size, weight or density. We demonstrate that centrifugation can be also used to separate swimming cells having different motility. To do this we study self-propelled bacteria under the influence of an external centrifugal field. Using dynamic image correlation spectroscopy we measure the spatially resolved motility of bacteria after centrifugation. A significant gradient in swimming-speeds is observed for increasing centrifugal speeds. Our results can be reproduced by a model that treats bacteria as "hot" colloidal particles having a diffusion coefficient that depends on the swimming speed.

Claudio Maggi; Alessia Lepore; Jacopo Solari; Alessandro Rizzo; Roberto Di Leonardo

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

112

Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive America Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive America December 6, 2011 -...

113

Why Sequence Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents? The project focuses on using single-cell genomics to sequence nearly a dozen genomes of uncultivated bacteria that are found in...

114

Pitting corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel in the media of sulphate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Pitting corrosion behavior of 316L SS was investigated in the presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from cooling water system in oil refinery using polarization measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy examinations and energy dispersive spectrum analysis. The results show the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}), pitting potential (E{sub pit}) and polarization resistance (R{sub P}) of 316L SS had a distinct decrease in the presence of bacteria, in comparison with those observed in the sterile medium for the same exposure time interval. Micrometer-scale pitting was observed on the 316L SS surface in the presence of bacteria. The combination of SRB and IOB demonstrated higher corrosion rates than SRB or IOB alone. The synergy of 0.01 M NaCl + SRB + IOB yielded the highest corrosion rate. The synergies between the metal surface, abiotic corrosion products, chloride anion, and bacterial cells and their metabolic products increased the corrosion damage degree of the passive film and accelerated pitting propagation.

Xu Congmin [Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Zhang Yaoheng [Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Research and Technology Center of Lanzhou Oil Refinery Factory, PetroChina Company limited, Lanzhou, 730060 (China); Cheng Guangxu [Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)], E-mail: gxcheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhu Wensheng [Research and Technology Center of Lanzhou Oil Refinery Factory, PetroChina Company limited, Lanzhou, 730060 (China)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Determination of kinetic coefficients for the simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium contamination of groundwaters and surface waters near abandoned mill tailings piles is a serious concern in many areas of the western United States. Uranium usually exists in either the U(IV) or the U(VI) oxidation state. U(VI) is soluble in water and, as a result, is very mobile in the environment. U(IV), however, is generally insoluble in water and, therefore, is not subject to aqueous transport. In recent years, researchers have discovered that certain anaerobic microorganisms, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, can mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Although the ability of this microorganism to reduce U(VI) has been studied in some detail by previous researchers, the kinetics of the reactions have not been characterized. The purpose of this research was to perform kinetic studies on Desulfovibrio desulficans bacteria during simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium and to determine the phase in which uranium exists after it has been reduced and precipitated from solution. The studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale chemostat under substrate-limited growth conditions with pyruvate as the substrate. Kinetic coefficients for substrate utilization and cell growth were calculated using the Monod equation. The maximum rate of substrate utilization (k) was determined to be 4.70 days{sup {minus}1} while the half-velocity constant (K{sub s}) was 140 mg/l COD. The yield coefficient (Y) was determined to be 0.17 mg cells/mg COD while the endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub d}) was calculated as 0.072 days{sup {minus}1}. After reduction, U(IV) Precipitated from solution in the uraninite (UO{sub 2}) phase. Uranium removal efficiency as high as 90% was achieved in the chemostat.

Tucker, M.D.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Why Sequence Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Several environmental problems, such as acid rain, biocorrosion, etc., are caused by sulfur compounds, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). A sustainable process to remove these sulfur compounds is the production of elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gas streams by the use of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. In this process, H2S is absorbed into the alkaline solution in the scrubber unit, followed by the biological oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur and the recycling of water. With this two-step process, a variety of gas streams (i.e., natural gas, synthesis gas, biogas, and refinery gas) can be treated. For the treatment of sulfate-containing waste streams, an extra step has to be introduced: the transformation of sulfate into H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In

117

Probiotic Bacteria Induce a Glow of Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this glow of health display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary ...

Levkovich, Tatiana

118

Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c-type cytochromes on aerobic and anaerobic respiration  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella are renowned for their ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors (EA) for respiration, which has been partially accredited to the presence of a large number of the c-type cytochromes. To investigate the involvement of c-type cytochrome proteins in aerobic and anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis Mr -1, 36 in-frame deletion mutants, among possible 41 predicted, c-type cytochrome genes were obtained. The potential involvement of each individual c-type cytochrome in the reduction of a variety of EAs was assessed individually as well as in competition experiments. While results on the wellstudied c-type cytochromes CymA(SO4591) and MtrC(SO1778) were consistent with previous findings, collective observations were very interesting: the responses of S. oneidensis Mr -1 to low and highly toxic metals appeared to be significantly different; CcoO, CcoP and PetC, proteins involved in aerobic respiration in various organisms, played critical roles in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration with highly toxic metals as EA. In addition, these studies also suggested that an uncharacterized c-type cytochrome (SO4047) may be important to both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.

Gao, Haichun; Barua, Soumitra; Liang, Yili; Wu, Lianming; Dong, Yangyang; Reed, Samantha B.; Chen, Jingrong; Culley, David E.; Kennedy, David W.; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Tiedje, James M.; Romine, Margaret F.; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

120

Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption  

SciTech Connect

In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

Yamada, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Kawase, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan distribution in free-living microorganisms?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan distribution in free-living microorganisms? ABSTRACT distance apart) is used to try and answer the question `What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan to 230 lm while the largest cosmopolitan species was 135 lm in size. Comparison of the testate

Brown, Richard

122

The Influence of the Mushroom Compost Application on the Microorganism Quantity of Reclamated Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mushroom compost which was produced from farm can be used to improving the quality of the reclamated soil. On the one hand, the question about environmental pollution made by the mushroom compost is solved, and on the other hand, it can improve the ... Keywords: mushroom material, micro-organisms, soil quality

Liu Xueran; Li Xinju; Li Bing

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Why Sequence Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? The goal of this project is to obtain complete genome sequences for six different freshwater iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Four of these are oxygen-dependent iron-oxidizing β-proteobacteria, and three of these, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Gallionella capsiferriformans, and strain TW-2, are capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth (that is, obtaining energy by the oxidation of inorganic compounds) using Fe(II) as sole energy source under microaerobic (low-oxygen) conditions. The fourth organism, Leptothrix cholodnii, is a sheath-forming heterotrophic (i.e., using complex organic compounds for nutrition) organism that oxidizes both Fe(II) and Mn(II) and deposits a ferromanganic coating on its sheath. In addition,

124

New method studies living bacteria cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New method studies living bacteria cells New method studies living bacteria cells Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory have found a new way to study individual living bacteria cells and analyze their chemistry. In research published today in Science, the scientists used high-energy X-ray fluorescence measurements for mapping and chemical analyses of single free-floating, or planktonic, and surface-adhered, or biofilm, cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The results showed differences between the planktonic and adhered cells in morphology, elemental composition and sensitivity to hexavalent chromium, a heavy-metal contaminant and a known carcinogen. The biofilm cells were more tolerant of the contaminant, while it damaged or killed the planktonic cells. Experimental data from sector 1

125

State-of-the-art of microbial enhanced oil recovery: a review of the literature  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of the literature on enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using microorganisms. Microorganisms can contribute to four major areas of oil technology, three of which relate to EOR: (1) microorganisms, because of their ability to grow rapidly and excrete several types of by-products, are used to manufacture biosurfactants and biopolymers for EOR; (2) microorganisms can be injected in situ to recover residual oil; (3) microorganisms can be used to selectively plug high permeability channels in reservoirs; and (4) microorganisms can be used to remove sulfur or nitrogen from crude oils, to reduce the viscosity of crude oils, and to clean up oil spills. Before either chemical or microbial technology is established, their environmental impacts should be defined. Environmental concerns of microbial EOR (MEOR) technology are presented in this report. The adverse effects of bacteria indigenous to some reservoirs, e.g., the sulfate reducers and certain aerobic bacteria, also are discussed with respect to MEOR processes. 64 references.

Smith, R.J.; Collins, A.G.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

How sulphate-reducing microorganisms cope with stress: Lessons from systems biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DH10B: insights into the biology of a laboratory workhorse.146. Kitano, H. Systems biology: a brief overview. ScienceAHandbookon the Biologyof Bacteria: Proteobacteria:

Zhou, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MITs biofuel-production system.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study ...

Hospodsky, Denina

129

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 11 Carotenoid Production Using Microorganisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 11 Carotenoid Production Using Microorganisms Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Press Downloadable pdf of Chapt

130

Raman activity in synchronously dividing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Using a spectrometer equipped with an optical-multichannel analyzer as the detector (OMA), we have observed the Stokes laser-Raman spectra of metabolically active Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium from 100 - 2100 cm/sup -1/. After lengthy investigation, no Raman lines attributable to the metabolic process nor the cells themselves were found. Previous Raman spectra of active bacteria cannot be used to support nonlinear theories in biology. 34 refs., 9 figs.

Layne, S.P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

Apel, W.A.

1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

132

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Impact of ArcA loss in Shewanella oneidensis revealed by comparative proteomics under aerobic and anaerobic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella inhabit a wide variety of niches in nature and can utilize a broad spectrum of electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. How they modulate their gene expression to adapt is poorly understood. ArcA, homologue of a global regulator controlling hundreds of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in E. coli, was shown to be important in aerobiosis/anaerobiosis of S. oneidensis as well. Loss of ArcA, in addition to altering transcription of many genes, resulted in impaired growth under aerobic condition, which was not observed in E. coli. To further characterize the impact of ArcA loss on gene expression on the level of proteome under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomic approach was employed. Results show that ArcA loss led to globally altered gene expression, generally consistent with that observed with transcripts. Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data permitted identification of 17 high-confidence ArcA targets. Moreover, our data indicate that ArcA is required for regulation of cytochrome c proteins, and the menaquinone level may play a role in regulating ArcA as in E. coli. Proteomic-data-guided growth assay revealed that the aerobic growth defect of ArcA mutant is presumably due to impaired peptide utilization.

Yuan, Jie; Wei, Buyun; Lipton, Mary S.; Gao, Haichun

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

End-point detection of the aerobic phase in a biological reactor using SOM and clustering algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of the aerobic phase end-point is usually used to improve the operating capacity in a sequencing batch reactor. In this paper, a software tool and a configuration of the dissolved oxygen control closed loop are proposed to achieve the ... Keywords: Biological treatment, Clustering algorithms, Self-organizing mapping, Sequencing batch reactor, Waste treatment

Ivn Machn Gonzlez; Hilario Lpez Garca

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

3rd ASM Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the final program and provides the abstracts presented at the fourth American Society of Microbiology-sponsored conference on Cell-cell Communication in Bacteria, held November 6-9, 2011 in Miami, Florida. Bacteria are the paradigm for unicellular life, yet they also exhibit elaborate coordinated behaviors that often defy unicellularity. Research over the past two decades has revealed that a wide range of microbes communicate by diverse mechanisms. In most cases these microbial conversations occur through the exchange of diffusible signals, although there are also clear examples of contact-dependent communication. Many microbes use these signaling mechanisms to monitor and respond to population density, a process often described as quorum sensing. Interbacterial communication is not, however restricted to quorum sensing mechanisms, and there is mounting evidence that signaling can function in a range of different capacities. Communication between microorganisms has profound impacts on host interactions, as pathogens and commensals often regulate factors critical for interaction with their hosts via signal production and perception. The CCCB-4 conference provided a unique forum for the discussion, dissemination and exchange of new information and ideas among researchers working within this rapidly developing, yet mature field. Sessions were arranged around topics such as: the diversity of signal generation and identity; mechanisms of signal transduction and interference; cell-cell communication in bacterial development and antibiotic synthesis; host-microbe signaling and pathogenesis; symbiosis, mutualism, and microbe-microbe communication; ecology and evolution; advancements in the technological tool-kit for studying cell-cell communication. The conference served as a conduit for the exchange and synthesis of new ideas among leading US and international scientists working on bacterial communication.

Nalker, Lisa K. [ASM

2011-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

136

Microorganisms found in salt flats could offer new path to green hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Proton pumps" are proteins that typically straddle a cellular membrane and transfer protons from inside the cell to the extracellular space. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. "Proton pumps" are proteins that typically straddle a cellular membrane and transfer protons from inside the cell to the extracellular space. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. "Proton pumps" are proteins that typically straddle a cellular membrane and transfer protons from inside the cell to the extracellular space. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. Microorganisms found in salt flats could offer new path to green hydrogen fuel July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - A protein found in the membranes of ancient microorganisms that live in desert salt flats could offer a new way of using sunlight to generate environmentally friendly hydrogen fuel, according to a new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of

137

Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

Wise, Arlene A. (Philadelphia, PA); Kuske, Cheryl R. (Los Alamos, NM); Terwilliger, Thomas C. (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive America Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive America December 6, 2011 - 2:12pm Addthis Strains of E. coli bacteria were engineered to digest switchgrass biomass and synthesize its sugars into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. | Image courtesy of Berkeley Lab. Strains of E. coli bacteria were engineered to digest switchgrass biomass and synthesize its sugars into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. | Image courtesy of Berkeley Lab. Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Who knew Escherichia coli (E. coli) could help America reduce its dependence on foreign oil? A breakthrough with the bacteria could make it cheaper to produce fuel from switchgrass -- an advanced biofuel with the

139

Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive America Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to Help Drive America December 6, 2011 - 2:12pm Addthis Strains of E. coli bacteria were engineered to digest switchgrass biomass and synthesize its sugars into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. | Image courtesy of Berkeley Lab. Strains of E. coli bacteria were engineered to digest switchgrass biomass and synthesize its sugars into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. | Image courtesy of Berkeley Lab. Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Who knew Escherichia coli (E. coli) could help America reduce its dependence on foreign oil? A breakthrough with the bacteria could make it cheaper to produce fuel from switchgrass -- an advanced biofuel with the

140

Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.

1989-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluacin y seleccin de microorganismos para la produccin de etanol a nivel industrial = Evaluation and selection of microorganisms for ethanol production at industrial level.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mariscal Moreno, Juan Pablo (2011) Evaluacin y seleccin de microorganismos para la produccin de etanol a nivel industrial = Evaluation and selection of microorganisms for (more)

Mariscal Moreno, Juan Pablo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Development and Evaluation of Methods to Infer Biosynthesis and Substrate Consumption in Cultures of Cellulolytic Microorganisms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and and Evaluation of Methods to Infer Biosynthesis and Substrate Consumption in Cultures of Cellulolytic Microorganisms Evert K. Holwerda, Lucas D. Ellis, Lee R. Lynd Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755; telephone: 1-6036462231; fax: 1-6036462277; e-mail: lee.r.lynd@dartmouth.edu ABSTRACT: Concentrations of biosynthate (microbial bio- mass plus extracellular proteins) and residual substrate were inferred using elemental analysis for batch cultures of Clostridium thermocellum. Inferring residual substrate based on elemental analysis for a cellulose (Avicel)-grown culture shows similar results to residual substrate determined by quantitative saccharification using acid hydrolysis. Inference based on elemental analysis is also compared to different on- line measurements: base addition, CO

143

Development of Equipment to Separate Nonthermal and Thermal Effects of Radio Frequency Energy on Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

A radio frequency (RF) dielectric heater has been developed for isolating thermal and nonthermal effects of RF energy on microorganisms in liquid foods. The modified heater enables the simultaneous application of RF energy and removal of thermal energy from the liquids. A double-pipe heat exchanger is an integral part of the heater. The outer pipe is made of Teflon. The inner pipe is made of stainless steel that is grounded in the RF circuit. Liquid food flows through the annular region between the two concentric pipes. Cooling water flows through the stainless steel pipe. The food in the annular region absorbs the RF energy. Concurrently, the cooling water flowing in the inner pipe removes the thermal energy from the food, thus controlling the temperature.

D.J. Geveke; M. Kozempel; C. Brunkhorst

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

How sulphate-reducing microorganisms cope with stress: Lessons from systems biology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) are a phylogenetically diverse group of anaerobes encompassing distinct physiologies with a broad ecological distribution. As SRMs have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and various metals, an understanding of how these organisms respond to environmental stresses is of fundamental and practical importance. In this Review, we highlight recent applications of systems biology tools in studying the stress responses of SRMs, particularly Desulfovibrio spp., at the cell, population, community and ecosystem levels. The syntrophic lifestyle of SRMs is also discussed, with a focus on system-level analyses of adaptive mechanisms. Such information is important for understanding the microbiology of the global sulphur cycle and for developing biotechnological applications of SRMs for environmental remediation, energy production, biocorrosion control, wastewater treatment and mineral recovery.

Zhou, J.; He, Q.; Hemme, C.L.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hillesland, K.; Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; Hazen, T.C.; Stahl, D.A.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

146

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

SciTech Connect

The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

147

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Antenna organization in green photosynthetic bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the structure and function of the unique antenna system found in the green photosynthetic bacteria. The antenna system in these organisms is contained within a vesicle known as a chlorosome, which is attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Additional antenna pigments and reaction centers are contained in integral membrane proteins. Energy absorbed by the bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) pigments in the chlorosome is transferred via a baseplate'' array of BChl a antenna pigments into the membrane and to the reaction center. A schematic model of chlorosome structure is shown. This project is aimed at increasing our understanding of the organization of the pigments in the chlorosome and how the antenna system functions.

Blankenship, R.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Energy conversion in Purple Bacteria Photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of how photosynthetic organisms convert light offers insight not only into nature's evolutionary process, but may also give clues as to how best to design and manipulate artificial photosynthetic systems -- and also how far we can drive natural photosynthetic systems beyond normal operating conditions, so that they can harvest energy for us under otherwise extreme conditions. In addition to its interest from a basic scientific perspective, therefore, the goal to develop a deep quantitative understanding of photosynthesis offers the potential payoff of enhancing our current arsenal of alternative energy sources for the future. In the following Chapter, we consider the trade-off between dynamics, structure and function of light harvesting membranes in Rps. Photometricum purple bacteria, as a model to highlight the priorities that arise when photosynthetic organisms adapt to deal with the ever-changing natural environment conditions.

Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Quiroga, Luis; Zhao, Guannan; Johnson, Neil F

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Energy conversion in Purple Bacteria Photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of how photosynthetic organisms convert light offers insight not only into nature's evolutionary process, but may also give clues as to how best to design and manipulate artificial photosynthetic systems -- and also how far we can drive natural photosynthetic systems beyond normal operating conditions, so that they can harvest energy for us under otherwise extreme conditions. In addition to its interest from a basic scientific perspective, therefore, the goal to develop a deep quantitative understanding of photosynthesis offers the potential payoff of enhancing our current arsenal of alternative energy sources for the future. In the following Chapter, we consider the trade-off between dynamics, structure and function of light harvesting membranes in Rps. Photometricum purple bacteria, as a model to highlight the priorities that arise when photosynthetic organisms adapt to deal with the ever-changing natural environment conditions.

Felipe Caycedo-Soler; Ferney J. Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Guannan Zhao; Neil F. Johnson

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

Wei Yanjie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection in Water Transport Engineering Ministry of Communications, Tianjin Research Institute of Water Transport Engineering, Tianjin 300456 (China); Ji Min, E-mail: jmtju@yahoo.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Ruying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin Feifei [Tianjin Tanggu Sino French Water Supply Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300450 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Method of separating bacteria from free living amoebae  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

BioNLP 2011 task bacteria biotope: the Alvis system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the system of the INRA Bibliome research group applied to the Bacteria Biotope (BB) task of the BioNLP 2011 shared tasks. Bacteria, geographical locations and host entities were processed by a pattern-based approach and domain lexical ...

Zorana Ratkovic; Wiktoria Golik; Pierre Warnier; Philippe Veber; Claire Ndellec

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Argonne cleans contaminated Kansas site by feeding bacteria | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne cleans contaminated Kansas site by feeding bacteria Argonne cleans contaminated Kansas site by feeding bacteria By Jared Sagoff * October 8, 2010 Tweet EmailPrint When cleaning the bathroom, we usually consider bacteria the enemy. However, a new study conducted by environmental scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has demonstrated a way to enlist bacteria in the fight to cleanse some of the country's most intractably polluted locations. Last year, a team of Argonne scientists led by Lorraine LaFreniere injected iron microparticles underneath fields long-polluted with carbon tetrachloride near Centralia, Kansas. The researchers coated the microparticles with organic material, which served as bait for bacteria that created the conditions necessary to safely convert the toxic chemical

157

Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater microcosms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The initial inoculum for bioaugmentation was a butane-utilizing enrichment from the subsurface of the Hanford DOE site. The non-augmented microcosm required 80 days of incubation before butane

Semprini, Lewis

158

Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

Crawford, D.L.

1992-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

159

Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Systematic characterization of protein glycosylation of bacteria cell surface proteins  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria cell Bacteria cell Insoluble fraction Glycoprotein Enrichment Integrated top-down and bottom-up Glycoprotein & Glycopeptide Step 1: Glycoproteome profile Glycans HILIC-FTICR-MS/MS (Sequencing ) Step 2: Glycan profile NMR (structure recognization) Data Interpretation Databases De Novo and other algorithms Step 3: Glycoinformatics Glycan database Glycoprotein database Hydrolysis graphitized carbon cloumn Schematic Representation of Proposed Platform for Bacterial Glycoproteome Characterization EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Systematic characterization of protein glycosylation of bacteria cell surface proteins Project start date: July 2011 Principal Investigator: Si Wu Mass Spectrometry and Magnet Resonance Group, EMSL, PNNL Co-investigators:

162

Bacterial and Archaea Community Present in the Pine Barrens Forest of Long Island, NY: Unusually High Percentage of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Of the few preserved areas in the northeast of United States, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forests presents a harsh environment for the microorganisms to grow and survive. In the current study we report the use of clustering methods to scientifically select the sampling locations that would represent the entire forest and also report the microbial diversity present in various horizons of the soil. Sixty six sampling locations were selected across the forest and soils were collected from three horizons (sampling depths). The three horizons were 0-10 cm (Horizon O); 11-25 cm (Horizon A) and 26-40 cm (Horizon B). Based on the total microbial substrate utilization pattern and K-means clustering analysis, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forest can be classified into four distinct clusters at each of the three horizons. One soil sample from each of the four clusters were selected and archaeal and bacterial populations within the soil studied using pyrosequencing method. The results show the microbial communities present in each of these clusters are different. Within the microbial communities present, microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle occupy a major fraction of microbial community in the soil. High level of diversity was observed for nitrogen fixing bacteria. In contrast, Nitrosovibrio and Nitrosocaldus spp are the single bacterial and archaeal population respectively carrying out ammonia oxidation in the soil.

Shah, V.; Green, T.; Shah, V.; Shah, S.; Kambhampati, M.; Ambrose, J.; Smith, N.; Dowd, S.; McDonnell, K.; Panigrahi, B.

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

163

Why sequence Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution remediation? Burning sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, contributes significantly to global environmental problems, such as air pollution and acid rain, besides contributing to the loss of the ozone layer. One method of managing sulfur compounds released as byproducts from industrial processes is to scrub them out using chemical treatments and activated charcoal beds. A lower-cost solution relies on incorporating alkaliphic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria into biofilters to convert the volatile and toxic compounds into insoluble sulfur for easier removal. Discovered in the last decade, these bacteria have been found to thrive in habitats that span the full pH range. The bacteria could have applications

164

Isolation and identification of fuel-oil-degrading bacteria.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study is to isolate and identify the crude oil-degrading bacteria from oil polluted soil. Their physiological characteristics and oil-degrading capability were (more)

Yang, Wan-yu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Micro-scale interactions between chemotactic bacteria and algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traditional views of marine environments describe the ocean pelagic zone as a homogeneous nutrient-poor environment. Heterotrophic marine bacteria that have evolved high-energy mechanisms for swimming abilities and sensing ...

Vahora, Nisha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Computational phenotype prediction of ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria with a multiple-instance learning model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria (IRRB) are important in biotechnology. The use of these bacteria for the treatment of radioactive wastes is determined by their surprising capacity of adaptation to radionuclides and a variety of toxic molecules. ... Keywords: ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria, ionizing-radiation-sensitive bacteria, multiple-instance learning, phenotypic prediction, protein sequences

Sabeur Aridhi; Mondher Maddouri; Haitham Sghaier; Engelbert Mephu Nguifo

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

Yazdani, Ramin, E-mail: ryazdani@sbcglobal.net [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@eos.ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Augenstein, Don, E-mail: iemdon@aol.com [Institute for Environmental Management, Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94306 (United States); Kayhanian, Masoud, E-mail: mdkayhanian@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Tchobanoglous, George, E-mail: gtchobanoglous@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic contaminants. The results from a study with TCE contaminated-clay indicate that electrochemically inducing reductive dechlorination of TCE in a saturated matrix may offer an effective and viable alternative to remediation TCE and other contaminants with potential of being reduced. Another study focused on steel wool oxidation to electrochemically increase population of hydrocarbon-degrading denitrifying bacteria. Significantly larger denitrifying activity was observed in the cathode chamber of a treatment unit setup like an MFC with steel wool as the anode. This enhanced nitrate reduction could be due to direct electron utilization by denitrifying bacteria on the cathode, thereby stimulating microbial denitrification or a combination of electron transfer directly to NO{sub 3}{sup -} and electron transfer to nitrate reducing bacteria, which may serve as a type of bio-catalyst on the cathode for nitrate reduction. Overall, the studies conducted under Task 72 demonstrated different innovative methods to enhance petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and associated contaminants.

Paul Fallgren

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

169

The catabolism of phenanthrene and naphthalene by bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thirteen strains of bacteria able to grow on phenanthrene were isolated from soil; they included fluorescent and non-fluorescent pseudomonads, vibrios and unidentified bacteria. Two of the pseudomonads, like Aeromonas sp. ~45~1, also grew on naphthalene. In all strains, growth on phenanthrene induced the enzyme responsible for the conversion of 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate to 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, NAD-dependent 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase and protocatechuate oxygenase, but not salicylate hydroxylase, catechol oxygenase or NAD(P)H-dependent 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate hydroxylase. Growth on naphthalene induced salicylate hydroxylase and catechol oxygenase. It is suggested that the catabolism of phenanthrene occurs via protocatechuate in all these bacteria, and that the pathways for degradation of phenanthrene and naphthalene are separate.

H. Kiyohara; K. Nagao

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Portsmouth Site Feeds Bacteria to Render Hazardous Groundwater Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portsmouth Site Feeds Bacteria to Render Hazardous Groundwater Portsmouth Site Feeds Bacteria to Render Hazardous Groundwater Waste Harmless Portsmouth Site Feeds Bacteria to Render Hazardous Groundwater Waste Harmless April 2, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Neil Smith puts a trained eye on the pressure and flow of a food-grade com¬pound being injected into an under¬ground plume of hazardous waste near the X-720 Maintenance Facility at the DOE Piketon Site. The sodium lactate compound promotes bacterial growth in the groundwater that turns hazardous waste into harmless end-products. Neil Smith puts a trained eye on the pressure and flow of a food-grade com¬pound being injected into an under¬ground plume of hazardous waste near the X-720 Maintenance Facility at the DOE Piketon Site. The sodium lactate compound promotes bacterial growth in the groundwater that turns

171

Unexpected photoreactivation of Vibrio harveyi bacteria living in ionization environment  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.

Alifano, P.; Tala, A.; Tredici, S. M. [Dipartimento Microbiologia, Di.S.Te.B.A., Universita del Salento, via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Siciliano, M. V. [Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, University of Salento, via Provinciale Lecce- Monteroni, C.P. 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria in Power Plant Cooling Systems: Phase 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water temperature and quality, along with other aquatic organisms, affect the existence of infectious Legionella in power plant cooling water. However, the interaction of these factors is so complex that scientists are far from being able to predict the growth and infectivity of these bacteria.

1985-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

173

A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

St.Martin, E.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Emergent patterns of diversity and dynamics in natural populations of planktonic Vibrio bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite the importance of microorganisms for global and engineering processes, currently lacking is a theoretical framework to describe how the structure of a microbial assemblage translates an environmental condition into ...

Thompson, Janelle Rene, 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

JGI - A Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Genomic Encyclopedia A Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) The GEBA project is aimed at systematically filling in the gaps in sequencing along the bacterial and archaeal branches of the tree of life. Though the wide variety of microbial sequencing projects undertaken throughout the world has created a rich, diverse collection of microbial genomes, strong biases in what has been sequenced thus far are evident. This project represents the first systematic attempt to use the tree of life itself as a guide to sequencing target selection. JGI is beginning by collaborating on a pilot project with DSMZ. Why GEBA? The GEBA Pilot Project GEBA Sequencing Plans Interpret a Genome for Education Home > User Programs > A Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA)

176

Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Engineering aspects of hydrogen production from photosynthetic bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Certain photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), for example, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, evolve hydrogen when placed in an anaerobic environment with light and a suitable organic substrate. An engineering effort to use such bacteria for large-scale hydrogen production from sunlight is described. A system to produce 28,000 m/sup 3//day (1 x 10/sup 6/ ft/sup 3//day) of hydrogen has been designed on a conceptual level and includes hydrogen cleanup, substrate storage, and waste disposal. The most critical component in the design is the solar bacterial reactor. Several designs were developed and analyzed. A large covered pond concept appears most attractive. Cost estimates for the designs show favorable economics.

Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

Dynamic Modeling of Aerobic Growth of Shewanella oneidensis. Predicting Triauxic Growth, Flux Distributions and Energy Requirement for Growth  

SciTech Connect

A model-based analysis is conducted to investigate metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 strain in aerobic batch culture, which exhibits an intriguing growth pattern by sequentially consuming substrate (i.e., lactate) and by-products (i.e., pyruvate and acetate). A general protocol is presented for developing a detailed network-based dynamic model for S. oneidensis based on the Lumped Hybrid Cybernetic Model (LHCM) framework. The L-HCM, although developed from only limited data, is shown to accurately reproduce exacting dynamic metabolic shifts, and provide reasonable estimates of energy requirement for growth. Flux distributions in S. oneidensis predicted by the L-HCM compare very favorably with 13C-metabolic flux analysis results reported in the literature. Predictive accuracy is enhanced by incorporating measurements of only a few intracellular fluxes, in addition to extracellular metabolites. The L-HCM developed here for S. oneidensis is consequently a promising tool for the analysis of intracellular flux distribution and metabolic engineering.

Song, Hyun-Seob; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuelmaking them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once theyre pumped out of the tank.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1) through bioaugmentation with a butane enrichment culture containing predominantly two Rhodococcus sp of butane and dissolved oxygen and or hydrogen peroxide as sources of dissolved oxygen, about 70% removal

Semprini, Lewis

183

Biofuels from Bacteria, Electricity, and CO2: Biofuels from CO2 Using Ammonia or Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in Reverse Microbial Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: Electrofuels Project: Columbia University is using carbon dioxide (CO2) from ambient air, ammoniaan abundant and affordable chemical, and a bacteria called N. europaea to produce liquid fuel. The Columbia University team is feeding the ammonia and CO2 into an engineered tank where the bacteria live. The bacteria capture the energy from ammonia and then use that energy to convert CO2 into a liquid fuel. When the bacteria use up all the ammonia, renewable electricity can regenerate it and pump it back into the systemcreating a continuous fuel-creation cycle. In addition, Columbia University is also working with the bacteria A. ferrooxidans to capture and use energy from ferrous iron to produce liquid fuels from CO2.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A2. Glossary A2. Glossary Acid stabilization: A circumstance where the pH of the waste mixture in an animal manure management system is maintained near 7.0, optimal conditions for methane production. Aerobic bacteria: Microorganisms living, active, or occurring only in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic decomposition: The breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms by microorganisms under favorable conditions of oxygenation. Aerosols: Airborne particles. Afforestation: Planting of new forests on lands that have not been recently forested. Agglomeration: The clustering of disparate elements. Airshed: An area or region defined by settlement patterns or geology that results in discrete atmospheric conditions. Albedo: The fraction of incident light or electromagnetic radiation that is

185

Detergent composition comprising a cellulase containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702 or mutant thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Issues involved with non-characterized control of methanotrophic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Methane-utilizing bacteria, methanotrophs, have application as biocatalysts in the commodity chemical production, waste treatment and environmental remediation industries. Methanotrophs have the ability to oxidize many chemical compounds into more desired products, such as the production of propylene oxide. Methanotrophs can also degrade toxic compounds such as trichloroethylene. However, there are many physical, chemical and biological problems associated with the continuous oxidation of chemicals. These include, low mass transfer of methane, oxygen and propylene; toxicity of substrates and degradation products, and competition between the growth substrate, i.e., methane and chemical feed stock, e.g., propylene for the biocatalyst. To supervise methanotrophic bioprocesses, an intelligent control system must accommodate any biological limitations, e.g., toxicity, and mitigate the impact of the physical and chemical limitations, e.g., mass transfer of methane and the solubility of propylene. The intelligent control system must have the capability to assess the current conditions and metabolic state of the bacteria; recognize and diagnose instrument faults; and select and maintain sets of parameters that will result in high production and growth.

Stoner, D.L.; Tolle, C.R.; Noah, K.S.; Davis, D.A.; Miller, K.S.; Fife, D.J.

1998-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

187

Lubricating bacteria model for branching growth of bacterial colonies, Phys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various bacterial strains (e.g. strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Serratia and Salmonella) exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor semi-solid substrates. These patterns reflect the bacterial cooperative self-organization. Central part of the cooperation is the collective formation of lubricant on top of the agar which enables the bacteria to swim. Hence it provides the colony means to advance towards the food. One method of modeling the colonial development is via coupled reaction-diffusion equations which describe the time evolution of the bacterial density and the concentrations of the relevant chemical fields. This idea has been pursued by a number of groups. Here we present an additional model which specifically includes an evolution equation for the lubricant excreted by the bacteria. We show that when the diffusion of the fluid is governed by nonlinear diffusion coefficient branching patterns evolves. We study the effect of the rates of emission and decomposition of the lubricant fluid on the observed patterns. The results are compared with experimental observations. We also include fields of chemotactic agents and food chemotaxis and conclude that these features are needed in order to explain the observations. 1 I.

Yonathan Kozlovsky; Inon Cohen; Ido Golding; Eshel Ben-jacob

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Process for Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Various Feedstocks Using Thermophilic Bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45 degrees C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

Ooteghem Van, Suellen

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

189

Process for generation of hydrogen gas from various feedstocks using thermophilic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45.degree. C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

Ooteghem, Suellen Van (Morgantown, WV)

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

190

On-line monitoring of aerobic bioremediation with bioluminescent reporter microbes. Final report, July 1991--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

A critical issue in the biological characterization of contaminated sites and in the evaluation of relative bioremediation treatment efficiencies is the development of appropriate monitoring methods for the assessment of pollutant bioavailability and microbial in situ activity potential. In nature, pollutants are found dispersed among the solid, liquid and gaseous phases of the complex environments rendering the analytical estimation of their bioavailability and degradation more difficult and irrelevant. Ex situ and extractive analytical techniques have only been misrepresentative of the natural conditions and often resulted in inaccurate estimates of pollutants mass transfer. In this project, the bioluminescent bioreporter bacterium P. Fluorescens HK44 was integrated to an optical device, capable of conducting emitted light, and used as an online biosensor of naphthalene and salicylate. The physiological requirements of the bacteria and the physical limitations of the biosensor were also determined.

Sayler, G.S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Liquid Fuel from Heat-Loving Microorganisms: H2-Dependent Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Electrofuels by Extremely Thermophilic Archaea  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: NC State is working with the University of Georgia to create Electrofuels from primitive organisms called extremophiles that evolved before photosynthetic organisms and live in extreme, hot water environments with temperatures ranging from 167-212 degrees Fahrenheit The team is genetically engineering these microorganisms so they can use hydrogen to turn carbon dioxide directly into alcohol-based fuels. High temperatures are required to distill the biofuels from the water where the organisms live, but the heat-tolerant organisms will continue to thrive even as the biofuels are being distilledmaking the fuel-production process more efficient. The microorganisms dont require light, so they can be grown anywhereinside a dark reactor or even in an underground facility.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Biofuel-Producing Bacteria, Insect Gut  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 29, 2009 June 29, 2009 Biofuel-Producing Bacteria, Insect Gut Microbes, ~ 70 other Projects Fill DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Pipeline WALNUT CREEK, CA-The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has selected 71 new genomic sequencing projects for its 2010 Community Sequencing Program (CSP)-a targeted sampling of the planet's biodiversity-to be characterized for bioenergy, climate, and environmental applications. JGI's Community Sequencing Program is the largest genomic sequencing effort in the world focused on nonmedical organisms, enabling scientists from universities and national laboratories to probe the hidden world of microbes and plants to tap nature's ingenuity for innovative solutions to the nation's major challenges in energy, climate, and environment. The

193

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUMMARY PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF « GNOTOXENIC » MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria of holoxenic animals, were implanted in the digestive tract of axenic mice. The in vivo production of VFA

Recanati, Catherine

194

Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for increasing the rate of oxidation of toxic vapors by methanotrophic bacteria. The toxic vapors of interest are methane and trichloroethylene. The apparatus includes a gas phase bioreactor within a closed loop pumping system or a single pass system. The methanotrophic bacteria include Methylomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and uncharacterized environmental enrichments.

Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Dugan, Patrick R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Anoxygenic Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produc8on by anoxygenic purple nonsulfur bacteria James 'Jake' McKinlay Assistant Professor, Biology Indiana University, Bloomington 4 N 2 + + 2NH 3 Purple n on---sulfur b acteria produce H 2 via n itrogenase biosynthe8c precursors and CO 2 central organic 'waste' metabolism compounds H + e --- Nitrogenase H 2 ATP Light (cyclic) energy photophosphoryla/on N 2 + 8H + + 8e - + 16ATP à H 2 + 2NH 4 + 8H + + 8e - + 16ATP à 4H 2 This is mode of photosynthesis does not produce oxygen Current state of the technology * H 2 yields - Growing : 10 - 25% of theoreIcal maximum - Non---growing: 40 - 91% of theoreIcal maximum * H 2 producIon rates L ---1 h --- - 10 - 82.5 ml H 2 L ---1 h ---1 over - 67 ml H 2 4000 h * Immobilized in 70 μm---thick latex film. Gosse et al. 2010. Biotechnol. P rog. 26: 907 - 18 * PhotosyntheIc efficiency: 1 - 2% - 6% Barbosa et al. 2001. J. Biotechnol. 8 5: 25---33 Reviewed

196

Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

198

Geek-Up[09.24.10] -- Magical BEANs, Combating Bacteria's Resistance to  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9.24.10] -- Magical BEANs, Combating Bacteria's Resistance 9.24.10] -- Magical BEANs, Combating Bacteria's Resistance to Antibiotics and the ChemCam's Journey to Mars Geek-Up[09.24.10] -- Magical BEANs, Combating Bacteria's Resistance to Antibiotics and the ChemCam's Journey to Mars September 24, 2010 - 5:19pm Addthis Check out the ChemCam close-up, which will reveal which elements are present in Mars' rocks and soils. Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? BEANs -- phase-change materials -- have the ability to readily and swiftly transition between different phases, making them a valuable low-power source of flash memory and data storage. Scientists are studying E. coli bacteria's efflux pump to help them make inhibitors that will stop the heavy-metal pump and the antibiotic

199

Amoebae/bacteria consortia and uses for degrading wastes and contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of altering trinitrotoluene includes the steps of: providing an amoeba/bacteria consortium, particularly ATCC 40908 or a mutant thereof possessing all the identifying characteristics thereof; and contacting the consortium with trinitrotoluene to alter the trinitrotoluene.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Geek-Up[12.03.2010]: Halomonadaceae Bacteria and the Return of Quark Gluon Plasma  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The toxic element arsenic sustains growth of a bacteria instead of phosphorus and CERN's Collider gives researchers a look into the matter that may have existed in the very first moments of the universe.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Atomistic study of energy funneling in the light-harvesting complex of green sulfur bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phototrophic organisms such as plants, photosynthetic bacteria and algae use microscopic complexes of pigment molecules to absorb sunlight. Within the light-harvesting complexes, which frequently have multiple functional and structural subunits, the energy is transferred in the form of molecular excitations with very high efficiency. Green sulfur bacteria are considered to be amongst the most efficient light-harvesting organisms. Despite multiple experimental and theoretical studies of these bacteria the physical origin of the efficient and robust energy transfer in their light-harvesting complexes is not well understood. To study excitation dynamics at the systems level we introduce an atomistic model that mimic a complete light-harvesting apparatus of green sulfur bacteria. The model contains about 4000 pigment molecules and comprises a double wall roll for the chlorosome, a baseplate and six Fenna-Matthews-Olson trimer complexes. We show that the fast relaxation within functional subunits combined with the...

Huh, Joonsuk; Brookes, Jennifer C; Valleau, Stphanie; Fujita, Takatoshi; Aspuru-Guzik, Aln

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Controller parameter optimization for nonlinear systems using enhanced bacteria foraging algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An enhanced bacteria foraging optimization (EBFO) algorithm-based Proportional + integral + derivative (PID) controller tuning is proposed for a class of nonlinear process models. The EBFO algorithm is a modified form of standard BFO algorithm. A multiobjective ...

V. Rajinikanth, K. Latha

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air within the waste layer. Laboratory results also revealed sufficient air permeability of the soil materials (TS-F and SS-Z) placed in lysimeter C. However, at higher compaction density SS-Z became impermeable at 100% WHC. Methane emissions from the reference lysimeter with the smaller substrate cover (12-52 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) were significantly higher than fluxes from the other lysimeters (0-19 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) during in situ aeration. Regarding water balance, lysimeters covered with compost and compost-sand mixture, showed the lowest leachate rate (18-26% of the precipitation) due to the high water holding capacity and more favourable plant growth conditions compared to the lysimeters with mineral, more cohesive, soil covers (27-45% of the precipitation). On the basis of these results, the authors suggest a layered top cover system using both compost material as well as mineral soil in order to support active low-pressure aeration. Conventional soil materials with lower permeability may be used on top of the landfill body for a more uniform aeration of the waste due to an increased resistance to vertical gas flow. A compost cover may be built on top of the soil cover underlain by a gas distribution layer to improve methane oxidation rates and minimise water infiltration. By planting vegetation with a high transpiration rate, the leachate amount emanating from the landfill could be further minimised. The suggested design may be particularly suitable in combination with intermittent in situ aeration, in the later stage of an aeration measure, or at very small sites and shallow deposits. The top cover system could further regulate water infiltration into the landfill and mitigate residual CH{sub 4} emissions, even beyond the time of active aeration.

Hrad, Marlies [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Turning Bacteria into Biofuel: Development of an Integrated Microbial Electrocatalytic (MEC) System for Liquid Biofuel Production from CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: LBNL is improving the natural ability of a common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to use hydrogen and carbon dioxide for biofuel production. First, LBNL is genetically modifying the bacteria to produce biofuel at higher concentrations. Then, LBNL is using renewable electricity obtained from solar, wind, or wave power to produce high amounts of hydrogen in the presence of the bacteriaincreasing the organisms access to its energy source and improving the efficiency of the biofuel-creation process. Finally, LBNL is tethering electrocatalysts to the bacterias surface which will further accelerate the rate at which the organism creates biofuel. LBNL is also developing a chemical method to transform the biofuel that the bacteria produce into ready-to-use jet fuel.

None

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

ENZYME ACTIVITY PROBE AND GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POTENTIAL AEROBIC COMETABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE NORTHWEST PLUME, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overarching objective of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) enzyme activity probe (EAP) effort is to determine if aerobic cometabolism is contributing to the attenuation of trichloroethene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents in the contaminated groundwater beneath PGDP. The site-specific objective for the EAP assessment is to identify if key metabolic pathways are present and expressed in the microbial community--namely the pathways that are responsible for degradation of methane and aromatic (e.g. toluene, benzene, phenol) substrates. The enzymes produced to degrade methane and aromatic compounds also break down TCE through a process known as cometabolism. EAPs directly measure if methane and/or aromatic enzyme production pathways are operating and, for the aromatic pathways, provide an estimate of the number of active organisms in the sampled groundwater. This study in the groundwater plumes at PGDP is a major part of a larger scientific effort being conducted by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and North Wind Inc. in which EAPs are being applied to contaminated groundwater from diverse hydrogeologic and plume settings throughout the U.S. to help standardize their application as well as their interpretation. While EAP data provide key information to support the site specific objective for PGDP, several additional lines of evidence are being evaluated to increase confidence in the determination of the occurrence of biodegradation and the rate and sustainability of aerobic cometabolism. These complementary efforts include: (1) Examination of plume flowpaths and comparison of TCE behavior to 'conservative' tracers in the plume (e.g., {sup 99}Tc); (2) Evaluation of geochemical conditions throughout the plume; and (3) Evaluation of stable isotopes in the contaminants and their daughter products throughout the plume. If the multiple lines of evidence support the occurrence of cometabolism and the potential for the process to contribute to temporal and spatial attenuation of TCE in PGDP groundwater, then a follow-up enzyme probe microcosm study to better estimate biological degradation rate(s) is warranted.

Looney, B; M. Hope Lee, M; S. K. Hampson, S

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Understanding the Role of the Bacteria, Isolated from the Hanford Site Soil, on the Fate and Transport of Uranium.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Bacteria are known for their abilities to influence the geochemical processes and affect the mobility of contaminants in the subsurface. Arthrobacter strain G975 was (more)

Carvajal, Denny A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteriaare genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuelin this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLAs electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Purple Bacteria Develops Its Own Form of Sunscreen | U.S. DOE Office of  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Purple Bacteria Develops Its Own Form Purple Bacteria Develops Its Own Form of "Sunscreen" Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 05.03.12 Purple Bacteria Develops Its Own Form of "Sunscreen" Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement Found that specific pigments in the light harvesting complex of a photosynthetic bacterium act primarily to protect the cell from damage by excess sunlight Significance and Impact May aid the design of both natural and artificial light harvesting systems to minimize deleterious effects of exposure to too much light energy Research Details In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids typically act as supplementary

209

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form | U.S. DOE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E: sc.ber@science.doe.gov More Information » April 2013 Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Two genes responsible for mercury methylation identified. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo

210

Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

Wayne Reeve of Murdoch University on "Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Atomistic study of energy funneling in the light-harvesting complex of green sulfur bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phototrophic organisms such as plants, photosynthetic bacteria and algae use microscopic complexes of pigment molecules to absorb sunlight. Within the light-harvesting complexes, which frequently have multiple functional and structural subunits, the energy is transferred in the form of molecular excitations with very high efficiency. Green sulfur bacteria are considered to be amongst the most efficient light-harvesting organisms. Despite multiple experimental and theoretical studies of these bacteria the physical origin of the efficient and robust energy transfer in their light-harvesting complexes is not well understood. To study excitation dynamics at the systems level we introduce an atomistic model that mimic a complete light-harvesting apparatus of green sulfur bacteria. The model contains about 4000 pigment molecules and comprises a double wall roll for the chlorosome, a baseplate and six Fenna-Matthews-Olson trimer complexes. We show that the fast relaxation within functional subunits combined with the transfer between collective excited states of pigments can result in robust energy funneling that is weakly dependent on the initial excitation conditions and temperature changes. Moreover, the same mechanism describes the coexistence of multiple timescales of excitation dynamics frequently observed in ultrafast optical experiments. While our findings support the hypothesis of supertransfer, the model reveals energy transport through multiple channels on different length scales.

Joonsuk Huh; Semion K. Saikin; Jennifer C. Brookes; Stphanie Valleau; Takatoshi Fujita; Aln Aspuru-Guzik

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

213

Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic digestion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the estimator performance. I. Introduction Anaerobic digestion is a biotechnological process with a promisingDynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic digestion S. Diop1 and I. Simeonov2 Abstract-- The paper proposes an observability anal- ysis and estimation

214

Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for specific growth rates and biomass concentrations of the anaerobic digestion process. A 3-stage model of 5. INTRODUCTION Anaerobic digestion is a biotechnological process with a promising capabilities for solving someDynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The dynamics of this process are the ones of standard anaerobic digestion, and depend on the type of organic is devoted to the description of the model of the specific anaerobic digestion processA dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater

216

A method of genetically engineering acidophilic, heterotrophic, bacteria by electroporation and conjugation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of genetically manipulating an acidophilic bacteria is provided by two different procedures. Using electroporation, chimeric and broad-host range plasmids are introduced into Acidiphilium. Conjugation is also employed to introduce broad-host range plasmids into Acidiphilium at neutral pH.

Roberto, F.F.; Glenn, A.W.; Ward, T.E.

1990-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

217

Interactions of uranium with bacteria and kaolinite clay Toshihiko Ohnukia,*, Takahiro Yoshidaa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interactions of uranium with bacteria and kaolinite clay Toshihiko Ohnukia,*, Takahiro Yoshidaa of uranium (VI) by a bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, suspended in a slurry of kaolinite clay, to elucidate, removed approximately 80% of the associated uranium. However, in the presence of B. subtilis the amount

Kasama, Takeshi

218

Plutonium(V/VI) Reduction by the Metal-Reducing Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examined the ability of the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to reduce Pu(VI) and Pu(V). Cell suspensions of both bacteria reduced oxidized Pu [a mixture of Pu(VI) and Pu(V)] to Pu(IV). The rate of plutonium reduction was similar to the rate of U(VI) reduction obtained under similar conditions for each bacteria. The rates of Pu(VI) and U(VI) reduction by cell suspensions of S. oneidensis were slightly higher than the rates observed with G. metallireducens. The reduced form of Pu was characterized as aggregates of nanoparticulates of Pu(IV). Transmission electron microscopy images of the solids obtained from the cultures after the reduction of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) by S. oneidensis show that the Pu precipitates have a crystalline structure. The nanoparticulates of Pu(IV) were precipitated on the surface of or within the cell walls of the bacteria. The production of Pu(III) was not observed, which indicates that Pu(IV) was the stable form of reduced Pu under these experimental conditions. Experiments examining the ability of these bacteria to use Pu(VI) as a terminal electron acceptor for growth were inconclusive. A slight increase in cell density was observed for both G. metallireducens and S. oneidensis when Pu(VI) was provided as the sole electron acceptor; however, Pu(VI) concentrations decreased similarly in both the experimental and control cultures. Effective bioremediation and waste management strategies

Gary A. Icopini; Joe G. Lack; Larry E. Hersman; Mary P. Neu; Hakim Boukhalfa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Lvy Fluctuations and Tracer Diffusion in Dilute Suspensions of Algae and Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Swimming microorganisms rely on effective mixing strategies to achieve efficient nutrient influx. Recent experiments, probing the mixing capability of unicellular biflagellates, revealed that passive tracer particles exhibit anomalous non-Gaussian diffusion when immersed in a dilute suspension of self-motile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae. Qualitatively, this observation can be explained by the fact that the algae induce a fluid flow that may occasionally accelerate the colloidal tracers to relatively large velocities. A satisfactory quantitative theory of enhanced mixing in dilute active suspensions, however, is lacking at present. In particular, it is unclear how non-Gaussian signatures in the tracers' position distribution are linked to the self-propulsion mechanism of a microorganism. Here, we develop a systematic theoretical description of anomalous tracer diffusion in active suspensions, based on a simplified tracer-swimmer interaction model that captures the typical distance scaling of a microswimmer's flow field. We show that the experimentally observed non-Gaussian tails are generic and arise due to a combination of truncated L\\'evy statistics for the velocity field and algebraically decaying time correlations in the fluid. Our analytical considerations are illustrated through extensive simulations, implemented on graphics processing units to achieve the large sample sizes required for analyzing the tails of the tracer distributions.

Irwin M. Zaid; Jrn Dunkel; Julia M. Yeomans

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENTH F A PRELIMINARY REPORT IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AKD IN A RECENTrests on the finding that algae have less cellulose and a

Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Dysfunction of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Mice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice: (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200 % increase in Bacteroides and a 30 % reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition.

Youcai Zhang; Pallavi B. Limaye; Lois D. Lehman-mckeeman; Curtis D. Klaassen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Turning Bacteria into Fuel: Cyanobacteria Designed for Solar-Powered Highly Efficient Production of Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is engineering a type of photosynthetic bacteria that efficiently produce fatty acidsa fuel precursor for biofuels. This type of bacteria, called Synechocystis, is already good at converting solar energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) into a type of fatty acid called lauric acid. ASU has modified the organism so it continuously converts sunlight and CO2 into fatty acidsoverriding its natural tendency to use solar energy solely for cell growth and maximizing the solar-to-fuel conversion process. ASUs approach is different because most biofuels research focuses on increasing cellular biomass and not on excreting fatty acids. The project has also identified a unique way to convert the harvested lauric acid into a fuel that can be easily blended with existing transportation fuels.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Scientists Launch the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea | U.S.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists Scientists Launch the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea News Featured Articles 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Presentations & Testimony News Archives Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 12.28.09 Scientists Launch the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea Unlocking the diversity of microbial communities may benefit biofuel production, global carbon storage, and bioremediation. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Scientists estimate that there are approximately 4 × 10^30 microbes living on the planet. To put this number into perspective, there are 4,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 microbes living on the planet

224

Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Printed in Great Britain 107 The Decomposition of Toluene by Soil Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strains of two bacteria, a Pseudomonas and an Achromobacter, which grow with toluene, benzene or certain other related aromatic compounds as sole carbon source were isolated from soil. The use of aromatic compounds by these bacteria was an induced phenomenon. Toluene-grown organisms oxidized without lag toluene, benzene, catechol, &methylcatechol, benzyl alcohol and, more slowly, o- and m-cresol, but not benzaldehyde or benzoic acid. 3-Methylcatechol, acetic acid, pyruvic acid, and a yellow ether-soluble acidic substance which was colourless in acid solution, were detected in toluene-oxidizing cultures. Acetic and pyruvic acids were also formed during the bacterial oxidation of 8-methylcatechol. 3-Methylcatechol is probably an early stage in the bacterial metabolism of toluene; benzaldehyde and benzoic acid seem not to be intermediates in this metabolism.

D. Claus

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described in this report relates to a combined system of an apparatus and a method of increasing the rates of oxidation of gases and hazardous vapors by methanotrophic and other bacteria. The gases of interest are methane and trichlorethylene and other hazardous vapors. In a preferred embodiment, the oxidation rate of methane is improved by the addition of clays, e.g., kaolin, sometimes called ``China clay.``

Apel, W.A.; Dugan, P.R.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

A Scanning Auger Microprobe analysis of corrosion products associated with sulfate reducing bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Scanning Auger Microprobe analysis was performed on the corrosion products of an austenitic AISI type 304 SS after a potentiostatic polarization of one volt for ten minutes in a modified Postgate`s C media containing sulfate reducing bacteria. The corrosion products were characterized and mapped in local regions where pitting was observed. A critical evaluation of the applicability of this technique for the examination of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is presented.

Sadowski, R.A.; Chen, G.; Clayton, C.R.; Kearns, J.R. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biosystems and Process Sciences Div.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Stress reduction as a link between aerobic activity and academic performance experienced by undergraduate women through the use of the Student Recreation Center at Texas A&M University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between aerobic activity and academic performance through stress reduction using a student recreational facility. Research indicated that learning in college tends to focus on the academic aspects of the undergraduate experience - the classroom, laboratory, and the library - not other factors potentially affecting academic performance (Kuh et al., 1991). Forty women were randomly selected from the undergraduate population at Texas A&M University in order to analyze the relationship between aerobic activity and academic performance by measuring perceived stress levels. All participants completed an on-line stress questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), every three weeks. Exam scores from an introductory sociology course and an educational statistics course were used for data analysis also. The experimental group (exercise group) used twelve weeks of regular aerobic exercise, while the control group (non-exercise) remained sedentary. During the twelve-week period, all participants self-reported data for additional qualitative data. Research findings of this study included: 1. The main benefit from aerobic activity was that women who exercised regularly felt more positive about academics and non-academic activities than women who did not exercise regularly. 2. There was no statistical significant difference between exam scores and academic performance of women who exercised regularly and those who did not exercise regularly. 3. There was no statistical significant difference between stress levels of women who exercised regularly and women who did not exercise regularly. Based on the findings of the study, researcher recommendations include: 1. Continue to investigate the changing demographics of college students - namely, age, sex, and non-traditional students. This study was limited to fulltime women between the ages of 18-24. Men and part-time students need to be included in a comparable study, providing campuses with more data that reflects the entire student population. 2. Explore additional areas in sociology and psychology that address exercise behavior trends in college students. Results from this study indicated that there are many variables, including stress, that affect college students in the behavioral sciences that can be attributed to differences in physical activity between sedentary and non-sedentary people. 3. Analyze health factors, which include amount of exercise, nutrition, and sleep patterns.

Brennan, Martha

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Diffusive transport without detailed balance in motile bacteria: Does microbiology need statistical physics?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbiology is the science of microbes, particularly bacteria. Many bacteria are motile: they are capable of self-propulsion. Among these, a significant class execute so-called run-and-tumble motion: they follow a fairly straight path for a certain distance, then abruptly change direction before repeating the process. This dynamics has something in common with Brownian motion (it is diffusive at large scales), and also something in contrast. Specifically, motility parameters such as the run speed and tumble rate depend on the local environment and hence can vary in space. When they do so, even if a steady state is reached, this is not generally invariant under time-reversal: the principle of detailed balance, which restores the microscopic time-reversal symmetry of systems in thermal equilibrium, is mesoscopically absent in motile bacteria. This lack of detailed balance (allowed by the flux of chemical energy that drives motility) creates pitfalls for the unwary modeller. Here I review some statistical mechanical models for bacterial motility, presenting them as a paradigm for exploring diffusion without detailed balance. I also discuss the extent to which statistical physics is useful in understanding real or potential microbiological experiments.

M. E. Cates

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

Design, testing and optimization of a microfluidic device for capture and concentration of bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective detection of bacterial pathogens in large sample volumes is a challenging problem. Pre-concentration routines currently in practice before the actual detection process are cumbersome and hard to automate. An effort is made to address the problem of volume discrepancy between day-to-day samples and the concentrated samples needed for analysis. Principles of conceptual design are used in formulating the â??Need Statementâ??, â??Function Structureâ?? and in identifying the â??Critical Design Parametersâ?? and â??Design Constraintsâ??. Electrokinetic phenomena are used to exploit the surface charges on bacteria. Electrophoresis is used to transport the bacteria to electrode surface and â??Electrostatic trappingâ? is then used to capture these microbes on the electrode surface. The captured microbes can then be concentrated in a concentrator unit. A prototype microfluidic device is fabricated for showing the proof of concept. Optimization is done to minimize hydraulic power consumption and wetted volume. Observations from the initial prototype device along with the optimization results are used in building a new prototype device. Operation of this device is demonstrated by capture of bacteria from flow. Qualitative studies are conducted and preliminary quantification is also done.

Cherla, Srinivas

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Bioinspired Materials Engineering - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... materials synthesis mediated by microorganisms (bacteria, virus, fungi, algae), biopolymer/ceramic composites. Microstructure pattern formation for functional...

232

Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

Gallivan, Justin [Emory University

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

The effects of temperature and phosphorus availability on the biomass composition, phosphorus allocation, size and morphology of freshwater bacteria.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. July 2012. Major: Ecology, Evolution and Behavior. Advisor:James Bryan Cotner. 1 computer file (PDF); iv, 112 pages. Freshwater bacteria play (more)

Phillips, Katherine N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 14 Production of Lipids for Biofuels Using Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 14 Production of Lipids for Biofuels Using Bacteria Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Press Downloadable pdf of

235

Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell motility in viscous fluids is ubiquitous and affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection, and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical and mechanical principles of locomotion at the small scales relevant to cell swimming (tens of microns and below). The focus is on the fundamental flow physics phenomena occurring in this inertia-less realm, and the emphasis is on the simple physical picture. We review the basic properties of flows at low Reynolds number, paying special attention to aspects most relevant for swimming, such as resistance matrices for solid bodies, flow singularities, and kinematic requirements for net translation. Then we review classical theoretical work on cell motility: early calculations of the speed of a swimmer with prescribed stroke, and the application of resistive-force theory and slender-body theory to flagellar locomotion. After reviewing the physical means by which flagella are actuated, we outline areas of active research, including hydrodynamic interactions, biological locomotion in complex fluids, the design of small-scale artificial swimmers, and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

Eric Lauga; Thomas R. Powers

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Nano scale devices for plasmonic nanolithography and rapid sensing of bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation contains two different research topics. One is a Nano Scale Device for Plasmonic Nanolithography Optical Antenna and the other is a Nano Scale Device for Rapid Sensing of Bacteria SEPTIC. Since these two different research topics have little analogy to each other, they were divided into different chapters throughout the whole dissertation. The Optical Antenna and Nanowell / Microwell / ISFET Sensor represent the device names of each topic Plasmonic Nanolithography and Rapid Sensing of Bacteria, respectively. For plasmonic nanolithography, we demonstrated a novel photonic device - Optical Antenna (OA) - that works as a nano scale object lens. It consists of a number of sub-wavelength features in a metal film coated on a quartz substrate. The device focuses the incident light to form a narrow beam in the near-field and even far-field region. The narrow beam lasts for up to several wavelengths before it diverges. We demonstrated that the OA was able to focus a subwavelength spot with a working distance (also the focal length) of several m, theoretically and experimentally. The highest imaging resolution (90-nm spots) is more than a 100% improvement of the diffraction limit (FWHM = 210 nm) in conventional optics. A model and 3D electromagnetic simulation results were also studied. Given its small footprint and subwavelength resolution, the PL holds great promise in direct-writing and scanning microscopy. Collaborative work demonstrated a Nanowell (or Microwell) device which enables a rapid and specific detection of bacteria using nano (or micro) scale probe to monitor the electric field fluctuations caused by ion leakage from the bacteria. When a bacteriophage infects a bacterium and injects its DNA into the host cell, a massive and transitory ion efflux from the host cell occurs. SEPTIC (SEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascade) technology developed by collaboration uses a nanowell device to detect the nano-scale electric field fluctuations caused by this ion efflux. The SEPTIC provides fast (within several minutes), effective (living cell only), phage specific (simple and less malfunction), cheap, compact and robust method for bacteria sensing. We fabricated a number of devices, including Nanowell, Microwell, and ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor), which detect bacteria-phage reactions in frequency domain and time domain. In the frequency domain, detected noise spectrum is characterized by ? f / 1 . The positive reaction showed much higher 1 ? ? than that of background noise or negative reaction ( 0 ? ? ). For the time domain, we observed abnormal pulses (> ? 8 ) lasting 0.1 ~ 0.3 s which match the duration of ion flux reported by prior literatures. And the ISFET showed the phage-infection-triggered pulse in the form of the deviated drain current. Given the size of nanowell (or microwell, ISFET) and the simplified detection electronics, the cost of bacteria sensing is significantly reduced and the robustness is well improved, indicating very promising applications in clinical diagnosis and bio-defense.

Seo, Sungkyu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Nano scale devices for plasmonic nanolithography and rapid sensing of bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation contains two different research topics. One is a "Nano Scale Device for Plasmonic Nanolithography - Optical Antenna' and the other is a 'Nano Scale Device for Rapid Sensing of Bacteria - SEPTIC'. Since these two different research topics have little analogy to each other, they were divided into different chapters throughout the whole dissertation. The 'Optical Antenna' and 'Nanowell / Microwell / ISFET Sensor' represent the device names of each topic 'Plasmonic Nanolithography' and 'Rapid Sensing of Bacteria' respectively. For plasmonic nanolithography, we demonstrated a novel photonic device - Optical Antenna (OA) - that works as a nano scale object lens. It consists of a number of sub-wavelength features in a metal film coated on a quartz substrate. The device focuses the incident light to form a narrow beam in the near-field and even far-field region. The narrow beam lasts for up to several wavelengths before it diverges. We demonstrated that the OA was able to focus a subwavelength spot with a working distance (also the focal length) of several m, theoretically and experimentally. The highest imaging resolution (90-nm spots) is more than a 100% improvement of the diffraction limit (FWHM = 210 nm) in conventional optics. A model and 3D electromagnetic simulation results were also studied. Given its small footprint and subwavelength resolution, the PL holds great promise in direct-writing and scanning microscopy. Collaborative work demonstrated a Nanowell (or Microwell) device which enables a rapid and specific detection of bacteria using nano (or micro) scale probe to monitor the electric field fluctuations caused by ion leakage from the bacteria. When a bacteriophage infects a bacterium and injects its DNA into the host cell, a massive and transitory ion efflux from the host cell occurs. SEPTIC (SEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascade) technology developed by collaboration uses a nanowell device to detect the nano-scale electric field fluctuations caused by this ion efflux. The SEPTIC provides fast (within several minutes), effective (living cell only), phage specific (simple and less malfunction), cheap, compact and robust method for bacteria sensing. We fabricated a number of devices, including 'Nanowell', 'Microwell' and 'ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor)', which detect bacteria-phage reactions in frequency domain and time domain. In the frequency domain, detected noise spectrum is characterized by 1/f[beta]. The positive reaction showed much higher [beta] =?1 than that of background noise or negative reaction ( [beta] =?0). For the time domain, we observed abnormal pulses (> 8[omega] ) lasting 0.1 ~ 0.3 s which match the duration of ion flux reported by prior literatures. And the ISFET showed the phage-infection-triggered pulse in the form of the deviated drain current. Given the size of nanowell (or microwell, ISFET) and the simplified detection electronics, the cost of bacteria sensing is significantly reduced and the robustness is well improved, indicating very promising applications in clinical diagnosis and bio-defense.

Seo, Sungkyu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is differentially regulated in genetically distinct NO3- assimilating bacteria, and that the best predictors of nasA gene expression are either NO3- concentration or NO3- uptake rates. These studies provide convincing evidence of the importance of bacterial utilization of NO3-, insight into controlling processes, and provide a rich dataset that are being used to develop linked C and N modeling components necessary to evaluate the significance of bacterial DIN utilization to global C cycling. Furthermore, as a result of BI-OMP funding we made exciting strides towards institutionalizing a research and education based collaboration between the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SkIO) and Savannah State University (SSU), an historically black university within the University System of Georgia with undergraduate and now graduate programs in marine science. The BI-OMP program, in addition to supporting undergraduate (24) graduate (10) and postdoctoral (2) students, contributed to the development of a new graduate program in Marine Sciences at SSU that remains an important legacy of this project. The long-term goals of these collaborations are to increase the capacity for marine biotechnology research and to increase representation of minorities in marine, environmental and biotechnological sciences.

Frischer, Marc E. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

240

Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an organic background Title Laser Ablation of Organic Materials for discrimination of bacteria in an organic background Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2009 Authors Baudelet, Matthieu, Myriam Boueri, Jin Yu, Xianglei Mao, Samuel S. Mao, and Richard E. Russo Conference Name Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors and Nanostructure Materials XIII Series Title Proceedings SPIE Volume 7214 Pagination 72140J Date Published 02/2009 Abstract We demonstrate in this paper that laser ablation allows efficient analysis of organic and biological materials. Such analysis is based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) which consists in the detection of the optical emission from the plasma induced by a high intensity laser pulse focused on the sample surface. The optimization of the ablation regime in terms of laser parameters (pulse duration, wavelength, fluence) is important to generate a plasma suitable for the analysis. We first present the results of a study of laser ablation of organic samples with different laser parameters using time-resolved shadowgraph. We correlate the early stage expansion of the plasma to its optical emission properties, which allows us to choose suitable laser parameters for an efficient analysis of organic or biological samples by LIBS. As an illustration of the analytical ability of LIBS for biological materials, we show that the emission from CN molecules can be used to distinguish between biological and inorganic samples. Native CN molecular fragment directly ablated from a biological sample are identified using time-resolved LIBS. Those due to recombination with nitrogen contained in atmospheric air can be distinguished with their specific time evolution behavior.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Exploration of Simple Analytical Approaches for Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many of the current methods for pathogenic bacterial detection require long sample-preparation and analysis time, as well as complex instrumentation. This dissertation explores simple analytical approaches (e.g., flow cytometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) that may be applied towards ideal requirements of a microbial detection system, through method and instrumentation development, and by the creation and characterization of immunosensing platforms. This dissertation is organized into six sections. In the general Introduction section a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work is presented. First, different approaches for detection of pathogenic bacteria will be reviewed, with a comparison of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each approach, A general overview regarding diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is then presented. Next, the structure and function of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from organosulfur molecules at gold and micrometer and sub-micrometer patterning of biomolecules using SAMs will be discussed. This section is followed by four research chapters, presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 describes the efforts and challenges towards the creation of imunosensing platforms that exploit the flexibility and structural stability of SAMs of thiols at gold. 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyl-1-thiol SAM (PFDT) and dithio-bis(succinimidyl propionate)-(DSP)-derived SAMs were used to construct the platform. Chapter 2 describes the characterization of the PFDT- and DSP-derived SAMs, and the architectures formed when it is coupled to antibodies as well as target bacteria. These studies used infrared reflection spectroscopy (IRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), Chapter 3 presents a new sensitive, and portable diffuse reflection based technique for the rapid identification and quantification of pathogenic bacteria. Chapter 4 reports research efforts in the construction and evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry based cell detector and enumerator. This final research chapter is followed by a general summation and future prospectus section that concludes this dissertation.

Salma Rahman

2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

242

Light-harvesting in bacteria exploits a critical interplay between transport and trapping dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light-harvesting bacteria Rhodospirillum Photometricum were recently found to adopt strikingly different architectures depending on illumination conditions. We present analytic and numerical calculations which explain this observation by quantifying a dynamical interplay between excitation transfer kinetics and reaction center cycling. High light-intensity membranes (HLIM) exploit dissipation as a photo-protective mechanism, thereby safeguarding a steady supply of chemical energy, while low light-intensity membranes (LLIM) efficiently process unused illumination intensity by channelling it to open reaction centers. More generally, our analysis elucidates and quantifies the trade-offs in natural network design for solar energy conversion.

Felipe Caycedo-Soler; Ferney J. Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Neil F. Johnson

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

Structural similarities between biogenic uraninites produced by phylogenetically and metabolically diverse bacteria.  

SciTech Connect

While the product of microbial uranium reduction is often reported to beUO2, a comprehensive characterization including stoichiometry and unit cell determination is available for only one Shewanella species. Here, we compare the products of batch uranyl reduction by a collection of dissimilatory metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genera Shewanella, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfovibrio under similar laboratory conditions. Our results demonstrate that U(VI) bioreduction by this assortment of commonly studied, environmentally relevant bacteria leads to the precipitation of uraninite with a composition between UO2.00 and UO2.075, regardless of phylogenetic or metabolic diversity. Coupled analyses, including electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and powder diffraction, confirm that structurally and chemically analogous uraninite solids are produced. These biogenic uraninites have particle diameters of about 2-3 nm and lattice constants consistent with UO2.0 and exhibit a high degree of intermediate-range order. Results indicate that phylogenetic and metabolic variability within delta- and gamma-proteobacteria has little effect on nascent biouraninite structure or crystal size under the investigated conditions.

Sharp, Jonathan; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Veeramani, Harish; Suvorova, Elena; Kennedy, David W.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Mehta, Apurva; Bargar, John R.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most chlorophyll-type pigments in a photosynthetic organism function as an antenna, absorbing light and transferring excitations to a photochemical reaction center where energy storage takes place by a series of chemical reactions. The green photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by large antenna complexes known as chlorosomes, in which pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanisms of excitation transfer and regulation of this unique antenna system, including how it is integrated into the rest of the photosynthetic energy transduction apparatus. Techniques that are being used in this research include biochemical analysis, spectroscopy, microscopy, X-ray structural studies, and reconstitution from purified components. Our recent results indicate that the chlorosome baseplate structure, which is the membrane attachment site for the chlorosome to the membrane, is a unique pigment-protein that contains large amounts of carotenoids and small amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Reconstitution of directed energy transfer in chlorosomes will be carried out using purified baseplates and oligomeric pigments. The integral membrane B808-866 antenna complex from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein-reaction center complex from green sulfur bacteria will be characterized by spectroscopic and structural techniques.

Blankenship, Robert E.

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

245

Antenna organization in green photosynthetic bacteria. Progress report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the structure and function of the unique antenna system found in the green photosynthetic bacteria. The antenna system in these organisms is contained within a vesicle known as a chlorosome, which is attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Additional antenna pigments and reaction centers are contained in integral membrane proteins. Energy absorbed by the bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) pigments in the chlorosome is transferred via a ``baseplate`` array of BChl a antenna pigments into the membrane and to the reaction center. A schematic model of chlorosome structure is shown. This project is aimed at increasing our understanding of the organization of the pigments in the chlorosome and how the antenna system functions.

Blankenship, R.E.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Why Sequence Beijerinckiaceae?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beijerinckiaceae? Methane is a major greenhouse gas and a potential alternative fuel. In the environment, methane is oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. Most...

247

Anaerobic Digestion | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

bacteria break down or "digest" organic material in the absence of oxygen and produce biogas as a waste product. (Aerobic decomposition, or composting, requires large amounts of...

248

Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two distinct approaches, the Frenkel-Dirac time-dependent variation and the Haken-Strobl model, are adopted to study energy transfer dynamics in single-ring and double-ring light-harvesting (LH) systems in purple bacteria. It is found that the inclusion of long-range dipolar interactions in the two methods results in significant increase in intra- or inter-ring exciton transfer efficiency. The dependence of exciton transfer efficiency on trapping positions on single rings of LH2 (B850) and LH1 is similar to that in toy models with nearest-neighbor coupling only. However, owing to the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of BChls and dipolar couplings, such dependence has been largely suppressed. In the studies of coupled-ring systems, both methods reveal an interesting role of dipolar interactions in increasing energy transfer efficiency by introducing multiple intra/inter-ring transfer paths. Importantly, the time scale (4 ps) of inter-ring exciton transfer obtained from polaron dynamics is in good agreement with previous studies. In a double-ring LH2 system, non-nearest neighbor interactions can induce symmetry breaking, which leads to global and local minima of the average trapping time in the presence of a non-zero dephasing rate, suggesting that environment dephasing helps preserve quantum coherent energy transfer when the perfect circular symmetry in the hypothetic system is broken. This study reveals that dipolar coupling between chromophores may play an important role in the high energy transfer efficiency in the LH systems of purple bacteria and many other natural photosynthetic systems.

Ye Jun; Sun Kewei; Zhao Yang; Lee, Chee Kong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu Yunjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Guangdong 518060 (China); Cao Jianshu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

249

West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells, "using this bacterial strain in a fuel cell to generate electricity would greatly increase the cell were more efficient at transferring electrons to generate power in fuel cells than bacteria

Lovley, Derek

251

Making more efficient fuel cells 08.09.2009 -Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making more efficient fuel cells 08.09.2009 - Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert waste to generate electricity would greatly increase the cell's power output." The pili on the bacteria's surface

Lovley, Derek

252

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 12 Fast GC for Cellular FAME Analysis of Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 12 Fast GC for Cellular FAME Analysis of Bacteria Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books 1FEE4C7C73C70C0CBEFB8C79B2926801 AOCS Press

253

Study on the Isolation Screening and Characteristic Identification of Denitrifying Phosphorus Removing Bacteria in Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The processes of denitrification and dephosphorization which were independent originally were integrated into Biological Denitrifying Phosphorus and removing process. It was widely considered a bright technology of biological phosphorus removal. According ... Keywords: denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria, enrichment and screening, characteristic identification, flat plate scribing method, metachromatic granules dyeing, nitrate reduction test

Yafeng Li; Hongtao Liu; Jing Ren

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Comparison of vetiver root essential oils from cleansed (bacteria-and fungus-free) vs. non-cleansed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tissue culture derived and natural plants for both genotypes. Although oil yields differed, this may cultivars used for commercial essential oil production are `Sunshine' or very similar cultivars. This workComparison of vetiver root essential oils from cleansed (bacteria- and fungus-free) vs. non

Adams, Robert P.

255

Novel Thermo-Acidophilic Bacteria Isolated from Geothermal Sites in Yellowstone National Park: Physiological and Phylogenetic Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria were isolated from geothermal (3083 C) acidic (pH 2.7 3.7) sites in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature maxima and pH minima of the isolates ranged from 50 to 65 C, and pH 1.01.9. Eight of the bacteria were able to catalyze the dissimilatory oxidation of ferrous iron, and eleven could reduce ferric iron to ferrous iron in anaerobic cultures. Several of the isolates could also oxidize tetrathionate. Six of the iron-oxidizing isolates, and one obligate heterotroph, were low G+C gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes). The former included three Sulfobacillus-like isolates (two closely related to a previously isolated Yellowstone strain, and the third to a mesophilic bacterium isolated from Montserrat), while the other three appeared to belong to a different genus. The other two iron-oxidizers were an Actinobacterium (related to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans) and a Methylobacterium-like isolate (a genus within the a-Proteobacteria that has not previously been found to contain either iron-oxidizers or acidophiles). The other three (heterotrophic) isolates were also a-Proteobacteria and appeared be a novel thermophilic Acidisphaera sp. An ARDREA protocol was developed to discriminate between the iron-oxidizing isolates. Digestion of amplified rRNA genes with two restriction enzymes (SnaBI and BsaAI) separated these bacteria into five distinct groups; this result was confirmed by analysis of sequenced rRNA genes.

D. B. Johnson; N. Okibe; F. F. Roberto

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Occurrence, Prevalence, and Disinfection Potential of Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in a Subtropical Watershed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Antibiotics are an important method for protecting human health. Unfortunately, the development of antibiotic resistance has decreased the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating disease and preventing deaths associated with bacterial infection. The objective of this dissertation research was to gain a better understanding of anthropogenic influences on occurrence of tetracycline resistance and use of traditional disinfection methods for the reduction of tetracycline resistant bacteria and genes. Culture based and molecular methods were used to evaluate the occurrence of tetracycline resistance in a rapidly urbanizing watershed, identify the dominant resistant organisms and resistance genes in the watershed, and evaluate the use of UV and chlorine to reduce the concentration of resistant bacteria and resistance genes. Results from this research showed that tetracycline resistance was prevalent and is maintained in this study area. Several bacterial species (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, E. coli, Pseudomonas, and Serratia) made up the resistant population. The results also indicated that tet(W) was the major resistance gene in this watershed and that a majority of the resistant bacteria were capable of transferring their resistance. Landuse did not cause a difference in occurrence of resistant bacteria or resistance genes which suggests that a rapidly urbanizing watershed could experience resistance. It was also identified that environmental media (sediment and water) influence the occurrence and prevalence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The results indicate that streambed sediment may act as a reservoir for resistance and resistance might be transported in the water. Finally, the results showed that neither UV nor chlorine disinfection were effective in reducing tet(W) concentrations though the results varied greatly among species. Results from this research indicate that preventing the occurrence and distribution of resistance gene in the environment is difficult, and resistance will most likely be maintained. Therefore, in order to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance, it will be important to prevent antibiotic resistance from becoming established in the environment. This can be done by educating the public about the importance of misusing and mismanaging antibiotics. Additionally, classifying antibiotics for either human or veterinary use may help slow the development of resistance. This should prevent clinically important antibiotics from being used in sub-therapeutic doses, which could decrease the selective pressure in the environment. Also clinically relevant bacteria can be prevented from interacting with resistant bacteria in the environment by disinfecting human waste.

Sullivan, Bailey Ann

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes from Green Photosynthetic Bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the structure and function of the chlorosome antennas found in green photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are ellipsoidal structures attached to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane. These antenna complexes provide a very large absorption cross section for light capture. Evidence is overwhelming that the chlorosome represents a very different type of antenna from that found in any other photosynthetic system yet studied. It is now clear that chlorosomes do not contain traditional pigment-proteins, in which the pigments bind to specific sites on proteins. Instead, the chlorosome pigments are organized in vivo into pigment oligomers in which direct pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. Our group has used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate this unique system, as well as the complexes that they directly interact with. Our work has included using model systems, numerous types of both steady-state and ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular biology, protein chemistry and X-ray crystallography. Details of our recent results using these approaches are given below and in the references. Numbers cited in the sections refer to DOE-sponsored publications that are listed below. Only publications dated 2001-2004 or later are included in this report. In addition to the primary literature reports, a comprehensive review of this area of research has been written as well as a commentary.

Robert E. Blankenship

2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

258

Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

Zhang Fabao [Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gu Wenjie, E-mail: guwenjie1982@yahoo.cn [Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi [Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Relevance of the photosynthetic reaction center from purple bacteria to the structure of photosystem II  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthetic organisms are able to oxidize organic or inorganic compounds upon the absorption of light, and they use the extracted electron for the fixation of carbon dioxide. The most important oxidation product is oxygen due to the splitting of water. In eukaryotes these processes occur in photosystem II of chloroplasts. Among prokaryotes photosynthetic oxygen evolution is restricted to cyanobacteria and prochloron-type organisms. How water is split in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II belongs to the most important question to be answered. The primary charge separation occurs in the reaction center of photosystem II. This reaction center is a complex consisting of peripheral and integral membrane proteins, several chlorophyll A molecules, two pheophytin A molecules, two and three plastoquinone molecules, and one non-heme iron atom. The location of the photosystem II reaction center is still a matter of debate. Nakatani et al. (l984) concluded from fluorescence measurements that a protein of apparent molecular weight 47,000 (CP47) is the apoprotein of the photosystem II reaction center. A different view emerged from work with the photosynthetic reaction centers from the purple bacteria. The amino acid sequence of the M subunit of the reaction center from Phodopseudomonas (Rps.) sphaeroides has sequence homologies with the D1 protein from spinach. A substantial amount of structural information can be obtained with the reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas viridis, which can be crystallized. Here the authors discuss the structure of the photosynthetic reaction center from the purple bacterium Rps. viridis and describe the role of those amino acids that are conserved between the bacterial and photosystem II reaction center.

Michel, H.; Deisenhofer, J.

1988-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

260

Electron spin polarization of the oxidized primary electron donor in reaction centers of photosynthetic purple bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Fast time-resolved EPR spectroscopy is used to study electron spin polarization (ESP) in perdeuterated native, Fe{sup 2+}-containing reaction centers (RCs) of photosynthetic purple bacteria. The spin-correlated radical pair-(SCRP) model previously used to simulate ESP observed in Fe-depleted RCs is extended to include the large anisotropy arising from the magnetic interactions between Fe{sup 2+} and the reduced primary electron-acceptor quinone (Q{sub A}{sup .-}), which results in different quantization axes from the P{sup .+} and the (Q{sub A}{sup .-}Fe{sup 2+}) spins. Using spectral simulations, it is shown that the ESP spectrum is solely due to the P{sup .+} part of the spin-correlated radical pair [P{sup .+}(Q{sub A}{sup .-}Fe{sup 2+})], whereas the rapid decay of the spin-polarized signal is due to spin-lattice relaxation of the (Q{sub A}{sup .-}Fe{sup 2+}) complex. The simulations are very sensitive to the relative orientation of the g matrices of P{sup .+} and (Q{sub A}{sup .-}Fe{sup 2+}). Using orientation II of the g matrix of the oxidized primary donor P{sup .+}, the orientation of the g matrix of (Q{sub A}{sup .-}Fe{sup 2+}) is assessed. Finally, it is shown that the ESP spectrum of perdeuterated native, Fe{sup 2+}-containing RCs of Rhodopseudomonas (Rps) viridis is virtually identical to the spectrum obtained for perdeuterated native Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides. 55 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Brink, J.S. van den; Gast, P.; Hoff, A.J. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands); Hermolle, T.E.P.; Hore, P.J. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Lab., Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Lab., Oxford (United Kingdom)

1996-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, by using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). Simulated particle concentrations in the tropopause region and at high latitudes, as well as transport of particles to tundra and land ice regions are shown to be highly sensitive to scavenging in mixed-phase clouds, which is poorly characterized in most global climate models. This may be a critical uncertainty in correctly simulating the transport of aerosol particles to the Arctic. Source estimation via Monte Carlo Markov Chain is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations and the global mean emissions are estimated. We present an analysis of the partitioning of uncertainties in the global mean emissions that are attributable to particle size, CCN activity, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. Uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 um error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to data uncertainty, as measured by the 5%-ile to 95%-ile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mized-phase clouds is as high as 10% to 20% of the data uncertainty. Taken together, the four model 20 parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the measurements. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial data uncertainty, which ranges from 81% to 870% for each of ten ecosystems for this case study. The effects of these and other model parameters in contributing to the uncertainties in the transport of atmospheric aerosol particles should be treated explicitly and systematically in both forward and inverse modelling studies.

Burrows, Susannah M.; Rayner, Perter; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

Use of bromodeoxyuridine immunocapture to identify psychrotolerant phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in phenanthrene-enriched polluted Baltic Sea sediments  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to enrich and identify psychrotolerant phenanthrenedegrading bacteria from polluted Baltic Sea sediments. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediments were spiked with phenanthrene and incubated for 2 months in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine that is incorporated into the DNA of replicating cells. The bromodeoxyuridine-incorporated DNA was extracted by immunocapture and analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to identify bacterial populations that were growing. In addition, degradation genes were quantified in the bromodeoxyuridine-incorporated DNA by real-time PCR. Phenanthrene concentrations decreased after 2 months of incubation in the phenanthrene-enriched sediments and this reduction correlated to increases in copy numbers of xylE and phnAc dioxygenase genes. Representatives of Exiguobacterium, Schewanella,Methylomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacteroides and an uncultured Deltaproteobacterium and a Gammaproteobacterium dominated the growing community in the phenanthrene spiked sediments. Isolates that were closely related to three of these bacteria (two pseudomonads and an Exiguobacterium sp.) could reduce phenanthrene concentrations in pure cultures and they all harbored phnAc dioxygenase genes. These results confirm that this combination of culture-based and molecular approaches was useful for identification of actively growing bacterial species with a high potential for phenanthrene degradation.

Edlund, A.; Jansson, J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge.

Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Controlled Photolytic Release of Biocides for High Efficiency ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Airborne microorganismsbacteria, viruses, and fungithat enter heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and deposit on...

265

Maintenance of Cutting Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Microorganisms of three types--bacteria, algae, and fungi--are often encountered in soluble oils, and all three have detrimental effects on emulsion stability. Many

266

JGI - Why GEBA?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Bacteria and Archaea | Why GEBA? | Pilot Project | Interpret a Genome Page Genome sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of microorganisms and the role they...

267

Medical and Biological Applications - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2010 ... Airborne microorganismsbacteria, viruses, and fungithat enter heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and deposit on...

268

Poplar trees could be genetically modified to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Evaluating microorganisms for production of biofuels and bioproducts - Producing inhibitor-resistant and high-product-tolerant microorganisms for biofuels production · Aerobic and heterotrophic algal process development - Studying the effect of the environment on algae growth and lipid production - Using algae residue as a feedstock

269

Cofermentation with Cooperative Microorganisms for More ...  

Technology Marketing Summary It is well known that biomass has primarily two sources of fermentable carbohydrates, cellulose and hemicelluloses.

270

Pentanol isomer synthesis in engineered microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential application as biofuels. They are found as natural3-Methyl-1-butanol . Biofuels 32 MJ/L for gasoline) and aabout microbial production of biofuels in general have been

Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Microorganism genomics, compositions and methods related thereto  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and compositions for accessing, in a generally unbaised manner, a diverse genetic pool for genes involved in biosynthetic pathways. The invention also provides compounds which can be identified by cloning biosynthetic pathways.

Handelsman, Jo (Madison, WI); Goodman, Robert M. (Madison, WI); Rondon, Michelle R. (Madison, WI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Perchlorate and Nitrate Remediation Efficiency and Microbial Diversity in a Containerized Wetland Bioreactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed a method to remove perchlorate (14 to 27 {micro}g/L) and nitrate (48 mg/L) from contaminated groundwater using a wetland bioreactor. The bioreactor has operated continuously in a remote field location for more than two years with a stable ecosystem of indigenous organisms. This study assesses the bioreactor for long-term perchlorate and nitrate remediation by evaluating influent and effluent groundwater for reduction-oxidation conditions and nitrate and perchlorate concentrations. Total community DNA was extracted and purified from 10-g sediment samples retrieved from vertical coring of the bioreactor during winter. Analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of short, 16S rDNA, polymerase-chain-reaction products was used to identify dominant microorganisms. Bacteria genera identified were closely affiliated with bacteria widely distributed in soils, mud layers, and fresh water. Of the 17 dominant bands sequenced, most were gram negative and capable of aerobic or anaerobic respiration with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Halomonas, and Nitrospira). Several identified genera (Rhizobium, Acinetobactor, and Xanthomonas) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a combined form (ammonia) usable by host plants. Isolates were identified from the Proteobacteria class, known for the ability to reduce perchlorate. Initial bacterial assessments of sediments confirm the prevalence of facultative anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing perchlorate and nitrate in situ.

Jr., B D; Dibley, V; Pinkart, H; Legler, T

2004-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fission neutron/gamma irradiation of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria at the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to fully characterize the effectiveness of the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (TAMU NSCR) neutrons for bacterial sterilization, and to assess the secondary gamma flux produced when neutrons collide with nuclei in biological materials. Sterilization of bacteria by exposure to gamma rays and charged particles is fairly well understood. Exposure to neutrons and gamma rays from fission as a means of sterilization has not to date been adequately characterized. The lack of data on the relationship between biological detriment resulting from thermal or fast neutron exposures and absorbed doses as applied in countermeasures to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is the primary motivation for this investigation of neutron doses to endospores. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores were irradiated after producing and sampling them using standard microbiological procedures. Irradiation was accomplished using neutrons and gamma rays from the 1-MW TRIGA reactor at the TAMU NSCR using a reactor power of 100 kilowatts (kW). The combination of neutron and gamma-ray absorbed dose provided an effective means of sterilization of these types of spores; it yielded a 100-percent kill for the first study. Survival curves have been developed, from subsequent experiments, for these energy dependent neutron interactions with biological materials using a combination of radiation dosimetry, microbiological culture techniques, and computer modeling (Monte Carlo Neutral Particle history modeling - MCNP). Survival curves indicate a D?? value of 321.08 Gy. Additional work is needed to investigate the specific bacteria used in biological weapons in order to understand agent-specific radiation sensitivity. Once this is done, more effective and meaningful experiments can be conducted in order to tailor the neutron source strength to the robustness of the threat.

Hearnsberger, David Wayne

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Start | View At a Glance | Author Index 219-5 Coupled Biotic and Abiotic Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics with Heterotrophic Soil Bacteria and a Poorly Crystalline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinetics with Heterotrophic Soil Bacteria and a Poorly Crystalline Manganese Oxide. See more from this Division: S02 Soil Chemistry See more from this Session: Chemistry of Metal(loids) and Trace Elements in Soils Tuesday, November 2, 2010: 9:15 AM Long Beach Convention Center, Room 202B, Second Floor L

Sparks, Donald L.

275

MRI-based Medical Nanorobotic Platform for the Control of Magnetic Nanoparticles and Flagellated Bacteria for Target Interventions in Human Capillaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Medical nanorobotics exploits nanometer-scale components and phenomena with robotics to provide new medical diagnostic and interventional tools. Here, the architecture and main specifications of a novel medical interventional platform based on nanorobotics ... Keywords: MRI, bacteria, blood vessels, medical robotics, nanorobots, target chemotherapy

Sylvain Martel; Ouajdi Felfoul; Jean-Baptiste Mathieu; Arnaud Chanu; Samer Tamaz; Mahmood Mohammadi; Martin Mankiewicz; Nasr Tabatabaei

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Processing of cellulosic material by a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from cellulase-producing bacteria, ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate, have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase degrading bacterium ATCC 55702, which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic materials.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may be much greater than previously demonstrated and they have numerous applications to environmental restoration. Twelve of the isolates were subsequently added to the bioreactor to enhance bioremediation. In this study we showed that a bioreactor could be bioaugmented with select bacteria to enhance bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils under radiological conditions.

BRIGMON, ROBINL.

2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

278

Competitive Reduction of Pertechnetate (99TcO4?) by Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria and Biogenic Fe(II)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fate of pertechnetate (99Tc(VII)O4 -) during bioreduction was investigated in the presence of 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh) and various dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) (Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Shewanella) in comparison with TcO4 - bioreduction in the absence of Fh. In the presence of Fh, Tc was present primarily as a fine-grained Tc(IV)/Fe precipitate that was distinct from the Tc(IV)O2 nH2O solids produced by direct biological Tc(VII) reduction. Aqueous Tc concentrations (reduced in the absence of Fh (4.0 10-8 to 1.0 10-7 mol L-1). EXAFS analyses of the bioreduced Fh-Tc products were consistent with variable chain length Tc-O octahedra bonded to Fe-O octahedra associated with the surface of the residual or secondary Fe(III) oxide. In contrast, biogenic TcO2 nH2O had significantly more Tc-Tc second neighbors and a distinct long-range order consistent with small particle polymers of TcO2. In Fe-rich subsurface sediments, the reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) may predominate over direct microbial pathways, potentially leading to lower concentrations of aqueous 99Tc(IV).

Plymale, Andrew E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Heald, Steve M.; Moore, Dean A.; Kennedy, David W.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Chong M.; Resch, Charles T.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site  

SciTech Connect

Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

280

Why Sequence Stalked Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

adetum, Hyphomicrobium denitrificans and Rhodomicrobium vannielii) have been selected for genome sequencing. The genomes will be analyzed with respect to mechanisms for the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Impact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is by either aerobic or anaerobic self-digestion, in which the bacteria consume their own mass. Currently are particular in their assistance of either aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Direct samples of activated sludgeImpact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian Faculty Mentor: Professor Chul

Mountziaris, T. J.

282

Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

O'Brien, D.A.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Herd-level Risk Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Distributions in Fecal Bacteria of Porcine Origin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this dissertation is threefold: to determine the differences in apparent prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. between antimicrobial-free and conventional swine farms; secondly, to introduce an appropriate statistical model to compare the minimum inhibitory concentration distributions of Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. isolated from both farm types; and thirdly, to examine the potential herd level risk factors that may be associated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli isolates from finishers on antimicrobial-free and conventional farming systems. In addition, a critical review of studies that have compared the levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among animals from antimicrobial-free and conventional farming practices was performed. Fecal samples from 15 pigs were collected from each of 35 antimicrobial-free and 60 conventional farms in the Midwestern U.S. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 464 of 1,422 fecal samples, and each isolate was tested for susceptibility to 6 antimicrobials. The apparent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolates was approximately 33 percent on both conventional and antimicrobial-free farms. The proportion of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter was higher for three antimicrobials within conventional compared to antimicrobial-free farms. The susceptibilities of populations of bacteria to antimicrobial drugs were summarized as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) frequency distributions. The use of MIC values removed the subjectivity associated with the choice of breakpoints which define an isolate as susceptible or resistant. A discrete-time survival analysis model was introduced as the recommended statistical model when MICs are the outcome. A questionnaire was completed by each farm manager on biosecurity, preventive medication, vaccines, disease history, and production management. Multivariable population-averaged statistical models were used to determine the relationships among antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and potential herd-level risk factors. Controlling for herd type (antimicrobial-free versus conventional), each antimicrobial-bacterial species combination yielded unique combinations of risk factors; however, housing type, history of rhinitis, farm ventilation, and history of swine flu were significant in more than one model. A variety of herd-level practices were associated with the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on swine farms. Further studies are encouraged when considering interventions for antimicrobial resistance on both antimicrobial-free and conventional farms.

Rollo, Susan Noble

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant biomass-degrading bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii, Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, Caldicellulosiruptor owensenis, and Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading bacteria isolated to date. Previously, genome sequences from three cellulolytic members of this genus were reported (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis). To further explore the physiological and biochemical basis for polysaccharide degradation within this genus, five additional genomes were sequenced: C. hydrothermalis, C. kristjanssonii, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. owensensis. Taken together, the seven completed and one draft-phase Caldicellulosiruptor genomes suggest that, while central metabolism is highly conserved, significant differences in glycoside hydrolase inventories and numbers of carbohydrate transporters exist, a finding which likely relates to variability observed in plant biomass degradation capacity.

Blumer-Schuette, Sara E. [North Carolina State University; Ozdemir, Inci [North Carolina State University; Mistry, Dhaval [North Carolina State University; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Walston Davenport, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Kelly, Robert M [North Carolina State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

doi:10.1155/2012/760108 Research Article Impact of Summer Cattle Grazing on the Sierra Nevada Watershed: Aquatic Algae and Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright 2012 Robert W. Derlet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Introduction. We evaluated periphytic algal and microbial communities to assess the influence of human and cattle impact on Sierra water quality. Methods. 64 sites (lakes and streams from Lake Tahoe to Sequoia National Park, California) were sampled for suspended indicator bacteria and algae following standardized procedures. The potential for nonpoint pollution was divided into three categories: cattle-grazing areas (C), recreation use areas (R), or remote wildlife areas (W). Results. Periphyton was found at 100 % of C sites, 89 % of R sites, but only 25 % of W sites. Eleven species of periphytic algae were identified, including Zygnema,

Robert W. Derlet; John R. Richards; Lidia L. Tanaka; Curtis Hayden; K. Ali Ger; Charles R. Goldman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Effects of diesel exhaust on the microbiota within a tuffaceous tunnel system  

SciTech Connect

The abundance and distribution of microbiota that may be impacted by diesel and diesel exhaust were investigated from three depths into the walls and invert (floor) of U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, a potential geological analog of Yucca Mountain. Enumerations included total cell counts, and numbers of aerobic heterotrophic, sulfate-reducing, nitrate-reducing, and diesel-degrading bacteria. Additionally, the disappearance of total petroleum hydrocarbons was determined in microcosms containing subsurface materials that were amended with diesel fuel. Results revealed that microbes capable of utilizing diesel and diesel combustion products were present in the subsurface in both the walls and the invert of the tunnel. The abundance of specific bacterial types in the tunnel invert, a perturbed environment, was greater than that observed in the tunnel wall. Few trends of microbial distribution either into the tunnel wall or the invert were noted with the exception of aerobic heterotrophic abundance which increased with depth into the wall and decreased with depth into the invert. No correlation between microbiota and a specific introduced chemical species have yet been determined. The potential for microbial contamination of the tunnel wall during sampling was determined to be negligible by the use of fluorescently labeled latex spheres (1{mu}m in dia.) as tracers. Results indicate that additional investigations might be needed to examine the microbiota and their possible impacts on the geology and geochemistry of the subsurface, both indigenous microbiota and those microorganisms that will likely be introduced by anthropogenic activity associated with the construction of a high-level waste repository.

Haldeman, D.L.; Lagadinos, T.; Amy, P.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hersman, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meike, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Biolog(TM) ID as compared to 16S ribosomal RNA ID for environmental isolates from the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Dept of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection (SMCC) contains nearly 10,000 strains of microorganisms isolated from terrestrial subsurface environments. Many of the aerobic, gram-negative, chemoheterotrophs isolated from the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) have previously been identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene nucleotide sequences. These SMCC isolates are currently being examined using Biolog GN Microplates and the Biolog Microstation System in order to gain knowledge of their metabolic capabilities and to compare Biolog IDs with 16S IDs. To accommodate the particular needs of these subsurface isolates, which are often incapable of growing under high-nutrient conditions, Biolog's recommendations for inoculating isolates into Biolog GN Microplates have been altered. The isolates are grown on low nutrient media, sodium thioglycolate (3mM) is added to the culture media to inhibit capsule formation, and a low density of bacteria is inoculated into the microplate. Using these altered inoculation criteria, 60 percent of these SMCC isolates have a Biolog genus ID that matches the 16S rRNA ID. These results indicate that the Biolog System can be a good means of identifying unusual environmental isolates, even when recommended inoculation procedures are altered to accommodate particular isolate needs.

McKinsey, P.C.

2000-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

288

Assessment of microbial processes on radionuclide mobility in shallow land burial. [West Valley, NY; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of microbial metabolism of the organic substituents of low level radioactive wastes on radionuclide mobility in disposal sites, the nature of the microbial transformations involved in this metabolism and the effect of the prevailing environmental parameters on the quantities and types of metabolic intermediates accumulated were examined. Since both aerobic and anaerobic periods can occur during trench ecosystem development, oxidation capacities of the microbial community in the presence and absence of oxygen were analyzed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites were reviewed. Several deficiencies in available data were determined. Further research needs are suggested. This assessment has demonstrated that the biochemical capabilities expressed within the low level radioactive waste disposal site are common to a wide variety of soil bacteria. Hence, assuming trenches would not be placed in sites with such extreme abiotic conditions that all microbial activity is precluded, the microbial populations needed for colonization and decomposition of the organic waste substances are readily provided from the waste itself and from the soil of existing and any proposed disposal sites. Indeed, considering the ubiquity of occurrence of the microorganisms responsible for waste decomposition and the chemical nature of the organic waste material, long-term prevention of biodecomposition is difficult, if not impossible.

Colombo, P.; Tate, R.L. III; Weiss, A.J.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Using Compost for Erosion Control and Revegetation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composting refers to the biological decomposition and stabilization of organic materials by microorganisms under aerobic conditions. Compost from various materials (yard trimmings, manure, food processing residuals and other organic materials) has been used to improve soil quality and productivity and prevent soil erosion. This publication explains how compost can be used for those purposes.

Mukhtar, Saqib

2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

Dougal, R.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Kinetic and Inhibition Studies for the Aerobic Cometabolism of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,1-Dichloroethylene, and 1,1-Dichloroethane by a Butane-Grown Mixed Culture Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 Lewis Semprini), and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane- grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydro. The highest kmax was obtained for butane (2.6 µmol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 µmol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA

Semprini, Lewis

292

Water-Miscible (Water-Soluble) Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. If disposal is of no concern, phenolics can be used. The soaps, wetting agents, and couplers used as emulsifiers in water-miscible fluids reduce surface

293

Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

misconception that all microorganisms in dust clouds are killed by solar UV-radiation, lack of nutrients and desiccation during their multi-day journey. In fact, some genera of bacteria (e.g. Bacillus) and most fungi

Ahmad, Sajjad

294

Development of a New Detritiation System Using Microorganisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biology / Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology Tsukuba, Japan November 12-16, 2001

Noriyuki Momoshima; Hideki Kakiuchi

295

Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms and their applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of eco-friendly technologies in material synthesis is of considerable importance to expand their biological applications. Nowadays, a variety of inorganic nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology have ...

Xiangqian Li; Huizhong Xu; Zhe-Sheng Chen; Guofang Chen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Molecular diversity and adaptations of microorganisms from the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the North Pacific ocean. ISME J. 3:1374-1386. DeLong, E.microbial assemblages in the ocean's interior. Science 311:J. 4:159-170. Schlitzer, R. 2010. Ocean Data View. [http://

Eloe, Emiley Ansley

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

(Hemi)cellulose degradation by microorganisms from the . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

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Cazemier; E Pl?urrujdqlvpv; E Pl?urrujdqlvpv; Iurp Wkh; Iurp Wkh; Ri Duwkursrgv; Ri Duwkursrgv; Yrojhqv Ehvoxlw; Ydq Khw

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

ENERGY AND UTILITIES ORNL-2219 Microorganisms Having Enhanced ...  

increases the ethanol cost due to both ethanol production rate and total ... ENERGY AND UTILITIES ... (Related Compositions and Methods of Use) ORNL-2219 Contact:

299

Molecular diversity and adaptations of microorganisms from the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brink, U. (2005) Vertical motions of the Puerto Rico Trenchand Puerto Rico and their cause. J Geophys Res 110: B06404.sequences from the Puerto Rico Trench. -XP][VYZUPRJDUJU ,

Eloe, Emiley Ansley

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Growth, metabolic partitioning, and the size of microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Population growth rate is a fundamental ecological and evolutionary characteristic of living organisms, but individuals must balance the metabolism devoted to biosynthesis and reproduction against the maintenance of existing ...

Dutkiewicz, Stephanie

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

the continental crust or the over-lying sediments. Microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-floor hot springs dotting the ridge crests in 1979, microbes were obviously a crucial part of it. More oceanographer put it. On closer inspection, microbiologist Craig Taylor of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Lovley, Derek

302

On differential algebraic decision methods for the estimation of anaerobic digestion models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes by microorganisms are parts of actual world efforts to preserve environment. The anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process in which microorganisms (or bacteria) biodegrade organic matters ... Keywords: characteristic set, differential algebra, differential algebraic decision methods, dynamic systems, observability, software sensors

Elena Chorukova; Sette Diop; Ivan Simeonov

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Bioremediation of nanomaterials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method comprising the use of microorganisms for nanotoxicity study and bioremediation. In some embodiment, the microorganisms are bacterial organisms such as Gram negative bacteria, which are used as model organisms to study the nanotoxicity of the fullerene compounds: E. coli W3110, a human related enterobacterium and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an environmentally important bacterium with versatile metabolism.

Chen, Frank Fanqing; Keasling, Jay D; Tang, Yinjie J

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

304

Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by codisposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Our previous NABIR research investigated the aerobic biodegradation and biogeochemistry of Pu(IV)-EDTA. Plutonium(IV) forms stable complexes with EDTA under aerobic conditions and an aerobic EDTA degrading bacterium can degrade EDTA in the presence of Pu and decrease Pu mobility. However, our recent studies indicate that while Pu(IV)-EDTA is stable in simple aqueous systems, it is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds (i.e., Fe(OH){sub 3}(s)--2-line ferrihydrite). Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) in likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA in groundwater. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed in this brand new project to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV) as PuO2(am) by metal reducing bacteria, the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA complex, how the Pu(III)-EDTA complex competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, the formation of a stable soluble Pu(III)-EDTA complex under anaerobic conditions would require degradation of the EDTA complex to limit Pu(III) transport in geologic environments. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have not been isolated. These knowledge gaps preclude the development of a mechanistic understanding of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop Pu transport in groundwater at DOE sites.

Bolton, H., Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria  

Schematic of the overall approach including the invented method for production of co-factors and anchors as biofuel precursors.

306

Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria  

generate the fuel, which can be used directly or mixed with other fuels without further refining. This method may provide a means to affordably and efficiently produce biofuels that will reduce U.S. reliance on fossil fuels.

307

BACTERIA Synonyms Definition History - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1 ...... proteorhodopsin-based phototrophy (Sabehi et al., 2005), this metabolism surely ..... fact, Buick (1988) maintained that the chert matrix of the ... the 2.7 billion-years-old shales of the Jeerinah Formation, ..... Economic Geologist, 68, 11691172. Holm ...... date the extent of biodegradation of crude oil and to obtain.

308

Complete Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria.

Tang, Kuo-Hsiang [Washington University, St. Louis; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Honchak, Barbara M [Washington University, St. Louis; Karbach, Lauren E [Washington University, St. Louis; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pierson, Beverly K [University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Ruminal methanogenesis and its alternatives G Fonty, B Morvan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, rice paddies, geothermal habitats, anaerobic sewage digestion systems and animal gastrointestinal in carbon flow in many anaerobic habitats including marine and freshwater sediments, marshes and swamps anaerobic habitats can serve as a carbon and energy source for aerobic methanotrophic bacteria or can escape

Recanati, Catherine

311

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Biological Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Sciences Biological Sciences NREL's biological scientists conduct research on microorganisms-such as photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae-and are discovering new ways to produce hydrogen and valuable reduced-carbon compounds. We are studying how, through photosynthesis, green algae and cyanobacteria can split water to produce hydrogen, and how, through fermentation, bacteria can produce hydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. Photobiological Water Splitting Image of two green ovals with two yellow strands at the bottom of each oval. Microscopic view of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Microorganisms, like green algae and cyanobacteria, can produce hydrogen by splitting water through a process called "biophotolysis" or "photobiological hydrogen production." This photosynthetic pathway produces

312

Why Sequnce Crenothrix polyspora?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crenothrix polyspora? Crenothrix polyspora? Aerobic methane oxidation catalyzed by bacteria is a key step in the global carbon cycle. The process has great importance for the Earth's climate by reducing the amount of the potent greenhouse gas methane released from habitats such as wetlands and lakes to the atmosphere and by the consumption of atmospheric methane in upland soils. Given their diversity and global importance, methane oxidizing bacteria have not yet been adequately considered in genome sequencing projects. Crenothrix polyspora has many properties that are highly unusual for aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria. For example, it possesses a very unusual methane monooxygenase that is significantly different from the version of this key enzyme found in all cultured methanotrophs. In

313

Available Technologies: Engineering Bacteria for Wastewater ...  

Offers carbon sequestration ... The bacterium uses the metabolic energy derived from sulfide oxidation and the carbon derived from CO2 to generate desired products.

314

Computerized video analysis of tethered bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a flagellar filament of a bacterial cell such as E s c h e r i c h i a c o l i is fixed to a glass surface

Howard C. Berg; Steven M. Block; M. Patricia Conley; Andrew R. Nathan; John N. Power; Alan J. Wolfe

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The distribution of inversion lengths in bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distribution of the lengths of genomic segments inverted during the evolutionary divergence of two species cannot be inferred directly from the output of genome rearrangement algorithms, due to the rapid loss of signal from all but the shortest inversions. ...

David Sankoff; Jean-Franois Lefebvre; Elisabeth Tillier; Adrian Maler; Nadia El-Mabrouk

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria ...  

Plant biomass represents a vast and renewable source of energy. However, harnessing this energy requires breaking down tough lignin and cellulose cell ...

317

Molecular probe technology detects bacteria without culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

clinical samples, the molecular probes for L. brevis werepublished the design of our molecular probes (Figure 1a) and3, 1, a majority of the molecular probes for that genome

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria  

source of energy. However, harnessing this energy requires breaking down tough lignin and cellulose cell walls. In nature, certain microbes can deconstruct biomass into simple sugars by secreting combinations of enzymes. Two organisms that utilize ...

319

Why sequence marine bacteria-dinoflagellate interactions?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and phytoplankton influence the fate of one of the largest active carbon reservoirs on Earth. To explore these associations and understand how they influence they influence the...

320

Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors.

Finnerty, William R. (Athens, GA); Singer, Mary E. (Decatur, GA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

On Ants, Bacteria and Dynamic Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a cite r (in our context, to a cell in the grid habitat) with pheromone ...... ARCHITOPIA Book, Art, Architecture and Science, Institut D'Art. Contemporain, J.L. ... Nature-inspired Smart Information Systems, Portugal, 3-5 Oct., 2005. [31] Theraulaz...

322

Final Project Report - Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloriethylene Co-Metabolism: Co-Metabolic Enzyme Activity Probes and Modeling Co-Metabolism and Attenuation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trichloroethene (TCE) (also known as trichloroethylene) is a common contaminant in groundwater. TCE is regulated in drinking water at a concentration of 5 g/L, and a small mass of TCE has the potential to contaminant large volumes of water. The physical and chemical characteristics of TCE allow it to migrate quickly in most subsurface environments, and thus large plumes of contaminated groundwater can form from a single release. The migration and persistence of TCE in groundwater can be limited by biodegradation. TCE can be biodegraded via different processes under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Anaerobic biodegradation is widely recognized, but aerobic degradation is less well recognized. Under aerobic conditions, TCE can be oxidized to non hazardous conditions via cometabolic pathways. This study applied enzyme activity probes to demonstrate that cometabolic degradation of TCE occurs in aerobic groundwater at several locations, used laboratory microcosm studies to determine aerobic degradation rates, and extrapolated lab-measured rates to in situ rates based on concentrations of microorganisms with active enzymes involved in cometabolic TCE degradation. Microcosms were constructed using basalt chips that were inoculated with microorganisms to groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory Test Area North TCE plume by filling a set of Flow-Through In Situ Reactors (FTISRs) with chips and placing the FTISRs into the open interval of a well for several months. A parametric study was performed to evaluate predicted degradation rates and concentration trends using a competitive inhibition kinetic model, which accounts for competition for enzyme active sites by both a growth substrate and a cometabolic substrate. The competitive inhibition kinetic expression was programmed for use in the RT3D reactive transport package. Simulations of TCE plume evolution using both competitive inhibition kinetics and first order decay were performed.

Starr, Robert C; Orr, Brennon R; Lee, M Hope; Delwiche, Mark

2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

323

Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by co-disposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Pu(IV)-EDTA is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds. Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) is likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions and the anaerobic biodegradation of Pu-EDTA. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV), the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA, how the Pu(III)-EDTA competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, soluble Pu(III)-EDTA under anaerobic conditions would require anaerobic degradation of the EDTA to limit Pu(III) transport. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have never been isolated. Recent results have shown that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium, can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(IV) was provided as insoluble PuO2. The highest rate of Pu(IV) reduction was with the addition of AQDS, an electron shuttle. Of the total amount of Pu solubilized (i.e., soluble through a 0.36 nm filter), approximately 70% was Pu(III). The amount of soluble Pu was between 4.8 and 3.2 micromolar at day 1 and 6, respectively, indicating rapid reduction. The micromolar Pu is significant since the drinking water limit for Pu is 10{sup -12} M. On-going experiments are investigating the influence of EDTA on the rate of Pu reduction and the stability of the formed Pu(III). We have also begun to enrich and isolate bacteria capable of aerobic and anaerobic degradation of EDTA. Environmental samples (e.g., sludges, river sediments) were incubated aerobically and anaerobically with EDTA or NTA as the sole carbon and energy source. Aerobic enrichment with EDTA has not resulted in any cultures, but NTA has provided several isolates. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and sequence comparison identified four separate strains closely related to Microbacterium oxydans, Aminobacter sp., Achromobacter sp., Aminobacter sp., respectively. Anaerobic enrichments with either EDTA or NTA are still in progress since metabolism and growth is relatively slow. In addition to the biotransformation experiments, studies are underway to determine/validate complexation constants of Pu(III) with EDTA and the influence of competing ions on Pu(III)-EDTA complexes. These data are being obtained through solubility studies of PuPO{sub 4}(s) and Pu(OH){sub 3}(s) as a function of time, pH, and EDTA and competing ion concentrations. These results have begun to fill-in knowledge gaps of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop Pu transport in groundwater at DOE sites.

Bolton, H., Jr.; Bailey, V.L.; Plymale, A.E.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of anaerobic and aerobic yeast cultures reveals post-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improves sugar yields during the saccharification processes for bioethanol production. In their study modification. Plant J 54(4):569­581 11. Chen F, Dixon RA (2007) Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar

Shmulevich, Ilya

326

Natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes by anaerobic reductive dechlorination coupled with aerobic cometabolism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorinated solvents and their daughter products are the most common contaminants of groundwater at industrial and military facilities in the United States. Natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents is a promising alternative to traditional pump and treat methods but has not been well understood or widely accepted. This modeling study investigated the ability of TCE to completely degrade under various aquifer conditions and rate order constants. It also examined a case study of a former landfill site at Moody AFB. The author found unusually high flow of ground water by advection or dispersion inhibits the complete degradation of TCE. High concentrations of sulfate or nitrate inhibit the creation of methanogenic conditions and therefore inhibit reductive dechlorination of TCE. He also found an electron donor co-contaminant a critical factor for the complete destruction of TCE because it creates anaerobic conditions. The model illustrated a possible explanation for the lack of down gradient contaminants at the landfill site may be the coupling of reductive dechlorination and cometabolism naturally attenuation the contaminants.

Veerkamp, D.D.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Structure-toxicity assessment of metabolites of the aerobic bacterial transformation of substituted naphthalenes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pseudomonas fluorescens 5R, a naphthalene-degrading bacterium isolated from manufactured gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was examined for its degradative capacity of a number of substituted naphthalenes. In general, those compounds substituted on only one ring with an electrically neutral substituent were found to be transformed primarily to substituted salicylic acids according to the classical (NAH7) naphthalene dioxygenase-initiated upper pathway reactions of the naphthalene degradative pathway (i.e., the NAH system). Dimethylnaphthalenes with a substituent on each ring, and certain halogenated naphthalenes, were transformed via a monohydroxylation reaction to form hydroxylated dead-end products. Of the substituted salicylic acids examined, only 3- and 4-methylsalicylic acid, the respective products of the degradation of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, were further degraded by salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the first two enzymes of the NAH lower pathway. Using the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute toxicity assay, many of the monohydroxylated products of incomplete biodegradation were found to be polar narcotics. Substituted salicylic acids that are not further degraded by the NAH lower pathway were found to be toxic via carboxylic acid narcosis.

LeBlond, J.D.; Applegate, B.M.; Menn, F.M.; Schultz, T.W.; Sayler, G.S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. However, anaerobic digestion is not effective for nutrient removal and should be followed by a processLocation and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic different operating conditions. Three dairy wastewater effluents, from three different upflow anaerobic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Genome Sequence of Chthoniobacter flavus Ellin428, an aerobic heterotrophic soil bacterium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chthoniobacter flavusis Ellin428 is the first isolate from subdivision 2 of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. C. flavusis Ellin428 can metabolize many of the saccharide components of plant biomass but does not grow with amino acids or organic acids other than pyruvate.

Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Janssen, Peter H. [AgResearch Ltd, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic CO-Oxidizing Thermophile Thermomicrobium roseum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complementation in Geothermal Microbial Mats'' Grant No. MCB0605301 awarded to Frank Robb and Albert Colman- tional complex could provide synergies such as the presentation of a large protein surface area

Badger, Jonathan

331

Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

showed that the transformed T. reesei strains released more reducing sugars compared to the parental be used for -glucosidase production as well as improving the biomass conversion using cellulases. Keywords such as bioethanol. Different microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria primarily initiate the biocon- version

332

Int. J. Biol. Sci. 2009, 5 http://www.biolsci.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

showed that the transformed T. reesei strains released more reducing sugars compared to the parental be used for -glucosidase production as well as improving the biomass conversion using cellulases. Keywords such as bioethanol. Different microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria primarily initiate the biocon- version

Qin, Wensheng

333

TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

334

Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN); Hamilton, Choo Y. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

335

Fluorescence technique for on-line monitoring of state of hydrogen-producing microorganisms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In situ fluorescence method to monitor state of sulfur-deprived algal culture's ability to produce H.sub.2 under sulfur depletion, comprising: a) providing sulfur-deprived algal culture; b) illuminating culture; c) measuring onset of H.sub.2 percentage in produced gas phase at multiple times to ascertain point immediately after anerobiosis to obtain H.sub.2 data as function of time; and d) determining any abrupt change in three in situ fluorescence parameters; i) increase in F.sub.t (steady-state level of chlorophyll fluorescence in light adapted cells); ii) decrease in F.sub.m', (maximal saturating light induced fluorescence level in light adapted cells); and iii) decrease in .DELTA.F/F.sub.m'=(F.sub.m'-F.sub.t)/F.sub.m' (calculated photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII) signaling full reduction of plastoquinone pool between PSII and PSI, which indicates start of anaerobic conditions that induces synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme for subsequent H.sub.2 production that signal oxidation of plastoquinone pool asmain factor to regulate H.sub.2 under sulfur depletion.

Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO); Makarova, Valeriya (Golden, CO); Tsygankov, Anatoly A. (Pushchino, RU); Rubin, Andrew B. (Moscow, RU)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

336

A microfluidic device to control bio actuators of microorganisms, an application to Vorticella convallaria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a microfluidic device to control the motion of Vorticella convallaria by changing solution. Floating cells of V. convallaria were injected and cultured inside the device. Approximately 35 cells of V. convallaria ...

Matsudaira, Paul T.

337

Metagenomic and Cultivation-Based Analysis of Novel Microorganisms and Functions in Metal-Contaminated Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uranium and vanadium-contaminated site, the Old Rifle Mill in Rifle, Colorado, USA. From these enrichments

Yelton, Alexis Pepper

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Other products include carbon dioxide and organic acids.acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In its absence formiclactic and succinic acids, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Both

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design and operation of a batch, anaerobic, in vitro fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by a mixed culture of ruminal microflora. The bagasse was supplemented with a small amount of alfalfa (0.16 g alfalfa/g bagasse) to provide necessary nutrients. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) product concentrations, yields and proportions of each acid for six different bagasse concentrations (10, 20, 35, 50, 75, and 100 g/L) are reported. Bagasse was treated with calcium hydroxide to increase the digestibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. The treatment conditions were: Ca(OH)2 loading = 10 g/100 g dry bagasse, water loading = 8.5 g/g dry bagasse, temperature 100'C, and treatment time = 1 hour. Compared to untreated bagasse, the lime-treated bagasse gave higher total VFA concentrations, faster rates of acidogenesis, and more stable molar proportions of individual VFA'S. The highest total VFA concentration obtained from lime-treated bagasse was 690 mM (45 g/L). By applying the lime pretreatment, the total VFA concentrations increased over 80% for a 10 g dry bagasse/L loading fermentation (from 4.5g VFA/L to 8.5 g VFAAL) With lime pretreatment, approximately 71 to 96% of the final total VFA yields were accomplished within the initial three days of fermentation, whereas only 52 to 67% were achieved without pretreatment during the same time period. At all solid loadings, the VFA molar compositions resulting from lime-treated bagasse were quite constant: acetate, 64-70%; propionate, 21-28%; butyrate, 6.5-7.6%; and other acids were about 1% each. In this thesis, we examined the effect of higher substrate concentration up to 100 g dry bagasse/L. For untreated bagasse, the VFA yields were fairly constant regardless of substrate concentration (ca. 0.37 g VFA/g dry substrate). However, for lime-treated bagasse, the total VFA yields decreased as the substrate concentrations increased. The best total VFA yield obtained from 10 g/L lime-treated bagasse was 0.63 g VFA/g dry raw substrate (or 0.82 g VFA/g dry ash-free substrate or 0.94 g VFA/g dry ash-free, lignin- free substrate). This is greater than yields previously reported in the literature using lignocellulosic substrates, and hence demonstrates the superiority of this very effective lime pretreatment.

Lee, Chang-Ming

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Development of systematic and combinatorial approaches for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explorations and optimizations through the genomic space are a daunting undertaking given the complexity and size of the possible search space. To approach this problem, systematic and combinatorial approaches were employed ...

Alper, Hal (Hal Samuel)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

CULTURE OF ALGAE AND OTHER MICRO-ORGANISMS IN DEUTERIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Three species of green algae were successfully adapted to growth in 99.6% deuterium oxide. Escherichia coli, yeast, and paramecium were also grown in deuterium oxide. Procedures are described. Fully deuterated glucose, chlorophylls, and carotenoids were isolated from the deuterated algae. ( C.H.)

Crespi, H.L.; Archer, S.M.; Katz, J.J.

1959-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

342

Metagenomic and Cultivation-Based Analysis of Novel Microorganisms and Functions in Metal-Contaminated Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Banduhurang open cast uranium mine, India: A comparativeboth uranium and vanadium from solution. The Richmond Mine

Yelton, Alexis Pepper

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Metagenomic and Cultivation-Based Analysis of Novel Microorganisms and Functions in Metal-Contaminated Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Research, US Department of Energy. The Rifle,Environmental Research, US Department of Energy. The Rifle,Research, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract

Yelton, Alexis Pepper

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

A novel method for the continuous separation of microorganisms based on electrical properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased throughput in the techniques used to engineer new metabolic pathways in unicellular organisms demands similarly high throughput tools for measuring the effects of these pathways on phenotype. For example, the ...

Vahey, Michael D. (Michael David)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DK, Weiss R: Synthetic biology: new engineering rules for anfrom bugs to synthetic biology to fuels Sung Kuk Lee, Howardengineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for

Kuk Lee, Sung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

RELATIVE HUMIDITY, INOSITOL AND THE EFFECT OF RADIATIONS ON AIR-DRIED MICROORGANISMS  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were made on the effects of uv irradiation on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa and x irradiation on Serratia marcescens and on the influence of relative humidity and inositol on these effects. The effect of relative humidity was the same for all organisms tested. Under the experimental conditions used, little or no uv irradiation damage occurred above 70% relative humidity, nor were there many deaths occurring in unirradiated aerosols. At about 65% there was a rapid change in the sensitivity to both uv and drying alone, with the maximum rate of change taking place between 65 and 55% relative humidity for uv, and 65 and 45% relative humidity for non-irradiated cells. Some organisms showed an equally sharp increase in sensitivity to drying in the dark between 65 and 55% relative humidity. With uv irradiation relative humidity changes below 55% had little or no effect on the death rate and the same was true for non-irradiated cells below 45% relative humidity. Under all experimental conditions, with the possible exception of a relative humidity region around 40%, inositol completely prevented inactivation of the cells or viruses in the dark or under uv irradiation. Under x irradiation the cells were more stable at relative humidity values below 50% than at higher values, and once again the region in which a pronounced change occurred was between 50 and 70% relative humidity. (P.C.H.)

Webb, S.J.; Cormack, D.V.; Morrison, H.G.

1964-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

347

Metagenomic and Cultivation-Based Analysis of Novel Microorganisms and Functions in Metal-Contaminated Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency R, Hanford ProjectOffice: USDOE Hanford Site: First Five Year Review Report.

Yelton, Alexis Pepper

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Microbial Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology: A Decade of Ribosomal RNA Analysis of Uncultivated Microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Magnetism (3) OR PHYS 211, 211L, 212 Elementary Physics (3,1,3), with consent of adviser One additional

Vallino, Joseph J.

349

Biodegradation of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons by native soil and groundwater microorganisms: Microcosm studies  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was twofold: to develop and test strategies for enhancing the microbial degradation of hydrocarbon contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater, and to understand why and under what conditions these strategies can be successful. The work deals primarily with what are generally considered the highest priority contaminants, from a toxicological point of view, in a typical hydrocarbon remediation site -- the aromatic fraction, including benzene and related compounds. The work involved the determination of the relative degradation rates of aromatic, as well as several nonaromatic constituents, in conjunction with an analysis of the effect of oxygen concentration and with an extensive microbiological characterization.

Rai, D.N.; Dasch, J.M.; Gibson, T.L.; Ang, C.C.; Abdul, A.S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Atmospheric H2 energetic fertilization to soil microorganisms in a forest ecosystem Laura K. Meredith1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

information Petersham, MA, USA 42°N 72°W 186 m temperate Pinus strobus ring structure Liberia, Costa Rica 10°N, Petersham, MA, permitted us to take samples and to access their climatological and phenological datasets

Entekhabi, Dara

351

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass to fuels will involve the development of dedicated energy plants that maximize solar energy conversion to chemical

Kuk Lee, Sung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economically viable biofuel production, all aspects of thesemany challenges on biofuel production [1,3 ,28-30]. Some ofhigh-flux reactions. Biofuel production efforts can benefit

Kuk Lee, Sung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of microbial hosts for biofuels production. Metab Eng 2008,delivers next-generation biofuels. Nat Biotechnol 27.furfural (HMF). Biotechnol Biofuels 2008, 1:12. 40. Trinh

Kuk Lee, Sung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

PCR Primers for The Detection of Propane and Butane-Oxidizing Microorganisms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In an increasingly energy-hungry world, our capacity to meet the heightened energy demands of the future has become a pressing matter. The most urgent (more)

Chan, Brian Jeremy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

available as potential biofuel candidates and productionfuels and alternative biofuel molecules An understanding ofto consider when designing biofuel candidates ( Table 1).

Kuk Lee, Sung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Why Sequence Starkeya novella?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Starkeya novella? Starkeya novella? In the context of global warming, understanding how ecosystems contribute to the cycling of carbon compounds and how these systems will react to changing climatic conditions is becoming more and more important. At present, knowledge about the microbial contributions to carbon and sulfur transformations, especially in terrestrial ecosystems, is limited. While tallying up contributions to carbon sequestration or cycling is relatively easy for bacteria that must metabolize either inorganic compounds (autotrophic bacteria) or organic compounds (heterotrophic bacteria), the situation becomes much more complex when the heterotrophic lifestyle is merely an alternative (facultative heterotrophs). This group of microorganisms has the potential to either consume carbon dioxide or to

357

Why Sequence reductie dechlorinating bioreactor?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sequence a highly efficient, highly stable sequence a highly efficient, highly stable reductive dechlorinating bioreactor? For several years, researchers have been studying an anaerobic microbial community called a bioreactor that was sampled from chlorinated sediment collected at the Alameda Naval Air Station in Northern California. The microbial community is known to contain Dehalococcoides, bacteria often found in a community of other microorganisms at groundwater sites contaminated with compounds such as tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene. While the bacteria have been separately cultured and sequenced for potential bioremediation applications in cleaning up chlorine-contaminated regions, studies have shown that Dehalococcoides bacteria have higher dechlorination rates when they are grown in mixed cultures rather than

358

Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction  

SciTech Connect

A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

359

Why sequence Halorespiring Firmicutes?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Halorespiring Firmicutes? Halorespiring Firmicutes? Considered the oldest multicellular animals, marine sponges are found in many tropical reef ecosystems. Unable to move from their positions on the seafloor, marine sponges can filter 24,000 liters of seawater per kilogram of sponge daily and as much as 60 percent of their biomass can be composed of microorganisms, many of which are being studied for a number of medical applications. Among the microorganisms found in sponges are halorespiring bacteria. These bacteria play a key role in breaking down halogenated pollutants in anaerobic ecosystems such as subsurface soils and marine sediments. Halorespiring bacteria also play an as-yet poorly understood role in the global carbon cycle. Researchers are interested in learning more about the relationships between

360

2012 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Research Conferences and Gordon Research Seminar, August 4-10,2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2012 Gordon Conference will present and discuss cutting-edge research in the field of microbial metabolism of C1 compounds. The conference will feature the roles and application of C1 metabolism in natural and synthetic systems at scales from molecules to ecosystems. The conference will stress molecular aspects of the unique metabolism exhibited by autotrophic bacteria, methanogens, methylotrophs, aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs, and acetogens.

Hanson, Thomas

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF URANIUM COMPLEXED WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC LIGANDS.  

SciTech Connect

Biotransformation of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes, contaminated soils and materials by microorganisms under different process conditions such as aerobic and anaerobic (denitrifying, iron-reducing, fermentative, and sulfate-reducing) conditions will affect the solubility, bioavailability, and mobility of uranium in the natural environment. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbial transformations of uranium under a variety of environmental conditions will be useful in developing appropriate remediation and waste management strategies as well as predicting the microbial impacts on the long-term stewardship of contaminated sites.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Environmental Microbiology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Microbiology Environmental Microbiology Environmental Microbiology Los Alamos working to identify genetic regulatory systems in single microorganisms. Get Expertise Cheryl Kuske DOE BER Biological System Science Division Program Manager Email Srinivas Iyer Bioscience Group Leader Email Rebecca McDonald Bioscience Communications Email Examining the soil beneath our feet Environmental microbiology Read caption + Many environmental molecular biology studies begin with purified DNA and RNA extracted from the soil. Overview of Research and Highlights Learning about microorganisms-bacteria, algae, and fungi-is essential to understanding how living things interact with their environments. Exploration of environmental microbiology at Los Alamos crosses broad scales of investigation that span from identification of genetic regulatory

363

Environmental Microbiology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Microbiology Environmental Microbiology Examining the soil beneath our feet Read caption + Many environmental molecular biology studies begin with purified DNA and RNA extracted from the soil. Overview of Research and Highlights Learning about microorganisms-bacteria, algae, and fungi-is essential to understanding how living things interact with their environments. Exploration of environmental microbiology at Los Alamos crosses broad scales of investigation that span from identification of genetic regulatory systems in single microorganisms to comprehensive studies of the complex microbial communities resident in soil, water and air. The long term goals of this research are to understand microbial processes and interactions, and the genomic traits underlying these activities, toward:

364

Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992  

SciTech Connect

Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Utilization of DNA as a Sole Source of Phosphorus, Carbon, and Energy by Shewanella spp.: Ecological and Physiological Implications for Dissimilatory Metal Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a constituent of dissolved organic matter, DNA may be consumed by microorganisms inhabiting various freshwater and marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that dissolved extracellular DNA can serve as a sole source of carbon, energy, nitrogen, and phosphorus for microorganisms residing in the upper layer of Columbia River (WA, USA) water column as well as a sole source of phosphorus for the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens and for Bacillus subtilis ATCC 49760. Our results suggest that DNA assimilation by S. oneidensis is linked to the activity of Ca2+-dependent nuclease(s) and extracellular phosphatase(s). The ability to use DNA as the sole source of phosphorus may be of particular ecological advantage for microorganisms living under Fe(III)-reducing conditions where bioavailability of inorganic phosphate may be limited by the formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)28H20].

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Ammons, Christine G.; Culley, David E.; Li, Shu-Mei; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Romine, Margaret F.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Summer Food Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SUMMER FOOD SAFETY SUMMER FOOD SAFETY Year after year, we hear and read the same advice: Handle food carefully in the summer because foodborne illness -- also known as "food poisoning" -- is more prevalent in warmer weather. Do foodborne illnesses increase during the summer months? If so, why? Yes, foodborne illnesses do increase during the summer, and the answer appears to be twofold. First, there are the natural causes. Bacteria are present throughout the environment in soil, air, water, and in the bodies of people and animals. These microorganisms grow faster in the warm summer months. Most foodborne bacteria grow fastest at temperatures from 90 to 110 °F. Bacteria also need moisture to flourish, and summer weather is often hot and humid. Given the right circumstances, harmful bacteria can quickly multiply on food to large numbers.

367

Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

368

Why sequence Acetobacter aceti ATCC 23746?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acetobacter aceti ATCC 23746? Acetobacter aceti ATCC 23746? Acetobacter are most commonly known as the bacteria responsible for the production of vinegar. They are frequently found in grain-based fermentations such as wine and beer production, and can reduce product yields by increasing the acidity of the batch. Because these Gram-negative bacteria are strictly aerobic, they are often limited in ethanol plants to areas like the propagation tank where they have access to oxygen. Bacteria such as these are a serious concern to bioenergy researchers working on scaling up production of cellulosic ethanol. The genome sequence of A. aceti, a key member of the Acetobacteraceae family, could help control contamination as well as provide a more comprehensive understanding of ethanol and acid tolerance in this bacterium, leading to a better

369

Aerobic attached growth biofilter using tire chips and mixed broken glass as media for landfill leachate treatment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ontario regulations can necessitate expensive leachate treatment plants in large landfills. Lower-cost technologies may suit rural landfills due to lower waste toxicity and less proximity (more)

Smith, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Aerobic Attached Growth Biofilter Using Tire Chips And Mixed Broken Glass As Media For Landfill Leachate Treatment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ontario regulations can necessitate expensive leachate treatment plants in large landfills. Lower-cost technologies may suit rural landfills due to lower waste toxicity and less proximity (more)

Smith, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Enzymes and microorganisms in food industry waste processing and conversion to useful products: a review of the literature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bioconversion of food processing wastes is receiving increased attention with the realization that waste components represent an available and utilizable resource for conversion to useful products. Liquid wastes are characterized as dilute streams containing sugars, starches, proteins, and fats. Solid wastes are generally cellulosic, but may contain other biopolymers. The greatest potential for economic bioconversion is represented by processes to convert cellulose to glucose, glucose to alcohol and protein, starch to invert sugar, and dilute waste streams to methane by anaerobic digestion. Microbial or enzymatic processes to accomplish these conversions are described.

Carroad, P.A.; Wilke, C.R.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. M. , 2008. Bioenergy production via microbial California 3 ; and Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville,areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides

Chhabra, Swapnil R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Bacteria Modified to Secrete Biologically Active Protein for ...  

Manufacturing proteins for bioenergy production, therapeutic biologics and research tools; Rapid, high throughput production of proteins on a commercial scale ;

374

P-3: As(III) Oxidation with Bacteria and AP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biosorption Characteristics of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution onto Poplar Cotton Characterization of Aluminum Cathode Sheets Used for Zinc Electrowinning.

375

Scientists Launch the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

and Archaea Unlocking the diversity of microbial communities may benefit biofuel production, global carbon storage, and bioremediation. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe...

376

Why sequence obligate syntrophic bacteria capable of phthalate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are phenol and pthalate isomers, which are commonly discharged in industrial wastewater and have been listed as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection...

377

Manipulation of bacteria using three dimensional insulator based dielectrophoresis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a very promising technique for sorting microparticles based on their electrical properties. By using constrictions in a microchannel to generate large electric field gradients, ...

Braff, William Allan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Engineering alternative butanol production platforms in heterologous bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alternative microbial hosts have been engineered as biocatalysts for butanol biosynthesis. The butanol synthetic pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum was first re-constructed in Escherichia coli to establish a baseline ...

Nielsen, David R.

379

Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are Engineering Bacteria to...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Keasling, CEO of JBEI and leader of this research. "This will enable us to reduce fuel production costs by consolidating two steps - depolymerizing cellulose and hemicellulose...

380

Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

Lynd, L.R.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Detection and enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of various factors, namely exposure to brass/copper, sunlight, high temperature, chlorine, low pH, or starvation, on the enumeration of (more)

Tandon, Puja

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

NIST Finds That Ethanol-Loving Bacteria Accelerate Cracking ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... US production of ethanol for fuel has been rising quickly, topping 13 ... and reliably transport ethanol fuel in repurposed oil and gas pipelines.". ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Steam inactivation of vegetative bacteria in ventilation air.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Steam, made from abundant supply of clean water, is an inexpensive and thermally rich carrier of energy with the potential to deactivate the pathogens that (more)

Nookong, Mookarin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

G9: The Protection of Iron Reducing Bacteria (IRB)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization .... B46: Solar Driven Hydrogen Production with ZnO:GaN Films ... by High Energy Milling: a Useful, Low-Temperature and Simple Route to Synthesize ...

385

Genomic analysis of high pressure adaptation in deep sea bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This makes the genome sequencing project of Carnobacteriumpiezophile to undergo genome sequencing. Investigation intoMarine Microbial Genome Sequencing project. The initial

Stratton, Taylor Kristen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Universal Gene Transfer Technology for Gram Positive Bacteria  

research DNA Gene therapy holds great promise to cure cancer, HIV, and other hereditary and contagious diseases Genetic engineering has been widely ...

387

Universal Gene Transfer Technology for Gram Positive Bacteria ...  

... the invention may be well suited for many different cell types and tissues Applications and Industries Medical, plant biology, and biopharmaceutical research ...

388

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Up from the Depths: How Bacteria...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to verify the predominant bacterial lineages capable of trapping carbon in this deep underwater region. "This study represents a pristine example for the use of single cell genome...

389

ew LLNL detection technology identifies bacteria, viruses, other...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Journal of Virology U.S. Food and Drug Administration Social Media Logos Follow LLNL on YouTube Subscribe to LLNL's RSS feed Follow LLNL on Facebook Follow LLNL on Twitter...

390

Photoproduction of hydrogen by membranes of green photosynthetic bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoproduction of H/sub 2/ from ascorbate by unit-membrane vesicles from Chlorobium limicola f. thiosulfatophilum was achieved with a system containing gramicidin D, tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl viologen, dithioerythritol, Clostridium hydrogenase, and an oxygen-scavenging mixture of glucose, glucose oxidase, ethanol, and catalase. Maximum quantum yield was less than one percent. Half maximum rate of H/sub 2/ production occurred at a white-light intensity of approximately 0.15 cm/sup -2/. The reaction was inhibited completely by 0.3% sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, 1% Triton X-100, or preheating the vesicles at 100/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. Low concentrations (0.01 and 0.05%) of Triton X-100 about doubled the reaction rate.

Bernstein, J D; Olson, J M

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review  

SciTech Connect

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

McMillan, J.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Xylose fermentation to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

McMillan, J.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Characterization of microbial communities in subsurface nuclear blast cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program??s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

Duane P. Moser; Ken Czerwinski; Charles E. Russell; Mavrik Zavarin

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

394

Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this programs Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

Duane P. Moser, Jim Bruckner, Jen Fisher, Ken Czerwinski, Charles E. Russell, and Mavrik Zavarin

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Copyright ? 1996, American Society for Microbiology Isolation of Thermus Strains from Hot Composts (60 to 80?C)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aerobic, thermophilic bacteria related to the genus Thermus were isolated from thermogenic composts at temperatures between 65 and 82?C. These bacteria were present in different types of wastes (garden and kitchen wastes and sewage sludge) and in all the industrial composting systems studied (open-air windrows, boxes with automated turning and aeration, and closed bioreactors with aeration). Isolates grew fast on a rich complex medium at temperatures between 40 and 80?C, with optimum growth between 65 and 75?C. Nutritional characteristics, total protein profiles, DNA-DNA hybridization (except strain JT4), and restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs (16S rDNAs) showed that Thermus strains isolated from hot composts were closely related to Thermus thermophilus HB8. These newly isolated T. thermophilus strains have probably adapted to the conditions in the hot-compost ecosystem. Heterotrophic, ovalspore-forming, thermophilic bacilli were also isolated from hot composts, but none of the isolates was able to grow at temperatures above 70?C. This is the first report of hot composts as habitats for a high number of thermophilic bacteria related to the genus Thermus. Our study suggests that Thermus strains play an important role in organic-matter degradation during the thermogenic phase (65 to 80?C) of the composting process. Composting is a self-heating, aerobic, solid-phase, biodegradative process of organic-waste materials (7, 8). During the

Trello Beffa; Michel Blanc; Pierre-franois Lyon; Gudrun Vogt; Marcello Marchiani; Johanna Lott Fischer

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony  

SciTech Connect

Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

toilets have been an established technology for more than 30 years, and perhaps longer in site-built forms. As they require little to no water, composting toilet systems can provide a solution to sanitation and environmental problems in unsewered, rural, and suburban areas and in both developed and underdeveloped countries. A composting (or biological) toilet system contains and processes excrement, toilet paper, carbon additive, and sometimes, food waste. Unlike a septic system, a composting toilet system relies on unsaturated conditions where aerobic bacteria break down waste. This process is similar to a yard waste composter. If sized and maintained properly, a composting toilet breaks down waste 10 to 30 % of

United States; Composting Toilets

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Why Sequence PCE-dechlorinating mixed communities?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PCE-dechlorinating mixed communities? PCE-dechlorinating mixed communities? The poet John Donne once noted that no man is an island, and the same can be argued for bacteria. Dehalococcoides ethenogenes bacteria are often found in a community of other microorganisms at groundwater sites contaminated with compounds such as tetrachloroethne and trichloroethene. These chemicals are among most the pervasive organic groundwater pollutants because they're often used by industry as cleansers or degreasers. Of all the Dehalococcoides strains identified thus far, D. ethenogenes is the only bacterial strain known to be able to break down the chlorinated groundwater pollutants, and the only strain that has been sequenced. Part of the reason for the latter is the size of the bacteria's genome, which is small

399

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

In situ global method for measurement of oxygen demand and mass transfer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two aerobic microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis lipolytica and Brevibacterium lactofermentum, have been used in a study of mass transfer and oxygen uptake from a global perspective using a closed gas system. Oxygen concentrations in the gas and liquid were followed using oxygen electrodes, and the results allowed for easy calculation of in situ oxygen transport. The cell yields on oxygen for S. lipolytica and B. lactofermentum were 1.01 and 1.53 g/g respectively. The mass transfer coefficient was estimated as 10 h{sup {minus}1} at 500 rpm for both fermentations. The advantages with this method are noticeable since the use of model systems may be avoided, and the in situ measurements of oxygen demand assure reliable data for scale-up.

Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Lundbaeck, K.M.O.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Lignin | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lignin Lignin Jump to: navigation, search Lignin.jpg What is Lignin? Lignin is the fiber in our food, the thing that makes vegetables crunchy and firm. It is a polymer found extensively in the cell walls of all woody plants, Lignin, one of the most abundant natural polymers, constitutes one-fourth to one-third of the total dry weight of trees. It combines with hemicellulose materials to help bind the cells together and direct water flow. Lignin is formed by removal of water from sugars to create aromatic structures. These reactions are not reversible. Lignin resists attack by most microorganisms, and anaerobic processes tend not to attack the aromatic rings at all. Aerobic breakdown of lignin is slow and may take many days. Lignin is nature's cement along with hemicellulose to exploit

402

Complete genome sequence of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus type strain (TK-6T)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogenobacter thermophilus Kawasumi et al. 1984 is the type species of the genus Hydrogenobacter. H. thermophilus was the first obligate autotrophic organism reported among aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Strain TK-6T is of interest because of the unusually efficient hydrogen-oxidizing ability of this strain, which results in a faster generation time compared to other autotrophs. It is also able to grow anaerobically using nitrate as an electron acceptor when molecular hydrogen is used as the energy source, and able to aerobically fix CO2 via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. This is the fifth completed genome sequence in the family Aquificaceae, and the second genome sequence determined from a strain derived from the original isolate. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,742,932 bp long genome with its 1,899 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Zeytun, Ahmet [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Han, James [Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Liolios, Konstantinos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ngatchou, Olivier Duplex [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ubler, Susanne [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Wirth, Reinhard [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biochemical Conversion Projects Biochemical Conversion Projects A photo of a woman looking at the underside of a clear plastic tray. The tray has a grid of small holes to hold sample tubes. An NREL researcher examines a sample tray used in the BioScreen C, an instrument used to monitor the growth of microorganisms under different conditions. NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three basic steps to convert biomass feedstocks to fuels: Converting biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock Fermenting these biomass intermediates using biocatalysts (microorganisms including yeast and bacteria) Processing the fermentation product to yield fuel-grade ethanol and other fuels. Among the current biochemical conversion RD&D projects at NREL are: Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

404

To bioethanol through genomics of microbial synergies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The strategic goal of this project was to advance our understanding of activities and interactions of microorganisms through the advancement of microbial cultivation approaches. In this project we aimed to develop, advance, and use both culture-dependent techniques to address our main hypothesis: uncultivable microorganisms and their consortia represent a untapped source of novel species for efficient production of bioethanol. This project has two specific goals: 1. To develop and optimize a high throughput diffusion chamber cultivation approach to isolation of novel environmental bacteria relevant to DOE missions. 2. To use the optimized method to identify and cultivate novel microbial species and their consortia that synergistically hydrolyze various substrates and ferment the sugars to ethanol.

Epstein,

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Blood pressure is measured with an automated oscillometric device (Omron) using the right arm, after participants are seated quietly for five min- utes. Three measures are recorded at one-minute intervals. A 12-lead electrocardiogram is performed... 2009 Accepted: 19 June 2009 This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/9/15 2009 Finucane et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution...

Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Herve; Horton, Kenneth; De Lucia Rolfe, Ema; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen; Ahie Sayer, Avan; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

406

Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Bioremediation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bioremediation Bioremediation Fact Sheet - Bioremediation Bioremediation (also known as biological treatment or biotreatment) uses microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) to biologically degrade hydrocarbon-contaminated waste into nontoxic residues. The objective of biotreatment is to accelerate the natural decomposition process by controlling oxygen, temperature, moisture, and nutrient parameters. Land application is a form of bioremediation that is described in greater detail in a separate fact sheet. This fact sheet focuses on forms of bioremediation technology that take place in more intensively managed programs, such as composting, vermiculture, and bioreactors. McMillen et al. (2004) summarizes over ten years of experience in biotreating exploration and production wastes and offers ten lessons learned.

408

Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production  

SciTech Connect

Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

2008-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

409

Biotransformation of PuEDTA: Implications to Pu Immobilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project integrates three distinct goals to develop a fundamental understanding of the potential fate and disposition of plutonium in sediments that are co-contaminated with EDTA. The three objectives are: (1) Develop thermodynamic data for Pu-EDTA species and determine the dominant mobile form of Pu under anaerobic conditions. (2) Elucidate the mechanism and rates of Pu(IV) and Pu(IV)-EDTA reduction by metal-reducing bacteria and determine where the Pu is located (in solution, biosorbed, bioaccumulated). (3) Enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading microorganisms to investigate the anaerobic biodegradation of Pu-EDTA.

Bolton, Harvey, Jr.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production in DNA-supplemented Medium E. In addition to DNA or deoxyribonucleosides, nitrate, amino acids and vitamins were all required for anaerobic growth of JF-2. Bacillus mojavensisT (ABO21191), Bacillus mojavensis, strain ROB2 also required DNA or deoxyribonucleosides for anaerobic growth. The improved anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 was a prerequisite for studies that will lead to improved anaerobic biosurfactant production.

M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liebner, Susanne [University of Tromso, Norway; Wilhelm, Ronald [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Wagner, Dirk [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Field Evidence for Co-Metabolism of Trichloroethene Stimulated by Addition of Electron Donor to Groundwater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For more than 10 years, electron donor has been injected into the Snake River aquifer beneath the Test Area North site of the Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of stimulating microbial reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater. This has resulted in significant TCE removal from the source area of the contaminant plume and elevated dissolved CH4 in the groundwater extending 250 m from the injection well. The delta13C of the CH4 increases from 56o/oo in the source area to -13 o/oo with distance from the injection well, whereas the delta13C of dissolved inorganic carbon decreases from 8 o/oo to -13 o/oo, indicating a shift from methanogenesis to methane oxidation. This change in microbial activity along the plume axis is confirmed by PhyloChip microarray analyses of 16S rRNA genes obtained from groundwater microbial communities, which indicate decreasing abundances of reductive dechlorinating microorganisms (e.g., Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) and increasing CH4-oxidizing microorganisms capable of aerobic co-metabolism of TCE (e.g., Methylosinus trichosporium). Incubation experiments with 13C-labeled TCE introduced into microcosms containing basalt and groundwater from the aquifer confirm that TCE co-metabolism is possible. The results of these studies indicate that electron donor amendment designed to stimulate reductive dechlorination of TCE may also stimulate co-metabolism of TCE.

Conrad, Mark E.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Radtke, Corey W.; Bill, Markus; Delwiche, Mark E.; Lee, M. Hope; Swift, Dana L.; Colwell, Frederick S.

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

The effects of wavelength, metals, and reactive oxygen species on the sunlight inactivation of microorganisms: observations and applications to the solar disinfection of drinking water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of batch-process solar disinfectors. Water Research 35(4),Batch process solar disinfection is an efficient means of disinfecting drinking water

Fisher, Michael Benjamin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The effects of wavelength, metals, and reactive oxygen species on the sunlight inactivation of microorganisms: observations and applications to the solar disinfection of drinking water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the US ASTM standard solar spectrum (1976), and for Aprilthe US ASTM standard solar spectrum (1976), and for Aprilused to simulate a solar spectrum (Figure 3.1 A, no filter).

Fisher, Michael Benjamin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The effects of wavelength, metals, and reactive oxygen species on the sunlight inactivation of microorganisms: observations and applications to the solar disinfection of drinking water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Overview. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 129(1), 4-15.Events. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 129(1), 100-Events. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 129(1), Rincn,

Fisher, Michael Benjamin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Why Sequence Type I and II Methanotrophs?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Type I and II Methanotrophs? Type I and II Methanotrophs? Methanotrophic bacteria are absolutely vital for the global carbon cycle and to carbon sequestration, as they constitute the largest known biological methane sink. Methanotrophs are also central to the bioremediation and biofuel development goals of the DOE. To date, only two methanotrophic bacteria have undergone complete genome sequencing, and only one sequence is available to the public. Methanotrophs are distinguished from other microorganisms by their ability to utilize methane as a sole carbon and energy source, yet they are physiologically and phylogenetically diverse, affiliating with both Gammaproteobacteria (type I methanotrophs) and Alphaproteobacteria (type II methanotrophs). Methanotrophs are ubiquitous and play a major role in the

417

Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of {beta}-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

Yu Haipeng; Guo Zhi, E-mail: jieruke@yahoo.com.cn; Xing Wenge; Guo Xiuying; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo [Tinajin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Key Cancer Prevention and Treatment Laboratory (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Astrophysical and Biological Constraints on Radiopanspermia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have carried out a series of calculations involving bacteria and viruses embedded in dust grains, which are ejected from our solar system by radiation pressure, and travel through space to other star systems. Under many conditions, this kind of panspermia is impractical, primarily because the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the present Sun inactivates the micro-organisms. However, if the organisms are shielded by an absorbing material like carbon, and if ejection takes place in the late-Sun (red-giant) phase of a one-solar-mass star like our Sun, there is a significant probability that these micro-organisms can reach another star system alive (i.e., with only sub-lethal damage from UV and ionizing radiation). In addition to panspermia with viable micro-organisms, we note that it is possible to seed the Galaxy with inactivated ones, whose DNA and RNA fragments may provide the initial information necessary to start biological evolution in favorable environments. 1.

Jeff Secker; Paul S. Wesson; James R. Lepock

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Microbial Diversity-Based Novel Crop Protection Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extremophilic microorganisms are adapted to survive in ecological niches with high temperatures, extremes of pH, high salt concentrations, high pressure, radiation, etc. Extremophiles produce unique biocatalysts and natural products that function under extreme conditions comparab le to those prevailing in various industrial processes. Therefore, there is burgeoning interest in bioprospecting for extremophiles with potential immediate use in agriculture, the food, chemical, and pharm aceutical industries, and environmental biotechnology. Over the years, several thousand extremophilic bacteria, archaea, and filamentous fungi were collected at extreme environmental sites in the USA, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone surrounding the faeild nuclear power plant in Ukraine, in and around Lake Baikal in Siberia, and at geothermal sites on the Kamchatka peninsula in Russia. These organisms were cultured under proprietary conditions, and the cell- free supernatants were screened for biological activities against plant pathogenic fungi and major crop damaging insects. Promising peptide lead molecules were isolated, characterized, and sequenced. Relatively high hit rates characterized the tested fermentation broths. Of the 26,000 samples screened, over thousand contained biological activity of interest. A fair number of microorganisms expressed broad- spectrum antifungal or insecticidal activity. Two- dozen broadly antifungal peptides (AFPs) are alr eady patent protected, and many more tens are under further investigation. Tapping the gene pool of extremophilic microorganisms to provide novel ways of crop protection proved a successful strategy.

Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc.; DuPont Experimental Station; Yalpani, Ronald Flannagan, Rafael Herrmann, James Presnail, Tamas Torok, and Nasser; Herrmann, Rafael; Presnail, James; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

420

The winds of (evolutionary) change: Breathing new life into microbiology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To date, over 1500 prokaryotes have been characterized by small subunit rRNA sequencing and molecular phylogeny has had an equally profound effect on our understanding of relationship among eukaryotic microorganisms. The universal phylogenetic tree readily shows however how artificial the strong distinction between the eukaryote and prokaryotes has become. The split between the Archaea and the Bacteria is now recognized as the primary phylogenetic division and that the Eucarya have branched from the same side of the tree as the Archaea. Both prokaryotic domains would seem to be of thermophilic origin suggesting that life arose in a very warm environment. Among the Archaea, all of the Crenarchaeota cultured to date are thermophiles, and the deepest euryarchaeal branchings are represented exclusively by thermophiles. Among the Bacteria, the deepest known branchings are again represented exclusively by thermophiles, and thermophilia is widely scattered throughout the domain. The Archaea comprise a small number of quite disparate phenotypes that grow in unusual niches. All are obligate or facultative anaerobes. All cultured crenarchaeotes are thermophilic, some even growing optimally above the normal boiling temperature of water. The Archaeoglobales are sulfate reducers growing at high temperatures. The extreme halophiles grow only in highly saline environments. The methanogens are confined to a variety of anaerobic niches, often thermophilic. The Bacteria, on the other hand, are notable as being the source of life`s photosynthetic capacity. Five kingdoms of bacteria contain photosynthetic species; and each of the five manifests a distinct type of (chlorophyll-based) photosynthesis.

Olsen, G.J.; Woese, C.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Overbeek, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium  

SciTech Connect

The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Microbial field pilot study: Final report, December 15, 1986--March 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The field pilot project is designed to test several hypotheses: the ability of indigenous populations of microorganisms to selectively plug oil-bearing sandstone and divert flow on a field scale, the ability of this plugging process to liberate additional oil beyond that recovered during waterflood, and the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria by nitrate addition. To facilitate this testing, we have planned the pilot project by studying the ecology of the reservoir environment, characterizing the field and the operating history, and testing selective plugging in laboratory core experiments. The produced connate water was found to contain low concentrations of a diverse population of microorganisms which live in 12% to 19% NaCl salt. Several species were isolated which could utilize molasses as a carbon source and nitrate. Sulfate reducing bacteria were also isolated, and the control of sulfate reduction by nitrate addition was observed. The BOAST reservoir simulation model program was used to perform a history match on the SEVVSU. The characterization study included a comprehensive geological study to identify significant reservoir parameters and reinterpretation of available geological and production data. A model has been developed that will assist in interpreting pilot performance data.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Raiders, R.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND R. P. MASON. 2006. Mercury methylation by dissimilatoryPRUCHA, AND G. MIERLE. 1991. Mercury methylation by sulfate-AND J. M. SIEBURTH. 1993. Mercury biogeochemical cycling in

Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Mercury Detoxification by Bacteria: Simulations of Transcription Activation and Mercury-Carbon Bond Cleavage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this chapter, we summarize recent work from our laboratory and provide new perspective on two important aspects of bacterial mercury resistance: the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MerR, and the enzymatic cleavage of the Hg-C bond in methylmercury by the organomercurial lyase, MerB. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of MerR reveal an opening-and-closing dynamics, which may be involved in initiating transcription of mercury resistance genes upon Hg(II) binding. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on an active-site model of the enzyme reveal how MerB catalyzes the Hg-C bond cleavage using cysteine coordination and acid-base chemistry. These studies provide insight into the detailed mechanisms of microbial gene regulation and defense against mercury toxicity.

Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Evolutionary and functional genomics of bacteria from the cold deep sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cold seeps of the eastern Aleutian subduction zone. OrganicBacilli Lactobacillales Aleutian Trench Comparison strainby John Burke from the Aleutian Trench at 52 53.1 N 163

Lauro, Federico M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Bioelectrical Perchlorate Reduction and Characterization of Novel Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reducing Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a trace metal, human enrichment of uranium for munitions hasuranium by Geobacter species (33), and CO 2 by an undefined enrichment (

Thrash, James Cameron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Utilization of alkylbenzenes during anaerobic growth of pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria on crude oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These include: Receive: RSS Feeds, eTOCs, free email alerts (when new articles cite this article), more Downloaded from

R Rabus; F Widdel; Ralf Rabus; Friedrich Widdel

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Geek-Up[09.24.10] -- Magical BEANs, Combating Bacteria's Resistance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

low-power source of flash memory and data storage. Find out more about how these nano-sized particles could be applied to phase-change random access memory technologies and...

429

Genome-wide protein localization prediction strategies for gram negative bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Genome-wide prediction of protein subcellular localization is an important type of evidence used for inferring protein function. While a variety of computational tools have been developed for this purpose, errors in the gene models and use of protein sorting signals that are not recognized by the more commonly accepted tools can diminish the accuracy of their output. As part of an effort to manually curate the annotations of 19 strains of Shewanella, numerous insights were gained regarding the use of computational tools and proteomics data to predict protein localization. Identification of the suite of secretion systems present in each strain at the start of the process made it possible to tailor-fit the subsequent localization prediction strategies to each strain for improved accuracy. Comparisons of the computational predictions among orthologous proteins revealed inconsistencies in the computational outputs, which could often be resolved by adjusting the gene models or ortholog group memberships. While proteomic data was useful for verifying start site predictions and post-translational proteolytic cleavage, care was needed to distinguish cellular versus sample processing-mediated cleavage events. Searches for lipoprotein signal peptides revealed that neither TatP nor LipoP are designed for identification of lipoprotein substrates of the twin arginine translocation system and that the +2 rule for lipoprotein sorting does not apply to this Genus. Analysis of the relationships between domain occurrence and protein localization prediction enabled identification of numerous location-informative domains which could then be used to refine or increase confidence in location predictions. This collective knowledge was used to develop a general strategy for predicting protein localization that could be adapted to other organisms.

Romine, Margaret F.

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Evolutionary and functional genomics of bacteria from the cold deep sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of cold shock-induced RNA helicase gene expression in theCsdA, a cold-shock RNA helicase from Escherichia coli, isregulated DEAD-box RNA helicase from the Antarctic archaeon,

Lauro, Federico M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Molecular biology and genetics of the acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Acetate conversion to methane and C0{sub 2} by the methanogenic archaebacteria is a primary rate limiting step in anaerobic biodegradative processes in nature. However, the genetic study of these organisms has not been experimentally tractable due to the inability to grow and plate the organisms as single cells, and to extract high molecular weight DNA and RNA without shearing. The acetate-utilizing species, Methanosarcina thermolphila TM-1, is being used for the proposed genetic and molecular studies because, unlike previously described acetotrophic methanosarcina that have a thick heteropolysaccharide cell wall, this species can be cultured in a unicellular form that has a protein cell wall lacking the heteropolysaccharide layer. These cells can be gently disrupted to obtain protoplasts or lysed to yield intact genomic DNA and RNA. Experiments are in progress to develop a gene transfer system in this bacterial species. Methods are being developed and refined for the efficient plating of M. thermophila on defined media, for chemical mutagenesis, and for the isolation of mutants defective in acetate utilization. Chromosomal DNA libraries have been constructed from M. thermophila and are being used to clone genes involved in the acetate utilization pathway (e.g. carbon monoxide dehydrogenase). Once cloned, analysis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for their regulatory control will be performed. These studies should aid our understanding of the pathway for acetate utilization in M. thermophila and serve as a model for elucidating regulatory mechanisms in the acetotrophic methanogens.

Gunsalus, R.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Anaerobic Digestion Frederick C. Michel, Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering Zhongtang Yu, Animal concluded that both anaerobic digestion and composting--especially at elevated temperatures--are effective effectiveness of anaerobic digestion and composting at high temperatures is of interest to industry

Jones, Michelle

433

ANALYSIS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SYNTROPHIC BACTERIA IN A CHEMOSTAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relationship in the anaerobic digestion process is proposed as a real candidate for this model. 1. Introduction of such interactions was given by the anaerobic digestion in which mutualistic relationships allow certain classes; Asymptotic stability; Anaerobic digestion. 1 hal-00487189,version2-29Jul2011 #12;2 TEWFIK SARI, MILED EL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Hygiene aspects of the biogas process with emphasis on spore-forming bacteria.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biogas is a renewable source of energy which can be obtained from processing of biowaste. The digested residues can be used as fertiliser. Biowaste intended (more)

Bagge, Elisabeth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Models and simulations of collective motion in biomimetic robots and bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In nature, one finds many examples of collective motion, from flocking birds to swarming bees. Any one organism makes its decisions based solely on local information; either it can sense what its close neighbors are doing, ...

Cohen, Joanna (Joanna Renee)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Q{sub y}-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll{sub a} (BChl{sub a}) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.

Satoshi Matsuzaki

2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

Dielectrophoresis-Based Discrimination of Bacteria at the Strain Level Based on Their Surface Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Insulator-based dielectrophoresis can be used to manipulate biological particles, but has thus far found limited practical applications due to low sensitivity. We present linear sweep three-dimensional insulator-based ...

Willner, Dana

438

Theoretical characterization of excitation energy transfer in chlorosome light-harvesting antennae from green sulfur bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chlorosomes are the largest and most efficient natural light-harvesting antenna systems. They contain thousands of pigment molecules - bacteriochlorophylls (BChls)- that are organized into supramolecular aggregates and form a very efficient network for excitonic energy migration. Here, we present a theoretical study of excitation energy transfer (EET) in the chlorosome based on experimental evidence of the molecular assembly. Our model for the exciton dynamics throughout the antenna combines a stochastic time propagation of the excitonic wave function with molecular dynamics simulations of supramolecular structure, and electronic structure calculations of the excited states. The simulation results reveal a detailed picture of the EET in the chlorosome. Coherent energy transfer is significant only for the first 50 fs after the initial excitation, and the wavelike motion of the exciton is completely damped at 100 fs. Characteristic time constants of incoherent energy transfer, subsequently, vary from 1 ps to se...

Fujita, Takatoshi; Saikin, Semion K; Brookes, Jennifer C; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Theoretical characterization of excitation energy transfer in chlorosome light-harvesting antennae from green sulfur bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chlorosomes are the largest and most efficient natural light-harvesting antenna systems. They contain thousands of pigment molecules - bacteriochlorophylls (BChls)- that are organized into supramolecular aggregates and form a very efficient network for excitonic energy migration. Here, we present a theoretical study of excitation energy transfer (EET) in the chlorosome based on experimental evidence of the molecular assembly. Our model for the exciton dynamics throughout the antenna combines a stochastic time propagation of the excitonic wave function with molecular dynamics simulations of supramolecular structure, and electronic structure calculations of the excited states. The simulation results reveal a detailed picture of the EET in the chlorosome. Coherent energy transfer is significant only for the first 50 fs after the initial excitation, and the wavelike motion of the exciton is completely damped at 100 fs. Characteristic time constants of incoherent energy transfer, subsequently, vary from 1 ps to several tens of ps. We assign the time scales of the EET to specific physical processes by comparing our results with the data obtained from time-resolved spectroscopy experiments.

Takatoshi Fujita; Joonsuk Huh; Semion K. Saikin; Jennifer C. Brookes; Alan Aspuru-Guzik

2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

440

Patch Dynamics of Nutrients, Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Chlorophyll near the Tijuana River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

suggest that solar radiation was not a significant factorto shield FIB from solar radiation, which has repeatedly

Feddersen, Falk; Franks, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aerobic bacteria microorganisms" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Proteogenomic analysis of bacteria and archaea: A 46 organism case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental evidence is increasingly being used to reassess the quality and accuracy of genome annotation. Proteomics data used for this purpose, called proteogenomics, can alleviate many of the problematic areas of genome annotation, e.g. short protein validation and start site assignment. We performed a proteogenomic analysis of 51 genomes spanning eight bacterial and archaeal phyla across the tree of life. These diverse datasets facilitated the development of a robust approach for proteogenomics that is functional across genomes varying in %GC, gene content, proteomic sampling depth, phylogeny, and genome size. In addition to finding evidence for 701 novel proteins, 1365 new start sites, and numerous dubious genes, we discovered sites of post-translational maturation in the form of proteolytic cleavage of 1095 signal peptides. Proteomics provides a powerful experimental data type to access and improve the quality of genome annotation. A key advantage is the direct correlation between protein annotation and a protein based assay. With the adoption of new sequencing technologies which have higher error rates than Sanger-based methods and the advances in proteomics, proteogenomics may become even more important in the future.

Venter, Eli; Smith, Richard D.; Payne, Samuel H.

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

442

ORNL researchers are studying how bacteria found in Yellowstone hot springs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a flashlight apart and rebuilt it to see if they could make the bulb light up and operated a robot arm to pick of the Year by the Forest Biotechnology Partnership. Congratulations also to the team, led by Mike Brady

443

Strain of alcaligenes latus bacteria used for the decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alcaligenes latus bacterial strain TXD-13 VKPM B 75-05 is capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The strain may be employed to detoxicate environment media and PCB-containing industrial waste. To produce biomass, the strain is incubated on media which contain carbon sources, nitrogen sources and mineral salts. The strain is cultivated by a subsurface method up to a titer from 6.0.multidot.10.sup.8 to 2.0.times.10.sup.9 cells per cu cm. The produced biomass is used for degrading PCBs in concentrations from 10.sup.7 to 10.sup.8 cells per cu cm. The strain ensures from 35 to 50% reduction in PCB content in soil and water.

Dyadischev, Nikolai Romanovich (Moscow Region, RU); Zharikov, Gennady Alekseevich (Moscow Region, RU); Kapranov, Vladimir Vladimirovich (Moscow Region, RU)

2001-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

444

The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experiment conducted in the Oak Control soil warming plot at Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts

Vallino, Joseph J.

445

Purple Bacteria Develops Its Own Form of Sunscreen | U.S. DOE...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

of St. Louis and supported by the Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center, an EFRC led by Robert Blankenship at Washington University in St. Louis. Last modified: 3272013...

446

Energy Capture and Use in Plants and Bacteria. Final Technical Report  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The project has centered on elucidation of the mechanism of ATP synthase. The metabolic importance of ATP and the complexity of the ATP synthase have made the problem particularly important and challenging. The development of the binding change mechanism depended upon our recognition of features that were novel in bioenergetics and indeed to the field of enzymology. One important feature of mechanism is that the principal way that energy input from transmembrane proton movement is coupled to ATP formation is to drive conformational changes that cause the release of ATP readily formed and tightly bound at a catalytic site. Another is that three equivalent catalytic sites on the enzyme show strong catalytic cooperativity as they proceed sequentially through different conformations. A more speculative features is that this cooperativity and energy coupling involve a rotational movement of minor subunits relative to the catalytic subunits. During this period these studies have extended and clarified aspects of the synthase mechanism. During assessments of interactions of Mg{sup 2+} and ADP with the synthase we recognized unexpectedly that whether ADP and P{sub i}, or their complexes with Mg{sup 2+} served as substrates for ATP formation by photophosphorylation was not known. Our studies showed that MgADP and free P{sub i} act as substrates.

Boyer, P. D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Biofuels from Bacteria Is PNNL Biochemists Goal (DOE Pulse Profile)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When you ask Mary Lipton what her strengths are, she quickly responds with her personality type. 'I'm an Expressive,' she says, aptly punctuating her words with her hands. 'The plus side is that I communicate and collaborate well, and I look at the bigger picture. On the other hand, I don't concentrate on details. But I can incorporate the details into a larger vision.' Regardless of how they are perceived, these traits have served Lipton well as a scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She's nationally recognized for applying new mass spectrometry-based technologies to characterize environmental microbes and microbial communities, particularly for their use in generating biofuels. 'I work on biofuels because at some point, everyone pays for the high cost of fuel. It affects all of us, whether directly at the gas pump or by higher food and materials costs,' says Lipton. Lipton categorizes her biofuels research area as environmental proteomics, which she defines as the application of advanced protein-based techniques to understanding environmental and biological systems. But she's quick to note that environmental proteomics doesn't just aid development of new biofuels, but also helps further understanding of the impact of climate change and the use of organisms for bioremediation.

Wiley, Julie G.; Manke, Kristin L.

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

448

Phylogenetic diversity of gram-positive bacteria and their secondary metabolite genes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marine actinomycete diversity and natural product discovery.1999. High bacterial diversity in permanently cold marinemarine actinomycete diversity from tropical Pacific Ocean

Gontang, Erin Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Phylogenetic Diversity of Gram-positive Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolite Genes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marine actinomycete diversity and natural product discovery.1999. High bacterial diversity in permanently cold marinemarine actinomycete diversity from tropical Pacific Ocean

Gontang, Erin A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Molecular Biology and Genetics of the Acetate-Utilizing Methanogenic Bacteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methane biosynthesis by the Methanosarcina species, in contrast to other methanogens, occurs from the full range of methanogenic substrates that include acetate, methanol, tri-methyl, di-methyl, and methyl-amine, methyl-sulfides, and in limited instances, H2/CO2. The Methanosarcina are also versatile in their ability to adapt and grow in habitats of varying osmolarity ranging from fresh water environments, marine environments, and to hyper saline environments (ca to 1.2 M NaCl). To facilitate studies that address the biochemistry, molecular biology and physiology of these organisms, we have constructed a whole-genome microarray to identify classes of differentially expressed genes in M. mazei strain Goe1. We propose to further identify and examine how genes and their proteins involved in the synthesis and transport of osmolytes in the cell are regulated. These compounds include N-epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine, alpha-glutamate, betaine, and potassium whose levels within the cell are modulated in order to provide appropriate osmotic balance. We will identify differentially expressed genes involved in hydrogen and carbon dioxide sequestration since M. mazei strain Goe1 is currently the only practical model for such study. Finally, we will explore the essential roles of two metals, molybdate and tungstate, in methanogen regulation and metabolism of these environmentally essential organsims. The above studies will advance our general understanding of how methanogens respond to their environmental signals, and adapt by adjusting their physiology to thrive in changing anaerobic habitats whether natural or man-made.

Robert P. Gunsalus

2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

Trapping Conformational Intermediate States in the Reaction Center Protein from Photosynthetic Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+, and reduced QB -, return to the ground state at cryogenic temperature in a conformation that allows a high yield of QB reduction. Thus, RCs frozen under illumination are found to be trapped above the ground 16 ( 3 meV. Thus, there are several conformational substates along the reaction coordinate

Gunner, Marilyn

452

Engineering Bacteria for Production of Rhamnolipid as an Agent for Enhanced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was conditioned with brine, flushed with the oil, and waterflooded to a trapped oil condition (in this case of a waterflooded sand-pack core by rhamnolipid flooding. A: Profile of oil recovery (triangle) and IFT (circle from a completely waterflooded sand-pack for this particular rhamnolipid surfactant. After 1 pore

Goddard III, William A.

453

Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides isolated nucleic acids molecules which encode pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes having improved decarboxylase activity, substrate affinity, thermostability, and activity at different pH. The nucleic acids of the invention also have a codon usage which allows for high expression in a variety of host cells. Accordingly, the invention provides recombinant expression vectors containing such nucleic acid molecules, recombinant host cells comprising the expression vectors, host cells further comprising other ethanologenic enzymes, and methods for producing useful substances, e.g., acetaldehyde and ethanol, using such host cells.

Maupin-Furlow, Julie A. (Gainesville, FL); Talarico, Lee Ann (Gainesville, FL); Raj, Krishnan Chandra (Tamil Nadu, IN); Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

Comparative genomics of metabolic capacities of regulons controlled by cis-regulatory RNA motifs in bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RH, Breaker RR: Comparative genomics reveals 104 candidateof transporters. BMC Genomics 2008, 9:330. 16. Green NJ,in proteobacteria: comparative genomics analysis. FEMS

Sun, Eric I; Leyn, Semen A; Kazanov, Marat D; Saier, Milton H; Novichkov, Pavel S; Rodionov, Dmitry A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455