Sample records for aerobic bacteria microorganisms

  1. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  2. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H. [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-{sup 14}C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-{sup 14}C]-TBA were degraded to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  3. (Catalytic mechanism of hydrogenase from aerobic N sub 2 -fixing microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arp, D.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenases are enzymes which catalyze reactions involving dihydrogen. They serve integral roles in a number of microbial metabolic pathways. Our research is focussed on investigations of the catalytic mechanism of the hydrogenases found in aerobic, N{sub 2}-fixing microorganisms such as Azotobacter vinelandii and the agronomically important Bradyrhizobium japonicum as well as microorganisms with similar hydrogenases. The hydrogenases isolated from these microorganisms are Ni- and Fe-containing heterodimers. Our work has focussed on three areas during the last grant period. In all cases, a central theme has been the role of inhibitors in the characteristics under investigation. In addition, a number of collaborative efforts have yielded interesting results. In metalloenzymes such as hydrogenase, inhibitors often influence the activity of the enzyme through ligand interactions with redox centers, often metals, within the enzyme. Therefore, investigations of the ability of various compounds to inhibit an enzyme's activity, as well as the mechanism of inhibition, can provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme as well as the role of various redox centers in catalysis. We have investigated in detail four inhibitors of A. vinelandii and the results are summarized here. The influence of these inhibitors on the spectral properties of the enzyme are summarized. Electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet spectra investigations are discussed. 9 figs.

  4. aerobic hydrogen-consuming bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerobic hydrogen-consuming bacteria First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Diversity of...

  5. Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Raymond H. W.

    In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

  6. Biodegradation of Triclosan by Aerobic Microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Do Gyun

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Triclosan, a synthetic antimicrobial agent, is an emerging environmental contaminant. Due to incomplete removal of triclosan by wastewater treatment plants, treated wastewater is one major source of environmental triclosan. Biodegradation...

  7. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  8. Aerobic enhanced oil recovery: analysis of the mechanisms and a pilot study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eide, Karen

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique that uses microorganisms to improve oil production in petroleum reservoirs is known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery is a method which is based on stimulating indigenous oil degrading...

  9. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  10. A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM, CIS the behavior of different consortiums of aerobic propane-utilizing microorganisms, with respect to both the lag time for growth after exposure to propane, and their ability to transform three chlorinated aliphatic

  11. Autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deeny, K. (Junkins Engineering, Morgantown, PA (United States)); Hahn, H.; Leonhard, D. (Univ. Karlsruhe (West Germany)); Heidman, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is first and foremost a digestion process, the primary purpose of which is to decompose a portion of the waste organic solids generated from wastewater treatment. As a result of the high operating temperature, digestion is expected to occur within a short time period (6 days) and accomplish a high degree of pathogen reduction. ATAD systems are two-stage aerobic digestion processes that operate under thermophilic temperature conditions (40 to 80C) without supplemental heat. Like composting, the systems rely on the conservation of heat released during digestion itself to attain and sustain the desired operating temperature. Typical ATAD systems operate at 55C and may reach temperatures of 60 to 65C in the second-stage reactor. Perhaps because of the high operating temperature, this process has been referred to as Liquid Composting.' Major advantages associated with thermophilic operation include high biological reaction rates and a substantial degree of pathogen reduction.

  12. Bacteria recovered from endometritis and pyometra in the beef cow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikulec, Rashel Thi

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One hundred and one uteri from beef cows with pyometra were collected from a slaughterhouse. Samples of uterine exudate were cultured for aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria, and also tested for Trichomonas spp. A section of uterine...

  13. What is compost? Composting refers to biological decomposition and stabilization of organic materials by microorganisms under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    What is compost? Composting refers to biological decomposition and stabilization of organic materials by microorganisms under aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen). During the composting is production of good-quality compost that is biologically stable, relatively uniform in appearance, free

  14. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  15. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  16. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  17. Response of Prochlorococcus ecotypes to co-culture with diverse marine bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sher, Daniel

    Interactions between microorganisms shape microbial ecosystems. Systematic studies of mixed microbes in co-culture have revealed widespread potential for growth inhibition among marine heterotrophic bacteria, but similar ...

  18. Results an data on the growth of the microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinavichius, K.S.

    1995-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of biocorrosion of aluminum and its alloy was performed under conditions of continuous fermentation of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms of different groups. This allowed us to examine the effect of various types of metabolic reactions of reduction-oxidation proceeding at different pH and temperatures under highly reduced conditions on aluminum corrosion. Besides, the experiments were performed where the part of the standard sample was exposed under strictly anaerobic conditions with an active microbiological process, and the second half was exposed under aerobic conditions. Thus the sample was exposed in gradient of oxidized-reduced conditions.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the aerobic and facultative bacterial flora of voided canine urine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggerstaff, Jane

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the mean, the standard deviation of the mean, and the types of bacteria present in each specimen were determined using conventional methods. After comparison of the aerobic-facultative counts obtained in this study with the values currently accepted.... The question which requires resolution is whether the data obtained from human urologic studies are indeed applicable to the canine. The numbers and types of bacteria present in the urine of clinically normal canines have not been previously defined...

  20. arXiv:0812.2887v1[cond-mat.soft]15Dec2008 The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    microorganisms move are familiar. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli detect gradients in nutrients and move, and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical and mechanical principles of locomotion

  1. A laboratory study of the activities of dried rumen microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harbers, Leniel Henry

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . cal pro? ceases vere made in this study to determine the ~ ~ activity of dried rumen microorganisms. . 'ellulose d1- gestion vas studied by employing a yurified cellulose preparation as a substrate and determination of the changes in concentration... the conditions of these experiments. There vere~ hovevsr~ bacteria present in the dr1ed rumen preparations vhich vere capable of hydro- lysing carboxymethyl cellulose. A method of detsrming "cellulose d1gestion" using a soluble cellulose derivative as a...

  2. aerobic hydrogenotroph bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions that challenge their survival, such as oscillating water regimes (more) Weber, Carolyn Frances 2009-01-01 5 Variation of carbon isotope fractionation in...

  3. Introduction Many microorganisms including fungi and bacteria had been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    and other plant cell wall fibers. In nature, degradation of cellulosic biomass is performed by mixtures, EGs) and exo-acting (cellobiohydrolases, CBH) enzymes, which act in a synergistic manner in biomass was targeted, (2) assays in which the reduction in substrate quantity was monitored, and (3) assays in which

  4. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them....

  5. The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauga, Eric

    . The reasons microorganisms move are familiar. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli detect gradients in nutrients processes, including reproduction, infection and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical

  6. Measurement of chlorite dismutase activities in perchlorate respiring bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentration (0.6 mM) to four other perchlorate respiring bacteria (PRB), and to one non-PRB (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Chlorate-grown cultures of the five PRB strains had CD activities ranging from 25 to 50 U/mg of cell dry weight (DW), while aerobically grown cultures of the PRB had much lower CD activities (0.5­4 U

  7. (Catalytic mechanism of hydrogenase from aerobic N sub 2 -fixing microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arp, D.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of this DOE-sponsored project have contributed to our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of A. vinelandii hydrogenase. A group of inhibitors have been characterized. These provide information about the different types of redox clusters involved in catalysis and the roles of each. One group has already used acetylene in a study of three desulfovibrian hydrogenases and shown that only the NiFe hydrogenases are inhibited. We have characterized a number of spectral properties of A. vinelandii hydrogenase. The EPR signals associated with this hydrogenase in the reduced state are reminiscent of other NiFe dimeric hydrogenases such as A. eutrophus, but distinctly difference from others such as D. gigas and Chromatium vinosum. Thus, while the NiFe dimeric hydrogenases are now recognized as a large group of similar enzymes, there are differences in the spectral and catalytic properties which are not explained by their similar redox inventories, identical subunit structures, immunological cross reactivity and conserved sequences. The inhibitors we have characterized are also proving of value in the spectral characterizations. Surprisingly, we only see a significant EP signal attributable to Ni after the enzyme has been inactivated with O{sub 2} and then reduced (though not reactivated). No spectral perterbations (EPR or UV-V is) of active enzyme can be attributed to binding of H{sub 2}, even though H{sub 2} clearly binds to this form of the enzyme. Acetylene, which does not substantially perterb the EPR signal of active hydrogenase, does result in a new absorption envelope in the UV-V is spectrum. Overall, the results of this project have revealed the complex interactions of the redox clusters in catalysis through studies of inhibitor mechanisms and spectral properties. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Study of Midgut Bacteria in the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Büren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, Freder

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ants are capable of building close associations with plants, insects, fungi and bacteria. Symbionts can provide essential nutrients to their insect host, however, the development of new molecular tools has allowed the discovery of new microorganisms...

  9. Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    (translation by Google Translate) Bacteria of the genus Geobacter and electrical nanowires. #12;Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria Bacteria of the genus Geobacter carry out anaerobic respiration the mechanism that makes these bacteria conductors of electricity. Researchers have studied

  10. A combined microfluidic/dielectrophoretic microorganism concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadish, Nitzan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic microorganism concentrator for pathogen detection applications. Interdigitated electrodes lining the bottom of the channel use positive dielectrophoretic ...

  11. Oil Production by a Consortium of Oleaginous Microorganisms grown on primary effluent wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Mary; French, Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal wastewater could be a potential growth medium that has not been considered for cultivating oleaginous microorganisms. This study is designed to determine if a consortium of oleaginous microorganism can successfully compete for carbon and other nutrients with the indigenous microorganisms contained in primary effluent wastewater. RESULTS: The oleaginous consortium inoculated with indigenous microorganisms reached stationary phase within 24 h, reaching a maximum cell concentration of 0.58 g L -1. Water quality post-oleaginous consortium growth reached a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of approximately 81%, supporting the consumption of the glucose within 8 h. The oleaginous consortium increased the amount of oil produced per gram by 13% compared with indigenous microorganisms in raw wastewater. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results show a substantial population increase in bacteria within the first 24 h when the consortium is inoculated into raw wastewater. This result, along with the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) results, suggests that conditions tested were not sufficient for the oleaginous consortium to compete with the indigenous microorganisms.

  12. Leachability of salmonella and fecal pollution indicator bacteria through soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehrmann, Robert Clinton

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department (Member) / /. ' Member) August 1977 74M3- ABSTRACT Leachability of Salmonella and Fecal Pollution Indicator Bacteria through Soil. (August 1977) Robert Clinton Fehrmann, B. S. , Texas AM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr... microorganisms to be leached through soil, columns :ere filled with different soils and inoculs. ted with suspensions of fecal bacteria. Dif er ences in bacterial movement within a particular sni I, and bacterial movement between different types of soils...

  13. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  14. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  15. Bacteriocins of Aquatic Microorganisms and Their Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, Margaret

    , known as pyocins (Govan & Harris, 1985). In contrast, only 15-50% of Escherichia coli produce from marine microorganisms. These toxins have received far less attention than bacteriocins produced

  16. Roles of Naturally Occurring Bacteria in Controlling Iodine-129 Mobility in Subsurface Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hsiu-Ping

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    - to reactive intermediates. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of naturally occurring aerobic bacteria isolated from an 129I contaminated aquifer (F-area of the Savannah River Site, SC) on I- oxidation and OI formation. It was demonstrated...

  17. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  18. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  19. Effects of microorganisms growth on the long-term stability of cement and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libert, M.F.; Sellier, R.; Jouquet, G.; Trescinski, M.; Spor, H. [Nuclear Research Center of Cadarache, St.Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement is used as a coating matrix for nuclear waste or as an engineered barrier of waste repositories situated in geological formations. The effect of mineral acids excreted by bacteria (Thiobacillus) or organic acids produced by fungi, on the biodegradation of cement is discussed. Organic acids are quantitatively and qualitatively determined during growth of fungi over a two-year period. Even with high pH conditions, pH of the cement {approx} 11, growth of microorganisms occurs. Biodeterioration of cement is expressed in terms of bioleaching velocity of calcium and is observed by electron microscopy. Bitumen is commonly used as a matrix for the long-term storage of radioactive wastes. Long-term biodegrability of bitumen is discussed as a function of its chemical composition and various studied microorganisms.

  20. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  1. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  2. Enumeration and characterization of microorganisms associated with the uranium ore deposit at Cigar Lake, Canada; Informal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, A.J.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Gillow, J.B.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-grade uranium deposit at Cigar Lake, Canada, is being investigated as a natural analog for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. Geochemical aspects of the site have been studied in detail, but the microbial ecology has not been fully investigated. Microbial populations in an ore sample and in groundwater samples from the vicinity of the ore zone were examined to determine their effect on uranium mobility. Counts of the total number of bacteria and of respiring bacteria were obtained by direct microscopy, and the viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were assessed as colony forming units (CFUs) by the dilution plating technique. In addition, the population distribution of denitrifiers, fermenters, iron- and sulfur-oxidizers, iron- and sulfate-reducers, and methanogens was determined by the most probable number (MPN) technique.

  3. Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENAC/ Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment David G Research, Microbiology of Interfaces, Magdeburg (Germany) EDCE 2011 / From activated sludge flocs

  4. aerobic bacterial consortium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biology of its aerobic physiology is well studied. Our deer mice grew throughout life, and, as is typical for mammals, their basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximal oxygen...

  5. aerobic conditions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a micro-aerobic environment. Analysis of the external metabolome and protein levels suggested that the cultures transit through different physiological states during the process...

  6. aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and belowground production, and litterfall; (2) aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of peat; (3) production, oxidation was generally biased toward net ecosystem respiration...

  7. aerobic gammaproteobacterium congregibacter: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy). Aerobic wastewater treatment costs can be very high for these wastewaters, and...

  8. aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy). Aerobic wastewater treatment costs can be very high for these wastewaters, and...

  9. aerober mikrobieller abbau: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy). Aerobic wastewater treatment costs can be very high for these wastewaters, and...

  10. aerobic nitrogen cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanson 2010-10-06 63 Anaerobic aerobic systems evaluation with immobilized biomass for organic material and nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater using biogas in the...

  11. aerobic spore formers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  12. aerobic wwtps sited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  13. aerobic sludge digestion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  14. aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  15. aerobic microbial degradation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  16. aerobic photosynthetic bacterium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  17. aerobic alcohol oxidation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  18. autoheated thermophilic aerobic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  19. aerobic phototrophic alphaproteobacterium: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  20. aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  1. aerobic microbial enhanced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  2. aerobic shallow aquifer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  3. aerobic actinomycetes epidemiology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  4. aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  5. aerobic nonylphenol degradation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  6. aerobic nonsulfur photosynthetic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  7. Extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria: Their implications for possible life in extraterrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, J.; Liu, S.V.; Zhang, C.; Palumbo, A.V.; Phelps, T.J.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron reduction is believed to be an early form of respiration and iron-reducing bacteria might have evolved very early on Earth. To support this hypothesis, the authors began to search for both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria because iron-reducing capacity may be a widely distributed trait if ancestral microorganisms include extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria. To date, they have obtained thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing and magnetite-forming enrichment cultures from geologically and hydrologically isolated, millions of years-old deep terrestrial subsurface samples. Three dominant bacteria were identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Phylogenetical analysis indicated that these bacteria were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanoliticus. Two pure thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria have been isolated and characterized from these enrichments, they also are able to degrade cellulose and xylan. Geological evidence indicated that these bacteria were separated from modern organisms for about 200 million years, and they are the oldest isolated bacteria available now. Evolutionary sequence analysis showed that the 16S rRNA genes evolved extremely slowly in these bacteria. In addition, the authors have obtained about 30 psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria in samples from Siberia and Alaska permafrost soils, Pacific marine sediments and Hawaii deep sea water. These bacteria were also able to reduce other heavy metals. The isolation of both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria from surface and subsurface environments has significant implications for microbial evolution and for studying the origin of life in extraterrestrial environments.

  8. aerobic mtbe biodegradation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerobic mtbe biodegradation First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Aerobic Biodegradation of...

  9. aerobic energy turnover: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerobic energy turnover First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Misconceptions about Aerobic...

  10. aerobic capacity co-segregates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic Keywords: Triclosan Triclosan methyl Waste water treatment Aerobic transformation a b s t r a c t Triclosan (WWTPs) and...

  11. Bacteria TMDL Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... Star Healthy Streams * ? Environmental Management of Grazing Lands * *TWRI-managed projects More information on the initiative is available at www.tsswcb.state.tx.us/managementprogram/ initiatives/bacteria. Bacteria Projects Across the State...

  12. The effect of agrochemicals on indicator bacteria densities in outdoor mesocosmsemi_2287 3150..3158

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohr, Jason

    The effect of agrochemicals on indicator bacteria densities in outdoor mesocosmsemi_2287 3150, including patho- gens. Agrochemicals may influence the survival of these microorganisms in water bodies were used to investigate the response of Escherichia coli and enterococci to agrochemicals. Replicate

  13. Bacteria TMDL Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of TMDL projects for water bodies where swimming or wading may be unsafe or harvesting of oysters is limited or prohibited due to high concentrations of bacteria. ? Atascosa River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Buffalo andWhite Oak Bayous: A TMDL...

  14. Aerobic uranium (VI) bioprecipitation by metal-resistant bacteria isolated from radionuclide-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skolnick, Jeff

    and other countries. The dis- posal of radioactive waste has traditionally involved underground storage- ment of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC), were determined. The ORFRC repre- sents

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic sporeforming bacteria Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AAP) ... Source: Laboratoire d'Ocanographie de Villefranche, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab. Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Geosciences 45...

  16. Bacteria-Mineral Interactions on the Surfaces of Metal-Resistant Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkin, A J

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The extraordinary ability of indigenous microorganisms, like metal-resistant bacteria, for biotransformation of toxic compounds is of considerable interest for the emerging area of environmental bioremediation. However, the underlying mechanisms by which metal-resistant bacteria transform toxic compounds are currently unknown and await elucidation. The project's objective was to study stress-induced responses of metal-resistant bacteria to environmental changes and chemical stimulants. This project involved a multi-institutional collaboration of our LLNL group with the group of Dr. H.-Y. Holman (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). In this project, we have utilized metal-resistant bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model bacterial system. We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize for the first time at the nanometer scale formation of stress-induced structures on bacterial surfaces in response to Cr (VI) exposure. We have demonstrated that structure, assembly, and composition of these stress-induced structures are dependent on Cr (VI) concentrations. Our AFM observations of the appearance and development of stress-induced layers on the surfaces of Arthrobacter oxydans bacteria exposed to Cr (VI) were confirmed by Dr. Holman's biochemical, electron microscopy, and synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy studies. In general, in vitro imaging of live microbial and cellular systems represents one of the most challenging issues in application of AFM. Various approaches for immobilization of bacteria on the substrate for in vitro imaging were tested in this project. Imaging of live bacteria was achieved, however further optimization of experimental methods are needed for high-resolution visualization of the cellular environmental structural dynamics by AFM. This project enhanced the current insight into molecular architecture, structural and environmental variability of bacterial systems. The project partially funded research for two book chapters (1,2), and we anticipate one more publication (3). The publications describe development of methods and results of studies of structural dynamics of metal-resistant bacteria that contribute to more comprehensive understanding of the architecture, function, and environmental dynamics of bacterial and cellular systems. The results of this LDRD were presented in invited talks and contributed presentations at five national and international conferences and five seminar presentations at the external institutions. These included invited talks at the conferences of Gordon Research, Materials Research and American Chemical Societies. Our scientific results and methodologies developed in this project enabled us to receive new funding for the multiyear project 'Chromium transformation pathways in metal-reducing bacteria' funded by the University of California Lab Fees Program ($500,000, 5/1/09 - 4/30/2012), with our proposal being ranked 1st from a total of 138 in the Earth, Energy, Environmental & Space Sciences panel.

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE Aerobic rice for water-saving agriculture. A review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of new aerobic rice cultivars, nutrient management practice, crop rotation, and soil acidification of water resources has led to the development and adoption of aerobic rice system, which saves water input. In an aerobic rice system, the crop can be dry direct-seeded or transplanted and soils are kept aerobic

  18. Bacteria to the Rescue | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bacteria to the Rescue Bacteria to the Rescue Released: December 05, 2011 High-performance computing adds speed, clarity to uranium bioremediation research Isosurfaces for aqueous...

  19. Aerobic Glycolysis: Meeting the Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    Warburg's observation that cancer cells exhibit a high rate of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) sparked debate over the role of glycolysis in normal and cancer cells. Although it has been ...

  20. aerobic bacterium tetrathiobacter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Kwan; We Thank J. Decruyenaere; C. Hayes; T. Kim; T. Maclarty; S. Popma For Their 1997-01-01 10 Mate choice and aerobic capacity in red junglefowl CiteSeer Summary: In 'good...

  1. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  2. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

  3. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, Hector M. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  4. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for assessing the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms on ecological processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Bentjen, S.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Van Voris, P.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project evaluates and modifies the existing US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (EPA/OPTS) terrestrial microcosm test system and test protocols such that they can be used to determine the environmental fate and ecological hazards of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). The intact soil-core microcosm represents terrestrial ecosystems, and when coupled with appropriate test protocols, such microcosms may be appropriate to define and limit risks associated with the intentional release of GEMs. The terrestrial microcosm test system was used to investigate the survival and transport of two model GEMs (Azospirillum lipoferum and Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants) to various trophic levels and niches and through intact soil cores. Subsequent effects on nutrient cycling and displacement of indigenous microorganisms were evaluated. The model organisms were a diazotrophic root-colonizing bacterium (A. lipoferum) and a wheat root growth-inhibiting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas sp.). The transposable element Tn5 was used as a genetic marker for both microorganisms in two separate experiments. The organisms were subjected to transposon mutagenesis using a broad host-range-mobilizable suicide plasmid. The transposon Tn5 conferred levels of kanamycin resistance up to 500 ..mu..g/ml (Pseudomonas sp.), which allowed for selection of the bacteria from environmental samples. The presence of Tn5 DNA in the genome of the model GEMs also allowed the use of Tn5 gene probes to confirm and enumerate the microorganisms in different samples from the microcosms. Two types of root growth-inhibiting Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants were obtained and used in microcosm studies: those that lacked the ability to inhibit either wheat root growth or the growth of other microorganisms in vitro (tox/sup /minus//) and those which retained these properties (tox/sup +/). 53 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Laboratory and Field Evidence for Long-Term Starvation Survival of Microorganisms in Subsurface Terrestrial Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieft, T.L. [Biology Dept., New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Murphy, E.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Amy, P.S.; Haldeman, D.L. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringelberg, D. B. [Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND NUTRIENT FLUX IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS INDICATES THAT INHABITANT MICROORGANISMS EXPERIENCE SEVERE NUTRIENT LIMITATION. USING LABORATORY AND FIELD METHODS, WE HAVE BEEN TESTING STARVATION SURVIVAL IN SUBSURFACE MICROORGANISMS. IN MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS, WE HAVE SHOWN THAT STRAINS OF TWO COMMONLY ISOLATED SUBSURFACE GENERA, ARTHROBACTER AND PSEUDOMONAS, ARE ABLE TO MAINTAIN VIABILITY IN LOW-NUTRIENT, NATURAL SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FOR OVER ONE YEAR. THESE NON-SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA UNDERGO RAPID INITIAL MINIATURIZATION FOLLOWED BY A STABILIZATION OF CELL SIZE. MEMBRANE LIPID PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID (PLFA) PROFILES OF THE PSEUDOMONAS ARE CONSISTENT WITH ADAPTATION TO NUTRIENT STRESS; ARTHROBACTER APPARENTLY RESPONDS TO NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION WITHOUT ALTERING MEMBRANE PLFA. TO TEST SURVIVABILITY OF MICROORGANISMS OVER A GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE, WE CHARACTERIZED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN A SEQUENCE OF UNSATURATED SEDIMENTS RANGING IN AGE FROM MODEM TO {gt}780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in Eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass-balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of Microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable Microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the markup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different Porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities.

  6. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  7. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  8. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  9. Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency Purpose: To determine how well your E. coli cells took up and expressed GFP after transformation. Background: Transformation efficiency is a quantitative)______ (Fraction of DNA spread on plate) = ______ µg plasmid DNA spread on plate #12;2 5. Transformation efficiency

  10. Selective microorganism concentration using a dielectrophoresis-based microfabricated device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pucha?a, Katarzyna Anna

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a significant challenge in medicine, environmental protection and biological threat safety because samples are often contaminated. This work presents a method of separating bacterial ...

  11. Microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to inhibitors and stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced tolerance to stress and/or inhibitors such as sodium acetate and vanillin. The enhanced tolerance can be achieved by increasing the expression of a protein of the Sm-like superfamily such as a bacterial Hfq protein and a fungal Sm or Lsm protein. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using the genetically modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  12. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  13. activated sludge microorganisms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Samples of wastewater were collected from Aslogy wastewater treatment plant, Zagazig, Egypt. The using bacteria embed on granular delivered as powder. Two runs of experimental...

  14. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for detection, fate, and survival analysis of genetically engineered microorganisms and their recombinant genetic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research included in this document represents the current scientific information available regarding the applicability of terrestrial microcosms and related methodologies for evaluating detection methods and the fate and survival of microorganisms in the environment. The three terrestrial microcosms described in this document were used to evaluate the survival and fate of recombinant bacteria in soils and in association with plant surfaces and insects and their transport through soil with percolating water and root systems, and to test new methods and procedures to improve detection and enumeration of bacteria in soil. Simple (potting soil composed of peat mix and perlite, lacking environmental control and monitoring) and complex microcosms (agricultural soil with partial control and monitoring of environmental conditions) were demonstrated to be useful tools for preliminary assessments of microbial viability in terrestrial ecosystems. These studies evaluated the survival patterns of Enterobacter cloacae (pBR322) in soil and on plant surfaces and the ingestion of this same microorganism by cutworms and survival in the foregut and frass. The Versacore microcosm design was used to monitor the fate and competitiveness of genetically engineered bacteria in soil. Both selective media and gene probes were used successfully to follow the fate of two recombinant Pseudomonas sp. introduced into Versacore microcosms. Intact soil-core microcosms were employed to evaluate the fate and transport of genetically altered Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in soil and the plant rhizosphere. The usefulness of these various microcosms as a tool for risk assessment is underscored by the ease in obtaining soil from a proposed field release site to evaluate subsequent GEM fate and survival.

  15. Can entropy save bacteria?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suckjoon Jun

    2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a physical biology approach to understanding organization and segregation of bacterial chromosomes. The author uses a "piston" analogy for bacterial chromosomes in a cell, which leads to a phase diagram for the organization of two athermal chains confined in a closed geometry characterized by two length scales (length and width). When applied to rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coli, this phase diagram predicts that, despite strong confinement, duplicated chromosomes will demix, i.e., there exists a primordial physical driving force for chromosome segregation. The author discusses segregation of duplicating chromosomes using the concentric-shell model, which predicts that newly synthesized DNA will be found in the periphery of the chromosome during replication. In contrast to chromosomes, these results suggest that most plasmids will be randomly distributed inside the cell because of their small sizes. An active partitioning system is therefore required for accurate segregation of low-copy number plasmids. Implications of these results are also sketched, e.g., on the role of proteins, segregation mechanisms for bacteria of diverse shapes, cell cycle of an artificial cell, and evolution.

  16. TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... Star Healthy Streams * ? Environmental Management of Grazing Lands * *TWRI-managed projects More information on the initiative is available at www.tsswcb.state.tx.us/managementprogram/ initiatives/bacteria. Bacteria Projects Across the State...

  17. Studies on the activities of rumen microorganisms in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Carl Edward

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STCDIES ON THE ACTIVITIES OF RUMEN MICROORGANISMS IN VITRO A Thesis Carl~Johnson Submitted to the, Gr;. dusts School of the Agricultural and Mec?anical Co13 cgs oi' Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MAST'% OS... SCIENCE August 1)57 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition STUDIES CN THE ACTIVITIES OF RUNEN MICROORGANISMS IN VITRO A Thesis Carl Johnson Approved as to style and oontent b Cha of Committee Head of Department August 1957 ACIQIOWLEDGMENTS The author...

  18. Stringy and Membranic Theory of Swimming of Micro-organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masako Kawamura; Shin'ichi Nojiri; Akio Sugamoto

    1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    When the swimming of micro-organisms is viewed from the string and membrane theories coupled to the velocity field of the fluid, a number of interesting results are derived; 1) importance of the area (or volume) preserving algebra, 2) usefulness of the $N$-point Reggeon (membranic) amplitudes, and of the gas to liquid transition in case of the red tide issues, 3) close relation between the red tide issue and the generation of Einstein gravity, and 4) possible understanding of the three different swimming ways of micro-organisms from the singularity structure of the shape space.

  19. TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of TMDL projects for water bodies where swimming or wading may be unsafe or harvesting of oysters is limited or prohibited due to high concentrations of bacteria. ? Atascosa River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Buffalo andWhite Oak Bayous: A TMDL...

  20. Sampling for Bacteria in Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sampling for Bacteria in Wells E-126 11/01 Water samples for bacteria tests must always be col- lected in a sterile container. The procedure for collect- ing a water sample is as follows: 1. Obtain a sterile container from a Health Department...

  1. Introduction Microorganisms in sea ice function ecologically in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank

    of the pack via brine drainage, ice melting, or ice break-up (Garrison & Buck 1989 and references thereinIntroduction Microorganisms in sea ice function ecologically in the Antarctic marine ecosystem where pelagic and sea ice habitats are intrinsically coupled (Laws 1985, Garrison 1991, Eicken 1992

  2. aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy). Aerobic wastewater treatment costs can be very high for these wastewaters, and...

  3. Mechanism of the Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols by Palladium Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    reductive elimination of acetic acid, which yields a slightly higher calculated activation barrier-catalyzed aerobic oxidations of benzylic and allylic secondary alcohols, routinely fostering selectivity factors (k

  4. Synthesis of poly-(P-aryleneethynylene)s in neat water under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Youn K; Deria, Pravas; Therien, Michael J

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are ethyne synthons comprising boron and related methods. Also provided are related water-soluble arylethynylene polymers capable of being synthesized in neat water under aerobic conditions.

  5. aerobic tellurite-resistant marine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  6. aerobic co-oxidizing thermophile: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity than uninfected males, but only for small males. Discriminant function analysis suggested that aerobic capacity and display behaviour, together with male ornaments...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic yeast yarrowia Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    search results for: aerobic yeast yarrowia Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Evolutionary Genomics: Yeasts Accelerate beyond BLAST Summary: hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Yeast 20,...

  8. Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Biofuels from Photosynthetic Bacteria Technology available for licensing: Using photosynthetic bacteria to produce biofuels. 30-70% of the fuel's waste can be used to...

  9. Sampling for Bacteria in Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sampling for Bacteria in Wells E-126 11/01 Water samples for bacteria tests must always be col- lected in a sterile container. The procedure for collect- ing a water sample is as follows: 1. Obtain a sterile container from a Health Department... immediately after collecting water sample. Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the laborato- ry (in an ice chest) as soon after collection as possible (six hours is best, but up to 30 hours). Many labs will not accept bacteria samples on Friday so check...

  10. 2004 Sensory Transduction in Microorganisms Gordon Research Conference-January 11-16, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judith Armitage Carlyle Storm

    2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Research into the mechanisms involved in the sensing and responses of microorganisms to changes in their environment is currently very active in a large number of laboratories in the US, Europe, Japan, and Israel. A wide range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic species are being studies with regard to their sensing of chemical changes, light and redox signal and intercellular signaling, leading either to changes in motile behavior, gene expression or development. It has become increasingly apparent that the mechanisms involved in development have application in higher organisms while the sensing systems in bacteria are involved in a very wide range of physiological traits, from pathogenicity, through to biofilm formation. This is an area where a wide range of state of the art tools have been used and developed over the past few decades. Approaches include behavioral studies, electro-physiology, genetics, molecular biology, structural biology, biophysics and single molecule microscopy, immunocytochemistry and molecular and mathematical modeling, all of this helped by the large number of bacterial and eukaryotic microbial genome sequences now available. The central goal of this meeting is to bring together investigators using this wide range of approaches and different systems to compare data, share ideas and approaches and seeks to understand the fundamental principles underlying these responses.

  11. Geobiology of marine magnetotactic bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Sheri Lynn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize intracellular membrane-bound crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4), and are abundant in the suboxic to anoxic zones of stratified marine environments worldwide. Their ...

  12. Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and aerobic granular sludge A. Mañasa,b,c,e , M. Spérandioa,b,c , F. Deckerd and B. Biscanse aINSA, UPS, INP X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) applied to granular sludge used for biological treatment of high sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and two aerobic granular sequenced batch reactors (GSBR) were evaluated

  13. Pushpull tests evaluating in situ aerobic cometabolism of ethylene, propylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Push­pull tests evaluating in situ aerobic cometabolism of ethylene, propylene, and cis-1 17 November 2005 Abstract In situ aerobic cometabolic transformations of ethylene, propylene, and cis and combinations of propane, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, ethylene, propylene, c-DCE, and TCE into existing

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Characterization of multiple novel aerobic polychlorinated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craft, Christopher B.

    sites in Lagos, Nigeria were screened for the presence of chlorobiphenyl-degrading bacteria the strains readily utilized a broad spectrum of xenobiotics as sole sources of carbon and energy. Growth, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria e-mail: sadebusoye@yahoo.com S. A

  15. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  16. Methods for identifying an essential gene in a prokaryotic microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shizuya, Hiroaki

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for the rapid identification of essential or conditionally essential DNA segments in any species of haploid cell (one copy chromosome per cell) that is capable of being transformed by artificial means and is capable of undergoing DNA recombination. This system offers an enhanced means of identifying essential function genes in diploid pathogens, such as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  18. Aerobic capacities in the heart, kidneys, and splanchnic organs of harbor seals: adaptations to diving hypoxia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuson, Amanda Lynn

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) have an elevated mitochondrial volume density [Vv(mt)] and citrate synthase (CS) and ?-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity in their swimming muscles, to maintain aerobic metabolism, as an adaptation...

  19. Aerobic capacities in the heart, kidneys, and splanchnic organs of harbor seals: adaptations to diving hypoxia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuson, Amanda Lynn

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) have an elevated mitochondrial volume density [Vv(mt)] and citrate synthase (CS) and ?-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity in their swimming muscles, to maintain aerobic metabolism, as an adaptation...

  20. Sensory Transduction in Microorganisms 2008 Gordon Research Conference (January 2008)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann M. Stock

    2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Research into the mechanisms involved in the sensing and responses of microorganisms to changes in their environments is currently very active in a large number of laboratories worldwide. An increasingly wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species are being studied with regard to their sensing of diverse chemical and physical stimuli, including nutrients, toxins, intercellular signaling molecules, redox indicators, light, pressure, magnetic fields, and surface contact, leading to adaptive responses affecting motile behavior, gene expression and/or development. The ease of manipulation of microorganisms has facilitated application of a broad range of techniques that have provided comprehensive descriptions of cellular behavior and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Systems and their molecular components have been probed at levels ranging from the whole organism down to atomic resolution using behavioral analyses; electrophysiology; genetics; molecular biology; biochemical and biophysical characterization; structural biology; single molecule, fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy; computational modeling; bioinformatics and genomic analyses. Several model systems such as bacterial chemotaxis and motility, fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus, and motility and development in Dictyostelium discoideum have traditionally been a focus of this meeting. By providing a basis for assessment of similarities and differences in mechanisms, understanding of these pathways has advanced the study of many other microbial sensing systems. This conference aims to bring together researchers investigating different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial systems using diverse approaches to compare data, share methodologies and ideas, and seek to understand the fundamental principles underlying sensory responses. Topic areas include: (1) Receptor Sensing and Signaling; (2) Intracellular Signaling (two-component, c-di-GMP, c-AMP, etc.); (3) Intracellular Localization and the Cytoskeleton; (4) Motors and Motility; (5) Differentiation and Development; (6) Host/Pathogen and Host/Symbiont Interactions; (7) Intercellular Communication; (8) Microbes and the Environment; and (9) Modeling Signaling Pathways.

  1. Observation on growth of bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    5.16 Proposed copolymer from iptycene and fluorene............... 133 Figure 5.17 Perfluoropropylene trimers............................... 137 Figure 5.18 (a) Absorbance of 13 encapsulated in silica nanoparticles in solid state and (b... permeability, intracelular compartmentalization and photostability has made it dificult to extend the applications of probes from mamalian cels to plant cels, bacteria and yeast. 8 A careful examination of probe design with respect to their biocompatibility...

  2. Harvesting Energy from Wastewater in a 2-Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The microorganisms oxidize the organic food matter, and transfer the electrons to the anode. The electrons travel wastewater treatment plants utilize aerobic bacteria. Organic material in wastewater contains energy that can a microbial fuel cell (MFC), it takes a source of bacteria, food, no oxygen, and two electrodes

  3. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor (nitrate), indicating that nutrients are not limiting viral production, but rather substrates that can be converted into energy for host metabolism. Our results also revealed that cell abundance was not correlated to the mineralization of organic carbon, but rather viruses were positively correlated with carbon mineralization. This is a result of viral-mediated cell lysis and demonstrates that viruses are sensitive indicators of microbial activity. Viruses as an indicator of microbial activity was not unique to batch culture studies as results obtained from an in situ field experiment conducted at the DOE Old Rifle Field site. This study revealed that viral abundance increased in response to the injection of oxygenated groundwater and influx of dissolved organic carbon whereas cell abundance changes were minimal. However, the extent to which viral-mediated cell lysis alters organic matter pools subsequently influencing microbial community structure and biogeochemical function remains a critical question in subsurface biogeochemical cycling. The production of significant numbers of viruses in groundwater has implications for nanoparticulate metal as well as carbon transport in groundwater. We have demonstrated that the virus surface is reactive and will adsorb heavy metals. Thus viruses can promote colloidal contaminant mobility. Interestingly, the presence of heavy metals has a positive effect on infectivity of the phage, increasing phage infection which could lead to further production of viruses. Together, the results indicate that the sorption of metals to the surface of viruses could not only contribute to nanoparticulate metal as well as carbon transport but could also enhance infectivity further contributing to cell lysis which could subsequently influence biogeochemical cycling. As more viruses infect host microbial populations the high concentration of metals would enhance infection, resulting in cell lysis, and decreasing the metabolically active host population while yielding greater numbers of viruses capable of transporting contaminats. Additional studie

  4. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  5. Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain; Fourth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria isolated from water samples collected in a series of ground water springs have been isolated, enumerated, and identified from twenty six sites. Ten sites were sampled in Death Valley, California and sixteen sites were sampled in Ash Meadows, Nevada. Replicate samples were collected and tested from four locations. All water samples were collected in conjunction with the HRC chemistry group conducting ground water fingerprinting studies. The protocol for collection of samples, as described in the 3rd quarterly report, specified aseptic collection in sterile screw-capped containers and transportation on ice to the HRC microbiology laboratory. All samples were inoculated by spread plating onto R2A (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) bacterial culture medium. the R2A plates were then incubated at 28{degrees} for 5--7 days and colonies wee counted with the aid of a grid template and magnifying lens.

  6. Spectroscopic diagnostics for bacteria in biologic sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A. (Atlanta, GA); El-Sayed, Ivan H. (Somerville, MA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to analyze and diagnose specific bacteria in a biologic sample using spectroscopy is disclosed. The method includes obtaining the spectra of a biologic sample of a non-infected patient for use as a reference, subtracting the reference from the spectra of an infected sample, and comparing the fingerprint regions of the resulting differential spectrum with reference spectra of bacteria in saline. Using this diagnostic technique, specific bacteria can be identified sooner and without culturing, bacteria-specific antibiotics can be prescribed sooner, resulting in decreased likelihood of antibiotic resistance and an overall reduction of medical costs.

  7. Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

  8. Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

  9. Systematic characterization of protein glycosylation of bacteria...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bacteria cell Insoluble fraction Glycoprotein Enrichment Integrated top-down and bottom-up Glycoprotein & Glycopeptide Step 1: Glycoproteome profile Glycans HILIC-FTICR-MSMS...

  10. Assessing the transport and fate of bioengineered microorganisms in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the methods currently available for quantifying the transport and fate of microbes in atmospheric and aqueous media and assess their adequacy for purposes of risk assessment. We review the literature on transport and fate of microorganisms, including studies of: (1) pathways of migration, (2) the survival of microorganisms during transport and fate. In addition, we review the transport and fate models that have been used in environmental risk assessments for radionuclides and toxic chemicals and evaluate their applicability to the problem of assessing environmental risks of bioengineered microorganisms.

  11. Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

  12. Beating bacteria: Scientists work to understand and track bacteria in water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 11 Story by Kathy Wythe Bacteria Task Force Recommendations Acknowledging the enormity of the bacteria problem within the state, in September 2006, TCEQ and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB...) established a joint Task Force on Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) to make recommenda- tions to strengthen the agencies? efforts in cleaning up bacteria- contaminated waters. Dr. Allan Jones, formerly of the Texas Water Resources Institute...

  13. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Navid, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising energy demands and the imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving research on biofuels development. Hydrogen gas (H2) is one of the most promising biofuels and is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that 1) it is renewable, 2) does not evolve the “greenhouse gas” CO2 in combustion, 3) liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion (having about 3 times the energy content of gasoline), and 4) is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. Among the various bioenergy strategies, environmental groups and others say that the concept of the direct manufacture of alternative fuels, such as H2, by photosynthetic organisms is the only biofuel alternative without significant negative criticism [1]. Biological H2 production by photosynthetic microorganisms requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements, and is considered as an attractive system to develop as a biocatalyst for H2 production [2]. Various purple bacteria including Rhodopseudomonas palustris, can utilize organic substrates as electron donors to produce H2 at the expense of solar energy. Because of the elimination of energy cost used for H2O oxidation and the prevention of the production of O2 that inhibits the H2-producing enzymes, the efficiency of light energy conversion to H2 by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is in principle much higher than that by green algae or cyanobacteria, and is regarded as one of the most promising cultures for biological H2 production [3]. Here implemented a simple and relatively straightforward strategy for hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms using sunlight, sulfur- or iron-based inorganic substrates, and CO2 as the feedstock. Carefully selected microorganisms with bioengineered beneficial traits act as the biocatalysts of the process designed to both enhance the system efficiency of CO2 fixation and the net hydrogen production rate. Additionally we applied metabolic engineering approaches guided by computational modeling for the chosen model microorganisms to enable efficient hydrogen production.

  14. Structural model and spectroscopic characteristics of the FMO antenna protein from the aerobic chlorophototroph, Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Jianzhong; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Cui, Weidong; Zhang, Hao; Gross, Michael L; Bryant, Donald A; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fenna–Matthews–Olson protein (FMO) binds seven or eight bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules and is an important model antenna system for understanding pigment-protein interactions and mechanistic aspects of photosynthetic light harvesting. FMO proteins of green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiales) have been extensively studied using a wide range of spectroscopic and theoretical approaches because of their stability, the spectral resolution of their pigments, their water-soluble nature, and the availability of high-resolution structural data. We obtained new structural and spectroscopic insights by studying the FMO protein from the recently discovered, aerobic phototrophic acidobacterium, Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum. Native C. thermophilum FMO is a trimer according to both analytical gel filtration and native-electrospray mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the mass of intact FMO trimer is consistent with the presence of 21–24 BChl a in each. Homology modeling of the C. thermophilum FMO was performed by using the structure of the FMO protein from Chlorobaculum tepidum as a template. C. thermophilum FMO differs from C. tepidum FMO in two distinct regions: the baseplate, CsmA-binding region and a region that is proposed to bind the reaction center subunit, PscA. C. thermophilum FMO has two fluorescence emission peaks at room temperature but only one at 77 K. Temperature-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the two room-temperature emission peaks result from two excited-state BChl a populations that have identical fluorescence lifetimes. Modeling of the data suggests that the two populations contain 1–2 BChl and 5–6 BChl a molecules and that thermal equilibrium effects modulate the relative population of the two emitting states.

  15. Aggregation Patterns in Stressed Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsimring, L.; Levine, H. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)] [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States); Aranson, I. [Deptartment of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel)] [Deptartment of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Ben-Jacob, E.; Cohen, I.; Shochet, O. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond & Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond & Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Reynolds, W.N. [Complex Systems Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico (United States)] [Complex Systems Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico (United States)

    1995-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the formation of spot patterns seen in bacterial colonies when the bacteria are subjected to oxidative stress due to hazardous by-products of respiration. The cell density is coupled to a chemoattractant concentration as well as to nutrient and waste fields. The model combines the propagation of a front of motile bacterial radially outward from an initial site, a Turing instability of the uniformly dense state, and a reduction of motility for cells sufficiently far behind the front. The wide variety of patterns seen in the experiments is reproduced by the model by varying the details of the initiation of the chemoattractant emission as well as the transition to a nonmotile phase.

  16. In mammals, aerobic exercise is fuelled mainly by carbohydrates and lipids (Weber, 1992). In the second paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClelland, Grant B.

    In mammals, aerobic exercise is fuelled mainly by carbohydrates and lipids (Weber, 1992 and mitochondrial lipid oxidation are both scaled with aerobic capacity (Weber et al. 1993; McClelland et al. 1994 JEAN-MICHEL WEBER1,2,*, GÃ?RARD BRICHON1,, GEORGES ZWINGELSTEIN1,, GRANT MCCLELLAND1,2, CHRISTOPHER

  17. Evidence of aerobic utilization of di-ortho-substituted trichlorobiphenyls as growth substrates by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craft, Christopher B.

    and Olukayode O. Amund1 1 Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. 2 and energy source has never been demonstrated for any natural or engineered microorganisms. Such isolates may

  18. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  19. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  20. Technical Note: Evaluation of Effective Microorganisms (EM) In Solid Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekeran, V.; Balaji, C.; Bhagavathipushpa, T.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microorganisms (EM) In Solid Waste Management V. Sekeran C.is the treatment, disposal and/or recycling of solid wastes.Generally solid waste from a municipality consists of

  1. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.

    1991-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its contents; microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to innoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  2. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  3. Anaerobic Redox Cycling of Iron by Freshwater Sediment Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Urrutia, Matilde M.; Churchill, Perry F.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Roden, Eric E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for microbially-mediated anaerobic redox cycling of iron (Fe) was examined in a first-generation enrichment culture of freshwater wetland sediment microorganisms. MPN enumerations revealed the presence of significant populations of Fe(III)-reducing (ca. 108 cells mL-1) and Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organisms (ca. 105 cells mL-1) in the sediment used to inoculate the enrichment cultures. Nitrate reduction commenced immediately following inoculation of acetate-containing (ca. 1 mM) medium with a small quantity (1% vol/vol) of wetland sediment, and resulted in the transient accumulation of NO2- and production of a mixture of end-products including NH4+. Fe(III) oxide (high surface area goethite) reduction took place - after NO3- was depleted and continued until all the acetate was utilized. Addition of NO3 after Fe(III) reduction ceased resulted in the immediate oxidation of Fe(II) coupled to reduction of + NO3-to NH4 . No significant NO2- accumulation was observed during nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. No Fe(II) oxidation occurred in pasteurized controls. Microbial community structure in the enrichment was monitored by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16s rDNA and RT-PCR amplified 16S rRNA, as well as by construction of 16S rDNA clone libraries for four different time points during the experiment. Strong similarities in dominant members of the microbial community were observed in the Fe(III) reduction and nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation phases of the experiment, specifically the common presence of organisms closely related (= 95% sequence similarity) to the genera Geobacter and Dechloromonas. These results indicate that the wetland sediments contained organisms such as Geobacter sp. which are capable of both + dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction and oxidation of Fe(II) with reduction of NO3-reduction to NH4 . Our findings suggest that microbially-catalyzed nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation has the potential to contribute to a dynamic anaerobic Fe redox cycle in freshwater sediments.

  4. Recovery of uranium by using new microorganisms isolated from North American uranium deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Nakajima, A.; Tsuruta, T. [Miyazaki Medical College (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some attempts were made to remove uranium that may be present in refining effluents, mine tailings by using new microorganisms isolated from uranium deposits and peculiar natural environments. To screen microorganisms isolated from uranium deposits and peculiar natural environments in North America and Japan for maximal accumulation of uranium, hundreds of microorganisms were examined. Some microorganisms can accumulate about 500 mg (4.2 mEq) of uranium per gram of Microbial cells within 1 h. The uranium accumulation capacity of the cells exceeds that of commercially available chelating agents (2-3 mEq/g adsorbent). We attempted to recover uranium from uranium refining waste water by using new microorganisms. As a result, these microbial cells can recover trace amounts of uranium from uranium waste water with high efficiency. These strains also have a high accumulating ability for thorium. Thus, these new microorganisms can be used as an adsorbing agent for the removal of nuclear elements may be present in metallurgical effluents, mine tailings and other waste sources.

  5. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

  6. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge

  7. aerobic energy metabolism1woa: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerobic energy metabolism1woa First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Misconceptions about...

  8. Water Research 36 (2002) 37393746 Effect of ethanol on BTEX biodegradation kinetics: aerobic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    November 2001; received in revised form 1 February 2002 Abstract The use of ethanol as an automotive fuel the use of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate to reduce air pollution, and as a supplemental renewable fuelWater Research 36 (2002) 3739­3746 Effect of ethanol on BTEX biodegradation kinetics: aerobic

  9. The Effect of Slowly Biodegradable Carbon on the Morphology, Integrity and Performance of Aerobic Granular Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraj, Rasha Attwan

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    and phosphorus. For both experimental phases, the hydraulic loading rate was 1.32 kg COD/m3/day. For the 1st phase, the three reactors were fed soluble organic matter (sodium acetate) as the sole carbon source with an anaerobic-aerobic SBR cycle. To achieve...

  10. Hydrogen (H2) Production by Anoxygenic Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anoxygenic Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria Hydrogen (H2) Production by Anoxygenic Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria Presentation by Jake McKinlay, Indiana University, at the Biological Hydrogen...

  11. How plants beckon bacteria that do it harm | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants beckon bacteria that do it harm How plants beckon bacteria that do it harm Released: April 28, 2014 Work on microbial signaling offers better biofuels, human health...

  12. Motility fractionation of bacteria by centrifugation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudio Maggi; Alessia Lepore; Jacopo Solari; Alessandro Rizzo; Roberto Di Leonardo

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Centrifugation is a widespread laboratory technique used to separate mixtures into fractions characterized by a specific size, weight or density. We demonstrate that centrifugation can be also used to separate swimming cells having different motility. To do this we study self-propelled bacteria under the influence of an external centrifugal field. Using dynamic image correlation spectroscopy we measure the spatially resolved motility of bacteria after centrifugation. A significant gradient in swimming-speeds is observed for increasing centrifugal speeds. Our results can be reproduced by a model that treats bacteria as "hot" colloidal particles having a diffusion coefficient that depends on the swimming speed.

  13. Determination of kinetic coefficients for the simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, M.D.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium contamination of groundwaters and surface waters near abandoned mill tailings piles is a serious concern in many areas of the western United States. Uranium usually exists in either the U(IV) or the U(VI) oxidation state. U(VI) is soluble in water and, as a result, is very mobile in the environment. U(IV), however, is generally insoluble in water and, therefore, is not subject to aqueous transport. In recent years, researchers have discovered that certain anaerobic microorganisms, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, can mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Although the ability of this microorganism to reduce U(VI) has been studied in some detail by previous researchers, the kinetics of the reactions have not been characterized. The purpose of this research was to perform kinetic studies on Desulfovibrio desulficans bacteria during simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium and to determine the phase in which uranium exists after it has been reduced and precipitated from solution. The studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale chemostat under substrate-limited growth conditions with pyruvate as the substrate. Kinetic coefficients for substrate utilization and cell growth were calculated using the Monod equation. The maximum rate of substrate utilization (k) was determined to be 4.70 days{sup {minus}1} while the half-velocity constant (K{sub s}) was 140 mg/l COD. The yield coefficient (Y) was determined to be 0.17 mg cells/mg COD while the endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub d}) was calculated as 0.072 days{sup {minus}1}. After reduction, U(IV) Precipitated from solution in the uraninite (UO{sub 2}) phase. Uranium removal efficiency as high as 90% was achieved in the chemostat.

  14. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  15. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V,; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  16. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  17. Probiotic Bacteria Induce a ‘Glow of Health’

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levkovich, Tatiana

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this ‘glow of health’ display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary ...

  18. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  19. Agencies Approve Bacteria TMDL Task Force Recommendations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 10 In June 2007 the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) and the TexasState Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSW- CB) approved the recommendations of the Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force and asked... their agencies to update their TMDL guidance documents to reflect these recommendations. They also authorized establishing a multi-agency bacteria TMDL work group to examine the research and development needs identified in the task force report. Both TCEQ...

  20. Ultrasound as a method for reducing bacteria on poultry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feria, Rebeca

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    control in poultry. . Processing . Temperature. . Acid treatmen. ts. Chlorination. Packaging Ultrasonic radiat ion. MATERIAL ANO MET:HOO'S. Use of ultrasound: in a pre-chill treatment. . Use of ultrasound in a I'X lactic acid post-chill treatment... Microbiological eval. uation Statistical analysts. RESULTS. Effect of pre-chill ultrasonic treatments on total aerobic bacterial numbers. . . . . . Effect of IX lactic acid post-chill ultrasonic tree, tments on total aerobic bacterial numbers . OISCU...

  1. Wastewater treatment by aerobic granular biofilmWastewater treatment by aerobic granular biofilmaste ate t eat e t by ae ob c g a u a b o Aeration pulses to improve N eliminationAeration pulses to improve N-eliminationAeration pulses to improve N eliminat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wastewater treatment by aerobic granular biofilmWastewater treatment by aerobic granular wastewater treatment p p denitrification Nitrification is the oxidation from ammonium (NH +) first activated sludge for biological N-elimination is a two step process: aerobic nitrification and anoxicp g g g

  2. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants comprising the steps of placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container, placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours, retrieving the container, collecting the contents of the container, and microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to inoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  3. Sampling for Bacteria in Wells (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    general es de entre $8.00 y $25.00. La bacteria de hierro es otro contaminante que forma lama muy obvia dentro de los tubos y los grifos. No se necesita un an?lisis de laboratorio para identificarla. Busque una lama color caf? o rojiza dentro del tanque...

  4. Changes in Translational Efficiency is a Dominant Regulatory Mechanism in the Environmental Response of Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Ronald C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Serres, Margrethe H.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Hill, Eric A.; Romine, Margaret F.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wiley, H. S.

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand how cell physiological state affects mRNA translation, we used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown under steady state conditions at either aerobic or suboxic conditions. Using a combination of quantitative proteomics and RNA-Seq, we generated high-confidence data on >1000 mRNA and protein pairs. By using a steady state model, we found that differences in protein-mRNA ratios were primarily caused by differences in the translational efficiency of specific genes. When oxygen levels were lowered, 28% of the proteins showed at least a 2-fold change in expression. Altered transcription levels appeared responsible for 26% of the protein changes, altered translational efficiency appeared responsible for 46% and a combination of both were responsible for the remaining 28%. Changes in translational efficiency were significantly correlated with the codon usage pattern of the genes and measurable tRNA pools changed in response to altered O2 levels. Our results suggest that changes in the translational efficiency of proteins, in part caused by altered tRNA pools, is a major determinant of regulated protein expression in bacteria.

  5. Comparative study of four fluorinated quinolones in susceptibility factors on microorganisms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Ketul R

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    . This study hopes to prove an equal effectiveness of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Microbial susceptibility to drugs is measured by determining the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration). The MIC is measured based on the growth of the targeted bacteria...

  6. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the aerobic and facultative bacterial flora of voided canine urine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggerstaff, Jane

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of bacteria occurring at the external 8, 9, 16, 18, 21, 27 urethral orifice. ' ' ' ' ' Neither bladder catheterization nor midstream sampling oi' voided urine guarantees a urine specimen free of bacteria which have colonized the urethra. Catheterization... to occur during collection 7, 16, 18, 27 from canines. In human urology, differentation is usually accomplished by bacterial counts on catheterized samples, bladder aspirates, or voided midstream samples collected aseptically. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' These 5...

  7. Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hospodsky, Denina

    Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study ...

  8. Hypermutation and adaptation of experimentally evolved marine Vibrio bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Sean Aidan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental bacteria display tremendous genetic diversity, but we are still learning how this diversity arises and relates to their wide range of habitats. Investigating how bacteria adapt helps us understand their ...

  9. Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT’s biofuel-production system.

  10. The Characterization of Psychrophilic Microorganisms and their potentially useful Cold-Active Glycosidases Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenchly, Jean E.

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Our studies of novel, cold-loving microorganisms have focused on two distinct extreme environments. The first is an ice core sample from a 120,000 year old Greenland glacier. The results of this study are particularly exciting and have been highlighted with press releases and additional coverage. The first press release in 2004 was based on our presentation at the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology and was augmented by coverage of our publication (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005. Vol. 71:7806) in the Current Topics section of the ASM news journal, “Microbe.” Of special interest for this report was the isolation of numerous, phylogenetically distinct and potentially novel ultrasmall microorganisms. The detection and isolation of members of the ultrasmall population is significant because these cells pass through 0.2 micron pore filters that are generally used to trap microorganisms from environmental samples. Thus, analyses by other investigators that examined only cells captured on the filters would have missed a significant portion of this population. Only a few ultrasmall isolates had been obtained prior to our examination of the ice core samples. Our development of a filtration enrichment and subsequent cultivation of these organisms has added extensively to the collection of, and knowledge about, this important population in the microbial world.

  11. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  12. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  13. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  14. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  15. Attachment and detachment of microorganisms as related to sampling carcasses and meat products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Jacqueline Love

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. Vanderzant A model system was developed to study attachment and de- t-chment of' bacteria with pork skin and muscle surfaces of beef and lamb carcasses. The technique involved embedding pork skin and beef and lamb muscle... medium, although in some cases attachment continued to occur over a $0-min period. Gram-negative motile bacteria had greater force of attachment than gram-positive non-motile species. Temperature and pH of the attachment medium had little eff...

  16. DNA Strand Cleavage by the Phenazine Di-N-oxide Natural Product Myxin under Both Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA Strand Cleavage by the Phenazine Di-N-oxide Natural Product Myxin under Both Aerobic: Heterocyclic N-oxides are an interesting class of antitumor agents that selectively kill the hypoxic cells found in solid tumors. The hypoxia-selective activity of the lead compound in this class, tirapazamine

  17. A comparison of taxon co-occurrence patterns for macro- and microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horner-Devine, M. Claire; Silver, Jessica M.; Leibold, Mathew A.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Colwell, Robert K.; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Green, Jessica L.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Muyzer, Gerard; Ø vreå s, Lise; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Smith, Val H.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Holmes, M. Westoby, I. Oliver, D. Briscoe, M. Dangerfield, M. Gillings, and A. Beattie. 2004. Spatial scaling of microbial eukaryote diversity. Nature 432:747–750. Hillebrand, H., F. Watermann, R. Karez, and U. G. Berninger. 2001. Differences in species...Ecology, 88(6), 2007, pp. 1345–1353 #1; 2007 by the Ecological Society of America A COMPARISON OF TAXON CO-OCCURRENCE PATTERNS FOR MACRO- AND MICROORGANISMS M. CLAIRE HORNER-DEVINE,1,13 JESSICA M. SILVER,1 MATHEW A. LEIBOLD,2 BRENDAN J. M. BOHANNAN...

  18. International symposium on cellular and molecular biology of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds in microorganisms: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the conference. Attention is focused on the following topics: regulation of phosphate metabolism in bacteria; structure-function of alkaline phosphatase; regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast; transport of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds; and phosphate regulation in pathogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  19. Typical College Student Diet Food Derived Microorganisms and Their Relation to the Human Gastrointestinal Microflora 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haselhorst, Alexandria J.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    or not different foods contain unique bacterial profiles and if there is a correlation between foods and the types of bacteria that may be present. This study was based on diets that are typically consumed by college students. Six meals, two breakfasts, two lunches...

  20. Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, Arlene A. (Philadelphia, PA); Kuske, Cheryl R. (Los Alamos, NM); Terwilliger, Thomas C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

  1. Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, Arlene A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

  2. Leachability of salmonella and fecal pollution indicator bacteria through soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehrmann, Robert Clinton

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors controlling bs. cterial movement Movement of Salmonella in soils MATERIALS AND METHODS Soil ana1ysis Inoculum preparation Soil column preparation Bacterial adsorption to soil particles Ei'fects of different salts on the leaching of bacteria... Distribution of bacteria in soil columns Bacterial saturation of soils Break through curves Enumeration of bacteria Bacterial size 1. 4 17 17 18 18 1 9 19 20 Field studies Statistics RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 20 21 22 Filter selection...

  3. acid bacteria revisited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Clark of amino acid in soil using radioactive isotopes, however many experiments...

  4. acid bacteria elicit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Clark of amino acid in soil using radioactive isotopes, however many experiments...

  5. acid bacteria affect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Clark of amino acid in soil using radioactive isotopes, however many experiments...

  6. acid bacteria structure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Clark of amino acid in soil using radioactive isotopes, however many experiments...

  7. acid bacteria inducing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Clark of amino acid in soil using radioactive isotopes, however many experiments...

  8. acid bacteria purification: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Clark of amino acid in soil using radioactive isotopes, however many experiments...

  9. acid bacteria enhance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 4 The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: The Fate of Amino Acid in...

  10. Transfer of noncoding DNA drives regulatory rewiring in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Yaara

    Understanding the mechanisms that generate variation is a common pursuit unifying the life sciences. Bacteria represent an especially striking puzzle, because closely related strains possess radically different metabolic ...

  11. Cytotoxic Cells Kill Intracellular Bacteria through Granulysin-Mediated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchhausen, Tomas

    , cytotoxic granules also contain granulysin, an antimicrobial peptide. Here, we show that granulysin delivers (ROS) that rapidly kill bacteria. ROS scavengers and bac- terial antioxidant protein overexpression

  12. acid bacteria reveals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site CiteSeer Summary: plays a role in both natural attenuation and...

  13. anaerobic phototrophic bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bacteria convert organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide (a mixture called biogas) in the absence of air. It is a widely used biological process for treating wastewater...

  14. Detection and quantification of waterborne microorganisms using an image cytometer based on angular spatial frequency processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pérez, Juan Miguel; Martínez, Pedro; Pruneri, Valerio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new image cytometer design for detection of very small particulate and demonstrate its capability in water analysis. The device is a compact microscope composed of off--the--shelf components, such as a light emitting diode (LED) source, a complementary metal--oxide--semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, and a specific combination of optical lenses that allow, through an appropriate software, Fourier transform processing of the sample volume. Waterborne microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) and Phytoplankton, are detected by interrogating the volume sample either in a fluorescent or label-free mode, i.e. with or without fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) molecules attached to the micro-organisms, respectively. We achieve a sensitivity of 50 CFU/ml, which can be further increased to 0.2 CFU/ml by pre-concentrating an initial sample volume of 500 ml with an ad hoc fluidic system. We also prove the capability of the proposed image cytometer of diffe...

  15. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  16. Energy conversion in Purple Bacteria Photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felipe Caycedo-Soler; Ferney J. Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Guannan Zhao; Neil F. Johnson

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of how photosynthetic organisms convert light offers insight not only into nature's evolutionary process, but may also give clues as to how best to design and manipulate artificial photosynthetic systems -- and also how far we can drive natural photosynthetic systems beyond normal operating conditions, so that they can harvest energy for us under otherwise extreme conditions. In addition to its interest from a basic scientific perspective, therefore, the goal to develop a deep quantitative understanding of photosynthesis offers the potential payoff of enhancing our current arsenal of alternative energy sources for the future. In the following Chapter, we consider the trade-off between dynamics, structure and function of light harvesting membranes in Rps. Photometricum purple bacteria, as a model to highlight the priorities that arise when photosynthetic organisms adapt to deal with the ever-changing natural environment conditions.

  17. Energy conversion in Purple Bacteria Photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Quiroga, Luis; Zhao, Guannan; Johnson, Neil F

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of how photosynthetic organisms convert light offers insight not only into nature's evolutionary process, but may also give clues as to how best to design and manipulate artificial photosynthetic systems -- and also how far we can drive natural photosynthetic systems beyond normal operating conditions, so that they can harvest energy for us under otherwise extreme conditions. In addition to its interest from a basic scientific perspective, therefore, the goal to develop a deep quantitative understanding of photosynthesis offers the potential payoff of enhancing our current arsenal of alternative energy sources for the future. In the following Chapter, we consider the trade-off between dynamics, structure and function of light harvesting membranes in Rps. Photometricum purple bacteria, as a model to highlight the priorities that arise when photosynthetic organisms adapt to deal with the ever-changing natural environment conditions.

  18. The role of microorganisms in the production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in cheddar cheese slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce-Trevino, Raul

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of lac- tic cultures on the production of volatile sulfhydryl com- pounds in the slurries. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide were found in the headspace of slurries prepared from curd manufactured... by the culture procedure. Addition of an antibiotic mixture to slurries prepared from curd manufactured by the culture me- thod inhibited bacteria growth and the production of hydro- gen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. A mixture of antibiotics was added...

  19. Typical College Student Diet Food Derived Microorganisms and Their Relation to the Human Gastrointestinal Microflora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haselhorst, Alexandria J.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    not yet concrete (11). These probiotics are presently sold commercially in fermented dairy products such as yogurt. Dannon?s Activia? (which contain Bifidus regularis?) and Yakult? (which contains Lactobacillus casei) are examples of such product.... There are reports that in the future, these probiotics may be found in fermented vegetables and meat (11). Prebiotics can be defined as non-digestible food that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of bacteria...

  20. Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balzs Arat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balázs Arató1 , Mihály Pósfai1 and Rafal E-controlled mineralization Abstract. Magnetotactic bacteria produce intracellular magnetic minerals that have distinct for studying the biological membrane around the mineral grains. Our goals were to deduce the possible growth

  1. Characteristics of cyclic AMP transport by marine bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, J.W.; Azam, F.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uptake and autoradiography experiments with natural populations of marine bacteria, sea water cultures, and cultured isolates showed that the high-affinity cyclic AMP transport system in marine bacteria has stringent structural requirements, is found in a minority of cells in mixed bacterial assemblages, and appears to be related to the culture growth state.

  2. Method of separating bacteria from free living amoebae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  3. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  4. How sulphate-reducing microorganisms cope with stress: Lessons from systems biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, J.; He, Q.; Hemme, C.L.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hillesland, K.; Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; Hazen, T.C.; Stahl, D.A.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) are a phylogenetically diverse group of anaerobes encompassing distinct physiologies with a broad ecological distribution. As SRMs have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and various metals, an understanding of how these organisms respond to environmental stresses is of fundamental and practical importance. In this Review, we highlight recent applications of systems biology tools in studying the stress responses of SRMs, particularly Desulfovibrio spp., at the cell, population, community and ecosystem levels. The syntrophic lifestyle of SRMs is also discussed, with a focus on system-level analyses of adaptive mechanisms. Such information is important for understanding the microbiology of the global sulphur cycle and for developing biotechnological applications of SRMs for environmental remediation, energy production, biocorrosion control, wastewater treatment and mineral recovery.

  5. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  6. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  7. Predictability of estimated maximal aerobic capacities for manual material handlers using submaximal box lifting and bench stepping tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortner, James D.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , physiologic and psychophysic principles in the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS-NIOSH) publication 81-122 entitled Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting. The Guide incorporated those principles into specific formulas that rate specific tasks.... 3 kg (9. 5 lb). For each subject, heart rate was plotted against V Ot measurements and furnished with a best ftt line using linear regression. An individual's maximal aerobic capacity was estimated by extrapolating the best ftt line...

  8. Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckert, Laura Anne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AEROBICALLY STORED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by LAURA ANNE ECKERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH...

  9. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  10. The Stabilisation Potential of Individual and Mixed Assemblages of Natural Bacteria and Microalgae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Stabilisation Potential of Individual and Mixed Assemblages of Natural Bacteria and Microalgae components (heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic microalgae) in terms of their individual contribution benthic assemblages (prokaryotic, eukaryotic and mixed cultures) of bacteria and microalgae. Mag

  11. Intrinsic bioremediation of a BTEX and MTBE plume under mixed aerobic/denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, R.C.; Daniel, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A shallow Coastal Plain aquifer in rural Sampson Country, North Carolina, has been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon from a leaking underground storage tank containing gasoline.An extensive field characterization has been performed to define the horizontal and vertical distribution of soluble gasoline components and indicator parameters. A plume of dissolved methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX) is present in the aquifer and has migrated over 600 ft from the source area. Background dissolved oxygen concentrations range from 7 to 8 mg/L, and nitrate concentrations range from 5 to 22 mg/L as N due to extensive fertilization of fields surrounding the spill. In the center of the BTEX plume, oxygen concentrations decline to less than 1 mg/L while nitrate concentrations remain high. The total mass flux of MTBE and all BTEX components decline with distance downgradient relative to a conservative tracer (chloride). At the source, the total BTEX concentration exceeds 75 mg/L while 130 ft downgradient, total BTEX concentrations are less than 4.9 mg/L, a 15-fold reduction. Toluene and ethylbenzene decline most rapidly followed by m-p-xylene, o-xylene and finally benzene. Biodegradation of TEX appears to be enhanced by the excess nitrate present in the aquifer while benzene biodegradation appears to be due to strictly aerobic processes.

  12. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yanjie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection in Water Transport Engineering Ministry of Communications, Tianjin Research Institute of Water Transport Engineering, Tianjin 300456 (China); Ji Min, E-mail: jmtju@yahoo.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Ruying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin Feifei [Tianjin Tanggu Sino French Water Supply Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300450 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  13. Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Holt, B.D.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clausen, J.L. [Lockheed-Martin Energy Services, Inc., Kevil, KY (United States)] [Lockheed-Martin Energy Services, Inc., Kevil, KY (United States)

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be an important mechanism for groundwater remediation. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of natural CAH attenuation from chemical analyses of groundwater samples because mixing, dispersion, and secondary reactions can mask the chemical evidence of attenuation. In this paper, the authors explore the application of stable chlorine isotope ratio measurements as a new tool for evaluating natural attenuation of CAHs. They report stable isotope ratios of chlorine in both trichloroethene (TCE) and inorganic chloride in groundwater from an aerobic aquifer beneath an extensively contaminated industrial site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. Variations in the concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of TCE and chloride in the groundwater are consistent with those expected from natural attenuation. These data support a model in which partial TCE degradation occurred in relatively impermeable, clay-rich sediments above the aquifer, and little or no further degradation of TCE occurred within the aquifer. A record of changing conditions within the TCE source area can be inferred from the spatial variation of chlorine isotope ratios for TCE and chloride within the plume.

  14. Determination of kinetic coefficients for the reduction and removal of uranium from water by the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, M.D.; Barton, L.L.; Thomson, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium contamination of groundwater and surface water from abandoned uranium mill tailings piles is a serious concern in many areas of the western United States. U(VI) is soluble in water and, as a result, is relatively mobile in the environment. U(IV), however, is generally insoluble in water and, therefore, is not subject to aqueous transport. In recent years, researchers have discovered that certain microorganisms, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desuffiovibrio desulfricans, can mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by anaerobic respiration. Although the ability of this microorganism to reduce U(VI) has been studied in some detail by previous researchers, the kinetics of the reaction have not been characterized. The purpose of this research was to perform kinetic studies on Desuffiovibrio desulfricans during simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium and to determine the mineral phase of uranium after it has been reduced. The studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale chemostat under substrate-limited growth conditions with pyruvate as the substrate. The maximum rate of substrate utilization (k) was determined to be 4.70 days{sup -1} while the half-velocity constant (Ks) was 140 mg CODA. The yield coefficient (Y) was determined to be 0. 17 mg cells/mg COD while the endogenous decay coefficient (kd) was found to be 0.072 days{sup -1}. After reduction, U(IV) precipitated from solution in the uraninite (UO{sub 2}) phase as predicted by thermodynamics. Uranium removal efficiency as high as 90% was achieved in the chemostat.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - abundant culturable bacteria Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Culturable bacteria in Summary: BGD 3, 765-778, 2006 Culturable bacteria in Himalayan ice S. Zhang et al. Title Page Abstract... Biogeosciences Discussions is the access...

  16. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    for TMDL and Watershed Studies at Virginia Tech (http://www.tmdl.bse.vt.edu/outreach/C85/). Bacteria Indicator Tool (BIT) Another MB tool is the BIT provided by EPA (http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/ftp/basins/system/BASINS3/bit.htm). The BIT is a... spreadsheet that can be used to estimate the monthly accumulation rate of fecal coliform bacteria on four land uses (cropland, forested, built-up and pastureland). The tool also estimates the direct input of fecal coliform bacteria to streams from grazing...

  17. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  18. Cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  19. Cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  20. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  1. Beating bacteria: Scientists work to understand and track bacteria in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Tier 2. Tier 2 is a one- to two-year effort with the follow- ing steps: 1) Collect targeted monitoring data to fill gaps in previously collected data 2) Conduct qualitative library-independent BST and limited library-dependent BST analysis... to determine whether humans and/or a few major classes of animals are sources 3) Develop simple spatially explicit or mass balance models of bacteria in the watershed 4) Analyze data After analysis of Tier 1 and Tier 2 data, the group may chose...

  2. Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster, G.D. (2012) The top 10 fungal pathogens in molecularBLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteriaC. and Foster, G.D. (2011) Top 10 plant viruses in molecular

  3. Bacteria mix it up at the microscopic level | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by 100-fold. A second surprise came when the researchers began to measure the viscosity of the fluid in which the bacteria swam. Viscosity measures how easily a fluid...

  4. Micro-scale interactions between chemotactic bacteria and algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahora, Nisha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional views of marine environments describe the ocean pelagic zone as a homogeneous nutrient-poor environment. Heterotrophic marine bacteria that have evolved high-energy mechanisms for swimming abilities and sensing ...

  5. Argonne scientists use bacteria to power simple machines | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    use bacteria to power simple machines December 16, 2009 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and...

  6. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2006, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) charged a seven-person Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force with: * examining approaches...

  7. Just How Fast Can Bacteria Grow? It Depends. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coli compared with E. coli that had been adapted for growth on either lactate or glycerol media. Bacteria are among the fastest reproducing organisms in the world, doubling every...

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Galveston Bay system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schropp, Steven James

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) (Membge' ) I, (Member) December, 1979 ABSTRACT Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in the Galveston Bay System {December 1979) Steven James Schropp: B. S. , Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. John R. Schwarz... about the distribution and abundance of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrad- ing bacteria in the Galveston Bay system. Several parts of the Galveston Bay system were sampled during this study. Petroleum input to the study area ranged from relatively small...

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Galveston Bay system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schropp, Steven James

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PETROLEUM HYDRQCARBOiV-DEGRADING BACTERIA IN THE GALVESTON BAY SYSTEM A Thesis by STEVEN JAMES SCHROPP Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIFNCE... December 1979 Major Subject: Biology PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA IN THE GALVESTON BAY SYSTEM A Thesis by STEVEN JAMES SCHROPP Approved as to style and content by: (Co-Chairman of Committee) '( ~CA. ( -Chairman of Committee) (Head...

  10. Effect of electrical stimulation on bacteria of meats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrigadat, Boosya

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from vacuum packaged top round. However, none of these differences in count were statistically significant (P&0. 05) . Electrical stimulation did not cause any consistent substantial changes in micro- bial types in ground beef, blade steaks, T...-boned ground beef from stimulated and unstimulated carcasses (n=10) stored for 6 days at. 0-3'C 70 19 Aerobic plate counts of ground beef prepared from vacuum packaged top round of stimulated and unstimulated carcasses (n=9) stored for 6 days at 0-3'C 71...

  11. Uptake and utilization of dissolved glycine by the polychaete Capitella capitata (Fabricius) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Duane Desmond

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heidolph variable speed homogenizer. The homogenate was then placed in a resealable centrifuge tube and the grinder rinsed with an additional 0. 5 ml EtOH which was added to the homogenate. The homogenate was allowed to stand for 1 hr... on the aerobic-anaer- obic transition in the sea mussel M~tilus edulis L. Proc. 9th Eur. Mar. Biol. ~S . , pp. TYI-l~s De 2waan, A. , H. J. F. M. Kluytmans, and D. I. Zandee, 1976. Facultative anaerobiosis in molluscs. Biochem. Soc. Syym . , 41: 133-168. De...

  12. Influence of microorganisms on the oxidation state distribution of multivalent actinides under anoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Donald Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean - Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, M. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, J. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate and potential mobility of multivalent actinides in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium, uranium and neptunium are the near-surface multivalent contaminants of concern and are also key contaminants for the deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Their mobility is highly dependent on their redox distribution at their contamination source as well as along their potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. Under anoxic conditions, indirect and direct bioreduction mechanisms exist that promote the prevalence of lower-valent species for multivalent actinides. Oxidation-state-specific biosorption is also an important consideration for long-term migration and can influence oxidation state distribution. Results of ongoing studies to explore and establish the oxidation-state specific interactions of soil bacteria (metal reducers and sulfate reducers) as well as halo-tolerant bacteria and Archaea for uranium, neptunium and plutonium will be presented. Enzymatic reduction is a key process in the bioreduction of plutonium and uranium, but co-enzymatic processes predominate in neptunium systems. Strong sorptive interactions can occur for most actinide oxidation states but are likely a factor in the stabilization of lower-valent species when more than one oxidation state can persist under anaerobic microbiologically-active conditions. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their overall importance in defining the potential migration of multivalent actinides in the subsurface.

  13. An Approach for Assessing the Signature Quality of Various Chemical Assays when Predicting the Culture Media Used to Grow Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, Aimee E.; Sego, Landon H.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Anderson, Richard M.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate an approach for assessing the quality of a signature system designed to predict the culture medium used to grow a microorganism. The system was comprised of four chemical assays designed to identify various ingredients that could be used to produce the culture medium. The analytical measurements resulting from any combination of these four assays can be used in a Bayesian network to predict the probabilities that the microorganism was grown using one of eleven culture media. We evaluated combinations of the signature system by removing one or more of the assays from the Bayes network. We measured and compared the quality of the various Bayes nets in terms of fidelity, cost, risk, and utility, a method we refer to as Signature Quality Metrics

  14. Metallomics of two microorganisms relevant to heavy metal bioremediation reveal fundamental differences in metal assimilation and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, Andrew [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Menon, Angeli [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Scott, Israel [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Poole, Farris [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaccaro, Brian [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Thorgersen, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Geller, Jil [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C [ORNL] [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although as many as half of all proteins are thought to require a metal cofactor, the metalloproteomes of microorganisms remain relatively unexplored. Microorganisms from different environments are likely to vary greatly in the metals that they assimilate, not just among the metals with well-characterized roles but also those lacking any known function. Herein we investigated the metal utilization of two microorganisms that were isolated from very similar environments and are of interest because of potential roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, such as uranium and chromium. The metals assimilated and their concentrations in the cytoplasm of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) and Enterobacter cloacae strain Hanford (EcH) varied dramatically, with a larger number of metals present in Enterobacter. For example, a total of 9 and 19 metals were assimilated into their cytoplasmic fractions, respectively, and DvH did not assimilate significant amounts of zinc or copper whereas EcH assimilated both. However, bioinformatic analysis of their genome sequences revealed a comparable number of predicted metalloproteins, 813 in DvH and 953 in EcH. These allowed some rationalization of the types of metal assimilated in some cases (Fe, Cu, Mo, W, V) but not in others (Zn, Nd, Ce, Pr, Dy, Hf and Th). It was also shown that U binds an unknown soluble protein in EcH but this incorporation was the result of extracellular U binding to cytoplasmic components after cell lysis.

  15. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  16. Energy transfer in an LH4-like light harvesting complex from the aerobic purple photosynthetic bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Fuciman, Marcel; Frank, Harry A; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A peripheral light-harvesting complex from the aerobic purple bacterium Roseobacter (R.) denitrificans was purified and its photophysical properties characterized. The complex contains two types of pigments, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and the carotenoid (Car) spheroidenone and possesses unique spectroscopic properties. It appears to lack the B850 bacteriochlorophyll a Q{sub y} band that is typical for similar light-harvesting complex 2 antennas. Circular dichroism and low temperature steady-state absorption spectroscopy revealed that the B850 band is present but is shifted significantly to shorter wavelengths and overlaps with the B800 band at room temperature. Such a spectral signature classifies this protein as a member of the light-harvesting complex 4 class of peripheral light-harvesting complexes, along with the previously known light-harvesting complex 4 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The influence of the spectral change on the light-harvesting ability was studied using steady-state absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, femtosecond and microsecond time-resolved absorption and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. The results were compared to the properties of the similar (in pigment composition) light-harvesting complex 2 from aerobically grown Rhodobacter sphaeroides and are understood within the context of shared similarities and differences and the putative influence of the pigments on the protein structure and its properties.

  17. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazdani, Ramin, E-mail: ryazdani@sbcglobal.net [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@eos.ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Augenstein, Don, E-mail: iemdon@aol.com [Institute for Environmental Management, Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94306 (United States); Kayhanian, Masoud, E-mail: mdkayhanian@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Tchobanoglous, George, E-mail: gtchobanoglous@ucdavis.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Ghausi Hall, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  18. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic contaminants. The results from a study with TCE contaminated-clay indicate that electrochemically inducing reductive dechlorination of TCE in a saturated matrix may offer an effective and viable alternative to remediation TCE and other contaminants with potential of being reduced. Another study focused on steel wool oxidation to electrochemically increase population of hydrocarbon-degrading denitrifying bacteria. Significantly larger denitrifying activity was observed in the cathode chamber of a treatment unit setup like an MFC with steel wool as the anode. This enhanced nitrate reduction could be due to direct electron utilization by denitrifying bacteria on the cathode, thereby stimulating microbial denitrification or a combination of electron transfer directly to NO{sub 3}{sup -} and electron transfer to nitrate reducing bacteria, which may serve as a type of bio-catalyst on the cathode for nitrate reduction. Overall, the studies conducted under Task 72 demonstrated different innovative methods to enhance petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and associated contaminants.

  19. Bacteria transport through porous media. Annual report, December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, T.F.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following five chapters in this report have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base: (1) theoretical model of convective diffusion of motile and non-motile bacteria toward solid surfaces; (2) interfacial electrochemistry of oxide surfaces in oil-bearing sands and sandstones; (3) effects of sodium pyrophosphate additive on the ''huff and puff''/nutrient flooding MEOR process; (4) interaction of Escherichia coli B, B/4, and bacteriophage T4D with Berea sandstone rock in relation to enhanced oil recovery; and (5) transport of bacteria in porous media and its significance in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  20. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Final performance report, June 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site.

  1. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. In this laboratory systematic studies are being conducted which deal with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention is being paid to heavy crude oils such as Boscan and Cerro Negro (Venezuela), Monterey (California) and those from Alabama and Arkansas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent solubilization of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative chemical and physical changes appear to be microbial species dependent. Effects on heavy crude oils are also compared to those on lighter oils such as oils from the Wyoming petroleum reserve. Microbial oil interactions are monitored routinely by a consortium of analytical techniques which are continuously upgraded and are capable of multiparameter analysis. The results generated in fiscal year 1991, describing (1) through (6), are presented and discussed in this report.

  2. Inhibition of X-ray-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair in aerobic plateau-phase Chinese hamster cells by misonidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO) and the hydrophilic analog SR-2508 on the repair of X-ray-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD) was studied in plateau-phase Chinese Hamster ovary (HA-1) cells. It was found that although MISO does not radiosensitize aerobic cells, it inhibits the repair of PLD. However, under hypoxic conditions, MISO has no effect on PLD repair. The major portion of the inhibition of PLD repair in aerobic cells requires the presence of MISO only during irradiation; little or no additional inhibition occurs when MISO is present during the postirradiation repair period. Also, treatment of aerobic cells with 5 mM MISO for either 5 or 30 min prior to irradiation is equally inhibitory. This suggests that the presence of MISO in some way modifies the initial lesion under aerobic conditions since it does not increase cell killing as determined by immediate plating but inhibits subsequent repair. The inhibition is concentration dependent; 0.5 mM MISO inhibits PLD repair by one-half while 5-10 mM totally inhibits the repair measured 6 hr postirradiation. This phenomenon suggests that radiosensitization of tissue in vivo by MISO and other 2-nitroimidazoles may not be unequivocal proof of the presence of hypoxic cells.

  3. Bacteria beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Brian Lanoil,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscu, John C.

    Bacteria beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Brian Lanoil,1 * Mark Skidmore,1 John C. Priscu,2, particularly those that lie beneath polar ice sheets, are beginning to be recog- nized as an important part Vostok, Antarctica, no sub-ice sheet environments have been shown to support microbial ecosystems. Here

  4. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  5. Magnetic Torque of Microfabricated Elements and Magnetotactic Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars Zondervan; Özlem Sardan Sukas; Islam S. M. Khalil; Marc P. Pichel; Sarthak Misra; Leon Abelmann

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a thorough theoretical analysis of the magnetic torque on microfabricated elements with dimensions in the range of 100 to 500 {\\mu}m and magneto-somes of magnetotactic bacteria of a few {\\mu}m length. We derive simple equations for field dependent torque and magnetic shape anisotropy that can be readily used to replace the crude approximations commonly used. We illustrate and verify the theory on microfabricated elements and magnetotactic bacteria, by field depedent torque magnetometry and by observing their rotation in water under application of a rotating magnetic field. The maximum rotation frequency of the largest microfabricated elements agrees within error boundaries with theory. For smaller, and especially thinner, elements the measured frequencies are a factor of three to four too low. We suspect this is caused by incomplete saturation of the magnetisation in the elements, which is not incorporated in our model. The maximum rotation frequency of magnetotactic bacteria agrees with our model within error margins, which are however quite big due to the large spread in bacteria morphology. The model presented provides a solid basis for the analysis of experiments with magnetic objects in liquid, which is for instance the case in the field of medical microrobotics.

  6. Films of bacteria at interfaces: three stages of behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liana Vaccari; Daniel Allan; Nima Sharifi-Mood; Aayush Singh; Robert Leheny; Kathleen Stebe

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacterial attachment to a fluid interface can lead to the formation of a film with physicochemical properties that evolve with time. We study the time evolution of interface (micro)mechanics for interfaces between oil and bacterial suspensions by following the motion of colloidal probes trapped by capillarity to determine the interface microrheology. Initially, active bacteria at and near the interface drive superdiffusive motion of the colloidal probes. Over timescales of minutes, the bacteria form a viscoelastic film which we discuss as a quasi-two-dimensional, active, glassy system. To study late stage mechanics of the film, we use pendant drop elastometry. The films, grown over tens of hours on oil drops, are expanded and compressed by changing the drop volume. For small strains, by modeling the films as 2D Hookean solids, we estimate the film elastic moduli, finding values similar to those reported in the literature for the bacteria themselves. For large strains, the films are highly hysteretic. Finally, from wrinkles formed on highly compressed drops, we estimate film bending energies. The dramatic restructuring of the interface by such robust films has broad implications, e.g. in the study of active colloids, in understanding the community dynamics of bacteria, and in applied settings including bioremediation.

  7. Method for establishing the presence of salmonella bacteria in eggs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of the acoustical resonances in eggs is shown to provide a rapid, noninvasive technique for establishing the presence of Salmonella bacteria. The technique is also sensitive to yolk puncture, shell cracks, and may be sensitive to other yolk properties and to egg freshness. Remote characterization, potentially useful for characterizing large numbers of eggs, has been demonstrated.

  8. Biofilms as sources of fecal bacteria contamination in the stormwater drainage system in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkhart, Tsung Hwa (Tsung Hwa Sophia)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to examine a possible source of fecal bacteria contamination originating from within the stormwater drainage system in Singapore. The extent of fecal bacteria presence in storm drain biofilms was ...

  9. Development of Methodology and Characterization of Ruminal Lipase-Producing Bacteria In Vitro 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Holly Danielle

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    nutrients into ruminant produced foods. Three experiments were conducted to learn how to better enrich, isolate and study lipolytic bacteria from the rumen while providing further characterization of four prominent lipase-producing bacteria that are known...

  10. The Association of Virulent Vibrio Spp. Bacteria on Gafftopsail and Hardhead Catfish in Galveston Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Leslie Deanne

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) are gram negative, halophilic bacteria that occur naturally in estuarine waters of Galveston Bay. Both bacteria have the potential to cause infections in humans either via consumption or direct...

  11. MCM LTER METADATA FILE TITLE: Bacteria enumeration in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscu, John C.

    with a five-liter Niskin bottle during normal LTER limnological sampling. Sub-samples for bacteria enumeration are decanted into a 1 L amber Nalgene bottle. 18 mL bacteria samples are pipetted from the amber Nalgene bottle into new 20 ml glass scintillation vials for each depth. Bacteria samples are preserved by adding 0.5 ml

  12. PCR detection of groundwater bacteria associated with colloidal transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Perez, P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.; Alvarez, A.J.

    1996-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal transport may increase the amount of contaminant material than that which could be transported by water flow alone. The role of colloids in groundwater contaminant transport is complicated and may involve many different processes, including sorption of elements onto colloidal particles, coagulation/dissolution, adsorption onto solid surfaces, filtration, and migration. Bacteria are known to concentrate minerals and influence the transport of compounds in aqueous environments and may also serve as organic colloids, thereby influencing subsurface transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. The initial phase of the project consisted of assembling a list of bacteria capable of sequestering or facilitating mineral transport. The development and optimization of the PCR amplification assay for the detection of the organisms of interest, and the examination of regional groundwaters for those organisms, are presented for subsequent research.

  13. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  14. Development of combinatorial bacteria for metal and radionuclide bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. C. Matin, Ph. D.

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The grant concerned chromate [Cr(VI)] bioremediation and it was our aim from the outset to construct individual bacterial strains capable of improved bioremediation of multiple pollutants and to identify the enzymes suited to this end. Bacteria with superior capacity to remediate multiple pollutants can be an asset for the cleanup of DOE sites as they contain mixed waste. I describe below the progress made during the period of the current grant, providing appropriate context.

  15. Reduction of trichloroethylene in a model aquifer with methanotrophic bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Duane Dee

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA A Thesis by Duane Dee Hicks Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for thc degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTEPslA A Thesis by Duane Dec Hicks Approved as to style and content by Bill Batchclor (Chair of Committee...

  16. Reduction of trichloroethylene in a model aquifer with methanotrophic bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Duane Dee

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Methane Mineralization by Methanotrophic Bacteria ? Enzyme Reactions are a) Methane Monooxygenase, b) Methanol Dehydrogenase, c) Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase, d) Formate Dchydrogenase (Adapted From Dalton and Leak, 1985) . . . . . 9 FIG. 4 Proposed..., which is less efficient. Type II obligate methanotrophs using the serine pathway have been the focus of most of the recent methanotrophic bacterial research. Leak et al. (1985) found that different species of methane utilizers not only differ...

  17. Emergent patterns of diversity and dynamics in natural populations of planktonic Vibrio bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Janelle Renée, 1976-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the importance of microorganisms for global and engineering processes, currently lacking is a theoretical framework to describe how the structure of a microbial assemblage translates an environmental condition into ...

  18. Universitt Wien News > Presse > Aktuelle Pressemeldungen > Think big! Bacteria breach cell division size limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , but much shorter (~ 2 micrometer), Escherichia coli", states Phd student Nika Pende with amazement "What we in the renowned journal Nature Communications. "The microorganisms thriving on the surface of marine tropical

  19. The future is now: single-cell genomics of bacteria and archaea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blainey, Paul C.

    Interest in the expanding catalog of uncultivated microorganisms, increasing recognition of heterogeneity among seemingly similar cells, and technological advances in whole-genome amplification and single-cell manipulation ...

  20. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  1. Degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by neutral oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvelbar, U.; Mozetic, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hauptman, N.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during treatment with neutral oxygen atoms was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were performed in an afterglow chamber made from borosilicate glass. The source of oxygen atoms was remote inductively coupled radiofrequency oxygen plasma. The density of atoms at the samples was 8x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The treatment was performed at room temperature. The first effect was the removal of dried capsule. Capsule on exposed parts of bacteria was removed after receiving the dose of 6x10{sup 23} at./m{sup 2}, while the parts of capsule filling the gaps between bacteria were removed after receiving the dose of 2.4x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. After removing the capsule, degradation continued as etching of bacterial cell wall. The etching was rather nonuniform as holes with diameter of several 10 nm were observed. The cell wall was removed after receiving the dose of about 7x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The etching probabilities were about 2x10{sup -5} for the capsule and 2x10{sup -6} for the cell wall. The results were explained by different compositions of capsule and the cell wall.

  2. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel—making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they’re pumped out of the tank.

  3. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  4. Dynamic Modeling of Aerobic Growth of Shewanella oneidensis. Predicting Triauxic Growth, Flux Distributions and Energy Requirement for Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model-based analysis is conducted to investigate metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 strain in aerobic batch culture, which exhibits an intriguing growth pattern by sequentially consuming substrate (i.e., lactate) and by-products (i.e., pyruvate and acetate). A general protocol is presented for developing a detailed network-based dynamic model for S. oneidensis based on the Lumped Hybrid Cybernetic Model (LHCM) framework. The L-HCM, although developed from only limited data, is shown to accurately reproduce exacting dynamic metabolic shifts, and provide reasonable estimates of energy requirement for growth. Flux distributions in S. oneidensis predicted by the L-HCM compare very favorably with 13C-metabolic flux analysis results reported in the literature. Predictive accuracy is enhanced by incorporating measurements of only a few intracellular fluxes, in addition to extracellular metabolites. The L-HCM developed here for S. oneidensis is consequently a promising tool for the analysis of intracellular flux distribution and metabolic engineering.

  5. Detergent composition comprising a cellulase containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702 or mutant thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  6. Detergent composition comprising a cellulase containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702 or mutant thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  7. Process for generation of hydrogen gas from various feedstocks using thermophilic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ooteghem, Suellen Van (Morgantown, WV)

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45.degree. C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  8. Process for Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Various Feedstocks Using Thermophilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooteghem Van, Suellen

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45 degrees C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  9. Purple Bacteria Develops Its Own Form of Sunscreen | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Yellowstone National Park, is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria (Photo from http:en.wikipedia.orgwikiCarotenoid External link )...

  10. anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site CiteSeer Summary: plays a role in both natural attenuation and...

  11. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

  12. RESEARCH Open Access Overexpression of an exotic thermotolerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    such as bioethanol. Different microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria primarily initiate the biocon- version

  13. Fe-CYCLE BACTERIA FROM INDUSTRIAL CLAYS MINED IN GEORGIA, USA EVGENYA S. SHELOBOLINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Fe-CYCLE BACTERIA FROM INDUSTRIAL CLAYS MINED IN GEORGIA, USA EVGENYA S. SHELOBOLINA 1, *,{, SAM M are major discoloring impurities in mined commercial white kaolin clay. In order to evaluate the potential influence of Fe-cycle bacteria on Fe cycling during post- depositional clay-weathering alteration, Fe

  14. Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A.; Dugan, Patrick R.

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for increasing the rate of oxidation of toxic vapors by methanotrophic bacteria. The toxic vapors of interest are methane and trichloroethylene. The apparatus includes a gas phase bioreactor within a closed loop pumping system or a single pass system. The methanotrophic bacteria include Methylomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and uncharacterized environmental enrichments.

  15. Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Dugan, Patrick R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for increasing the rate of oxidation of toxic vapors by methanotrophic bacteria. The toxic vapors of interest are methane and trichloroethylene. The apparatus includes a gas phase bioreactor within a closed loop pumping system or a single pass system. The methanotrophic bacteria include Methylomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and uncharacterized environmental enrichments.

  16. Impact of carbon nanotubes on the ingestion and digestion of bacteria by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Impact of carbon nanotubes on the ingestion and digestion of bacteria by ciliated protozoa PARNIAN,4 by ecotoxicologists because of its role in the regulation of microbial populations through the ingestion and digestion to aggregate, which impedes their ability to ingest and digest their prey bacteria species, although it might

  17. What is the Role of Arsenite-Oxidising Bacteria in Dissolving Arsenic Minerals?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Ian

    What is the Role of Arsenite-Oxidising Bacteria in Dissolving Arsenic Minerals? Supervisors: Dr through dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. This process is mediated by bacteria, which can break down the mineral lattice by extracting nutrient elements such as potassium, or by causing redox changes

  18. Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessions, Alex L.

    Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing Running Title: Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria Section incubating sediment with 13 C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we5 confirmed the incorporation of 13 C

  19. Design, testing and optimization of a microfluidic device for capture and concentration of bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherla, Srinivas

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ¢Â?Â?Critical Design ParametersâÂ?Â? and âÂ?Â?Design ConstraintsâÂ?Â?. Electrokinetic phenomena are used to exploit the surface charges on bacteria. Electrophoresis is used to transport the bacteria to electrode surface and âÂ?Â?Electrostatic trapping...

  20. Algal Research1 Screening and selection of growth-promoting bacteria for Dunaliella cultures2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and potential applications for microalgae, which include food,44 animal feed, healthcare, energy microalgae species and identified using 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. The recovered bacteria were27 found38 accumulation in Dunaliella sp. cells.39 Keywords: Microalgae, Dunaliella, bacteria, interaction

  1. Microbial metaproteomics: Identifying the repertoire of proteins that microorganisms use to compete and cooperate in complex environmental communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Sharma, Ritin [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of genome information for microbial consortia, including unculturable species, from environmental samples has enabled systems-biology interrogation by providing a means to access genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic information. This provides a unique opportunity to characterize the molecular activities and interactions of these microbial systems at a comprehensive level never before possible. Such information not only provides details about the organizational, functional, and metabolic activities of such systems, but also the untapped reserve of molecular activities that might be invoked and exploited under certain environmental conditions. Since bacteria naturally exist in complex ecosystems, it is imperative to develop and utilize analytical approaches that can provide molecular level details on systems consisting of mixed microbial membership. This is the realm of metaproteomics - the characterization of the complement of proteins expressed by a microbial community in an environmental sample

  2. Chromatic acclimation and population dynamics of green sulfur bacteria grown with spectrally tailored light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikin, Semion K; Huh, Joonsuk; Hannout, Moataz; Wang, Yaya; Zare, Farrokh; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Living organisms have to adjust to their surrounding in order to survive in stressful conditions. We study this mechanism in one of most primitive creatures - photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria. These bacteria absorb photons very efficiently using the chlorosome antenna complexes and perform photosynthesis in extreme low-light environments. How the chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria are acclimated to the stressful light conditions, for instance, if the spectrum of light is not optimal for absorption, is unknown. Studying Chlorobaculum tepidum cultures with far-red to near-infrared light-emitting diodes, we found that these bacteria react to changes in energy flow by regulating the amount of light-absorbing pigments and the size of the chlorosomes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that the bacteria can survive in near-infrared lights capturing low-frequency photons by the intermediate units of the light-harvesting complex. The latter strategy may be used by the species recently found near hydrothermal ve...

  3. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, April Z [Northeastern University; Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univeristy

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell-surface interactions is essential for the field. To tackle this, we have developed a number of new Bio-nanomechanical techniques, including reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) and bio-AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), for cell adhesion-detachment measurement of the long-range surface interactions, in combination with mathematical modeling, which would allow us to characterize the mechanical behavior from single cell to multi-cell aggregate, critical thresholds for large scale coaggregation and transportation of cells and aggregates in the presence of long range inter-surface forces etc. Although some technical and mathematical challenges remain, the preliminary results promise great breakthrough potential. In this study, we investigated the cellular surface characteristics of representative bio-remediating microorganisms relevant to DOE IFRC (Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenges) sites and their transport behaviors in porous media, aiming to draw a groundbreaking correlation between the micro-scale genetic and biological origin-based cell surface properties, the consequent mechanical adhesion and aggregation behaviors, and the macro-scale microbial mobility and retention in porous media, which are unavailable in the literature. The long-term goal is to significantly improve the mechanistic and quantitative understanding of microbial mobility, sorption, and transport within reactive transport models as needed to manipulate subsurface contaminant fate and transport predictions.

  4. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from closely related microorganisms by analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA with oligonucleotide microchips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bavykin, Sergei G. (Darien, IL); Mirzabekova, legal representative, Natalia V. (Westmont, IL); Mirzabekov, deceased, Andrei D. (Westmont, IL)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for using nucleotide sequence variations of 16S and 23S rRNA within the B. cereus group to discriminate a highly infectious bacterium B. anthracis from closely related microorganisms. Sequence variations in the 16S and 23S rRNA of the B. cereus subgroup including B. anthracis are utilized to construct an array that can detect these sequence variations through selective hybridizations and discriminate B. cereus group that includes B. anthracis. Discrimination of single base differences in rRNA was achieved with a microchip during analysis of B. cereus group isolates from both single and in mixed samples, as well as identification of polymorphic sites. Successful use of a microchip to determine the appropriate subgroup classification using eight reference microorganisms from the B. cereus group as a study set, was demonstrated.

  5. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from closely related microorganisms by analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA with oligonucleotide microchips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bavykin, Sergei G. (Darien, IL); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Moscow, RU)

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a novel method of discriminating a highly infectious bacterium Bacillus anthracis from a group of closely related microorganisms. Sequence variations in the 16S and 23S rRNA of the B. cereus subgroup including B. anthracis are utilized to construct an array that can detect these sequence variations through selective hybridizations. The identification and analysis of these sequence variations enables positive discrimination of isolates of the B. cereus group that includes B. anthracis. Discrimination of single base differences in rRNA was achieved with a microchip during analysis of B. cereus group isolates from both single and in mixed probes, as well as identification of polymorphic sites. Successful use of a microchip to determine the appropriate subgroup classification using eight reference microorganisms from the B. cereus group as a study set, was demonstrated.

  6. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  7. Genetically modified microorganisms for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    -proteins. Thus far, Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens have been extensively studied into electricity in much more efficient ways. This chapter will discuss recent work on the investigation be possible in the near future. 6.2 EXTRACELLULAR RESPIRATION IN SHEWANELLA ONEIDENSIS AND GEOBACTER

  8. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  9. Effect of Collection Method and Archiving Conditions on the Survivability of Vegetative and Spore Forming Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassab, Asmaa S.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and Schafer, 1998). Aerosols play a large role in a multiplicity of different production processes. Airborne particles, especially pathogenic microorganisms and other biological materials, are potential public and industrial health hazards. To ensure... the effective protection of This thesis followed the style and format of Aerosol Science and Technology. 2 both general and occupational populations from the adverse effects of airborne hazards, reliable...

  10. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    measured quantities ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate (natural manure) in the absence of oxygen [1, 2, 6]. The biogas is an additional energy source and the methane is a greenhouse gas

  11. Genome-Assisted Analysis of Dissimilatory Metal-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whole genome sequence for Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens has provided numerous new biological insights into the function of these model dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Many of the discoveries, including the identification of a high number of c-type cytochromes in both organisms, have been the result of comparative genomic analyses including several that were experimentally confirmed. Genome sequence has also aided the identification of genes important for the reduction of metal ions and other electron acceptors utilized by these organisms during anaerobic growth by facilitating the identification of genes disrupted by random insertions. Technologies for assaying global expression patterns for genes (mRNA) and proteins have also been enabled by the availability of genome sequence but their application has been limited mainly to the analysis of the role of global regulatory genes and to identifying genes expressed or repressed in response to specific electron acceptors. It is anticipated that details regarding the mechanisms of metal ion respiration, and metabolism in general, will eventually be revealed by comprehensive, systems-level analyses enabled by functional genomic analyses.

  12. Think big! Bacteria breach cell division size limit posted by news on september 15, 2014 -2:30pm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to divide just like the more familiar, but much shorter (~ 2 micrometer), Escherichia coli", states Phd microorganisms thriving on the surface of marine tropical worms are an inexhaustible source of wonder!" exclaims

  13. The battle of bacteria: Agencies, stakeholders focusing on restoring water quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foust, Margaret

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to watershed stakeholders, who will determine the next steps in managing water quality in the tributaries. The TMDL task force was also charged with developing a roadmap for scientific research on how bacteria behave under different conditions. Tailored...

  14. Biotemplated Synthesis of Gold NanoparticleBacteria Cellulose Nanofiber Nanocomposites and Their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    produced by acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter xylinum using D-glucose as the carbon source, which usually of sisal fibers by in situ fermentation and obtained a new class of completely renewable and biodegradable

  15. Contamination Cross-contamination occurs when bacteria, or "germs," are moved from one food to another.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combat Cross Contamination Cross-contamination occurs when bacteria, or "germs," are moved from one food to another. To combat cross-contamination, keep foods SEPARATE!! At the grocery store, keep raw

  16. Amoebae/bacteria consortia and uses for degrading wastes and contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of altering trinitrotoluene includes the steps of: providing an amoeba/bacteria consortium, particularly ATCC 40908 or a mutant thereof possessing all the identifying characteristics thereof; and contacting the consortium with trinitrotoluene to alter the trinitrotoluene.

  17. Population Genomics of Early Events in the Ecological Differentiation of Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, B. J.

    Genetic exchange is common among bacteria, but its effect on population diversity during ecological differentiation remains controversial. A fundamental question is whether advantageous mutations lead to selection of clonal ...

  18. Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michelle

    Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting digestion and composting at mesophilic or moderate temperature significantly reduced the antimicrobial resistance in animal manure. The most effective treatment was composting at thermophilic or high temperature

  19. Characterization of Extremophilic Bacteria for Potential in the Biofuel and Bioprocess Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haynes, Abria R

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    of bioprocess byproducts (e.g. lignocellulosic hydrolysate, bio-oil) that are known to harbor both compounds with inhibitory effects on growth and pentose sugars released after hydrolysis. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are bio-plastics produced by some bacteria...

  20. Cargo delivery into gram-negative bacteria via enterobactin uptake machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Tengfei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Iron Homeostasis and Siderophores Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all living organisms. This Chapter presents an overview of iron homeostasis in human and bacteria, as well as the biology ...

  1. Effects of UV Light Disinfection on Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Wastewater Effluents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childress, Hannah

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of antibioticresistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic-resistant and multidrug resistant bacteria in wastewater and drinking water treatment plants. There is also evidence to suggest that ARGs spread to the environment, and to humans and animals, through wastewater effluents...

  2. Engineering Bacteria for Production of Rhamnolipid as an Agent for Enhanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    ARTICLE Engineering Bacteria for Production of Rhamnolipid as an Agent for Enhanced Oil Recovery applications, including enhanced oil recovery (EOR), biodegradation, and bio- remediation. Rhamnolipid; transposome; chromosomal insertion; interfacial tension; enhanced oil recovery Introduction Surfactants

  3. Study of Midgut Bacteria in the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Büren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, Freder

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    that manipulate insect reproduction, development and even provide defense against parasitoids and pathogens. In this study we investigated the presence of bacteria inside the Red Imported Fire Ant midgut using molecular tools and transmission electron microscopy...

  4. Bacteria Harnessing Complexity Eshel Ben Jacob, Yakir Aharonov and Yoash Shapira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    1 Bacteria Harnessing Complexity By Eshel Ben Jacob, Yakir Aharonov and Yoash Shapira School, exchange of meaning-bearing chemical messages, and dialogues. The meaning-based communication permits

  5. The incidence and significance of anaerobic bacteria in the equine uterus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Dean Roger

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE EQUINE UTERUS A Thesis by DEAN ROGER BOLINGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCF.... December I 987 Major Subject: Veterinary Medical Sciences THE INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE EQUINE UTERUS A Thesis by DEAN ROGER BOLINGER Approved as to style and content by: Ronnie G. Elmore (Chairman of Committee...

  6. The effect of polyacrylamide polymers and formaldehyde on selected strains of oilfield related bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquhar, G.B. [Texaco E.P.T.D., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study of the effect of two polyacrylamide polymers and formaldehyde on certain strains of oil field related bacteria was performed. Since at this stage of the development of planning the proposed North Sea polymer flood field samples of native bacteria populations and fluid samples were not available, the preliminary study was made using pure strains of bacteria associated with the oilfield environment. The tests were run using ideal growth conditions of temperature and culture media. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of proposed polyacrylamide polymer flooding materials on the growth of selected strains of bacteria belonging to families common to the oilfield environment. The effect of 100 ppm of formaldehyde on these organisms also was investigated. The results of the tests showed that these bacteria responded differently to exposure to formaldehyde, polyacrylamide polymers and mixtures of both. These results indicate another possible mechanism for the occurrence of high bacteria related corrosion rates reported to occur on the producing side of polymer floods.

  7. Development of a Multiplexed, Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, M.; Halden, R.

    2002-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This was the final report for DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-01ER63264 (PI Mary Lowe). The grant was entitled ''Development of a Multiplexed Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples.'' The grant duration was one year. The purpose was to develop a bead-based assay for measuring analyte DNAs in environmental PCR products and to apply the method to a field experiment. The primary experiment was located at the UMTRA Old Rifle site.

  8. L\\'evy Fluctuations and Tracer Diffusion in Dilute Suspensions of Algae and Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaid, Irwin M; Yeomans, Julia M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Swimming microorganisms rely on effective mixing strategies to achieve efficient nutrient influx. Recent experiments, probing the mixing capability of unicellular biflagellates, revealed that passive tracer particles exhibit anomalous non-Gaussian diffusion when immersed in a dilute suspension of self-motile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae. Qualitatively, this observation can be explained by the fact that the algae induce a fluid flow that may occasionally accelerate the colloidal tracers to relatively large velocities. A satisfactory quantitative theory of enhanced mixing in dilute active suspensions, however, is lacking at present. In particular, it is unclear how non-Gaussian signatures in the tracers' position distribution are linked to the self-propulsion mechanism of a microorganism. Here, we develop a systematic theoretical description of anomalous tracer diffusion in active suspensions, based on a simplified tracer-swimmer interaction model that captures the typical distance scaling of a microswimmer'...

  9. Turning Bacteria into Biofuel: Development of an Integrated Microbial Electrocatalytic (MEC) System for Liquid Biofuel Production from CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: LBNL is improving the natural ability of a common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to use hydrogen and carbon dioxide for biofuel production. First, LBNL is genetically modifying the bacteria to produce biofuel at higher concentrations. Then, LBNL is using renewable electricity obtained from solar, wind, or wave power to produce high amounts of hydrogen in the presence of the bacteria—increasing the organism’s access to its energy source and improving the efficiency of the biofuel-creation process. Finally, LBNL is tethering electrocatalysts to the bacteria’s surface which will further accelerate the rate at which the organism creates biofuel. LBNL is also developing a chemical method to transform the biofuel that the bacteria produce into ready-to-use jet fuel.

  10. Effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on substrate specificity of marine bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Nnubia, C. [Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology] [Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on the sizes of populations of specific heterotroph subgroups of marine bacteria were monitored in this study. The bacteria were isolated from drill cuttings recovered from Agbara--an offshore oilfield located some 100 nautical miles off the Atlantic coast of Nigeria. Numbers of cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria in the drill cuttings were monitored for 28 days in the presence of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids. The percentages of these bacterial subgroups within the total heterotrophic population enumerated on tryptic soy agar (10% with 3% NaCl) fluctuated between 3.0 and 17.0%, 0.0 and 27.0%, 4.0 and 25.0% and 3.0 and 18.0% for cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria respectively. These results indicate that oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids affect the ability of marine bacteria to metabolize these substrates in the environment.

  11. Direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for evaluating chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.M.; Brey, J.; Fliermans, C.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River, Aiken, SC (United States). Environmental Biotechnology Section; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K. [Medical Coll. of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Immunological procedures were developed to enumerate chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Polyclonal antibodies (Pabs) were produced by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits against 18 contaminant-degrading bacteria. These included methanotrophic and chlorobenzene (CB) degrading species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test for specificity and sensitivity of the Pabs. Direct fluorescent antibodies (DFAs) were developed with these Pabs against select methanotrophic bacteria isolated from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and cultures from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Analysis of cross reactivity testing data showed some of the Pabs to be group specific while others were species specific. The threshold of sensitivity for the ELISA is 105 bacteria cells/ml. The DFA can detect as few as one bacterium per ml after concentration. Results from the DFA and ELISA techniques for enumeration of methanotrophic bacteria in groundwater were higher but not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to indirect microbiological techniques such as MPN. These methods provide useful information on in situ community structure and function for bioremediation applications within 1--4 hours of sampling.

  12. Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrad, Marlies [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air within the waste layer. Laboratory results also revealed sufficient air permeability of the soil materials (TS-F and SS-Z) placed in lysimeter C. However, at higher compaction density SS-Z became impermeable at 100% WHC. Methane emissions from the reference lysimeter with the smaller substrate cover (12-52 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) were significantly higher than fluxes from the other lysimeters (0-19 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) during in situ aeration. Regarding water balance, lysimeters covered with compost and compost-sand mixture, showed the lowest leachate rate (18-26% of the precipitation) due to the high water holding capacity and more favourable plant growth conditions compared to the lysimeters with mineral, more cohesive, soil covers (27-45% of the precipitation). On the basis of these results, the authors suggest a layered top cover system using both compost material as well as mineral soil in order to support active low-pressure aeration. Conventional soil materials with lower permeability may be used on top of the landfill body for a more uniform aeration of the waste due to an increased resistance to vertical gas flow. A compost cover may be built on top of the soil cover underlain by a gas distribution layer to improve methane oxidation rates and minimise water infiltration. By planting vegetation with a high transpiration rate, the leachate amount emanating from the landfill could be further minimised. The suggested design may be particularly suitable in combination with intermittent in situ aeration, in the later stage of an aeration measure, or at very small sites and shallow deposits. The top cover system could further regulate water infiltration into the landfill and mitigate residual CH{sub 4} emissions, even beyond the time of active aeration.

  13. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteria are genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuel—in this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLA’s electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  14. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  15. The battle of bacteria: Agencies, stakeholders focusing on restoring water quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foust, Margaret

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    txH2O | pg. 20 Story by Margaret Foust Bacteria is the No. 1 pollutant of water in Texas, causing many of the state?s water bodies to be placed on the Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet contact recreation use... standards. Across the state, agencies and local stakeholders are identifying the sources of pollution in bacteria-impaired water bodies and are developing management strategies to restore water quality and remove these water bodies from the impaired...

  16. The battle of bacteria: Agencies, stakeholders focusing on restoring water quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foust, Margaret

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    txH2O | pg. 20 Story by Margaret Foust Bacteria is the No. 1 pollutant of water in Texas, causing many of the state?s water bodies to be placed on the Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet contact recreation use... standards. Across the state, agencies and local stakeholders are identifying the sources of pollution in bacteria-impaired water bodies and are developing management strategies to restore water quality and remove these water bodies from the impaired...

  17. The possible symbiotic role of proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria found in the gut of Limnoria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traganza, Eugene Dewees

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE POSSIBLE SYMBIOTIC ROLE OF PROTEOLYTIC AND CELLVLOLYTIC BACTERIA FOUND IN TBE GV1' OF LIINORIA A Thesis By Eugene Dewees Traganza ~ ~ I Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1959 Ma)or Sub5ect: Biological Oceanography THE POSSIBLE SYMBIO1'IC ROLE OF PROTEOLYTIC AND CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOUND IN THE GU1' OF Like(RIA A Thesis By Eugene Dewees...

  18. Investigation of anaerobic bacteria associated with mortality in grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and redfish (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, Michael Waite

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVEST1GATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH NDRTALITY IN GREY MULLET t~N' I ~*h I ) AND REDYIRH (~H' o ll t A Thesis MICHAEL WAITE HENLEY f Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology INVESTIGATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED NITH liIIH NDR IlDIIY IN GREY NUDE EI 1M~I ~ll END REDPI H l~R' ll t 1 A Thesis !G!ICHAEL WAITE HENLEY...

  19. Factors affecting the recovery of bacteria in freeze-dried model systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Custer, Carl Steven

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF BACTERIA IN FREEZE-DRIED NODEL SYSTENS A Thesis by CARL STEVEN CUSTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for tbe degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1970' Najor Subject: Food Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF BACTERIA IN FREEZE-DRIED MODEL SYSTEMS A Thesis CARL STEVEN CUSTER Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Com tee) Head of Departme (Member) (Member) (Member...

  20. The battle of bacteria: Agencies, stakeholders focusing on restoring water quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foust, Margaret

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    txH2O | pg. 20 Story by Margaret Foust Bacteria is the No. 1 pollutant of water in Texas, causing many of the state?s water bodies to be placed on the Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet contact recreation use... standards. Across the state, agencies and local stakeholders are identifying the sources of pollution in bacteria-impaired water bodies and are developing management strategies to restore water quality and remove these water bodies from the impaired...

  1. ENZYME ACTIVITY PROBE AND GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POTENTIAL AEROBIC COMETABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE NORTHWEST PLUME, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; M. Hope Lee, M; S. K. Hampson, S

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching objective of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) enzyme activity probe (EAP) effort is to determine if aerobic cometabolism is contributing to the attenuation of trichloroethene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents in the contaminated groundwater beneath PGDP. The site-specific objective for the EAP assessment is to identify if key metabolic pathways are present and expressed in the microbial community--namely the pathways that are responsible for degradation of methane and aromatic (e.g. toluene, benzene, phenol) substrates. The enzymes produced to degrade methane and aromatic compounds also break down TCE through a process known as cometabolism. EAPs directly measure if methane and/or aromatic enzyme production pathways are operating and, for the aromatic pathways, provide an estimate of the number of active organisms in the sampled groundwater. This study in the groundwater plumes at PGDP is a major part of a larger scientific effort being conducted by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and North Wind Inc. in which EAPs are being applied to contaminated groundwater from diverse hydrogeologic and plume settings throughout the U.S. to help standardize their application as well as their interpretation. While EAP data provide key information to support the site specific objective for PGDP, several additional lines of evidence are being evaluated to increase confidence in the determination of the occurrence of biodegradation and the rate and sustainability of aerobic cometabolism. These complementary efforts include: (1) Examination of plume flowpaths and comparison of TCE behavior to 'conservative' tracers in the plume (e.g., {sup 99}Tc); (2) Evaluation of geochemical conditions throughout the plume; and (3) Evaluation of stable isotopes in the contaminants and their daughter products throughout the plume. If the multiple lines of evidence support the occurrence of cometabolism and the potential for the process to contribute to temporal and spatial attenuation of TCE in PGDP groundwater, then a follow-up enzyme probe microcosm study to better estimate biological degradation rate(s) is warranted.

  2. Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wayne Reeve of Murdoch University on "Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  3. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 7 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2676 Bacteria can exploit a flagellar buckling instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    in the locomotion of bacteria with multiple flagella (peritrichous), such as Escherichia coli, which bundles its a single flagellum (monotrichous), including 90% of motile marine bacteria3 , and how they reorient has long remained unclear. Only recently has the monotrichous marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus been

  4. Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. II. Amino acid composition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. II. Amino of milk and of methanol-grown bacteria in the terminal small intestine and the hindgut of the preruminant exclusively by skim-milk powder ; 50.5 p. 100 of the protein of the bacte- ria diet was supplied by methanol

  5. ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) AND DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) CONTENT OF MARINE MICROALGAE AND BACTERIA WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) AND DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) CONTENT OF MARINE MICROALGAE the relationship between DNA and ATP content of marine bacteria and microalgae. This relationship was used. Laboratory-derived DNA:ATP ratios ranged from 8.5 to 33 (wt:wt) for cultures of marine microalgae, and from

  6. Microfluidic capture and release of bacteria in a conical nanopore array Peng Guo,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Microfluidic capture and release of bacteria in a conical nanopore array Peng Guo,ab Eric W. Hall a microfluidic device. As an example, we demonstrate that cyanobacteria can be captured, one bacterium per pore, in a conical nanoporous membrane (CNM) integrated into a microfluidic chip. This study, to our knowledge

  7. A conjecture on the relationship of bacterial shape to motility in rod-shaped bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    ; Escherichia coli; Hydrodynamic e¤ciency 1. Introduction After we ¢rst notice that rod-shaped bacteria, for example, why does Escherichia coli have the shape it does? Why isn't it longer or shorter? 1.1. A priori School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0620, USA b Department of Biology, Stanford University, Hopkins Marine

  8. Rapid chemotactic response enables marine bacteria to exploit ephemeral microscale nutrient patches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    chemotaxis model Escherichia coli, leading to twice the nutrient exposure. We demonstrate that such rapidRapid chemotactic response enables marine bacteria to exploit ephemeral microscale nutrient patches mechanisms dissipate them. Here we show that the rapid chemo- tactic response of the marine bacterium

  9. Transfer of carbohydrate-active enzymes from marine bacteria to Japanese gut microbiota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    in Escherichia coli. However, only Zg1017 and the catalytic module of Zg2600 were expressed as soluble proteinsLETTERS Transfer of carbohydrate-active enzymes from marine bacteria to Japanese gut microbiota Jan of the marine Bacteroidetes, Zobellia galactanivorans, active on the sulphated polysaccharide porphyran from

  10. Structure-based Inhibitor Discovery against Adenylyl Cyclase Toxins from Pathogenic Bacteria That Cause Anthrax and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    That Cause Anthrax and Whooping Cough* Received for publication, February 4, 2003, and in revised form, March bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough, respectively. Using the structure of the catalytic site pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough. The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States

  11. Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from agricultural wastes." Napa Wine Company's wastewater comes from grape disposal, wine makingMSNBC.com Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen method for generating hydrogen fuel from wastewater is now operating at a California winery

  12. ORNL researchers are studying how bacteria found in Yellowstone hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    deconstruction--a major roadblock to the production of advanced biofuels," Giannone said. --Morgan Mc in the development of a cheaper biofuel production process. (Image: Jennifer Morrell-Falvey/ORNL) SCIENCE ORNL explores proteins in Yellowstone bacteria for biofuel inspiration substrates such as pure cellulose

  13. A phylogenetic mixture model for gene family loss in parasitic bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A phylogenetic mixture model for gene family loss in parasitic bacteria Submitted as a research words: gene families, mixture model, parasites, maximum likelihood,phylogenetics Running head: gene family gain and loss 1 #12;Abstract Gene families are frequently gained and lost from prokaryotic genomes

  14. Additive and Competitive Effects of Bacteria and Mn Oxides on Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Additive and Competitive Effects of Bacteria and Mn Oxides on Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics L oxidizing As(III) at the same time than for either component alone. The additive effect of the mixed cell even though As(III) was oxidized fastest in a mixed cell--MnO2 system. The additive effect of biotic

  15. in-house windrow composting Many of the water bodies that are impaired by bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in-house windrow composting Many of the water bodies that are impaired by bacteria throughout from new and existing facilities. One such BMP is in-house windrow composting (IWC) of poultry litter. The Environmental Effects of In-House Windrow Composting of Poultry Litter project is demonstrating

  16. Bacteria can sprout webs of electrical wiring that transform the soil into a geological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    cells into a web-like electrical circuit, they report (D. Ntarlagiannis et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L in La Jolla, California. As the bacteria consume nutrients for energy, they spit out unwanted electrons sand infiltrated with a nutrient compound (lactate), and allowed S. oneidensis to grow in this `fake

  17. Growth Temperature and Genome Size in Bacteria Are Negatively Correlated, Suggesting Genomic Streamlining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Andreas

    Growth Temperature and Genome Size in Bacteria Are Negatively Correlated, Suggesting Genomic.wagner@ieu.uzh.ch; nsabath@gmail.com. Accepted: March 25, 2013 Abstract Prokaryotic genomes are small and compact. Either this feature is caused by neutral evolution or by natural selection favoring small genomes--genome streamlining

  18. How do microbial fuel cells (MFCs) work? Bacteria need energy to survive, in the same way that humans need food to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    How do microbial fuel cells (MFCs) work? Bacteria need energy to survive, in the same way" in photobiological fuel cell systems that utilize photosynthetic bacteria, amino acids, and proteins. What

  19. ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENTH F A PRELIMINARY REPORT IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AKD IN A RECENTrests on the finding that algae have less cellulose and a

  20. From Nanowires to Biofilms: An Exploration of Novel Mechanisms of Uranium Transformation Mediated by Geobacter Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REGUERA, GEMMA [Michigan State University

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One promising strategy for the in situ bioremediation of radioactive groundwater contaminants that has been identified by the SBR Program is to stimulate the activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms to reductively precipitate uranium and other soluble toxic metals. The reduction of U(VI) and other soluble contaminants by Geobacteraceae is directly dependent on the reduction of Fe(III) oxides, their natural electron acceptor, a process that requires the expression of Geobacter’s conductive pili (pilus nanowires). Expression of conductive pili by Geobacter cells leads to biofilm development on surfaces and to the formation of suspended biogranules, which may be physiological closer to biofilms than to planktonic cells. Biofilm development is often assumed in the subsurface, particularly at the matrix-well screen interface, but evidence of biofilms in the bulk aquifer matrix is scarce. Our preliminary results suggest, however, that biofilms develop in the subsurface and contribute to uranium transformations via sorption and reductive mechanisms. In this project we elucidated the mechanism(s) for uranium immobilization mediated by Geobacter biofilms and identified molecular markers to investigate if biofilm development is happening in the contaminated subsurface. The results provided novel insights needed in order to understand the metabolic potential and physiology of microorganisms with a known role in contaminant transformation in situ, thus having a significant positive impact in the SBR Program and providing novel concept to monitor, model, and predict biological behavior during in situ treatments.

  1. Lévy Fluctuations and Tracer Diffusion in Dilute Suspensions of Algae and Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin M. Zaid; Jörn Dunkel; Julia M. Yeomans

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Swimming microorganisms rely on effective mixing strategies to achieve efficient nutrient influx. Recent experiments, probing the mixing capability of unicellular biflagellates, revealed that passive tracer particles exhibit anomalous non-Gaussian diffusion when immersed in a dilute suspension of self-motile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae. Qualitatively, this observation can be explained by the fact that the algae induce a fluid flow that may occasionally accelerate the colloidal tracers to relatively large velocities. A satisfactory quantitative theory of enhanced mixing in dilute active suspensions, however, is lacking at present. In particular, it is unclear how non-Gaussian signatures in the tracers' position distribution are linked to the self-propulsion mechanism of a microorganism. Here, we develop a systematic theoretical description of anomalous tracer diffusion in active suspensions, based on a simplified tracer-swimmer interaction model that captures the typical distance scaling of a microswimmer's flow field. We show that the experimentally observed non-Gaussian tails are generic and arise due to a combination of truncated L\\'evy statistics for the velocity field and algebraically decaying time correlations in the fluid. Our analytical considerations are illustrated through extensive simulations, implemented on graphics processing units to achieve the large sample sizes required for analyzing the tails of the tracer distributions.

  2. Turning Bacteria into Fuel: Cyanobacteria Designed for Solar-Powered Highly Efficient Production of Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is engineering a type of photosynthetic bacteria that efficiently produce fatty acids—a fuel precursor for biofuels. This type of bacteria, called Synechocystis, is already good at converting solar energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) into a type of fatty acid called lauric acid. ASU has modified the organism so it continuously converts sunlight and CO2 into fatty acids—overriding its natural tendency to use solar energy solely for cell growth and maximizing the solar-to-fuel conversion process. ASU’s approach is different because most biofuels research focuses on increasing cellular biomass and not on excreting fatty acids. The project has also identified a unique way to convert the harvested lauric acid into a fuel that can be easily blended with existing transportation fuels.

  3. Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.

  4. Inoculation of beef with lactic-acid bacteria prior to vacuum packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Lester Cedric

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    d of Department ) (Member) August 1978 ABSTRACT Inoculation of Beef with Lactic-Acid Bacteria Prior to Vacuum Packaging. (August 1978) Lester Cedric Hall, B. S. , Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. G. C. Smith and Dr Z... packaging was rapidly becoming an established business and would revolu- tionize the future of the wholesale beef market. Vacuum packaging is advantageous in that it (a) reduces weight losses from evaporation and trimming, (b) preserves meat color, (c...

  5. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H. [Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  6. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  7. Factors affecting the recovery of bacteria in freeze-dried model systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Custer, Carl Steven

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cellulose, and subsequently freeze-dried. The influences of the rate of freezing, time and atmosphere of storage, position of the bacteria within the model system and condition of incubation upon the survival and metabolic injury of the freeze-dried... storage. The type of atmosphere in which freeze-dried preparations were stored was important to bacterial survival. Nitrogen was less damaging to freeze-dried cells than air. Strata studies indicated that the viable bacterial population density...

  8. Effects of UV Light Disinfection on Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Wastewater Effluents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childress, Hannah

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    and support. I would also like to thank Bailey Sullivan for teaching lab procedures, and the operators at the wastewater treatment plant for their assistance. I am grateful to the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering for providing a... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Biological and Agricultural Engineering EFFECTS OF UV LIGHT DISINFECTION ON TETRACYCLINE RESISTANT BACTERIA IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS A Thesis by HANNAH...

  9. Ameliorating risk: Culturable and metagenomic monitoring of the 14 year decline of a genetically engineered microorganism at a bioremediation field site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, Alice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Smart, Abby E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chauhan, Archana [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ripp, Steven Anthony [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Williams, Daniel [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burton, Whitney [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moser, Scott [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Sayler, Gary [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 represented the first genetically engineered microorganism to be approved in the United States for field release for applications related to subsurface soil bioremediation. In October 1996, strain HK44 was introduced into a replicated semi-contained array of soil lysimeters where its luciferase (luxCDABE)-based bioluminescent response to soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants was detected and monitored for the next two years. At the termination of this experiment, it was decided that the lysimeters remain available for future longer-term monitoring efforts, and were thus covered and left essentially undisturbed until the initiation of a large sampling event in 2010, fourteen years after the original release. Although after extensive sampling culturable HK44 cells were not found, additional molecular and metagenomic analyses indicated that genetic signatures of HK44 cells still persisted, with genes diagnostic for the bioluminescent transposon carried by strain HK44 (luxA and tetA) being found at low concentrations (< 5000 copies/g).

  10. Experimental test of whether electrostatically charged micro-organisms and their spores contribute to the onset of arcs across vacuum gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L. R.; Halle, A. von; Carpe, A. F.; Gilton, K. R.; Rossi, Guy; Stevenson, T. N. [Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it was proposed [L. R. Grisham et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between conducting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which then become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. This note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maximum operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each case preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance.

  11. Experimental Test Of Whether Electrostatically Charged Micro-organisms And Their Spores Contribute To The Onset Of Arcs Across Vacuum Gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it was proposed [L.R. Grisham, A. vonHalle, A.F. Carpe, Guy Rossi, K.R. Gilton, E.D. McBride, E.P. Gilson, A. Stepanov, T.N. Stevenson, Physics of Plasma 19 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between condu cting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which tnen become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. The note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maxium operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance

  12. Diffusive transport without detailed balance in motile bacteria: Does microbiology need statistical physics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cates, M E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbiology is the science of microbes, particularly bacteria. Many bacteria are motile: they are capable of self-propulsion. Among these, a significant class execute so-called run-and-tumble motion: they follow a fairly straight path for a certain distance, then abruptly change direction before repeating the process. This dynamics has something in common with Brownian motion (it is diffusive at large scales), and also something in contrast. Specifically, motility parameters such as the run speed and tumble rate depend on the local environment and hence can vary in space. When they do so, even if a steady state is reached, this is not generally invariant under time-reversal: the principle of detailed balance, which restores the microscopic time-reversal symmetry of systems in thermal equilibrium, is mesoscopically absent in motile bacteria. This lack of detailed balance (allowed by the flux of chemical energy that drives motility) creates pitfalls for the unwary modeller. Here I review some statistical mecha...

  13. Diffusive transport without detailed balance in motile bacteria: Does microbiology need statistical physics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. E. Cates

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbiology is the science of microbes, particularly bacteria. Many bacteria are motile: they are capable of self-propulsion. Among these, a significant class execute so-called run-and-tumble motion: they follow a fairly straight path for a certain distance, then abruptly change direction before repeating the process. This dynamics has something in common with Brownian motion (it is diffusive at large scales), and also something in contrast. Specifically, motility parameters such as the run speed and tumble rate depend on the local environment and hence can vary in space. When they do so, even if a steady state is reached, this is not generally invariant under time-reversal: the principle of detailed balance, which restores the microscopic time-reversal symmetry of systems in thermal equilibrium, is mesoscopically absent in motile bacteria. This lack of detailed balance (allowed by the flux of chemical energy that drives motility) creates pitfalls for the unwary modeller. Here I review some statistical mechanical models for bacterial motility, presenting them as a paradigm for exploring diffusion without detailed balance. I also discuss the extent to which statistical physics is useful in understanding real or potential microbiological experiments.

  14. Isolation of butyrate-utilizing bacteria from thermophilic and mesophilic methane-producing ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, J.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of various ecosystems to convert butyrate to methane was studied in order to isolate the bacteria responsible for the conversion. When thermophilic digester sludge was enriched with butyrate, methane was produced without a lag period. Marine sediments enriched with butyrate required a 2-week incubation period before methanogenesis began. A thermophilic digester was studied in more detail and found by most-probable-number enumeration to have ca. 5 x 10/sup 6/ butyrate-utilizing bactera/ml of sludge. A thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium was isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and a Methanosarcina sp. This bacterium was a gram-negative, slightly curved rod that occurred singly, was nonmotile, and did not appear to produce spores. The thermophilic digester was infused with butyrate at the rate of 10 ..mu..moles/ml of sludge per day. Biogas production increased by 150%, with the percentage of methane increasing from 58% to 68%. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate did not accumulate. Butyrate-utilizing enrichments from mesophilic ecosystems were used in obtaining cocultures of butyrate-utilizing bacteria. These cocultures served as inocula for attempts to isolate pure cultures of butyrate-utilizing bacteria by use of hydrogenase-containing membrane fragments of Escherichia coli. After a 3-week incubation period, colonies appeared only in inoculated tubes that contained membrane fragments and butyrate.

  15. active root-inhabiting microbes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    after solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene to stimulate indigenous bacteria (methanotrophs) to degrade...

  16. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  17. Sources of Nutrients and Fecal Indicator Bacteria to Nearshore Waters on the North Shore of Kaua`i

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    indicator bacteria (FIB, i.e., enterococci and Escherichia coli) in nearshore waters and spurred concern :J. H. Street :A. Paytan Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064

  18. Bacteria in Ballast Water: The Shipping Industry's Contributions to the Transport and Distribution of Microbial Species in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyland, Elizabeth B.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation of organisms in the ballast water of cargo ships has been recognized as a source of invasive species despite current control measures. Pathogenic bacteria in the ballast tank have been studied but the total diversity...

  19. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallivan, Justin [Emory University] [Emory University

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  20. Functional characterization of flavobacteria rhodopsins reveals a unique class of light-driven chloride pump in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshizawa, Susumu

    Light-activated, ion-pumping rhodopsins are broadly distributed among many different bacteria and archaea inhabiting the photic zone of aquatic environments. Bacterial proton- or sodium-translocating rhodopsins can convert ...

  1. www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 341 23 AUGUST 2013 833 BACTERIA MAY NOT ELICIT MUCH SYMPA-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . thermophilus breaks down the milk sugar lactose into tangy lactic acid. But certain viruses--bacterio- phages tar- geted genes in human cells, mice, rats, zebra- fish, bacteria, fruit flies, yeast, nematodes

  2. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gallivan, Justin [Emory University

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  3. Bacteria in Ballast Water: The Shipping Industry's Contributions to the Transport and Distribution of Microbial Species in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyland, Elizabeth B.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation of organisms in the ballast water of cargo ships has been recognized as a source of invasive species despite current control measures. Pathogenic bacteria in the ballast tank have been studied but the total diversity...

  4. Occurrence, Prevalence, and Disinfection Potential of Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in a Subtropical Watershed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Bailey Ann

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    . The objective of this dissertation research was to gain a better understanding of anthropogenic influences on occurrence of tetracycline resistance and use of traditional disinfection methods for the reduction of tetracycline resistant bacteria and genes...

  5. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nancharaiah, Y. V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Kalpakkam (India). Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Sect.; Francis, A. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Rep. of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

    2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.

  6. Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okpokwasil, G.C.; Nnubia, C. [Univ. of Prot Harcourt (Nigeria)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 {mu}g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Bariod mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nancharaiah, Y. V.; Francis, A. J.

    2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulationmore »of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.« less

  8. MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischer, Marc E. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

    2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is differentially regulated in genetically distinct NO3- assimilating bacteria, and that the best predictors of nasA gene expression are either NO3- concentration or NO3- uptake rates. These studies provide convincing evidence of the importance of bacterial utilization of NO3-, insight into controlling processes, and provide a rich dataset that are being used to develop linked C and N modeling components necessary to evaluate the significance of bacterial DIN utilization to global C cycling. Furthermore, as a result of BI-OMP funding we made exciting strides towards institutionalizing a research and education based collaboration between the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SkIO) and Savannah State University (SSU), an historically black university within the University System of Georgia with undergraduate and now graduate programs in marine science. The BI-OMP program, in addition to supporting undergraduate (24) graduate (10) and postdoctoral (2) students, contributed to the development of a new graduate program in Marine Sciences at SSU that remains an important legacy of this project. The long-term goals of these collaborations are to increase the capacity for marine biotechnology research and to increase representation of minorities in marine, environmental and biotechnological sciences.

  9. Exploration of Simple Analytical Approaches for Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salma Rahman

    2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the current methods for pathogenic bacterial detection require long sample-preparation and analysis time, as well as complex instrumentation. This dissertation explores simple analytical approaches (e.g., flow cytometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) that may be applied towards ideal requirements of a microbial detection system, through method and instrumentation development, and by the creation and characterization of immunosensing platforms. This dissertation is organized into six sections. In the general Introduction section a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work is presented. First, different approaches for detection of pathogenic bacteria will be reviewed, with a comparison of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each approach, A general overview regarding diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is then presented. Next, the structure and function of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from organosulfur molecules at gold and micrometer and sub-micrometer patterning of biomolecules using SAMs will be discussed. This section is followed by four research chapters, presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 describes the efforts and challenges towards the creation of imunosensing platforms that exploit the flexibility and structural stability of SAMs of thiols at gold. 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyl-1-thiol SAM (PFDT) and dithio-bis(succinimidyl propionate)-(DSP)-derived SAMs were used to construct the platform. Chapter 2 describes the characterization of the PFDT- and DSP-derived SAMs, and the architectures formed when it is coupled to antibodies as well as target bacteria. These studies used infrared reflection spectroscopy (IRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), Chapter 3 presents a new sensitive, and portable diffuse reflection based technique for the rapid identification and quantification of pathogenic bacteria. Chapter 4 reports research efforts in the construction and evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry based cell detector and enumerator. This final research chapter is followed by a general summation and future prospectus section that concludes this dissertation.

  10. Soft inertial microfluidics for high throughput separation of bacteria from human blood cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zhigang; Willing, Ben; Bjerketorp, Joakim; Jansson, Janet K.; Hjort, Klas

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a new approach to separate bacteria from human blood cells based on soft inertial force induced migration with flow defined curved and focused sample flow inside a microfluidic device. This approach relies on a combination of an asymmetrical sheath flow and proper channel geometry to generate a soft inertial force on the sample fluid in the curved and focused sample flow segment to deflect larger particles away while the smaller ones are kept on or near the original flow streamline. The curved and focused sample flow and inertial effect were visualized and verified using a fluorescent dye primed in the device. First the particle behavior was studied in detail using 9.9 and 1.0 {micro}m particles with a polymer-based prototype. The prototype device is compact with an active size of 3 mm{sup 2}. The soft inertial effect and deflection distance were proportional to the fluid Reynolds number (Re) and particle Reynolds number (Re{sub p}), respectively. We successfully demonstrated separation of bacteria (Escherichia coli) from human red blood cells at high cell concentrations (above 10{sup 8}/mL), using a sample flow rate of up to 18 {micro}L/min. This resulted in at least a 300-fold enrichment of bacteria at a wide range of flow rates with a controlled flow spreading. The separated cells were proven to be viable. Proteins from fractions before and after cell separation were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and staining to verify the removal of red blood cell proteins from the bacterial cell fraction. This novel microfluidic process is robust, reproducible, simple to perform, and has a high throughput compared to other cell sorting systems. Microfluidic systems based on these principles could easily be manufactured for clinical laboratory and biomedical applications.

  11. Production of extracellular nucleic acids by genetically altered bacteria in aquatic-environment microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J.H.; David, A.W.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. The presence or absence of the ambient microbial community had little effect on the production of extracellular DNA. Results indicate the extracellular-DNA production by genetically altered bacteria released into aquatic environments is more strongly influenced by physiochemical factors than biotic factors; extracellular-DNA production rates are usually greater for organisms released in freshwater than marine environments; and ambient microbial populations can readily utilize materials released by these organisms.

  12. Light-harvesting in bacteria exploits a critical interplay between transport and trapping dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felipe Caycedo-Soler; Ferney J. Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Neil F. Johnson

    2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Light-harvesting bacteria Rhodospirillum Photometricum were recently found to adopt strikingly different architectures depending on illumination conditions. We present analytic and numerical calculations which explain this observation by quantifying a dynamical interplay between excitation transfer kinetics and reaction center cycling. High light-intensity membranes (HLIM) exploit dissipation as a photo-protective mechanism, thereby safeguarding a steady supply of chemical energy, while low light-intensity membranes (LLIM) efficiently process unused illumination intensity by channelling it to open reaction centers. More generally, our analysis elucidates and quantifies the trade-offs in natural network design for solar energy conversion.

  13. A technique for quantitative and qualitative viewing of aquatic bacteria using scanning electron microscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreier, Thomas Michael

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microscopic enumeration techniques. Water samples are concentrated on pre-wetted (Triton X-100) Nuclepore filters (0. 2 um pore size) to prov1de a uniform distri- bution of bacteria on the filter surface and vacuum filtered (660 Torr). The filter... is transferred to a petri dish containing filter paper soaked 1n 2% glutaraldehyde and the bacter1a are fixed for one hour. Dehydration 1s performed by transferr1ng the filters through a series of petri dishes conta1ning filter paper saturated with 25, 50, 75...

  14. A technique for quantitative and qualitative viewing of aquatic bacteria using scanning electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreier, Thomas Michael

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microscopic enumeration techniques. Water samples are concentrated on pre-wetted (Triton X-100) Nuclepore filters (0. 2 um pore size) to prov1de a uniform distri- bution of bacteria on the filter surface and vacuum filtered (660 Torr). The filter... is transferred to a petri dish containing filter paper soaked 1n 2% glutaraldehyde and the bacter1a are fixed for one hour. Dehydration 1s performed by transferr1ng the filters through a series of petri dishes conta1ning filter paper saturated with 25, 50, 75...

  15. Structural similarities between biogenic uraninites produced by phylogenetically and metabolically diverse bacteria.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, Jonathan; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Veeramani, Harish; Suvorova, Elena; Kennedy, David W.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Mehta, Apurva; Bargar, John R.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the product of microbial uranium reduction is often reported to be“UO2”, a comprehensive characterization including stoichiometry and unit cell determination is available for only one Shewanella species. Here, we compare the products of batch uranyl reduction by a collection of dissimilatory metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genera Shewanella, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfovibrio under similar laboratory conditions. Our results demonstrate that U(VI) bioreduction by this assortment of commonly studied, environmentally relevant bacteria leads to the precipitation of uraninite with a composition between UO2.00 and UO2.075, regardless of phylogenetic or metabolic diversity. Coupled analyses, including electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and powder diffraction, confirm that structurally and chemically analogous uraninite solids are produced. These biogenic uraninites have particle diameters of about 2-3 nm and lattice constants consistent with UO2.0 and exhibit a high degree of intermediate-range order. Results indicate that phylogenetic and metabolic variability within delta- and gamma-proteobacteria has little effect on nascent biouraninite structure or crystal size under the investigated conditions.

  16. Chemotactic behavior of deep subsurface bacteria toward carbohydrates, amino acids and a chlorinated alkene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez de Victoria, G. (Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Biology)

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemotactic behavior of deep terrestrial subsurface bacteria toward amino acids, carbohydrates and trichloroethylene was assayed using a modification of the capillary method and bacterial enumeration by acridine orange direct counts. Eleven isolates of bacteria isolated from six different geological formations were investigated. A bimodal response rather than an absolute positive or negative response was observed in most assays. Most of the isolates were positively chemotactic to low concentrations of substrates and were repelled by high concentrations of the same substrate. However, this was not the case for trichloroethylene (TCE) which was mostly an attractant and elicited the highest responses in all the isolates when compared with amino acids and carbohydrates. The movement rates of these isolates in aseptic subsurface sediments in the absence and presence of TCE were also determined using a laboratory model. All of the isolates showed distinct response range, peak, and threshold concentrations when exposed to the same substrates suggesting that they are possibly different species as has been inferred from DNA homology studies. 101 refs., 4 figs., 57 tabs.

  17. ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly to the hydrocarbons of higher molecular weightDISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA,T E DISTRIBUTION O ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS H F A PRELIMINARY

  18. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luef, Birgit; Fakra, Sirine C.; Csencsits, Roseann; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Comolli, Luis R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) play key roles in anaerobic metal and carbon cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations that can be harnessed for environmental bioremediation. A subset of FeRB require direct contact with Fe(III) bearing minerals for dissimilatory growth, yet these bacteria must move between mineral particles. Further, they proliferate in planktonic consortia during biostimulation experiments. Thus, a key question is how such organisms can sustain growth under these conditions. Here we characterized planktonic microbial communities sampled from an aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, USA close to the peak of iron reduction following in situ acetate amendment. Samples were cryo-plunged on site and subsequently examined using correlated 2- and 3- dimensional cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Most cells had their outer membranes decorated with up to 150 nm diameter aggregates composed of a few nm wide amorphous, Fe-rich nanoparticles. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of lineage-specific probes applied to rRNA of cells subsequently imaged via cryo-TEM identified Geobacter spp., a well studied group of FeRB. STXM results at the Fe L2,3 absorption edges indicate that nanoparticle aggregates contain a variable mixture of Fe(II)-Fe(III), and are generally enriched in Fe(III). Geobacter bemidjiensis cultivated anaerobically in the laboratory on acetate and hydrous ferric oxyhydroxides also accumulated mixed valence nanoparticle aggregates. In field-collected samples, FeRB with a wide variety of morphologies were associated with nano-aggregates, indicating that cell-surface Fe(III) accumulation may be a general mechanism by which FeRB can grow while in planktonic suspension.

  19. Making more efficient fuel cells 08.09.2009 -Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Making more efficient fuel cells 08.09.2009 - Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert waste power in fuel cells than bacteria with a smooth surface. The team's findings were reported

  20. Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. I. Kinetics and balance in the terminal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. I. Kinetics the digestion of two milk replacers (control and bacteria), containing different protein sources, in the end of the small intestine and of the digestive tract in the preruminant calf. The protein in the control diet

  1. Protecting Our Water: Tracking Sources of Bacterial Contamination Numerous surface waterbodies in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution. coli and other fecal coliform bacteria do not provide information on whether the source of pollution of pollution need to be identified to implement effective pollution control strategies to improve water quality

  2. Bugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. updated at midnight GMTtoday is friday, november 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    2003 · Fungus catches radioactive fallout 8 May 2002 · Depleted uranium soils battlefields 12 MarchBugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago boost Cold War clean-up Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. 13 October

  3. Bacterial and fungal organisms in the vagina of normal cows and cows with vaginitis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husted, James Ross

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    AND LITERATURE REVIEW ??????. 1 II MATERIALS AND METHODS ?????????????. 6 Collection???...??????????????????.. 6 Identification of Aerobic Bacteria?????????????. 7 Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria????????????. 8 Identification... of Microaerophilic Bacteria?????????? 8 Identification of Campylobacter sp????????????.. 9 Aerotolerance Test??????????????????? 9 Identification of Ureaplasma Bacteria???????????.. 10 Identification of Mycoplasma Bacteria???????????. 10 Identification...

  4. When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Howard E.

    ABSTRACT When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic compounds in the fish and the fish becomes spoiled. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy neural network (ANN) for the development of an ANN based FT-IR Screening System for fish

  5. Bacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bodies that support oyster harvesting, called oyster waters, have four clas- sifications which determineBacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set water quality standards to ensure all uses of a water body have the ap- propriate water

  6. Corrosion Protection due to Bacteria /Metal Interactions E. Kus1, K. H. Nealson2 and F. Mansfeld1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Corrosion Protection due to Bacteria /Metal Interactions E. Kus1, K. H. Nealson2 and F. Mansfeld1 1. Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (CEEL) The Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) refers to the increase of the corrosion rate of metals due to microbial

  7. University of Minnesota study of exposure of animal manure applicators to bacteria (S. aureus, MRSA) of swine origin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    University of Minnesota study of exposure of animal manure applicators to bacteria (S. aureus, MRSA to certain antibiotics, and those resistant to the drug methicillin (known as MRSA ­ methicillin resistant S be a reservoir of MRSA. Furthermore, people with direct swine contact have an increased high likelihood

  8. Evaluating the role of sediment-bacteria interactions on Escherichia coli concentrations at beaches in southern Lake Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's ability to describe the multiple short-duration, low-intensity resuspension events at our sampling sites. A major resuspension event was noted during the simulation period but the sampling frequency during]. Resuspension of sediment- bound bacteria under favorable conditions can increase the levels of bacterial

  9. Use of Disinfectants and Cleaners to Reduce Bacteria on Poultry Transportation Coops with a Compressed Air Foam System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinojosa-Garza, Carolee A.

    2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    and disinfect poultry transport coops. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatments consisting of a low-pressure water rinse (LPWR), a foaming additive alone, foaming cleaner or peroxyacetic acid with a foaming additive to reduce bacteria on broiler...

  10. Characterization of Co(III) EDTA-Reducing Bacteria in Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Weimin [Arizona State University; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a potential to be a field site for evaluating the effectiveness of various bioremediation approaches and strategies. The site has been well studied in terms of its geological and geochemical properties over the past decade. However, despite the importance of microorganisms in bioremediation processes, the microbiological populations at the WAG5 site and their potential in bioremediation have not been similarly evaluated. In this study, we initiated research to characterize the microbial populations in WAG5 groundwater. Approximately 100 isolates from WAG5 groundwater were isolated and selected based on colony morphology. Fifty-five unique isolates were identified by BOX-PCR and subjected to further characterization. 16S rRNA sequences indicated that these isolates belong to seventeen bacterial genera including Alcaligenes (1 isolate), Aquamonas (1), Aquaspirillum (1), Bacillus (10), Brevundimonas (5), Caulobacter (7), Dechloromonas (2), Janibacter (1), Janthinobacterium (2), Lactobacillus (1), Paenibacillus (4), Pseudomonas (9), Rhodoferax (1), Sphingomonas (1), Stenotrophomonas (6), Variovorax (2), and Zoogloea (1). Metal respiration assays identified several isolates, which phylogenically belong or are close to Caulobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, capable of reducing Co(III)EDTA- to Co(II)EDTA{sup 2-} using the defined M1 medium under anaerobic conditions. In addition, using WAG5 groundwater directly as the inoculants, we found that organisms associated with WAG5 groundwater can reduce both Fe(III) and Co(III) under anaerobic conditions. Further assays were then performed to determine the optimal conditions for Co(III) reduction. These assays indicated that addition of various electron donors including ethanol, lactate, methanol, pyruvate, and acetate resulted in metal reduction. These experiments will provide useful background information for future bioremediation field experiments at the WAG5 site.

  11. Detecting bacteria and Determining Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Stochastic Confinement in Nanoliter Droplets using Plug-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  12. In-Situ Survival Mechanisms of U and Tc Reducing Bacteria in Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are model subsurface organisms for studying genes involving in situ radionuclide transformation and sediment survival. Our research objective for this project has been to develop a signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) procedure and use it to identify mutants in genes of these subsurface bacteria involved in sediment survival and radionuclide reduction. The mutant genes identified in these studies allow us for the first time to describe at the genetic level microbial processes that are actually being used by environmental bacteria while growing in their natural ecosystems. Identification of these genes revealed facets of microbial physiology and ecology that are not accessible through laboratory studies. Ultimately, this information may be used to optimize bioremediation or other engineered microbial processes. Furthermore, the identification of a mutant in a gene conferring multidrug resistance in strain MR-1 shows that this widespread mechanism of antibiotic resistance, likely has its origins as a mechanism of bacterial defense against naturally occurring toxins. Studies with D. desulfuricans G20: The STM procedure first involved generating a library of 5760 G20 mutants and screening for potential non-survivors in subsurface sediment microcosms. After two rounds of screening, a total of 117 mutants were confirmed to be true non-survivors. 97 transposon insertion regions have been sequenced to date. Upon further analysis of these mutants, we classified the sediment survival genes into COG functional categories. STM mutant insertions were located in genes encoding proteins related to metabolism (33%), cellular processes (42%), and information storage and processing (17%). We also noted 8% of STM mutants identified had insertions in genes for hypothetical proteins or unknown functions. Interestingly, at least 64 of these genes encode cytoplasmic proteins, 46 encode inner membrane proteins, and only 7 encode periplasmic space and outer membrane associated proteins. Through blast search analysis, we also showed that 81 out of 94 proteins shown to be important in sediment survival have homologs in D. vulgaris, 70 have homologs in Geobacter metallireducens, and 69 have homologs in Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Some interesting proteins include ribonucleotide reductase and chemotaxis related proteins. Ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes the reductive synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from their corresponding ribonucleotides, providing the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Two ribonucleotide reductase genes (nrdE, nrdD) were found to be essential for G20 survival in the sediment, but not essential for growth in the lactate-sulfate medium. Bacterial methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) respond to changes in the concentration of attractants and repellents in the environment.

  13. Structural characterization and comparison of three acyl-carrier-protein synthases from pathogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halavaty, Andrei S. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Kim, Youngchang [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Zhou, Min [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Onopriyenko, Olena; Skarina, Tatiana [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6 (Canada); Papazisi, Leka; Kwon, Keehwan; Peterson, Scott N. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Joachimiak, Andrzej [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savchenko, Alexei [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6 (Canada); Anderson, Wayne F., E-mail: wf-anderson@northwestern.edu [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural characterization of acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) from three different pathogenic microorganisms is reported. One interesting finding of the present work is a crystal artifact related to the activity of the enzyme, which fortuitously represents an opportunity for a strategy to design a potential inhibitor of a pathogenic AcpS. Some bacterial type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS II) enzymes have been shown to be important candidates for drug discovery. The scientific and medical quest for new FAS II protein targets continues to stimulate research in this field. One of the possible additional candidates is the acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) enzyme. Its holo form post-translationally modifies the apo form of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), which assures the constant delivery of thioester intermediates to the discrete enzymes of FAS II. At the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID), AcpSs from Staphylococcus aureus (AcpS{sub SA}), Vibrio cholerae (AcpS{sub VC}) and Bacillus anthracis (AcpS{sub BA}) have been structurally characterized in their apo, holo and product-bound forms, respectively. The structure of AcpS{sub BA} is emphasized because of the two 3?, 5?-adenosine diphosphate (3?, 5?-ADP) product molecules that are found in each of the three coenzyme A (CoA) binding sites of the trimeric protein. One 3?, 5?-ADP is bound as the 3?, 5?-ADP part of CoA in the known structures of the CoA–AcpS and 3?, 5?-ADP–AcpS binary complexes. The position of the second 3?, 5?-ADP has never been described before. It is in close proximity to the first 3?, 5?-ADP and the ACP-binding site. The coordination of two ADPs in AcpS{sub BA} may possibly be exploited for the design of AcpS inhibitors that can block binding of both CoA and ACP.

  14. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of aerosolized bacteria collected from African dust events

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Wilson, Christina A.; Yeager, Chris; Smith, Garriet W.; Polson, Shawn W.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and characterized from air samples collected in Africa and the Caribbean by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Isolates were selected based on preliminary characterization as possible pathogens. Identification of the bacterial isolates was 25 achieved using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profiling, the BIOLOG Microlog® System (carbon substrate assay), and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR analysis. The majority of isolates (18/21) were identified as species of the genus Bacillus. Three isolates were classified within the Bacillus cereus senso lato group, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus cereus strains. Onemore »isolate was identified as a Staphylococcus sp., 30 most closely related to species (i.e Staphylococcus kloosii, Staphylococcus warneri) that are commonly associated with human or animal skin, but can also act as opportunistic pathogen. Another isolate was tentatively identified as Tsukamurella inchonensis, a known respiratory pathogen, and was resistant to the ten antibiotics tested including vancomycin.« less

  16. Sulfide controls on mercury speciation and bioavailability to methylating bacteria in sediment pore waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benoit, J.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center] [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center; [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States); Gilmour, C.C.; Heyes, A. [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center] [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center; Mason, R.P. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States)

    1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical equilibrium model for Hg complexation in sediments with sulfidic pore waters is presented. The purpose of the model was to explain observed relationships between pore water sulfide, dissolved inorganic Hg (Hg{sub D}), and bulk methylmercury (MeHg) in surficial sediments of two biogeochemically different ecosystems, the Florida Everglades and Patuxent River, MD. The model was constructed to test the hypothesis that the availability of Hg for methylation in sediments is a function of the concentration of neutral dissolved Hg complexes rather than Hg{sup 2+} or total Hg{sub D}. The model included interaction of mercury with solids containing one or two sulfide groups, and it was able to reproduce observed Hg{sub D} and bulk MeHg trends in the two ecosystems. The model is consistent with HgS{sup 0} as the dominant neutral Hg complex and the form of Hg accumulated by methylating bacteria in sulfidic pore waters. The model-estimated decline in HgS{sup 0} with increasing sulfide was consistent with the observed decline in bulk sediments MeHg. Since bacterial Hg uptake rate is one of the factors affecting methylation rate, Hg complexation models such as the one presented are helpful in understanding the factors that control MeHg production and accumulation in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of aerosolized bacteria collected from African dust events

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brigmon, Robin L. [Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL), Aiken, SC (United States); Wilson, Christina A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States); Yeager, Chris [Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, Garriet W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States); Polson, Shawn W. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Hollings Marine Lab.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and characterized from air samples collected in Africa and the Caribbean by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Isolates were selected based on preliminary characterization as possible pathogens. Identification of the bacterial isolates was 25 achieved using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profiling, the BIOLOG Microlog® System (carbon substrate assay), and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR analysis. The majority of isolates (18/21) were identified as species of the genus Bacillus. Three isolates were classified within the Bacillus cereus senso lato group, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus cereus strains. One isolate was identified as a Staphylococcus sp., 30 most closely related to species (i.e Staphylococcus kloosii, Staphylococcus warneri) that are commonly associated with human or animal skin, but can also act as opportunistic pathogen. Another isolate was tentatively identified as Tsukamurella inchonensis, a known respiratory pathogen, and was resistant to the ten antibiotics tested including vancomycin.

  18. Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun-juan Chang; Aaron D. Peacock; Philip E. Long; John R. Stephen; James P. Mckinley; Sarah J. Macnaughton; A. K. M. Anwar Hussain; Arnold M. Saxton; David C. White

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex., was investigated. Two culture-independent analyses were employed: sequencing of clone libraries of PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene fragments and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis. A remarkable diversity among the DSR sequences was revealed, including sequences from ?-Proteobacteria, gram-positive organisms, and the Nitrospira division. PLFA analysis detected at least 52 different mid-chain-branched saturate PLFA and included a high proportion of 10me16:0. Desulfotomaculum and Desulfotomaculum-like sequences were the most dominant DSR genes detected. Those belonging to SRB within ?-Proteobacteria were mainly recovered from low-uranium (1,500 ppb) sites. Logistic regression showed a significant influence of uranium concentration over the dominance of this cluster of sequences (P ? 0.0001). This strong association indicates that Desulfotomaculum has remarkable

  19. Composition, Reactivity, and Regulations of Extracellular Metal-Reducing Structures (Bacterial Nanowires) Produced by Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholten, Johannes

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research proposal seeks to describe the composition and function of electrically conductive appendages known as bacterial nanowires. This project targets bacterial nanowires produced by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria Shewanella and Geobacter. Specifically, this project will investigate the role of these structures in the reductive transformation of iron oxides as solid phase electron acceptors, as well as uranium as a dissolved electron acceptor that forms nanocrystalline particles of uraninite upon reduction.

  20. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Fabao [Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gu Wenjie, E-mail: guwenjie1982@yahoo.cn [Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi [Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  1. Overcoming the anaerobic hurdle in phenotypic microarrays: Generation andvisualization of growth curve data for Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique; Jacobsen, Janet; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hazen, Terry C.

    2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing anaerobic microorganisms in phenotypic microarrays (PM) and 96-well microtiter plates is an emerging technology that allows high throughput survey of the growth and physiology and/or phenotype of cultivable microorganisms. For non-model bacteria, a method for phenotypic analysis is invaluable, not only to serve as a starting point for further evaluation, but also to provide a broad understanding of the physiology of an uncharacterized wild-type organism or the physiology/phenotype of a newly created mutant of that organism. Given recent advances in genetic characterization and targeted mutations to elucidate genetic networks and metabolic pathways, high-throughput methods for determining phenotypic differences are essential. Here we outline challenges presented in studying the physiology and phenotype of a sulfate reducing anaerobic delta proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Modifications of the commercially available OmniLog(TM) system (Hayward, CA) for experimental setup, and configuration, as well as considerations in PM data analysis are presented. Also highlighted here is data viewing software that enables users to view and compare multiple PM data sets. The PM method promises to be a valuable strategy in our systems biology approach to D. vulgaris studies and is readily applicable to other anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.

  2. Effects of Lactic Acid and Commercial Chilling Processes on Survival of Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter coli in Pork Variety Meats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Amanda Mardelle

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    /sample, the application of lactic acid before chilling and freezing variety meats results in significantly larger (P<0.05) reductions in microorganisms. Results also show that aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms follow similar trends to the pathogens....

  3. Using Compost for Erosion Control and Revegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Composting refers to the biological decomposition and stabilization of organic materials by microorganisms under aerobic conditions. Compost from various materials (yard trimmings, manure, food processing residuals and other organic materials) has...

  4. A Bioreactor for Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Online Estimation of Specific Growth Rate and Biomass for the Deep-Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    Microbial Ecology A Bioreactor for Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Online Estimation production. The authors channeled the effluent gas of a bioreactor containing biogenic H2S purged from

  5. The relationship between the level of antibiotic use and resistance among enteric bacteria in a multi-site integrated human and swine population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Kristi Lynn

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , and erythromycin resistance were also important. This study provides a better understanding of the relationships between antibiotic prescribing practices at the ecologic level and the relative odds of carriage of resistant bacteria within two host species in a...

  6. Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways of Metal/Radionuclide-reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Title: Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways of Metal/Radionuclide-reducing Bacteria DOE Grant Number: DE-FG02-06ER64205 Principal Investigator: Jizhong (Joe) Zhou (University of Oklahoma) Key members: Zhili He, Aifen Zhou, Christopher Hemme, Joy Van Nostrand, Ye Deng, and Qichao Tu Collaborators: Terry Hazen, Judy Wall, Adam Arkin, Matthew Fields, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, and David Stahl Summary Three major objectives have been conducted in the Zhou group at the University of Oklahoma (OU): (i) understanding of gene function, regulation, network and evolution of Desulfovibrio vugaris Hildenborough in response to environmental stresses, (ii) development of metagenomics technologies for microbial community analysis, and (iii) functional characterization of microbial communities with metagenomic approaches. In the past a few years, we characterized four CRP/FNR regulators, sequenced ancestor and evolved D. vulgaris strains, and functionally analyzed those mutated genes identified in salt-adapted strains. Also, a new version of GeoChip 4.0 has been developed, which also includes stress response genes (StressChip), and a random matrix theory-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks has been developed with the high throughput functional gene array hybridization data as well as pyrosequencing data from 16S rRNA genes. In addition, GeoChip and sequencing technologies as well as network analysis approaches have been used to analyze microbial communities from different habitats. Those studies provide a comprehensive understanding of gene function, regulation, network, and evolution in D. vulgaris, and microbial community diversity, composition and structure as well as their linkages with environmental factors and ecosystem functioning, which has resulted in more than 60 publications.

  7. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  8. Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yun-Juan (Unknown); Peacock, A D. (Tennessee, Univ Of); Long, Philip E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephen, John R. (Unknown); McKinley, James P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mcnaughton, Sarah J. (Unknown); Hussain, A K M A.; Saxton, A M.; White, D C. (Unknown)

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(TV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex,, was investigated. Two culture-independent analyses were employed: sequencing of clone libraries of PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene fragments and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis. A remarkable diversity among the DSR sequences was revealed, including sequences from F-Proteobacteria, gram-positive organisms, and the Nitrospira division. PLFA analysis detected at least,52 different mid-chain-branched saturate PLFA and included a high proportion of 10me16:0, Desulfotomaculum and Desulfotomaculum-like sequences were the most dominant DSR genes detected. Those belonging to SRB within F-Proteobacteria were mainly recovered from low-uranium (less than or equal to 302 ppb) samples. One Desulfotomaculum like sequence cluster overwhelmingly dominated high-U (> 1,500 ppb) sites. Logistic regression showed a significant influence of uranium concentration over the dominance of this cluster of sequences (P= 0.0001), This strong association indicates that Desulfotomaculum has remarkable tolerance and adaptation to high levels of uranium and suggests the organism's possible involvement in natural attenuation of uranium. The in situ activity level of Desulfotomaculum in uranium-contaminated environments and its comparison to the activities of other SRB and other functional groups should be an important area for future research.

  9. Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria Jun Ye, Kewei Sun, Yang Zhao, Yunjin Yu, Chee Kong Lee et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Jianshu

    Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria Jun Ye, Kewei Sun, Yang://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 136, 245104 (2012) Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria Jun Ye,1 Kewei Sun,1 Yang Zhao,1,a) Yunjin Yu,1,2 Chee Kong Lee,1 and Jianshu

  10. The effects of petroleum residues and the associated degrading bacteria on the development and survival of the larvae of Penaeus aztecus ives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clary, John Curtis

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of oil pollutants on marine animals, especially birds, shellfish and marine mammals, are well documented. Spill incidents such as the TORREY CANYON, BURMA AGATE, ARGO MERCHANT and Santa Barbara have provided a wealth of information concerning... cited in this section document that marine waters are almost routinely polluted with petroleum from discharges, spills and seepages. Petroleum affects not only the fauna but also the flora, specifically, the bacteria. Oil-degrading bacteria appear...

  11. In vivo metabolism of 2,2 prime -diaminopimelic acid from gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells by ruminal microorganisms and ruminants and its use as a marker of bacterial biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masson, H.A.; Denholm, A.M.; Ling, J.R. (Univ. College of Wales (United Kingdom))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cells of Bacillus megaterium GW1 and Escherichia coli W7-M5 were specifically radiolabeled with 2,2{prime}-diamino (G-{sup 3}H) pimelic acid (({sup 3}H)DAP) as models of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Two experiments were conducted to study the in vivo metabolism of 2,2{prime}-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) in sheep. In experiment 1, cells of ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 were infused into the rumen of one sheep and the radiolabel was traced within microbial samples, digesta, and the whole animal. Bacterially bound ({sup 3}H)DAP was extensively metabolized, primarily (up to 70% after 8 h) via decarboxylation to ({sup 3}H)lysine by both ruminal protozoa and ruminal bacteria. Recovery of infused radiolabel in urine and feces was low (42% after 96 h) and perhaps indicative of further metabolism by the host animal. In experiment 2, ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 was infused into the rumens of three sheep and ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled E. coli W7-W5 was infused into the rumen of another sheep. The radioactivity contents of these mutant bacteria were insufficient to use as tracers, but the metabolism of DAP was monitored in the total, free, and peptidyl forms. Free DAP, as a proportion of total DPA in duodenal digesta, varied from 0 to 9.5%, whereas peptidyl DAP accounted for 8.3 to 99.2%.

  12. Association of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms withbuilding-related symptoms and water damage in 100 U.S. office buildings:Analyses of the U.S. EPA BASE data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Lei, Quanhong; Cozen, Myrna O.; Shendell, DerekG.; Macher, Janet M.; Tsai, Feng C.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metrics of culturable airborne microorganisms for either total organisms or suspected harmful subgroups have generally not been associated with symptoms among building occupants. However, the visible presence of moisture damage or mold in residences and other buildings has consistently been associated with respiratory symptoms and other health effects. This relationship is presumably caused by adverse but uncharacterized exposures to moisture-related microbiological growth. In order to assess this hypothesis, we studied relationships in U.S. office buildings between the prevalence of respiratory and irritant symptoms, the concentrations of airborne microorganisms that require moist surfaces on which to grow, and the presence of visible water damage. For these analyses we used data on buildings, indoor environments, and occupants collected from a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (EPA BASE) study. We created 19 alternate metrics, using scales ranging from 3-10 units, that summarized the concentrations of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms (AMIMOs) as indicators of moisture in buildings. Two were constructed to resemble a metric previously reported to be associated with lung function changes in building occupants; the others were based on another metric from the same group of Finnish researchers, concentration cutpoints from other studies, and professional judgment. We assessed three types of associations: between AMIMO metrics and symptoms in office workers, between evidence of water damage and symptoms, and between water damage and AMIMO metrics. We estimated (as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals) the unadjusted and adjusted associations between the 19 metrics and two types of weekly, work-related symptoms--lower respiratory and mucous membrane--using logistic regression models. Analyses used the original AMIMO metrics and were repeated with simplified dichotomized metrics. The multivariate models adjusted for other potential confounding variables associated with respondents, occupied spaces, buildings, or ventilation systems. Models excluded covariates for moisture-related risks hypothesized to increase AMIMO levels. We also estimated the association of water damage (using variables for specific locations in the study space or building, or summary variables) with the two symptom outcomes. Finally, using selected AMIMO metrics as outcomes, we constructed logistic regression models with observations at the building level to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations of evident water damage with AMIMO metrics. All original AMIMO metrics showed little overall pattern of unadjusted or adjusted association with either symptom outcome. The 3-category metric resembling that previously used by others, which of all constructed metrics had the largest number of buildings in its top category, was not associated with symptoms in these buildings. However, most metrics with few buildings in their highest category showed increased risk for both symptoms in that category, especially metrics using cutpoints of >100 but <500 colony-forming units (CFU)/m{sup 3} for concentration of total culturable fungi. With AMIMO metrics dichotomized to compare the highest category with all lower categories combined, four metrics had unadjusted ORs between 1.4 and 1.6 for both symptom outcomes. The same four metrics had adjusted ORs of 1.7-2.1 for both symptom outcomes. In models of water damage and symptoms, several specific locations of past water damage had significant associations with outcomes, with ORs ranging from 1.4-1.6. In bivariate models of water damage and selected AMIMO metrics, a number of specific types of water damage and several summary variables for water damage were very strongly associated with AMIMO metrics (significant ORs ranging above 15). Multivariate modeling with the dichotomous AMIMO metrics was not possible due to limited numbers of observations.

  13. Photosynthate partitioning within Oryza sativa L. in response to additions of gentamicin or diazotrophic bacteria to the rooting medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simonson, Randal Luverne

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relies on it as their primary foodstuff (5), Rice seeds were dehulled and surface sterilized by placing them in a solution of equal volumes of 0. 5 hypochlorite and citrate buffer (pH 3. 2) containing 0. 2 Triton-X-100 (1). The seeds in the solution... Gentamicin at concentrations of up to 800 ppm was added to the rooting medium of ~Or za sativa L. to exclude the bacteria. The rice plants were harvested at seedling, tillering or anthesis stages of growth following pulse- labeling with ''CO...

  14. Quiet Wing | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 The Science Lipids derived from oil-rich microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and microalgae offer a promising source of renewable fuels and... Battery performance at the...

  15. Biosystem Dynamics & Design | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 The Science Lipids derived from oil-rich microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and microalgae offer a promising source of renewable fuels and... Switching it up Posted:...

  16. Aerobic Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    , the propane monooxygenase (PMO) en- zyme of Mycobacterium vaccae JOB-5, and the toluene 4-monooxygenases found Pro- tection Agency cleanup level of 0.7 ng/L and a interim California action level of 10 ng/L (Cal

  17. METHANE INCORPORATION BY PROCARYOTIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, Charles J.; Kirk, Martha; Calvin, Melvin

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blue-green alga. Low-density nuclear material is abundant inobtained from the New England Nuclear Corpor- ation (NEN) inin C H The New England Nuclear Corporation was unable to

  18. Pentanol isomer synthesis in engineered microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol are a useful classMethyl-1-butanol . 3-Methyl-1-butanol . Biofuels 32 MJ/L for2007). In particular, 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol)

  19. Microorganism genomics, compositions and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Handelsman, Jo (Madison, WI); Goodman, Robert M. (Madison, WI); Rondon, Michelle R. (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for accessing, in a generally unbaised manner, a diverse genetic pool for genes involved in biosynthetic pathways. The invention also provides compounds which can be identified by cloning biosynthetic pathways.

  20. Pentanol isomer synthesis in engineered microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential application as biofuels. They are found as natural3-Methyl-1-butanol . Biofuels 32 MJ/L for gasoline) and aabout microbial production of biofuels in general have been

  1. R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Potential pathogenic bacteria in metalworking uids and aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Potential pathogenic bacteria in metalworking £uids and aerosols from metalworking processing aerosolize bacterial cells and may cause dermatologic and respiratory effects in exposed workers. We quantified and identified the bacterial load for metalworking fluid and aerosol

  2. USATODAY.com -Bacteria-powered battery runs on a sweet tooth Page 1 Close|EMAIL THIS|SAVE THIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    |SAVE THIS Bacteria-powered battery runs on a sweet tooth By Elizabeth Weise USA TODAY Scientists at the University in carbohydrates and turn them into electricity. Previous research has shown it is possible to use microbes to turn organic matter into electricity, but the process required the use of added materials to shuttle

  3. Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert waste to electricity. Professor Derek Lovley from at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. The researchers isolated a strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens which

  4. Rust-Breathing Bacteria: Miracle Microbes? Search news.nationalgeographic.com Sign up for our free e-mail newsletter Also see: Today's Top Stories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    colleagues sequenced the genome of a Geobacter species that can generate electricity and cleanup groundwater up polluted groundwater, generate electricity, and may harbor clues to the origins of life. That with another wonder from the Geobacter genus of bacteria. "When we think we have hit the last of the big

  5. Bacteria power may be possible http://www.masslive.com/hampfrank/republican/index.ssf?/base/news... 1 of 2 5/12/2006 2:33 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    fuel cells powered by so-called geobacter, tiny bacteria that convert iron to electricity, to the point geobacter) to change that trash to electricity," Lovley said. A typical fuel cell converts fuels that conduct electricity to the outside for use as power. The UMass researchers found that when the geobacter

  6. Processing of cellulosic material by a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from cellulase-producing bacteria, ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate, have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase degrading bacterium ATCC 55702, which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic materials.

  7. Twenty-One Genome Sequences from Pseudomonas Species and 19 Genome Sequences from Diverse Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere and Endosphere of Populus deltoides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Martin, Stanton [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome we generated draft genome sequences for twenty one Pseudomonas and twenty one other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Burkholderia, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium and Variovorax were generated.

  8. Single-cell genomics reveal metabolic strategies for microbial growth and survival in an oligotrophic aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Kennedy, David W.; Castelle, Cindy; Field, Erin; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria from the genus Pedobacter are a major component of microbial assemblages at Hanford Site and have been shown to significantly change in abundance in response to the subsurface intrusion of Columbia River water. Here we employed single cell genomics techniques to shed light on the physiological niche of these microorganisms. Analysis of four Pedobacter single amplified genomes (SAGs) from Hanford Site sediments revealed a chemoheterotrophic lifestyle, with the potential to exist under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions via expression of both aa3­?type and cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases. These SAGs encoded a wide-range of both intra-and extra­-cellular carbohydrate-active enzymes, potentially enabling the degradation of recalcitrant substrates such as xylan and chitin, and the utilization of more labile sugars such as mannose and fucose. Coupled to these enzymes, a diversity of transporters and sugar-binding molecules were involved in the uptake of carbon from the extracellular local environment. The SAGs were enriched in TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs), which play a key role in uptake of substrates resulting from degradation of recalcitrant carbon. CRISPR-Cas mechanisms for resisting viral infections were identified in all SAGs. These data demonstrate the potential mechanisms utilized for persistence by heterotrophic microorganisms in a carbon-limited aquifer, and hint at potential linkages between observed Pedobacter abundance shifts within the 300 Area subsurface and biogeochemical shifts associated with Columbia River water intrusion.

  9. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  10. Single-cell analysis of growth in budding yeast and bacteria reveals a common size regulation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilya Soifer; Lydia Robert; Naama Barkai; Ariel Amir

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Unicellular organism from various kingdoms of life face the challenge of regulating their size. Despite decades of research, we still do not have a good understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation, and how cells coordinate the different events of the cell cycle, such as growth, division and DNA replication is still unclear. Here, we report on experimental results for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the bacterium Escherichia coli, showing that, remarkably, they share a common strategy for cell size control. We collected data on single-cell growth and cell cycle progression in S. cerevisiae in several growth media and estimated the distributions of size at birth and interdivision time as well as their correlations throughout cell lineages. We also performed the same analysis on previously collected data on single-cell growth and division in E. coli. The results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the incremental model, which leads to the addition of a constant volume (up to fluctuations), independent of size at birth, between birth and division; we show that in both organisms size at birth and size at division exhibit a linear relationship with slope one. This result, together with extended additional analysis supporting the incremental model, argues against the existing "critical size" paradigm for cell size control in bacteria and yeast.

  11. Comparison of Optimal Thermodynamic Models of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle from Heterotrophs, Cyanobacteria, and Green Sulfur Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Jaramillo Riveri, Sebastian I.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux in the different oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on equations of state and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the selforganization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals, such as biofuels.

  12. Competitive Reduction of Pertechnetate (99TcO4?) by Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria and Biogenic Fe(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plymale, Andrew E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Heald, Steve M.; Moore, Dean A.; Kennedy, David W.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Chong M.; Resch, Charles T.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate of pertechnetate (99Tc(VII)O4 -) during bioreduction was investigated in the presence of 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh) and various dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) (Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Shewanella) in comparison with TcO4 - bioreduction in the absence of Fh. In the presence of Fh, Tc was present primarily as a fine-grained Tc(IV)/Fe precipitate that was distinct from the Tc(IV)O2 ·nH2O solids produced by direct biological Tc(VII) reduction. Aqueous Tc concentrations (<0.2 ?m) in the bioreduced Fh suspensions (1.7 to 3.2 × 10-9 mol L-1) were over 1 order of magnitude lower than when TcO4 - was biologically reduced in the absence of Fh (4.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-7 mol L-1). EXAFS analyses of the bioreduced Fh-Tc products were consistent with variable chain length Tc-O octahedra bonded to Fe-O octahedra associated with the surface of the residual or secondary Fe(III) oxide. In contrast, biogenic TcO2 ·nH2O had significantly more Tc-Tc second neighbors and a distinct long-range order consistent with small particle polymers of TcO2. In Fe-rich subsurface sediments, the reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) may predominate over direct microbial pathways, potentially leading to lower concentrations of aqueous 99Tc(IV).

  13. CORROSION SCIENCE SECTION CORROSION--Vol. 58, No. 5 417

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    CORROSION SCIENCE SECTION CORROSION--Vol. 58, No. 5 417 0010-9312/02/000095/$5.00+$0.50/0 © 2002 of California­Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575. Corrosion Control of Mild Steel by Aerobic Bacteria Under.J. Arps, and J.C. Earthman****** ABSTRACT Corrosion of mild steel under aerobic conditions in the pres

  14. of pattern formation by swimming microorgan-isms. J. Protozool. 22: 296-306.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . M. 1987. Motility and chemotaxis, p. 732-759. In F. C. Neidhardt [ed.], Escherichia coli the ba- sis for a stratified marine microbial ecosystem. Nature 316: 58-59. OKUBO, A. 1971. Horizontal Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc. Fractal geometry of marine snow and other biological

  15. Bacteria mediated heat sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Vu Anh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many applications, such as laser diode technology, utilize components (eg. resistors) which have performance characteristics heavily dependent on temperature, and therefore, maintaining constant temperature is essential ...

  16. Beyond Bacteria | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 22, 2011 Fungus study offers insights about biogeochemical cycling, bioremediation EMSL users helped fill a gap in the research community's knowledge about the role...

  17. Bacteria Media Media Sterilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    immediately at end of liquid cycle. Volume Vessel Exposure Time 100 ml Glass Bottle/Flask 25 minutes 500 ml Glass Bottle/Flask 35 minutes 1 L Plastic Fernbach Flask 45 minutes For Plates: Add 16 g Bacto-agar per ml NZCYM. Set up 5 - 10 bottles at a time. #12;

  18. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, D.A.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

  19. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Luo, Jian [Stanford University; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [ORNL

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 M and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  20. A combined massively parallel sequencing indicator species approach revealed significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Gentry, Terry [Texas A& M University; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Watson, David B [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A. [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee; Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has been mostly used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium (VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee, USA. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 {micro}M, and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner loop injection well towards the outer loop and down-gradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical created conditions. Castellaniella, and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity; while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. Abundance of these bacteria as well as the Fe(III)- and U(VI)-reducer Geobacter correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to the electron donor addition and by the groundwater flow path. A false discovery rate approach was implemented to discard false positives by chance given the large amount of data compared.

  1. Use of the high-energy x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source to investigate the interactions between metals and bacteria.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemner, K. M.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Schneegurt, M. A.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P. P.; Kulpa, C. F.; Legnini, D. G.; Nealson, K. H.; Pratt, S. T.; Rodrigues, W.; Tischler, M. L.; Yun, W.

    1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Among the factors influencing the transport of these contaminants are their chemical separation and the chemical and physical attributes of the surrounding medium. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. In addition, the microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cell surfaces can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, the spatial distribution and chemical separation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron resolution in order to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate. Hard X-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at th needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of this technique results from the large penetration depth of hard X-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. This paper presents results of studies of the spatial distribution of naturally occurring metals and a heavy-metal contaminant (Cr) in and near hydrated bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in the early stages of biofilm development, performed at the Advanced Photon Source Sector 2 X-ray microscopy beamline.

  2. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Kim F.; Bi, Yuqiang; Carpenter, Julian; Hyng, Sung Pil; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender; Davis, James A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This overarching aim of this project was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed under sulfate-reducing conditions when subjected to re-oxidizing conditions. The work reported herein was achieved through the collaborative research effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM). Research at ASU, focused on the biogenesis aspects, examined the biogeochemical bases for iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium that is one of the most-studied strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A series of experimental studies were performed to investigate comprehensively important metabolic and environmental factors that affect the rates of sulfate reduction and iron-sulfide precipitation, the mineralogical characteristics of the iron sulfides, and how uranium is reduced or co-reduced by D. vulagaris. FeS production studies revealed that controlling the pH affected the growth of D. vulgaris and strongly influenced the formation and growth of FeS solids. In particular, lower pH produced larger-sized mackinawite (Fe1+xS). Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led to larger-sized mackinawite and stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite (Fe3S4) when the free sulfide concentration was 29.3 mM. On the other hand, using solid Fe(III) (hydr)oxides as the iron source led to less productivity of FeS due to their slow and incomplete dissolution and scavenging of sulfide. Furthermore, sufficient free Fe2+, particularly during Fe(III) (hydr)oxide reductions, led to the additional formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8(H2O)]. The U(VI) reduction studies revealed that D. vulgaris reduced U(VI) fastest when accumulating sulfide from concomitant sulfate reduction, since direct enzymatic and sulfide-based reductions of U(VI) occurred in parallel. The UO2 produced in presence of ferrous iron was poorly crystalline. At UM, laboratory-scale reactor studies were performed to assess the potential for the predominant abiotic reductants formed under sulfate reducing conditions (SRCs) to: (1) reduce U(VI) in contaminated groundwater sediments), and (2) inhibit the re-oxidation of U(IV) species, and in particular, uraninite (UO2(s)). Under SRCs, mackinawite and aqueous sulfide are the key reductants expected to form. To assess their potential for abiotic reduction of U(VI) species, a series of experiments were performed in which either FeS or S(-II) was added to solutions of U(VI), with the rates of conversion to U(IV) solids monitored as a function of pH, and carbonate and calcium concentration. In the presence of FeS and absence of oxygen or carbonate, U(IV) was completely reduced uraninite. S(-II) was also found to be an effective reductant of aqueous phase U(VI) species and produced uraninite, with the kinetics and extent of reduction depending on geochemical conditions. U(VI) reduction to uraninite was faster under higher S(-II) concentrations but was slowed by an increase in the dissolved Ca or carbonate concentration. Rapid reduction of U(VI) occurred at circumneutral pH but virtually no reduction occurred at pH 10.7. In general, dissolved Ca and carbonate slowed abiotic U(VI) reduction by forming stable Ca-U(VI)-carbonate soluble complexes that are resistant to reaction with aqueous sulfide. To investigate the stability of U(IV) against re-oxidation in the presence of iron sulfides by oxidants in simulated groundwater environments, and to develop a mechanistic understanding the controlling redox processes, continuously-mixed batch reactor (CMBR) and flow-through reactor (CMFR) studies were performed at UM. In these studies a series of experiments were conducted under various oxic groundwater conditions to examine the effectiveness of FeS as an oxygen scavenger to retard UO2 dissolution. The results indicate that FeS is an effective oxygen scavenger, and can lower the rate of oxidative dissolution of UO2 by over an order of magnitude compared to

  3. 23/01/2008 20:56Null Hypothesis | Straight Talking Page 1 of 2http://www.null-hypothesis.co.uk/science/straight-talking/item/selfish_bacteria_threaten_slime_cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    and even cheat on each other," Diggle said. Sound like anyone you know? As Diggle hints, such human Experiment: Speed of Light Candiru: The Willy Fish For The Love Of PCR Video Games & Sick Leave 10 Rules.com Liquid Zeolite 100% Pure Zeolite 30ml bottles Lab- Certified 100% Bacteria-Free. www.liquid

  4. UPI.com: Bacteria might prove to be energy source http://license.icopyright.net/user/viewFreeUse.act?fuid=Mzk4NDQ= 1 of 1 6/5/2006 12:31 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    fuel cells show promise for conversion of organic wastes and renewable biomass to electricity by allowing bacteria in microbial fuel cells to grow on biofilms in the electrodes of a fuel cell. This week, but further optimization is required for most applications," said Derek Lovley of the University

  5. Impact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Impact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian Faculty Mentor: Professor Chul Park, Civil & Environmental Engineering Digestion by bacteria is a widely used method for organic is by either aerobic or anaerobic self-digestion, in which the bacteria consume their own mass. Currently

  6. Nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) as functional markers to investigate diversity of denitrifying bacteria in Pacific northwest marine sediment communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braker, G.; Zhou, J.; Wu, L.; Devol, A.H.; Tiedje, J.M.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genetic heterogeneity of denitrifying bacteria in sediment samples from Puget Sound and two sites on the Washington continental margin was studied by PCR approaches amplifying nirK and nirS genes. These structurally different but functionally equivalent single-copy genes coding for nitrite reductases, a key enzyme of the denitrification process, were used as a molecular marker for denitrifying bacteria. nirS sequences could be amplified from samples of both sampling sites, whereas nirK sequences were detected only in samples from the Washington margin. To assess the underlying nir gene structure, PCR products of both genes were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Rarefraction analysis revealed a high level of diversity especially for nirS clones from Puget Sound and a slightly lower level of diversity for nirK and nirS clones from the Washington margin. One group dominated within nirK clones, but no dominance and only a few redundant clones were seen between sediment samples for nirS clones in both habitats. Hybridization and sequencing confirmed that all but one of the 228 putative nirS clones were nirS with levels of nucleotide identities as low as 45.3%. Phylogenetic analysis grouped nirS clones into three distinct subclusters within the nirS gene tree which corresponded to the two habitats from which they were obtained. These sequences had little relationship to any strain with known nirS sequences or to isolates (mostly close relatives of Pseudomonas stutzeri) from the Washington margin sediment samples. nirK clones were more closely related to each other than were the nirS clones, with 78.6% and higher nucleotide identities; clones showing only weak hybridization signals were not related to known nirK sequences. All nirK clones were also grouped into a distinct cluster which could not be placed with any strain with known nirK sequences. These findings show a very high diversity of nir sequences within small samples and that these novel nir clusters, some very divergent from known sequences, are not known in cultivated denitrifiers.

  7. Production and preliminary characterization of a recombinant triheme cytochrome c7 from Geobacter sulfurreducens in Escherichia coli.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londer, Y. Y.; Pokkuluri, P. R.; Tiede, D. M.; Schiffer, M.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiheme cytochromes c have been found in a number of sulfate- and metal ion-reducing bacteria. Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of a family of microorganisms that oxidize organic compounds, with Fe(III) oxide as the terminal electron acceptor. A triheme 9.6 kDa cytochrome c{sub 7} from G. sulfurreducens is a part of the metal ion reduction pathway. We cloned the gene for cytochrome c{sub 7} and expressed it in Escherichia coli together with the cytochrome c maturation gene cluster, ccmABCDEFGH, on a separate plasmid. We designed two constructs, with and without an N-terminal His-tag. The untagged version provided a good yield (up to 6 mg/l of aerobic culture) of the fully matured protein, with all three hemes attached, while the N-terminal His-tag appeared to be detrimental for proper heme incorporation. The recombinant protein (untagged) is properly folded, it has the same molecular weight and displays the same absorption spectra, both in reduced and in oxidized forms, as the protein isolated from G. sulfurreducens and it is capable of reducing metal ions in vitro. The shape parameters for the recombinant cytochrome c{sub 7} determined by small angle X-ray scattering are in good agreement with the ones calculated from a homologous cytochrome c{sub 7} of known structure.

  8. Assessment of microbial processes on radionuclide mobility in shallow land burial. [West Valley, NY; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, P.; Tate, R.L. III; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of microbial metabolism of the organic substituents of low level radioactive wastes on radionuclide mobility in disposal sites, the nature of the microbial transformations involved in this metabolism and the effect of the prevailing environmental parameters on the quantities and types of metabolic intermediates accumulated were examined. Since both aerobic and anaerobic periods can occur during trench ecosystem development, oxidation capacities of the microbial community in the presence and absence of oxygen were analyzed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites were reviewed. Several deficiencies in available data were determined. Further research needs are suggested. This assessment has demonstrated that the biochemical capabilities expressed within the low level radioactive waste disposal site are common to a wide variety of soil bacteria. Hence, assuming trenches would not be placed in sites with such extreme abiotic conditions that all microbial activity is precluded, the microbial populations needed for colonization and decomposition of the organic waste substances are readily provided from the waste itself and from the soil of existing and any proposed disposal sites. Indeed, considering the ubiquity of occurrence of the microorganisms responsible for waste decomposition and the chemical nature of the organic waste material, long-term prevention of biodecomposition is difficult, if not impossible.

  9. Study of thermal conductivity in organic solid wastes before composting J. HUET, C. Druilhe, G. Debenest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of thermal conductivity in organic solid wastes before composting J. HUET, C. Druilhe, G. Debenest ORBIT2012 1 STUDY OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY IN ORGANIC SOLID WASTES BEFORE COMPOSTING J. Huet and disposal. Composting can be defined as the process whereby aerobic micro-organisms convert organic

  10. Micro-algal Biotechnology Singh, S urendra. (editor)..

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiel, Teresa

    , transportable and renewable source of energy that can meet the need for power throughout the world. Biological production of hydrogen, especially by photosynthetic microorganisms that use sunlight for energy, provides hydrogen in an aerobic environment using these microalgae. Genetic modifications of cyanobacteria

  11. Molecular analysis of deep subsurface Cretaceous rock indicates abundant Fe(III)- and S°-reducing bacteria in a sulfate-rich environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovacik, William P.; Takai, Ken; Mormile, Melanie R.; McKinley, James P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Holben, William E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-level sampler (MLS) was emplaced in a borehole straddling anaerobic, sulfate-rich Cretaceous-era shale and sandstone rock formations {approx}200 m below ground surface at Cerro Negro, New Mexico. Sterile quartzite sand contained in chambers in the sampler allowed in situ colonization and recovery of nucleic acids for molecular analyses. DGGE and 16S rRNA gene cloning results indicated a homogeneously distributed bacterial community across the shale/sandstone interface. ?-Proteobacteria sequences were common at all depths, and were dominated by members of the Geobacteraceae family (Pelobacter, Desulfuromonas, and Geobacter). Other members of this group are capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) and/or S0 reduction, but not sulfate reduction. RNA hybridization data also suggested that Fe(III)/S0 reducing bacteria were predominant. These findings are striking considering the lack of significant concentrations of these electron acceptors in this environment. The next most abundant bacterial group indicated was the sulfate reducers, including Desulfobacterium, Desulfocapsa and Desulfobulbus. Sequences related to fermenters, denitrifiers and acetogens were also recovered. The presence of a phylogenetically and functionally diverse microbial community in this deep subsurface environment likely reflects the complex nature of the primary energy and carbon sources, kerogen associated with the shale.

  12. Production of extracellular nucleic acids by genetically altered bacteria in aquatic-environment microcosms. [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J.H.; David, A.W. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. Cellular nucleic acids were labeled in vivo by incubation with ({sup 3}H)thymidine or ({sup 3}H)adenine, and production of extracellular DNA in marine waters, artificial seawater, or minimal salts media was determined by detecting radiolabeled macromolecules in incubation filtrates. The presence or absence of the ambient microbial community had little effect on the production of extracellular DNA. Three of four organisms produced the greatest amounts of extracellular nucleic acids when incubated in low-salinity media (2% artificial seawater) rather than high-salinity media (10 to 50% artificial seawater). The greatest production of extracellular nucleic acids by P. cepacia occurred at pH 7 and 37{degree}C, suggesting that extracellular-DNA production may be a normal physiologic function of the cell. Incubation of labeled P. cepacia cells in water from Bimini Harbor, Bahamas, resulted in labeling of macromolecules of the ambient microbial population. Collectively these results indicate that (i) extracellular-DNA production by genetically altered bacteria released into aquatic environments is more strongly influenced by physicochemical factors than biotic factors, (ii) extracellular-DNA production rates are usually greater for organisms released in freshwater than marine environments, and (iii) ambient microbial populations can readily utilize materials released by these organisms.

  13. Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougal, R.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

  14. Understanding what we cannot see: automatic analysis of 4D digital in-line holographic microscopy data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to investigate bacteria like Escherichia Coli [5]. An- other way of measuring 3D trajectories is stereoscopy-prey interactions [1], biofilm-formation [2], or biofouling by marine microorganisms [3,4]. Understanding

  15. High-throughput experimental and computational tools for exploring immunity and the microbiome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papa, Eliseo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Humans live in association with trillions of microbes and yet we know remarkably little about their symbiotic relationship. The role these microorganisms have in humans has been characterized only in the case of few bacteria ...

  16. Microbial studies of compost: bacterial identification, and their potential for turfgrass pathogen suppression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boland, Greg J.

    Microbial studies of compost: bacterial identification, and their potential for turfgrass pathogen; accepted 17 April 2002 Keywords: Bacteria, compost, biocontrol disease suppression, grey snow mould Composting is the degradation of organic materials through the activities of diverse microorganisms

  17. The Centre for Microbial Innovation (CMI) is a unique cross disciplinary environment for theoretical and practical research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auckland, University of

    , health, energy and the environment. The CMI is harnessing the vast capabilities of microorganisms the presence of 12 undetermined genera and 30 known genera including 37 bacteria, 4 fungi and 1 microalga

  18. Ecology, 93(8), 2012, pp. 18671879 2012 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    of soil bacteria and fungi along a soil moisture gradient. On average, soil microorganisms had relatively with metabolism restricted to less-negative water potentials. These contrasting ecological strategies had microorganisms is highly conserved. In addition, variation in microbial responses along the moisture gradient

  19. Bioremediation of nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Frank Fanqing; Keasling, Jay D; Tang, Yinjie J

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method comprising the use of microorganisms for nanotoxicity study and bioremediation. In some embodiment, the microorganisms are bacterial organisms such as Gram negative bacteria, which are used as model organisms to study the nanotoxicity of the fullerene compounds: E. coli W3110, a human related enterobacterium and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an environmentally important bacterium with versatile metabolism.

  20. Kinetic and Inhibition Studies for the Aerobic Cometabolism of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    was indicated from direct linear plots, and the CAHs also competitively inhibited butane utilization. 1,1-DCE indicator of competitive inhibition ob- served. Butane was a strong inhibitor of CAH transfor- mation different inhibition types were ob- served among the compounds. Competitive inhibition among CAHs

  1. aerobic granular sbr: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Cloud storage The good Flexiblity, Elasticity Replication, Data Dissemination No CapEx The bad Latency, (Throughput) Long-term OpEx Consistency The ugly Security 5 A...

  2. aerobic granular sludge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Cloud storage The good Flexiblity, Elasticity Replication, Data Dissemination No CapEx The bad Latency, (Throughput) Long-term OpEx Consistency The ugly Security 5 A...

  3. aerobic granular sewage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Cloud storage The good Flexiblity, Elasticity Replication, Data Dissemination No CapEx The bad Latency, (Throughput) Long-term OpEx Consistency The ugly Security 5 A...

  4. aerobic batch fermentations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    motivating application we try to optimize the power output of nano-enhanced Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). MFCsHybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization Javad Azimi...

  5. aerobic reactions abbau: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an...

  6. aerobic physical exercise: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have been used as a means of evaluating exercise tolerance. Heart rate (HR) in horses at rest and during exercise can... on an equine treadmill was administered...

  7. aerobic microbial ecosystems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    78 Ecosystem Viable Yields CERN Preprints Summary: The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010....

  8. aerobic microbial cometabolism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    costs, well and formation plugging, etc. Cometabolic Hazen, Terry 11 Characterizing MTBE Cometabolism and Propane Metabolism by Mycobacterium austroafricanum JOB5. Open Access...

  9. aerobic biological treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L. Rezende; Kimberly A. Hammond 2003-01-01 17 Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water University of California eScholarship Repository Summary:...

  10. aerobic activated sludge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and staff available for flue gas scrubbing test with dry lime sludge. The Ames Power Plant provided fly ash for the construction of the test embankment. iii Disclaimer "The...

  11. aerobic hydrogen accumulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  12. aerobic methanotrophic communities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and government. Forest Renewal BC funding- from stumpage fees and royalties that forest companies pay for the right to harvest timber on Crown lands- is reinvested in the forest,...

  13. aerobic training program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Program EHS 303 - Laser Lessons Learned Training Course Syllabus Subject Category: Laser Safety Course Course Purpose: In compliance with the Special...

  14. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE INTERVENTION ON PAINFUL DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Min

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    maximal exercise test Skin biopsy Visit 6: CTSU (~ 1 ½ hours, ~1 week after the intervention end) Post-intervention Blood draw *Snack provided Q-Sweat iDXA scan TAPA = telephone assessment of physical activity; DXA = dual-energy X...-sedentary group, the STZ-exercise group showed greater expression of Hsp72, a heat shock protein thought to protect against cell injury and repair damaged nerves [12]. Hsp72 may achieve this by acting as molecular chaperones to correct protein folding...

  15. aerobic efficiency measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R-10 minimum 1.50sq foot Space Heating and Cooling ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES Residential Eligible Measures List 12;Category Kammen, Daniel M. 4 Microsensor measurements of...

  16. aerobic chinese hamster: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet biophantoms Engineering Websites Summary: Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient...

  17. aerobic endurance training: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that shape. The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) will build a 25-30 year laboratory on the seafloor, in the water column, and at the ocean surface. It will make...

  18. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    sea de alta calidad. En el sistema, las aguas negras primero entran al tanque de pretratamiento o a la trampa de basura, que saca los objetos pl?sticos y otros s?lidos que flotan o se asientan. Despu?s, entra a un tanque de aireaci?n donde el ox... Sistemas individuales para el tratamiento de aguas negras Fosa de basura de un compartimiento Cloronizador Unidad de tratamiento aer?bico Rociadores Tanque bomba Unidad de tratamiento aer?bico Bruce Lesikar y Juan Enciso Promotores Especialistas de...

  19. activity aerobic capacity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of bovine and human endothelial cells that are inhibited by anti-FGF-2 antibody. Heat-inactivated FGF-2 retains its cell-adhesive activity despite its incapacity to bind...

  20. aerobic physical activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bandettini, Peter A. 59 Petrovay: Solar physics Activity phenomena 1 Overall structure: umbra + penumbra. Physics Websites Summary: Petrovay: Solar physics Activity phenomena 1...

  1. Comment on "Growing Rice Aerobically Markedly Decreases Arsenic Accumulation"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    , A.; Zheng, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Yi, H.; Dhar, R.; Garnier, J. M.; Rose, J.; Seddique, A. A.; Hoque, M. A

  2. aerobic microbial metabolism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detection of Extraterrestrial Life CERN Preprints Summary: Since the 1970's, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments aimed to the detection of...

  3. aerobic nitrogen fixation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests may be among the highest on earth. However, data supporting this contention are rare Cleveland, Cory 70 Nitrogen Controls on Climate Model Evapotranspiration University...

  4. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    puestas a prueba y tener una certificaci?n de acuerdo con las normas internacionales Standard 40 de la ?National Sanitation Foundation? para los dispositivos de tratamiento de aguas negras. Las unidades de tratamiento aer?bico que pasan las pruebas se...

  5. aerobic membrane bioreactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about the toxic and carcinogenic effects of this metal requires very tight eff luent controls. This study was an investigation of the effectiveness of the process in...

  6. aerobic treatment units: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (g) Settling time (min) Time (days) Time (days) Biomass 25 Field investigation on the treatment of partially-treated pigfarm wastewater by a constructed wetland. Open Access...

  7. aerobic room temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    superconducting quantum interference device SQUID-temperature RT sample scanning superconduct- ing quantum interference device SQUID microscopy SSM is a very Weiss, Benjamin P....

  8. aerobic nicotinic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 189 XYLARIC...

  9. aerobic methane release: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    both as an energy resource and as an atmospheric contaminant contributing to the greenhouse effect Gosciences, 1A rue de la Frolerie, 45071 Orlans Cedex 2, France...

  10. aerobic wastewater biofilms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    integration desalination technology without acid and alkali is benefit to the environment. As a new technology, membranes are used into separate and concentrate the...

  11. Ecovation Inc formerly AnAerobics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest, Illinois: EnergyEastport,de Nantes JumpEcosystem Japan

  12. anaerobic microorganisms involved: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    De Lillo,1 show that fluid acceleration reorients gyrotactic plankton, triggering small-scale clustering. We that fluid acceleration generates multifractal plankton clustering,...

  13. Deciphering Active Estrogen-Degrading Microorganisms in Bioreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roh, Hyung Keun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    in biological wastewater treatment processes. This dissertation investigated factors affecting estrogen biodegradation in bioreactors. Specifically, research efforts were placed on characterization of several bacterial estrogen degraders (model strains...

  14. anaerobic sediment microorganisms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to develop a system which fulfill the requirements and at the same time is simple and cost-effective, a pilot-scale setup was designed and constructed at a wastewater treatment...

  15. Investigation of Interfacial Chemistry of Microorganisms Jani C. Ingram,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 3 Shawnee High School, NJ INTRODUCTION Remediation of Department of Energy-Ying Holman,2 and Matthew Downing3 1 Idaho National Energy and Environmental Laboratory, ID 2 Lawrence Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR

  16. Combinatorial search strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Christine Nicole S. (Christine Nicole San Diego)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the field of microbial metabolic engineering has traditionally been dominated by rational and knowledge-driven approaches, recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the emergence of a new methodology based ...

  17. airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF A COLD FRONT AS REVEALED BY AIRBORNE 95 GHZ RADAR Bart cold front moved through the Texas Panhandle . . The front was intercepted by an armada of mobile-defined dryline and a...

  18. airborne microorganisms laboratory: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the greatest potential of the Gulf to 2000 ft), which effectively traps most of the air pollution emitted from the surface1 Air Chemistry in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Area...

  19. HOST MICROBE INTERACTIONS Microorganisms Associated with Feathers of Barn Swallows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousseau, Timothy A.

    Contaminated Areas Around Chernobyl Gábor Árpád Czirják & Anders Pape Møller & Timothy A. Mousseau & Philipp Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract The Chernobyl catastrophe provides a rare opportunity to study migratory passerine, around Chernobyl in relation to levels of ground level environmental radiation. After

  20. the continental crust or the over-lying sediments. Microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    of the University of Washington, Seattle. Just how massive this ocean crustal bio- sphere might be remains unclear,000 kilometers through the global ocean. For example, something seems to be nib- bling on the glass that makes up about 5% of ocean crustal rock; samples of the glass brought up by deep drilling are scarred with pits