National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for adverse reliability impact

  1. Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers The determination covers...

  2. Information Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of sentence redacted) In addition, there is a discussion concerning the impacts of demand side response in addressing this situation. Information Concerning Reliability...

  3. Strategies for mitigating adverse environmental impacts due to structural building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, Swati, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate ...

  4. The issue of 'Adverse Effects and the Impacts of Response Measures' in UNFCCC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    of emission reduction activities on energy exporting countries. In negotiations the Organisation of Petroleum. This paper explores the political, economic and legal dimensions of this interlocked adverse effects to the impacts of climate change. This suggests that tacit G77-China support for OPEC's position may therefore

  5. Quantifying the Impact of Adverse Events on the Electricity Grid as a Function of Grid Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Du, Pengwei

    2011-11-30

    Abstract--Traditional approaches to the study of grid vulnerability have taken an asset based approach, which seeks to identify those assets most likely to result in grid-wide failures or disruptions in the event that they are compromised. We propose an alternative approach to the study of grid vulnerability, one based on the topological structure of the entire grid. We propose a method that will identify topological parameters most closely related to the ability of the grid to withstand an adverse event. We compare these topological parameters in terms of their impact on the vulnerability metric we have defined, referred to as the grid’s “survivability”. Our approach is motivated by Paul Baran’s work on communications networks, which also studied vulnerability in terms of network-wide parameters. Our approach is useful both as a planning model for evaluating proposed changes to a grid and as a risk assessment tool.

  6. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore »water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output. This added production leads to additional environmental impacts associated with extraction and processing of the fuel, air emissions from burning the fuel, and additional evaporation of freshwater supplies during the cooling process. Wet towers also require the use of toxic biocides that are subsequently discharged or disposed. The other term under consideration, “minimizing,” does not equal “eliminating.” Technologies may be available to minimize but not totally eliminate adverse environmental impacts.« less

  9. Achieving A Long Term Business Impact by Improving the Energy Effectiveness and Reliability of Electric Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Over 100,000 electric motors drive the production equipment throughout a large chemical company. The energy-efficiency and reliability of these motors during their entire life have a decided impact on the company's manufacturing costs and production...

  10. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Events on Temporal Summation of Second Pain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Dokyoung Sophia

    2012-10-19

    ACE Adverse Childhood Experience AUC Area Under the Curve BNST Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale ETISR-SR Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form FPQ Fear of Pain... indicates more negative affect. The scale was administered to measure affect at the moment of the experiment. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used to assess depressive symptomatology during the past week.95...

  11. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  12. Many studies have been performed on the subject of software reliability, but few explicitly consider the impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    explicitly consider the impact of software testing on the reliability process. This paper presents two important issues on software reliability modeling and software reliability economics: testing effort of resources during software development process and get a conspicuous improvement in modeling testing

  13. Energy Department Announces Secretarial Determination of No Adverse...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers Energy Department Announces Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium...

  14. Research Article Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hameed, Sultan

    Research Article Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact Symposium 2001 The, ecological risk assessment, recruitment, striped bass, Hudson River, adverse environmental impact the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment

  15. Reliability Evaluation of Composite Power Systems Including the Effects of Hurricanes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yong

    2011-02-22

    Adverse weather such as hurricanes can significantly affect the reliability of composite power systems. Predicting the impact of hurricanes can help utilities for better preparedness and make appropriate restoration arrangements...

  16. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of a Critical Telecommunications Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, D.; Atcitty, C.; Zuffranieri, J.; Arent, D.

    2006-03-01

    Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages, as documented by analyses of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outage reports by the National Reliability Steering Committee (under auspices of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions). There are two major issues that are having increasing impact on the sensitivity of the power distribution to telecommunication facilities: deregulation of the power industry, and changing weather patterns. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. But does the diversity in power sources actually increase the reliability of offered power to the office equipment, or does the complexity of installing and managing the extended power system induce more potential faults and higher failure rates? This report analyzes a system involving a telecommunications facility consisting of two switch-bays and a satellite reception system.

  17. The Impact of Protection System Failures on Power System Reliability Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Kai

    2012-11-05

    The reliability of protection systems has emerged as an important topic because protection failures have critical influence on the reliability of power systems. The goal of this research is to develop novel approaches for ...

  18. Fault Impacts on Solar Power Unit Reliability Ali M. Bazzi, Katherine A. Kim, Brian B. Johnson, Philip T. Krein, and Alejandro Dominguez-Garca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    are essential. Two of the earliest topics studied in PV systems are panel efficiency and reliability as shown experience have shown that PV panel reliability and efficiency can drop over time due to installation faultsFault Impacts on Solar Power Unit Reliability Ali M. Bazzi, Katherine A. Kim, Brian B. Johnson

  19. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on Class I areas: part I. impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-07-01

    Published in two parts, this article describes a new emissions cap-and-trade program to reduce acid deposition and visibility impacts in four Class I areas (e.g. wildernesses and national parks) from the proposed Longview Power coal-fired power plant to be located in Maidsville, WV. Part I discusses the air quality impacts of the proposed project. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Human-Centered Systems Analysis of Aircraft Separation from Adverse Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence

    Adverse weather significantly impacts the safety and efficiency of flight operations. Weather information

  1. Transmission Matters Now: How Will Power Market Regulations Impact the Industrial's Power Supply Costs and Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, F.; Beidas, H.; Fox, R.

    2003-01-01

    The standardization of the power market structure and transmission access rules will result in new rules for dealing with the transmission systems. Furthermore, transmission system limitations and market inadequacies will have a significant impact...

  2. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

  3. Human-centered systems analysis of aircraft separation from adverse weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Adverse weather significantly impacts the safety and efficiency of flight operations. Weather information plays a key role in mitigating the impact of adverse weather on flight operations by supporting air transportation ...

  4. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on class I areas: part II. Mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-08-01

    This is the second of two articles describing a plan that was developed to mitigate the effects of acid deposition and visibility impairment in four Class I areas from the proposed Longview Power Project. Part I (published in July 2005) discussed the air quality impacts of the proposed coal-fired power plant. Part II discusses the mitigation plan. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials Available Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials...

  6. Innovation Impact, Wind: NREL Collaborative Improves the Reliability of Wind Turbine Gearboxes (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR0987P UncertaintyInitiatives Initiativeso

  7. Electricity Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) Visualization in the future because they have virtually no resistance to electric current, offering the possibility of new electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement- Crooked River Valley...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Likely to Adversely Affect; NLAA - Not Likely to Adversely Affect. Proposed species: NI - No Impact; NLJCE - Not Likely to Jeopardize the Continued Existence of the species; LJ...

  9. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  10. Legal Adequacy of Environmental Discussions in Environmental Impact Reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Eric

    1982-01-01

    potentially adverse environmental impacts and the manner inmust compare environmental impacts of proposed amendments tonote 10, § 15126(c). ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORTS in an area

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEVICE AND MATERIALS RELIABILITY, VOL. 7, NO. 1, MARCH 2007 181 Impact of Strain or Ge Content on the Threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    of Strain or Ge Content on the Threshold Voltage of Nanoscale Strained-Si/SiGe Bulk MOSFETs M. Jagadesh--The impact of strain on the threshold voltage of nanoscale strained-Si/SiGe MOSFETs is studied by developing a compact analytical model. Our model includes the effects of strain (Ge mole fraction in SiGe substrate

  12. POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Power Plant Reliability-Availability and State Regulation,"Report on Equipment Availability: Fossil and NuclearBasic Definitions* Availability: Reliability: Base Loading:

  13. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  14. Reliability Assessment The Reliability of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ...................................................................................................................4 SUMMER 2006 HEAT WAVE .......................6 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW TRANSMISSION IS STILL SLOW -- CONTINUES TO FACE OBSTACLES..............................................11 RELIABILITY WILL DEPEND ON CLOSE COORDINATION OF GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION PLANNING

  15. Environmental impact report (draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  16. Mechanical mastication thins Lake Tahoe forest with few adverse impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatchett, B.; Hogan, Michael P.; Grismer, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Mechanical mastication thins Lake Tahoetrack, as well as Mechanical mastication is a promisingtreatment employing a mechanical masticator to potentially

  17. Mechanical mastication thins Lake Tahoe forest with few adverse impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatchett, B.; Hogan, Michael P.; Grismer, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    The treatments included woodchip- covered and bare-soilstands, or both. A woodchip plots. Mastication appears lessof the native grass or woodchip- covered plots, or from the

  18. Is emotional intelligence worthwhile?: Assessing incremental validity and adverse impact 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Dana Lanay

    2009-05-15

    several contributions: (a) a summary of theoretical links between EI and job performance, (b) meta-analytic incremental validity estimation for two different conceptualizations of emotional intelligence – labeled ability EI and mixed EI – over and above...

  19. Secretary Chu Announces Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 » Search resultsStorage Projects || Department

  20. Secretary Chu Announces Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProjectData DashboardSolar »Conference |Electric, and Veolia

  1. Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTIONEnergy Scientists AssessSecondor Transfer

  2. Secretary Chu Announces Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTIONEnergyHeavy-Duty TrucksProgramofUranium Transfer

  3. Secretary Chu Announces Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMay 13, 2015reportsDepartment ofNext GenerationUranium

  4. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  5. Sandia Energy - Human Reliability Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Reliability Assessment Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Risk and Safety Assessment Human Reliability Assessment Human Reliability...

  6. Introduction Risk associated with an adverse price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Introduction Risk associated with an adverse price change (price risk) is a normal part commodities are sold suggests price risk is an unavoidable part of being involved in the industry. Producers that have significant price variability. Recent domestic farm policy changes and trade barrier reductions

  7. Medical Aspects of Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-05

    This presentation covers the medical evaluation as part of a human reliability program, particularly the various medical qualifications and potential disqualifiers.

  8. Reliable Energy Integration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    Engineering SustainabilityWorkshop #12;Cost of EnergyTrends Engineering SustainabilityWorkshop #12;Why GoReliable Energy Integration of Offshore Wind Aris Christou University of Maryland College Park MD Access is Difficult, and Costly: Require Minimum Maintenance and High Reliability Engineering

  9. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Information Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,SecurityHomeRemarksEnergyConfigurations of the Mirant

  11. Reliability and Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar reliability and safety research and development (R&D) focuses on testing photovoltaic (PV) modules, inverters, and systems for long-term performance, and helping investors, consumers,...

  12. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid State Lighting Reliability 2015Building Technologies Office Peer Review Lynn Davis, PhD RTI International ldavis@rti.org --- 919-316-3325 Project Summary Timeline: Start...

  13. Based on staff policy from KAP (with assistance from Helen Hymers (POD), February 2010. Approved IB SEVERE/ADVERSE WEATHER GUIDANCE FOR STUDENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    SEVERE/ADVERSE WEATHER GUIDANCE FOR STUDENTS Introduction There will be occasions where severe or adverse weather creates difficulties in attending the University on time or at all. There are so many potential situations resulting from severe weather, all of which will have a different impact, that detailed

  14. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  15. GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the specific actions is well documented. Use of the accepted statistical tests of discrimination facilitates expeditious review of the likelihood of discriminatory impact. Where...

  16. Policy on adverse weather conditions affecting Higher Education Review visits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Policy on adverse weather conditions affecting Higher Education Review visits This policy entered into owing to adverse weather conditions will be by mutual agreement of QAA and the provider. Attendance at the review visit by the QAA officer If adverse weather conditions prevent, or appear likely

  17. ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation K-COVERAGE RELIABILITY EVALUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Liudong

    #12;7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 2 Introduction Wireless sensor;7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 7 Model 13 Consider a set of sensor nodes (SN7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 1 K-COVERAGE RELIABILITY EVALUATION

  18. Reliable solar: powering communities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout UsRegional companiesReliabilityReliable solar:

  19. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  20. POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    No. 75-50 (Ref. 1). Nuclear Safety, September 1975 to Augustreport on HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL,7 of HEAL TH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND

  1. 2011 Annual Planning Summary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2011 and 2012 within the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE).

  2. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  3. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4EnergySolid State Lighting Reliability 2014 Building

  4. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability PV Systems ReliabilityCoryne Tasca2015-05-08T03:40:54+00:00 Sandia...

  5. Impact of Increasing Distributed Wind Power and Wind Turbine Siting on Rural Distribution Feeder Voltage Profiles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.; Zhang, Y. C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Many favorable wind energy resources in North America are located in remote locations without direct access to the transmission grid. Building transmission lines to connect remotely-located wind power plants to large load centers has become a barrier to increasing wind power penetration in North America. By connecting utility-sized megawatt-scale wind turbines to the distribution system, wind power supplied to consumers could be increased greatly. However, the impact of including megawatt-scale wind turbines on distribution feeders needs to be studied. The work presented here examined the impact that siting and power output of megawatt-scale wind turbines have on distribution feeder voltage. This is the start of work to present a general guide to megawatt-scale wind turbine impact on the distribution feeder and finding the amount of wind power that can be added without adversely impacting the distribution feeder operation, reliability, and power quality.

  6. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  7. MEMS reliability in shock environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; MASTERS,NATHAN

    2000-02-09

    In order to determine the susceptibility of the MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) devices to shock, tests were performed using haversine shock pulses with widths of 1 to 0.2 ms in the range from 500g to 40,000g. The authors chose a surface-micromachined microengine because it has all the components needed for evaluation: springs that flex, gears that are anchored, and clamps and spring stops to maintain alignment. The microengines, which were unpowered for the tests, performed quite well at most shock levels with a majority functioning after the impact. Debris from the die edges moved at levels greater than 4,000g causing shorts in the actuators and posing reliability concerns. The coupling agent used to prevent stiction in the MEMS release weakened the die-attach bond, which produced failures at 10,000g and above. At 20,000g the authors began to observe structural damage in some of the thin flexures and 2.5-micron diameter pin joints. The authors observed electrical failures caused by the movement of debris. Additionally, they observed a new failure mode where stationary comb fingers contact the ground plane resulting in electrical shorts. These new failure were observed in the control group indicating that they were not shock related.

  8. Analysis and design of reliable nanometer circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Chong

    2007-01-01

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Analysis and Design of ReliableTHE DISSERTATION Analysis and Design of Reliable Nanometerthe difficulty in analysis and design of reliable digital

  9. Sandia Energy - Inverter Reliability Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lifetime cost must decrease for photovoltaics to be financially viable. Currently the cost and reliability of PV modules is improving faster than the rest of the system. One...

  10. LMS Reliability FMECA and SPFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LMS Reliability FMECA and SPFS Contract No. NAS 9-5829 NO. ATM 97C PAGE 1 REV. MO. B OF~- DATE 21 will use the fixed mode ionization voltage. Prepared by: Approved by: .... ~~~lfo*R. Hiebert LMS III v VI LMS Reliability FMECA and SPFS Contract No. NAS9-5829 TABLE CJF CONTENTS DISCUSSION

  11. Receiving Water and Other Impacts Robert Pitt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    5-1 Chapter 5 Receiving Water and Other Impacts Robert Pitt Desired Water Uses Versus Stormwater Impacts The main purpose of treating stormwater is to reduce its adverse impacts on receiving water of the detrimental effects that runoff is actually having on a receiving water. Urban receiving waters may have many

  12. Reliable data collection in highly disconnected environments using mobile phones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Tapan S.

    high-impact applications for these environments. Many of the applications built with CAM have relied information and get the collected data backed up on reliable media. We propose extending CAM's networking volunteers to resurvey - a waste of both time and resources. There was a clear need to move the data

  13. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studies such as Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). SNL has also partnered with a utility to create a data-driven Reliability Block...

  14. Reliability and Competitive Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul; Tirole, Jean

    2006-03-14

    Deregulation of the electricity sector has resulted in conflict between the economic aims of creating competitive wholesale and retail markets, and an engineering focus on reliability of supply. The paper starts by deriving the optimal prices...

  15. NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL: Preliminary Disturbance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report More Documents & Publications North American Electric Reliability Council Power Outage Update North American Electric Reliability Council Outage Announcement Electric System...

  16. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 This report summarizes the results of the...

  17. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final...

  18. Recommendations to Address Power Reliability Concerns Raised...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Address Power Reliability Concerns Raised as a Result of Pending Environmental Regulations for Electric Generation Stations Recommendations to Address Power Reliability Concerns...

  19. Sandia Energy - Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW): Project Update Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Continuous Reliability Enhancement...

  20. NREL Publishes Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Findings Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publishes Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Findings Report NREL Publishes Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Findings Report October 3, 2011 - 12:56pm Addthis This is an excerpt...

  1. A System for Electro-Mechanical Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices Stefan Spinner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polian, Ilia

    A System for Electro-Mechanical Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices Stefan Spinner Computer and a method that enables automated analysis of mechanical stress impact on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In this setup both electrical and optical inspection are available. Reliability testing

  2. LMS RELIABILITY PART APPLICATION ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ( LMS RELIABILITY PART APPLICATION ANALYSIS Contract No. NAS 9-5829 MO. ATM-966 PAGE 1 RIV. NO, B 3. 0 3. I 3. 2 3.3 3. 3. I 3. 3. 2 3.3.3 3. 3. 4 4. 0 PARA. NO. 1. 0 1.1 LMS RELIABILITY PART 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 2. 0 2. 1 2. 2 2. 2. 1 2. 2. 2 2. 2. 3 2. 2. 4 -:-?· 2. ,5 2. 3 2. 3. 1 LMS

  3. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Majumdar, D. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  4. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Majumdar, D. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system`s reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  5. Using wind plant data to increase reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Valerie A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ogilvie, Alistair B.; McKenney, Bridget L.

    2011-01-01

    Operators interested in improving reliability should begin with a focus on the performance of the wind plant as a whole. To then understand the factors which drive individual turbine performance, which together comprise the plant performance, it is necessary to track a number of key indicators. Analysis of these key indicators can reveal the type, frequency, and cause of failures and will also identify their contributions to overall plant performance. The ideal approach to using data to drive good decisions includes first determining which critical decisions can be based on data. When those required decisions are understood, then the analysis required to inform those decisions can be identified, and finally the data to be collected in support of those analyses can be determined. Once equipped with high-quality data and analysis capabilities, the key steps to data-based decision making for reliability improvements are to isolate possible improvements, select the improvements with largest return on investment (ROI), implement the selected improvements, and finally to track their impact.

  6. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  7. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.

    1996-10-01

    This proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the ninth PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Sheraton Denver West Hotel on September 4--6, 1996. This years workshop included presentations from 25 speakers and had over 100 attendees. All of the presentations that were given are included in this proceedings. Topics of the papers included: defining service lifetime and developing models for PV module lifetime; examining and determining failure and degradation mechanisms in PV modules; combining IEEE/IEC/UL testing procedures; AC module performance and reliability testing; inverter reliability/qualification testing; standardization of utility interconnect requirements for PV systems; need activities to separate variables by testing individual components of PV systems (e.g. cells, modules, batteries, inverters,charge controllers) for individual reliability and then test them in actual system configurations; more results reported from field experience on modules, inverters, batteries, and charge controllers from field deployed PV systems; and system certification and standardized testing for stand-alone and grid-tied systems.

  8. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  9. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  10. 2012 Reliability & Markets Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability & Markets Peer Review 2012 Reliability & Markets Peer Review The Transmission Reliability R&D Reliability & Markets Peer Review included 11 presentations over 2 days on...

  11. How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Michael J.; Mercurio, Matthew G.; Schellenberg, Josh A.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2010-06-08

    A robust methodology for estimating the value of service reliability improvements is presented. Although econometric models for estimating value of service (interruption costs) have been established and widely accepted, analysts often resort to applying relatively crude interruption cost estimation techniques in assessing the economic impacts of transmission and distribution investments. This paper first shows how the use of these techniques can substantially impact the estimated value of service improvements. A simple yet robust methodology that does not rely heavily on simplifying assumptions is presented. When a smart grid investment is proposed, reliability improvement is one of the most frequently cited benefits. Using the best methodology for estimating the value of this benefit is imperative. By providing directions on how to implement this methodology, this paper sends a practical, usable message to the industry.

  12. FORMAL SEMANTICS AND VERIFICATION OF DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Haiping

    that DRBD provides a powerful tool for system reliability modeling, and our proposed verification approachFORMAL SEMANTICS AND VERIFICATION OF DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY-scale computer-based systems. KEY WORDS Reliability modeling, dynamic reliability block diagrams (DRBD), Object

  13. A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

    2006-08-16

    is associated 11 Fig. 1. Sample Distribution Network with the network response to dynamic and transient failures caused from faults and other disturbances, which could result in widespread cascading outages and loss of stability [11]. This research will focus... and maintain reliable power systems because cost of interruptions and power outages can have severe economic impact on the utility and its customers. At present, the deregulated electric power utilities are being restructured and operated as distinct generation...

  14. Wind Farm Diversification and Its Impact on Power System Reliability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degeilh, Yannick

    2010-10-12

    enhancement of wind power output predictability is in itself desirable, as it would permit the accurate design of thermal conventional units dedicated only to the compensation of wind power erratic behavior. The turbines used in the studies are 3 MW Vestas...M the covariance matrix of the statistical single wind turbine power outputs ?? (i designating the farm number): 19...

  15. CMOS scaling impacts on reliability, What do we understand?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of CMOS by trap- ping in the oxide layer near drain or entering the interface. · Single event soft error

  16. Impact of SMES on unit availability and power system reliability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasr, Hala Hector

    1991-01-01

    ) f, Here iaavg is the weighted average hourly load, avg is the average hourly load over the week, e is the round-trip c%cicncy of SMES, lil(l) is the load as a function of time, a is the time of the. beginning of the wcck, b is the tiiiie ol... ? ' -period oprratinrg hours per *tart (2. 2) whee. e: rrulnher of operating holies , serutcc factor- pcrlod aINl number of operating hours operating hours per start number of su r re s s f ul . starts and period is the period ol' study = 1 year...

  17. Do physicians communicate the adverse effects of medications that older patients want to hear?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarn, DM; Wenger, A; Good, JS; Hoffing, M; Scherger, JE; Wenger, NS

    2015-01-01

    renal effects Four adverse effects Cough ? electrolytes ?renal effects ? other Cough ? renal effects ?dizziness ? other Cough ? electrolytes ? two others

  18. Secretary Chu Announces Determination of No Adverse Material...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy has issued a determination and market impact analysis authorizing uranium transfers to fund accelerated cleanup activities at the Portsmouth Site in Piketon,...

  19. Secretary Chu Announces Determination of No Adverse Material...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy has issued a final determination and market impact study for the proposed uranium transfer to fund accelerated cleanup activities at the Portsmouth Site in Piketon,...

  20. The air quality and health impacts of aviation in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, In Hwan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Aviation in Asia is growing more rapidly than other regions around the world. Adverse health impacts of aviation are linked to an increase in the concentration of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 [mu]m in diameter ...

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research (PIER) California Energy Commission Beth Chambers Contract Manager Jamie Patterson (VSA) prototype to monitor system voltage conditions and provide real time dispatchers with reliabilityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT California ISO Real

  2. Electric Power Reliability in Chemical Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    at plants across the country? Has the quality and reliability of utility-generated power deteriorated over the past five or ten years? Or, has the perception of what constitutes reliable power changed with the advent, installation, and increasing usage...

  3. Sandia Energy - PV Reliability & Performance Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model PV Reliability & Performance ModelTara Camacho-Lopez2015-06-01T20:13:00+00:00 This Web Demo model is a simplified "player" version of the Photovoltaic Reliability Performance...

  4. SELECTING TRAVEL RELIABILITY MEASURES David Schrank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SELECTING TRAVEL RELIABILITY MEASURES by Tim Lomax David Schrank Shawn Turner Texas Transportation Administration provided technical resource staff persons who identified the need for a reliability measure, California Department of Transportation Tim Baker, Colorado Department of Transportation Gordon Morgan

  5. Reliability-based casing design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maes, M.A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Civil Engineering Dept.; Gulati, K.C.; Johnson, R.C. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); McKenna, D.L. [Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria); Brand, P.R.; Lewis, D.B. [Mobil E and P Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The present paper describes the development of reliability-based design criteria for oil and/or gas well casing/tubing. The approach is based on the fundamental principles of limit state design. Limit states for tubulars are discussed and specific techniques for the stochastic modeling of loading and resistance variables are described. Zonation methods and calibration techniques are developed which are geared specifically to the characteristic tubular design for both hydrocarbon drilling and production applications. The application of quantitative risk analysis to the development of risk-consistent design criteria is shown to be a major and necessary step forward in achieving more economic tubular design.

  6. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREWOnline AbstractsSystems Reliability

  7. LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY LOGIC DIAGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    point (A) to (F). The block diagram also defines the reliability functions for the purpose of FMEA 1

  8. Reliability Challenges for Solar Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-12-08

    Presentation that reviews reliability issues related to various types of photovoltaic tecnnologies, including crystalline silicon, thin films, and concentrating PV.

  9. Dispatcher Reliability Analysis : SPICA-RAIL Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    consider that humans are fully reliable. But experience shows that many accidents involve human failuresDispatcher Reliability Analysis : SPICA-RAIL Experiments Fabien Belmonte, Jean-Louis Boulanger of scenarios and evaluate the behaviour of human operators. A state of the art in human reliability is pre

  10. This fact sheet summarizes what is known about the adverse impacts of land-based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department of EnergyPROGRAM TheMetal OxidesEarlyThisfact

  11. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  12. Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

    2012-01-27

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

  13. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 2, JUNE 2013 1087 Reliability Modeling and Evaluation of Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 2, JUNE 2013 1087 Reliability Modeling and Evaluation, and Mirrasoul J. Mousavi, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Smart grid technologies leveraging advancements of smart grid monitoring and proposes a mathemat- ical model to assess its impact on power grid reliability

  15. College of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability College of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability College of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Vision OE recognizes that...

  16. Microgrids and Heterogeneous Security, Quality, Reliability, and Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    quality, reliability, and availability,” IEEE Power & EnergyReliability, and Availability Chris Marnay EnvironmentalQuality, Reliability, and Availability C. Marnay Ernest

  17. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichner, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barthold, W.P. [Barthold Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ``weak fuel`` has been proposed on an interim basis. ``Weak fuel`` is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure.

  18. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joe

    2008-01-01

    W.R. Schmus, D.C. Dawson, “Transmission Voltage RecoveryEnhancing AC-DC Power System Transmission Reliability and

  19. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    various fuels and energy supply systems. Acknowledgements WeAssessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems Ryan W.stability of many energy supply regions becomes more

  20. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    various fuels and energy supply systems. Acknowledgements WeAssessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems Ryan W.stability of many energy supply regions becomes more

  1. Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    customers, and improve overall service reliability to reduce customer losses from power disruptions. This report presents findings on smart grid improvements in outage...

  2. Comments of North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RFI. North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) More Documents & Publications City Utilities of Springfield Missouri Comments on Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and...

  3. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  4. Restarting TMI unit one: social and psychological impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Bolin, R.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.

    1983-12-01

    A technical background is provided for preparing an environmental assessment of the social and psychological impacts of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI). Its purpose is to define the factors that may cause impacts, to define what those impacts might be, and to make a preliminary assessment of how impacts could be mitigated. It does not attempt to predict or project the magnitude of impacts. Four major research activities were undertaken: a literature review, focus-group discussions, community profiling, and community surveys. As much as possible, impacts of the accident at Unit 2 were differentiated from the possible impacts of restarting Unit 1. It is concluded that restart will generate social conflict in the TMI vicinity which could lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, between 30 and 50 percent of the population possess characteristics which are associated with vulnerability to experiencing negative impacts. Adverse effects, however, can be reduced with a community-based mitigation strategy.

  5. Computing fractal dimension in supertransient systems directly, fast and reliable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romulus Breban; Helena E. Nusse

    2006-08-07

    Chaotic transients occur in many experiments including those in fluids, in simulations of the plane Couette flow, and in coupled map lattices and they are a common phenomena in dynamical systems. Superlong chaotic transients are caused by the presence of chaotic saddles whose stable sets have fractal dimensions that are close to phase-space dimension. For many physical systems chaotic saddles have a big impact on laboratory measurements, and it is important to compute the dimension of such stable sets including fractal basin boundaries through a direct method. In this work, we present a new method to compute the dimension of stable sets of chaotic saddles directly, fast, and reliable.

  6. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is independent of RH up to a threshold value, depending on the coating chemistry. The mechanism for the adhesion increase beyond this threshold value is that the coupling agent reconfigures from a surface to a bulk phase (Chapter 3). To investigate the details of how the adhesion increase occurs, the authors developed the mechanics for adhesion hysteresis measurements. These revealed that near-crack tip compression is the underlying cause of the adhesion increase (Chapter 4). A vacuum deposition chamber for silane coupling agent deposition was constructed. Results indicate that vapor deposited coatings are less susceptible to degradation at high RH (Chapter 5). To address issues relating to surfaces in relative motion, a new test structure to measure friction was developed. In contrast to other surface micromachined friction test structures, uniform apparent pressure is applied in the frictional contact zone (Chapter 6). The test structure will enable friction studies over a large pressure and dynamic range. In this LDRD project, the authors established an infrastructure for MEMS adhesion and friction metrology. They then characterized in detail the performance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic films under humid conditions, and determined mechanisms which limit this performance. These studies contribute to a fundamental understanding for MEMS reliability design rules. They also provide valuable data for MEMS packaging requirements.

  7. Software Reliability Cases: The Bridge Between Hardware, Software and System Safety and Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, D.S.; Peercy, D.E.

    1999-01-08

    High integrity/high consequence systems must be safe and reliable; hence it is only logical that both software safety and software reliability cases should be developed. Risk assessments in safety cases evaluate the severity of the consequences of a hazard and the likelihood of it occurring. The likelihood is directly related to system and software reliability predictions. Software reliability cases, as promoted by SAE JA 1002 and 1003, provide a practical approach to bridge the gap between hardware reliability, software reliability, and system safety and reliability by using a common methodology and information structure. They also facilitate early insight into whether or not a project is on track for meeting stated safety and reliability goals, while facilitating an informed assessment by regulatory and/or contractual authorities.

  8. Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management -Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2011 -European Safety and Reliability Conference: Advances in Safety, Reliability and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management - Proceedings of the European Safety, Reliability and Risk Management, ESREL 2011, Troyes : France (2011) In France, more than 99% of failed is global risk management. This allows analysis of the major risks faced by the busi- ness (loss

  9. Reliability Meets Big Data: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Reliability Meets Big Data: Opportunities and Challenges William Q. Meeker Department of Statistics maintenance operations. 1.2 Examples of systems providing big data Some examples of particular systems 1, 2013 Abstract Reliability field data such as that obtained from warranty claims and maintenance

  10. RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , shrinkage porosity in the casting. Despite the power and promise of these developments in casting processRELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Richard Hardin1 , K.K. Choi1 , and Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting Process Design, Optimization, Reliability-Based Design Optimization

  11. A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baral, Chitta

    A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions Jörg, drug efficacy, and drug responses between individuals and sub-populations. Wrong dosages of drugs can lead to severe adverse drug reac- tions in individuals whose drug metabolism drastically differs from

  12. Reliability of Coupled Oscillators II: Larger Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin K. Lin; Eric Shea-Brown; Lai-Sang Young

    2007-08-23

    We study the reliability of phase oscillator networks in response to fluctuating inputs. Reliability means that an input elicits essentially identical responses upon repeated presentations, regardless of the network's initial condition. In this paper, we extend previous results on two-cell networks to larger systems. The first issue that arises is chaos in the absence of inputs, which we demonstrate and interpret in terms of reliability. We give a mathematical analysis of networks that can be decomposed into modules connected by an acyclic graph. For this class of networks, we show how to localize the source of unreliability, and address questions concerning downstream propagation of unreliability once it is produced.

  13. MEMS reliability: The challenge and the promise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-05-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost effective solutions only if they prove to be sufficiently reliable. A valid reliability assessment of MEMS has three prerequisites: (1) statistical significance; (2) a technique for accelerating fundamental failure mechanisms, and (3) valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. These already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems. The challenge lies in the less well understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This paper presents a methodology addressing these prerequisites and a description of the underlying physics of reliability for micromachines.

  14. On Reliable Broadcast in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

    energy and extend the network lifetime. Unfortunately, the impact of such cycles has been largely ignored to the wireless loss with good scalability on the network size and density. In addition, it enables flexibleOn Reliable Broadcast in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks Feng Wang, Student Member, IEEE

  15. A Framework for Reliability and Performance Assessment of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    penetration of wind-based generation. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, achieving 20% of wind power hinder the widespread penetration of wind-based power generation [2]. These are i) the impact of wind1 A Framework for Reliability and Performance Assessment of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

  16. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  17. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  18. MINT: A Reliability Modeling Framework for Energy-Efficient Parallel Disk Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    than disks storing cold data. To study reliability impacts of energy-saving techniques on parallel disk this problem, a broad spectrum of energy-saving techniques were proposed to achieve high energy efficiency that existing energy conservation techniques in disk drives can deliver significant energy savings in large

  19. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  20. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    Edward, Reliability of Wind Power from Dispersed Sites:The same is true for wind power. This Even over hundreds ofof (11) also shows how wind power output distributi.on

  1. Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Zung-Sun

    2007-01-01

    As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

  2. Reliable Distributed Computing for Decision Support Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    of pipes and network nodes spread over a large geographical area, calls for a control of computational system it is serv- icing. Addressing the reliability issues of dis- tributed systems involves tackling

  3. Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-01

    Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

  4. Reliability Challenges for Solar Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-04-27

    PV industry can benefit from reliability testing experience of microelectronics industry . Si modules perform well in field; CdTe/CIGS must be sealed to moisture; CPV in product development stage.

  5. Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2006-12-01

    Demand response is the most underutilized power system reliability resource in North America. Technological advances now make it possible to tap this resource to both reduce costs and improve. Misconceptions concerning response capabilities tend to force loads to provide responses that they are less able to provide and often prohibit them from providing the most valuable reliability services. Fortunately this is beginning to change with some ISOs making more extensive use of load response. This report is structured as a series of short questions and answers that address load response capabilities and power system reliability needs. Its objective is to further the use of responsive load as a bulk power system reliability resource in providing the fastest and most valuable ancillary services.

  6. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  7. Dormant storage reliability assessments-data based

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merren, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively large amount of data pertaining to the performance of certain electronic parts after long periods of dormant storage has been collected and analyzed by the Reliability Department of Sandia National Laboratories. The failure models used by Sandia are presented and reliability assessments for selected electronic parts derived from these models and the measured performance data are provided. These data based assessments are compared to similar assessments derived from handbook calculations using the general data and models provided in the handbooks.

  8. WEBCASRE: A WEBBASED TOOL FOR SOFTWARE RELIABILITY MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    of overall system reliability. This trend makes the estimation of software reliability more and more critical to most large­scale projects in their reliability engineering aspects. Traditionally, software reliabilityWEB­CASRE: A WEB­BASED TOOL FOR SOFTWARE RELIABILITY MODELING Michael R. Lyu \\Lambda JË?urgen Sch

  9. Impacts of two best management practices on Pb weathering and leachability in shooting range soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    to minimize the adverse impacts, especially in pistol/rifle ranges because of increased total Pb content-old shooting range (Cao et al. 2003a). There are two types of shooting ranges: pistol/rifle ranges using lead

  10. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and regulators. The report will also serve to support activities to develop and share information among industry and regulatory participants about critical resources and practices. The toolkit has been developed by investigating the status of indices and definitions, surveying utility organizations on information sharing, and preparing summaries of reliability standards and monitoring requirements--the issues, needs, work under way, existing standards, practices and guidelines--for the following three classifications: (1) terms and definitions of reliability; (2) power quality standards, guidelines, and measurements; and (3) activities and organizations developing and sharing information on distribution reliability. As these synopses of reliability measurement practices are provided, it must be noted that an economic penalty may be associated with requiring too high a reliability level from the distribution system for all customers. It may be appropriate for the distribution system to supply only some base, generally accepted level of reliability. This base level would be adequate for the majority of customers. Users who need a higher level may find it economical to supply using distributed energy resources (DER) and other local solutions to reliability and power quality needs. Local solutions implemented by the customer may be the most cost-effective method for addressing the more stringent needs of a digital economy. These local solutions include energy storage, small distributed generators, and microgrids. This report also considers the market's role in addressing reliability issues and requirements. The customer's needs are discussed in view of issues such as power quality requirements of digital electronic equipment, the cost of outages, the cost of storage and new infrastructure, and natural gas prices. The market role in addressing these issues and requirements is explored. The economic considerations associated with the reliability issues are discussed, as well as the levels at which these economic decisions could be made. Finally, a discussion is provided of the role DER could play in addressing

  11. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Crystal Anne

    2009-05-15

    I used reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and the Bulimia Test (BULIT). Reliability generalization is a ...

  12. Empirical Measurements of Travelers' Value of Travel Time Reliability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danda, Santosh Rao

    2014-08-12

    empirical data to take an initial step toward understanding the importance of travel time reliability. Katy Freeway travelers face a daily choice between reliable tolled lanes and less reliable but untolled lanes. An extensive dataset of Katy Freeway travel...

  13. Owner/Operator Perspective on Reliability Customer Needs and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SERVICES AS RELIABLE AS THE SUN OwnerOperator Perspective on Reliability Customer Needs and Field Data Sandia National Laboratories Utility-Scale Grid-Tied PV Inverter Reliability...

  14. Reliable High Performance Peta- and Exa-Scale Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronevetsky, G

    2012-04-02

    As supercomputers become larger and more powerful, they are growing increasingly complex. This is reflected both in the exponentially increasing numbers of components in HPC systems (LLNL is currently installing the 1.6 million core Sequoia system) as well as the wide variety of software and hardware components that a typical system includes. At this scale it becomes infeasible to make each component sufficiently reliable to prevent regular faults somewhere in the system or to account for all possible cross-component interactions. The resulting faults and instability cause HPC applications to crash, perform sub-optimally or even produce erroneous results. As supercomputers continue to approach Exascale performance and full system reliability becomes prohibitively expensive, we will require novel techniques to bridge the gap between the lower reliability provided by hardware systems and users unchanging need for consistent performance and reliable results. Previous research on HPC system reliability has developed various techniques for tolerating and detecting various types of faults. However, these techniques have seen very limited real applicability because of our poor understanding of how real systems are affected by complex faults such as soft fault-induced bit flips or performance degradations. Prior work on such techniques has had very limited practical utility because it has generally focused on analyzing the behavior of entire software/hardware systems both during normal operation and in the face of faults. Because such behaviors are extremely complex, such studies have only produced coarse behavioral models of limited sets of software/hardware system stacks. Since this provides little insight into the many different system stacks and applications used in practice, this work has had little real-world impact. My project addresses this problem by developing a modular methodology to analyze the behavior of applications and systems during both normal and faulty operation. By synthesizing models of individual components into a whole-system behavior models my work is making it possible to automatically understand the behavior of arbitrary real-world systems to enable them to tolerate a wide range of system faults. My project is following a multi-pronged research strategy. Section II discusses my work on modeling the behavior of existing applications and systems. Section II.A discusses resilience in the face of soft faults and Section II.B looks at techniques to tolerate performance faults. Finally Section III presents an alternative approach that studies how a system should be designed from the ground up to make resilience natural and easy.

  15. A University's Resilience in the Face of Adversity September 2010 Earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    A University's Resilience in the Face of Adversity The 4th September 2010 Earthquake Shakenbutnot.................................................................................................................. 7 2 The September 4th Earthquake ....................................................................... 10 3.2 Prior Understanding of the Earthquake Risk

  16. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013: Reliability, Resiliency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013: Reliability, Resiliency & Savings The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013: Reliability, Resiliency & Savings This report, compiled by Fuel...

  17. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013: Reliability, Resiliency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Reliability, Resiliency & Savings The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013: Reliability, Resiliency & Savings This report, compiled by Fuel Cells 2000 with support from the Fuel...

  18. System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires Lead Performer: RTI International - Research Triangle...

  19. Reliability of islanded microgrids with stochastic generation and prioritized load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marden, Mirjana Milosevic

    The potential to improve distribution system reliability is a primary motivation behind the development and deployment of microgrids. Previous studies have illustrated substantial reliability benefits of dispatchable ...

  20. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leafphotosynthe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliable...

  1. Characterizing wind power resource reliability in southern Africa...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Published Article: Characterizing wind power resource reliability in southern Africa Title: Characterizing wind power resource reliability in southern...

  2. Washington DC Reliability Requirements and the Need to Operate...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DC Reliability Requirements and the Need to Operate Mirant's Potomac River Generation Station to Support Local Area Reliability (Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2005)...

  3. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance...

  4. CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS - CASE STUDY, 2015 CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS -...

  5. Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating Temperature and Humidity Ranges Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating...

  6. Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Cyber Security...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Cyber Security Project Selections Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Cyber Security Project Selections On...

  7. 2013 Reliability & Markets Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the links. The agenda and list of presentations are included below. The Reliability and Markets activity of the Transmission Reliability program researches, develops, and...

  8. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines...

  9. Addressing mechanical reliability issues in Sandia MEMS devices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Addressing mechanical reliability issues in Sandia MEMS devices. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Addressing mechanical reliability issues in Sandia MEMS devices. No...

  10. Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability FY 2012 Budget...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability FY 2012 Budget Request Presentation Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability FY 2012 Budget Request Presentation...

  11. PV Performance and Reliability Validation Capabilities at Sandia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PV Performance and Reliability Validation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories PV Performance and Reliability Validation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories This...

  12. How Reliable are Parallel Disk Systems When Energy-Saving Schemes are Involved? Shu Yin, Xiaojun Ruan, Adam Manzanares, and Xiao Qin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    How Reliable are Parallel Disk Systems When Energy-Saving Schemes are Involved? Shu Yin, Xiaojun, growing evidence shows that energy-saving schemes in disk drives usually have negative impacts on storage - called MINT - to evaluate the reliability of a parallel disk system where energy-saving mechanisms

  13. NREL Collaborative Improves the Reliability of Wind Turbine Gearboxes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    Gearbox failures have a significant impact on the cost of wind farm operations. To help minimize gearbox failures, in 2007 the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC), which consists of manufacturers, owners, researchers, and consultants. Based on all the lessons learned from the past five years, the GRC has now produced a new and improved design, which is projected to yield an operating lifetime of 12 years, more than triple that of the previous redesigned gearbox. The GRC findings will result in increased gearbox reliability and an overall reduction in the cost of wind energy.

  14. ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability ESTIMATING STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY UNDER HURRICANE WIND HAZARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Rajagopalan

    STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY UNDER HURRICANE WIND HAZARD: APPLICATIONS TO WOOD STRUCTURES Balaji Rajagopalan.frangopol@colorado.edu Abstract A stochastic nonparametric framework to estimate structural reliability under hurricane wind Natural hazards in general and hurricanes in particular, lead to loss of life and tremendous property

  15. Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

    1999-01-01

    Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update: A Brief (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; McDade, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is an update on the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) for the AWEA Wind Project Operations, Maintenance & Reliability Seminar. GRC accomplishments are: (1) Failure database software deployed - partners see business value for themselves and customers; (2) Designed, built, instrumented, and tested two gearboxes - (a) Generated unprecedented public domain test data from both field testing and dynamometer testing, (b) Different responses from 'identical' gearboxes, (c) Demonstrated importance of non-torque loading and modeling approach; and (3) Active collaborative, with wide industry support, leveraging DOE funding - Modeling round robin and Condition Monitoring round robin.

  17. Reliability and Geographic Trends of 50,000 Photovoltaic Systems in the USA: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents performance and reliability data from nearly 50,000 photovoltaic (PV) systems totaling 1.7 gigawatts installed capacity in the USA from 2009 to 2012 and their geographic trends. About 90% of the normal systems and about 85% of all systems, including systems with known issues, performed to within 10% or better of expected performance. Although considerable uncertainty may exist due to the nature of the data, hotter climates appear to exhibit some degradation not seen in the more moderate climates. Special causes of underperformance and their impacts are delineated by reliability category. Hardware-related issues are dominated by inverter problems (totaling less than 0.5%) and underperforming modules (totaling less than 0.1%). Furthermore, many reliability categories show a significant decrease in occurrence from year 1 to subsequent years, emphasizing the need for higher-quality installations but also the need for improved standards development. The probability of PV system damage because of hail is below 0.05%. Singular weather events can have a significant impact such as a single lightning strike to a transformer or the impact of a hurricane. However, grid outages are more likely to have a significant impact than PV system damage when extreme weather events occur.

  18. Doctoral Defense "Structural reliability assessment under fire"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Structural reliability assessment under fire" Qianru Guo Date: December 11, 2014 Engineering Structural safety under fire has received significant attention in recent years. Current approaches to structural fire design are based on prescriptive codes that emphasize insulation of steel

  19. The challenge of reliability in MEMS commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost-effective solutions only if MEMS is demonstrated to be sufficiently reliable. This could prove to be a major challenge if it is not addressed concurrently with technology development. There are three requirements for a valid assessment of reliability: statistical significance, identification of fundamental failure mechanisms and development of techniques for accelerating them, and valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. While these already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems, the real challenge lies in the less well-understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This requires the elicitation of a methodology focused on MEMS reliability, which the authors discuss. A new testing and analysis infrastructure must also be developed to meet the needs of this methodology. They describe their implementation of this infrastructure and its success in addressing the three requirements for a valid reliability assessment.

  20. Reliability based casting process design optimisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , which is typically defined as an absence of, or low level of, shrinkage porosity in the casting. DespiteReliability based casting process design optimisation R. A. Hardin, K. K. Choi, N. J. Gaul and C and physical uncertainties in the casting process. In the present research, casting simulation is integrated

  1. Wind Energy Facility Reliability and Maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Yu

    from 18 GW to 152 GW over the past decade. According to the north American electric reliability constitute a substantial portion of the total costs of wind power production [2­4]. Field data from Germany to a few weeks. Overall, O&M costs account for 20-47.5% of the wholesale market price [4]. Considering

  2. Value-based reliability transmission planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalton, J.G. III; Garrison, D.L.; Fallon, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper presents a new value-based reliability planning (VBRP) process proposed for planning Duke Power Company`s (DPC) regional transmission system. All transmission served customers are fed from DPC`s regional transmission system which consists of a 44-kV predominantly radial system and a 100-kV predominantly non-radial system. In the past, any single contingency that could occur during system peak conditions and cause a thermal overload required the overloaded facility to be upgraded, regardless of the costs or the likelihood of the overload occurring. The new VBRP process is based on transmission system reliability evaluation and includes the following important elements: (1) a ten-year historical data base describing the probabilities of forced outages for lines and transformers; (2) a five-year average load duration curve describing the probability of an overload should a contingency occur; (3) a customer outage cost data base; (4) and probabilistic techniques. The new process attempts to balance the costs of improving service reliability with the benefits or value that these improvements bring to these customers. The objective is to provide the customers their required level of reliability while minimizing the Total Cost of their electric service.

  3. Environ. Impact Asses. Rev., Vol. 38, Jan. 2013, p. 35-43. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused and reliability. Key words: Health impact, indicator, air pollution, traffic-related emissions 1. Introduction health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions Véronique Lépicier a , Mireille Chiron b, 1 , Robert

  4. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NO[subscript x]-related O[subscript 3] impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Jamin

    Aviation NO[subscript x] emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NO[subscript x] on ...

  5. Health impacts from urban air pollution in China : the burden to the economy and the benefits of policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matus, Kira J. (Kira Jen)

    2005-01-01

    In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

  6. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  7. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  8. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  9. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  10. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  11. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  12. Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits of Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits and Policy Program #12;2 #12;Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large

  13. Reliability Considerations from Integration of Smart Grid

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancialReliability Considerations from the Integration

  14. Reliability of natural gas cogeneration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Cogeneration systems fueled by natural gas exceed the reliability of most central station power generating units, according to a study conducted by RINC Corporation for Gas Research Institute (GRI). In the study, researchers obtained operating data from 122 natural gas cogeneration units nationwide representing 2,200 megawatts (MW) of capacity and nearly 2 million hours of operating time at 37 facilities. Units were grouped into categories reflecting size (from 60 kilowatts to 100 MW), type of system (gas engine or gas turbine technology), use of emission controls, and type of thermal application. Various types and sizes of gas systems reported average availability factors ranging from 90.0 to 95.8 versus a weighted average of 85.9 percent for fossil-fuel steam, nuclear, and gas-turbine-based central station power generating units. Comparisons are based on study data and data reported by the North American Electric Reliability Council for utility power plants. Gas cogeneration can improve utility operations because as a group the relatively small, dispersed cogeneration units are more reliable than one or more large central station units of similar capacity.

  15. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Lipeng; Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H. Sarp; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cao, Qing

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  16. Statistical model selection for better prediction and discovering science mechanisms that affect reliability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Morzinski, Jerome; Blecker, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-19

    Understanding the impact of production, environmental exposure and age characteristics on the reliability of a population is frequently based on underlying science and empirical assessment. When there is incomplete science to prescribe which inputs should be included in a model of reliability to predict future trends, statistical model/variable selection techniques can be leveraged on a stockpile or population of units to improve reliability predictions as well as suggest new mechanisms affecting reliability to explore. We describe a five-step process for exploring relationships between available summaries of age, usage and environmental exposure and reliability. The process involves first identifying potential candidatemore »inputs, then second organizing data for the analysis. Third, a variety of models with different combinations of the inputs are estimated, and fourth, flexible metrics are used to compare them. As a result, plots of the predicted relationships are examined to distill leading model contenders into a prioritized list for subject matter experts to understand and compare. The complexity of the model, quality of prediction and cost of future data collection are all factors to be considered by the subject matter experts when selecting a final model.« less

  17. Elimination of Adverse Leakage Flow in a Miniature Pediatric Centrifugal Blood Pump by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paden, Brad

    Elimination of Adverse Leakage Flow in a Miniature Pediatric Centrifugal Blood Pump levitated centrifugal blood pump intended to deliver 0.3­1.5 l/min of support to neo- nates and infants by centrifugal force to flow radially outwards toward the outlet of the impeller against an unfavorable pressure

  18. Large-scale prediction of adverse drug reactions using chemical, biological, and phenotypic properties of drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mei; Wu, Yonghui; Chen, Yukun; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming; Chen, Xue-wen; Matheny, Michael Edwin; Xu, Hua

    2012-06-19

    Abstract Objective Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is one of the major causes of failure in drug development. Severe ADRs that go undetected until the post-marketing phase of a drug often lead to patient morbidity. Accurate prediction of potential ADRs...

  19. Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database : wind plant reliability benchmark.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.

    2013-09-01

    To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems' ORAPWind%C2%AE (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREW's reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 1, MARCH 2013 133 Reliable Wireless Communication Networks for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Lin

    Networks for Demand Response Control Lei Zheng, Student Member, IEEE, Ning Lu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Lin performance of wireless communication networks to sup- port demand response (DR) control. First, the impact requirements of DR programs. Index Terms--Communications reliability, demand response, network topology, outage

  1. Energy Storage: The Key to a Reliable, Clean Electricity Supply...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage: The Key to a Reliable, Clean Electricity Supply Energy Storage: The Key to a Reliable, Clean Electricity Supply February 22, 2012 - 4:52pm Addthis Improved energy...

  2. Case Study: Fuel Cells Increase Reliability at First National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increase Reliability at First National Bank of Omaha Case Study: Fuel Cells Increase Reliability at First National Bank of Omaha First National Bank of Omaha installed a fuel cell...

  3. Final report on reliability and lifetime prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Wise, Jonathan; Jones, Gary D.; Causa, Al G.; Terrill, Edward R.; Borowczak, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This document highlights the important results obtained from the subtask of the Goodyear CRADA devoted to better understanding reliability of tires and to developing better lifetime prediction methods. The overall objective was to establish the chemical and physical basis for the degradation of tires using standard as well as unique models and experimental techniques. Of particular interest was the potential application of our unique modulus profiling apparatus for assessing tire properties and for following tire degradation. During the course of this complex investigation, extensive relevant information was generated, including experimental results, data analyses and development of models and instruments. Detailed descriptions of the findings are included in this report.

  4. Reliability and Functional Availability of HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrefelt, S.

    2004-01-01

    the probability that a component or a system works when no maintenance is made. A system with a high reliability thus has minimal maintenance requirements; it is a robust system. The decision capability is used to assess the organisation?s capacity to start... the system is in operation in relation to intended operating time. It mainly shows the technical capability to keep on operating while maintenance is being carried out. Systems that must be taken out of operation for longer repair works have a lower level...

  5. Reliability Technology earns prestigious Los Alamos award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout UsRegional companiesReliability Technology

  6. Sandia Energy - Materials, Reliability, & Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &Water Power& SF-BREEZEMaterials, Reliability,

  7. Impact of On-chip Inductance on Power Distribution Network Design for Nanometer Scale Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - strate the importance of considering on-chip power grid induc- tance, and how its impact scales) are expected to adversely impact the chip's power supply grid design, this work demonstrates that a power grid. The parasitic elements in the wires from off-chip power supply sources to the terminals of each transistor cause

  8. Human Reliability Program (HRP) - HPMC Occupational Health Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EpidemiologyHealth Data Analysis Human Reliability Program (HRP) Industrial Rehabilitation & Ergonomics Infection Control & Immunizations Influenza Immunization Program...

  9. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  10. Competition and Reliability in North American Electricity Markets...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Publications The Relationship between Competitive Power Markets and Grid Reliability. Blackout 2003: Electric System Working Group Technical Conference - Comments and...

  11. Reliable and Energy Efficient Transport Layer for Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    Reliable and Energy Efficient Transport Layer for Sensor Networks Petar Djukic and Shahrokh Valaee Diversity Coded Directed Diffusion (DCDD), a reliable and energy efficient transport protocol for sensor-to-end reliability, as well as the effect of DCDD on energy consumption in the network. Our simulations show

  12. Reliable Provisioning of Data-Centric and Event-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dustdar, Schahram

    Reliable Provisioning of Data-Centric and Event-Based Applications in the Cloud DISSERTATION zur A-1040 Wien Karlsplatz 13 Tel. +43-1-58801-0 www.tuwien.ac.at #12;#12;Reliable Provisioning of Data-Centric a set of novel methods and tools for reliable provisioning of data-centric and event-based applications

  13. Comparison of Competing Software Reliability Models: Bayesian Model Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Sanjib

    is in software development and testing. The goal of software reliability research is to quantify the performanceComparison of Competing Software Reliability Models: Bayesian Model Selection Sanjib Basu and Nader@math.niu.edu and nader@math.niu.edu Abstract Software reliability models are used to describe the evolution

  14. Security-Constrained Adequacy Evaluation of Bulk Power System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contingency selection, (b) effects analysis, and (c) reliability index computation. Effects analysis as an optimization problem with the objective function being the bid cost function and congestion constraints and reliability index computations. The methodology is demonstrated with the IEEE reliability test system. Index

  15. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  16. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-10-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  17. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  18. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2011: February 16-17, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  19. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  20. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  1. Review of Quantitative Software Reliability Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, M.; Lehner, J.

    2010-09-17

    The current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for digital systems rests on deterministic engineering criteria. In its 1995 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) policy statement, the Commission encouraged the use of PRA technology in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although many activities have been completed in the area of risk-informed regulation, the risk-informed analysis process for digital systems has not yet been satisfactorily developed. Since digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety, the NRC established a digital system research plan that defines a coherent set of research programs to support its regulatory needs. One of the research programs included in the NRC's digital system research plan addresses risk assessment methods and data for digital systems. Digital I&C systems have some unique characteristics, such as using software, and may have different failure causes and/or modes than analog I&C systems; hence, their incorporation into NPP PRAs entails special challenges. The objective of the NRC's digital system risk research is to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems into NPP PRAs, and (2) using information on the risks of digital systems to support the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. For several years, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has worked on NRC projects to investigate methods and tools for the probabilistic modeling of digital systems, as documented mainly in NUREG/CR-6962 and NUREG/CR-6997. However, the scope of this research principally focused on hardware failures, with limited reviews of software failure experience and software reliability methods. NRC also sponsored research at the Ohio State University investigating the modeling of digital systems using dynamic PRA methods. These efforts, documented in NUREG/CR-6901, NUREG/CR-6942, and NUREG/CR-6985, included a functional representation of the system's software but did not explicitly address failure modes caused by software defects or by inadequate design requirements. An important identified research need is to establish a commonly accepted basis for incorporating the behavior of software into digital I&C system reliability models for use in PRAs. To address this need, BNL is exploring the inclusion of software failures into the reliability models of digital I&C systems, such that their contribution to the risk of the associated NPP can be assessed.

  2. Performance Boosting under Reliability and Power Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Lizy Kurian

    to reduce energy consumption -- clock gating, power gating, process shrinks, and voltage reduction -- lead droop in the system. We show the impact of FP throttling on voltage droop, and translate this reduction. These margins are set conservatively, and are on the order of 15% to 20% of the supply voltage [6]. However

  3. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: The feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This is an outstanding report from a distinguished academy committee, which in 71 pages of text provides the scientific basis for the carefully crafted 8-page executive summary. The principles and issues of the required epidemiological study are presented calmly and concisely, as are the ensuing short chapters on radiation biology, genetics and risk estimation, and all other adverse reproductive outcomes. The committee was mandated by Congress to determine the feasibility, cost and duration of a study on adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veteran. The committee found that a scientifically adequate and epidemiologically valid study could not be mounted and the cost would be tens of millions of dollars lasting a decade. The Committee presents a number of well-discussed approaches in support of their position.

  4. Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S.; Alonso, C.T.

    1987-10-01

    This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.

  5. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  6. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  7. Nuclear Power - Control, Reliability and Human Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Reliability K s e n i i a Sapoz h n i k o v a and Roald Tayma n o v D.I.Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia 1. Introduction At present, a great number of embedded sens o r devi c es provi d e monito r i n g of operat i n g condi t io n... s and state of equi p me n t , includ i n g nucle a r react o r s of power plant s . The metrol o gi c a l reliab i li t y of meas uri n g instrum e n t s built in equi p me n t deter mi n e s the valid i t y of measure me nt infor ma t i o n . The qualit y...

  8. Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The steady increase of wind power on the grid presents new challenges for power system operators charged with making sure the grid stays up and running. "We need to ensure that we are going down a path that will lead to better reliability [with wind power]," said Bob Zavadil, an executive vice president at EnerNex Corporation in Knoxville, Tenn., a firm specializing in renewable energy grid interconnection and integration. "If this piece isn't done, there will be problems." EnerNex has spent the last decade perfecting wind turbine and plant models that test a wind plant's influence on the grid and its ability to provide grid support. In its latest effort, the company is using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds worth $750,000 to develop documentation and validations of computer wind turbine models.

  9. Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-06-01

    Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

  10. Probabilistic fatigue methodology and wind turbine reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lange, C.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Wind turbines subjected to highly irregular loadings due to wind, gravity, and gyroscopic effects are especially vulnerable to fatigue damage. The objective of this study is to develop and illustrate methods for the probabilistic analysis and design of fatigue-sensitive wind turbine components. A computer program (CYCLES) that estimates fatigue reliability of structural and mechanical components has been developed. A FORM/SORM analysis is used to compute failure probabilities and importance factors of the random variables. The limit state equation includes uncertainty in environmental loading, gross structural response, and local fatigue properties. Several techniques are shown to better study fatigue loads data. Common one-parameter models, such as the Rayleigh and exponential models are shown to produce dramatically different estimates of load distributions and fatigue damage. Improved fits may be achieved with the two-parameter Weibull model. High b values require better modeling of relatively large stress ranges; this is effectively done by matching at least two moments (Weibull) and better by matching still higher moments. For this purpose, a new, four-moment {open_quotes}generalized Weibull{close_quotes} model is introduced. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methodology for design against fatigue is proposed and demonstrated using data from two horizontal-axis wind turbines. To estimate fatigue damage, wind turbine blade loads have been represented by their first three statistical moments across a range of wind conditions. Based on the moments {mu}{sub 1}{hor_ellipsis}{mu}{sub 3}, new {open_quotes}quadratic Weibull{close_quotes} load distribution models are introduced. The fatigue reliability is found to be notably affected by the choice of load distribution model.

  11. High reliability plastic packaging for microelectronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.; Tuck, M.

    1997-07-01

    Goal was Assembly Test Chips (ATCs) which could be used for evaluating plastic encapsulation technologies. Circuits were demonstrated for measuring Au-Al wirebond and Al metal corrosion failure rates during accelerated temperature and humidity testing. The test circuits on the ATC02.5 chip were very sensitive to extrinsic or processing induced failure rates. Accelerated aging experiments were conducted with unpassivated triple track Al structures on the ATC02.6 chip; the unpassivated tracks were found to be very sensitive to particulate contamination. Some modifications to existing circuitry were suggested. The piezoresistive stress sensing circuitry designed for the ATC04 test chip was found suitable for determining the change in the state of mechanical stress at the die when both initial and final measurements were made near room temperature (RT). Attempt to measure thermal stress between RT and a typical polymer glass transition temperature failed because of excessive die resistor- substrate leakage currents at the high temperature end; suitable circuitry changes were developed to overcome this problem. One temperature and humidity experiment was conducted with Sandia developed static radom access memory parts to examine non-corrosion CMOS failures; this objective was not achieved, but corrosion failure at the metal to Si contacts on the die surface could be detected. This 2-year effort resulted in new designs for test circuits which could be used on an advanced ATC for reliability assessment in Defense Programs electronics development projects.

  12. Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Internships Funding Opportunities Information Center Contact Us Energy.gov Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC...

  13. Reliability of Coupled Oscillators I: Two-Oscillator Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin K. Lin; Eric Shea-Brown; Lai-Sang Young

    2007-08-23

    This paper concerns the reliability of a pair of coupled oscillators in response to fluctuating inputs. Reliability means that an input elicits essentially identical responses upon repeated presentations regardless of the network's initial condition. Our main result is that both reliable and unreliable behaviors occur in this network for broad ranges of coupling strengths, even though individual oscillators are always reliable when uncoupled. A new finding is that at low input amplitudes, the system is highly susceptible to unreliable responses when the feedforward and feedback couplings are roughly comparable. A geometric explanation based on shear-induced chaos at the onset of phase-locking is proposed.

  14. Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting ape026hefner2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug-in Vehicle Converters and Inverters...

  15. POWER, THERMAL, AND RELIABILITY MODELING IN NANOMETER-SCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David

    ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ POWER ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ POWER IS THE SOURCE OF THE GREATEST PROBLEMS FACING MICROPROCESSOR DESIGNERS. RAPID POWER VARIATION BRINGS TRANSIENT ERRORS. HIGH POWER DENSITIES BRING HIGH TEMPERATURES, HARMING RELIABILITY AND INCREASING

  16. Smart Grid: Creating Jobs while Delivering Reliable,Environmentally...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Smart Grid: Creating Jobs while Delivering Reliable, Environmentally-friendly Energy Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017)...

  17. Reliability Tools for Resonance Inspection of Light Metal Castings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tools for Resonance Inspection of Light Metal Castings Reliability Tools for Resonance Inspection of Light Metal Castings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  18. Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability and Instrumentation Working Group Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of the Optics,...

  19. Sandia Energy - Reliability, O&M, Standards Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    design, wind industry data collection and storage techniques, and analysis methods. The IEA Task 33 Working Group on Reliability Data unites experts from around the world, with...

  20. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and combined-heat-and-power, where they provide unparalleled reliability and en- hanced efficiency. Continuing technological progress will enable fuel cells to compete in new...

  1. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    buildings on nearly 1,000 acres. Photo courtesy of Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus Recovery Act...

  2. Project Profile: Physics-Based Reliability Models for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    developed models to predict the reliability of hybrid gas bearing (HGB) and dry gas seal (DGS) components in the turboexpander of a supercritical CO2 turbine. The...

  3. Separating myths from reality in PV inverter reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    . · This is based upon a LCOE of 5 cents per kWh, so reliability is critical · MTBF of string inverters in 2006: 5

  4. Power Electronics Reliability Kick Off Meeting ? Silicon Power...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electronics Reliability Analysis Annual DOE Peer Review Meeting October 8, 2009 Mark A. Smith - Systems Readiness & Sustainment Technologies Department Stan Atcitty - Energy...

  5. Office of Electricity Delivery And Energy Reliability To Hold...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Electricity Delivery And Energy Reliability To Hold Technical Conference On The Design Of Future Electric Transmission Office of Electricity Delivery And Energy...

  6. Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings During and after Hurricane Sandy, combined heat and power (CHP) enabled a number of critical infrastructure and...

  7. Their Reputations Precede Them: The CEO Successor's Reputation and Shareholders' Assessment of Adverse Selection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahms, Cheryl Ann

    2014-08-05

    has potential to enhance the market value of the firm (i.e., increase the share price). A CEO selection may have a significant effect on a firm’s performance (Mackey, 2008). The success of this CEO selection is predicated on the ability of the CEO... the costs to minimize information asymmetry and the potential costs of adverse selection. The choice of CEO can serve as a highly profitable or costly endeavor to the shareholders. Through the use of variance decomposition, Mackey (2008) re...

  8. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Project Report: Findings from Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Sheng, S.; Wallen, R.; McDade, M.; Lambert, S.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-06-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative's work at NREL to increase the reliability of wind turbine gearboxes.

  9. An Integrative Approach to Reliability Analysis of an IEC 61850 Digital Substation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yan 1988-

    2012-11-28

    the failures at the bay level translate to the substation level, first we describe the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Subsequently we will describe the reliability model at the substation level using the results of this FMEA. 4.1 Signal Flow... Effects in HV Transformer Bay 4.3 Integration at the Substation Level Now we will use the results of the FMEA to analyze the impact at the substation level. Since IEC 61850 based SAS combines the modern communication and traditional physical...

  10. Substations reliability-centered maintenance and predictive maintenance - a strategic partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colsher, R.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Eddystone, PA (United States); Abbott, P.D.; Matusheski, R.L. [EPRI & MD Center, Eddystone, PA (United States); Smith, S.B. [ERIN Engineering & Research, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A maintenance optimization study for substation components can be most effective when Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Analysis is combined with a Predictive Maintenance (PDM) Assessment. If the two processes are performed concurrently, the benefit-to-cost ratios for each is increased. Also, the cost of implementing RCM recommendations for condition monitoring can be minimized, while maximizing their impact at the same time. This paper presents the essential elements of both the RCM and PDM processes, and describes how they work together in a substation environment as a comprehensive maintenance assessment tool. Descriptions of recent experiences are also included.

  11. Reliability Testing of Polysilicon For MEMs Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVan, D.A.; Buchheit, T.E.

    1999-04-05

    Mission critical applications of MEMS devices require knowledge of the distribution in their material properties and long-term reliability of the small-scale structures. This project reports on a new testing program at Sandia to quantify the strength distribution using samples that reflect the dimensions of critical MEMS components. The strength of polysilicon fabricated with Sandia's SUMMiT 4-layer process was successfully measured using samples with gage sections 2.5 {micro}m thick by 1.7 {micro}m wide and lengths of 15 and 25 {micro}m. These tensile specimens have a freely moving pivot on one end that anchors the sample to the silicon die and prevents off axis loading during testing. Each sample is loaded in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a computer-controlled Nanoindenter. The stress-strain curve is calculated using the specimen cross section and gage length dimensions verified by measuring against a standard in the SEM. The first 48 samples had a means strength of 2.24 {+-} 0.35 GPa. Fracture strength measurements grouped into three strength levels, which matched three failure modes observed in post mortem examinations. The seven samples in the highest strength group failed in the gage section (strength of 2.77 {+-} 0.04 GPa), the moderate strength group failed at the gage section fillet and the lowest strength group failed at a dimple in the hub. With this technique, multiple tests can be programmed at one time and performed without operator assistance at a rate of 20-30 per day allowing the collection of significant populations of data. Since the new test geometry has been proven, the project is moving to test the distributions seen from real geometric features typical to MEMS such as the effect of gage length, fracture toughness, bonding between layers, etch holes, dimples and shear of gear teeth.

  12. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF FIXED FOUNDATION WIND TURBINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.

    2013-10-14

    Recent analysis of offshore wind turbine foundations using both applicable API and IEC standards show that the total load demand from wind and waves is greatest in wave driven storms. Further, analysis of overturning moment loads (OTM) reveal that impact forces exerted by breaking waves are the largest contributor to OTM in big storms at wind speeds above the operating range of 25 m/s. Currently, no codes or standards for offshore wind power generators have been adopted by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) for use on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Current design methods based on allowable stress design (ASD) incorporate the uncertainty in the variation of loads transferred to the foundation and geotechnical capacity of the soil and rock to support the loads is incorporated into a factor of safety. Sources of uncertainty include spatial and temporal variation of engineering properties, reliability of property measurements applicability and sufficiency of sampling and testing methods, modeling errors, and variability of estimated load predictions. In ASD these sources of variability are generally given qualitative rather than quantitative consideration. The IEC 61400‐3 design standard for offshore wind turbines is based on ASD methods. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods are being increasingly used in the design of structures. Uncertainties such as those listed above can be included quantitatively into the LRFD process. In LRFD load factors and resistance factors are statistically based. This type of analysis recognizes that there is always some probability of failure and enables the probability of failure to be quantified. This paper presents an integrated approach consisting of field observations and numerical simulation to establish the distribution of loads from breaking waves to support the LRFD of fixed offshore foundations.

  13. Towards Reliable SubDivision of Geological Areas: Interval Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Towards Reliable Sub­Division of Geological Areas: Interval Approach David D. Coblentz 1;2 , Vladik difficult to produce a reliable subdivision. The subdivision of a geological zone into segments is often, and often, we do not have a statistically sufficient amount of thoroughly analyzed geological samples

  14. Towards Reliable SubDivision of Geological Areas: Interval Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Towards Reliable Sub­Division of Geological Areas: Interval Approach David D. Coblentz 1;2 , Vladik Difficult to Produce a Reliable Subdivision The subdivision of a geological zone into segments is often the area, and often, we do not have a statistically sufficient amount of thoroughly analyzed geological

  15. SCORE: a Scalable Concolic Testing Tool for Reliable Embedded Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCORE: a Scalable Concolic Testing Tool for Reliable Embedded Software Yunho Kim and Moonzoo Kim COncolic testing tool for REliable embedded software (SCORE) that targets embedded C programs. SCORE is a de-facto standard method for improving the quality of software in industry. Conventional testing

  16. INTELLIGENT SENSOR VALIDATION AND SENSOR FUSION FOR RELIABILITY AND SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    1 INTELLIGENT SENSOR VALIDATION AND SENSOR FUSION FOR RELIABILITY AND SAFETY ENHANCEMENT IN VEHICLE #12;2 Intelligent Sensor Validation and Sensor Fusion for Reliability and Safety Enhancement acknowledge the help of PATH engineers Pete Devlin, Seibum Choi, and Leon Chen. II. Keywords Sensor Validation

  17. RELIABILITY COMPARISON MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES (OWT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Joseph B.

    RELIABILITY COMPARISON MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES (OWT) Yizhou Lu, T. M. Delorm, A. Christou of survivor functions R(t) of drive-trains, after 1 year of operation, between Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) vs of the reliability of these 5 Types Surrogate failure rate data Onshore wind turbines (OT) 1-1.5MW CONCLUSIONS

  18. UNCORRECTED Reliability analysis of hybrid ceramic/steel gun barrels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    UNCORRECTED PROOF Reliability analysis of hybrid ceramic/steel gun barrels M. GRUJICIC1 , J. R-5069, USA Received in final form 25 February 2002 AB ST R AC T Failure of the ceramic gun-barrel lining probability for the lining is also discussed. Keywords failure; gun-barrel lining; reliability; thermo

  19. EE 851.3 (3L) Power System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    EE 851.3 (3L) Power System Reliability Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Winter and Program Catalogue) Prerequisites: EE 850 or prior knowledge of reliability engineering concepts Instructor: Rajesh Karki, Ph.D., P.Eng. Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Office

  20. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High Speed Shaft Tapered Roller Bearing Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is a project investigating gearbox reliability primarily through testing and modeling. Previous dynamometer testing focused upon acquiring measurements in the planetary section of the test gearbox. Prior to these tests, the strain gages installed on the planetary bearings were calibrated in a load frame.

  1. An Empirical Study of the Reliability UNIX Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Barton P.

    An Empirical Study of the Reliability of UNIX Utilities Barton P. Miller bart@cs.wisc.edu Lars, such as the kernel and utility programs, are typically assumed to be reliable. In our recent experiments, we have been able to crash 25­33% of the utility programs on any version of UNIX that was tested. This report

  2. An Empirical Study of the Reliability UNIX Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Barton P.

    An Empirical Study of the Reliability of UNIX Utilities Barton P. Miller bart@cs.wisc.edu Lars, such as the kernel and utility programs, are typically assumed to be reliable. In our recent experiments, we have been able to crash 25-33% of the utility programs on any version of UNIX that was tested. This report

  3. Hybrid Statistical Model Checking Technique for Reliable Safety Critical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @cs.kaist.ac.kr Abstract--Reliability of safety critical systems such as nuclear power plants and automobiles has become1 Hybrid Statistical Model Checking Technique for Reliable Safety Critical Systems Youngjoo Kim a significant issue to our society. As more computing systems are utilized in these safety critical systems

  4. Assessing the reliability of linear dynamic transformer thermal modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the reliability of linear dynamic transformer thermal modelling X. Mao, D.J. Tylavsky and G.A. McCulla Abstract: Improving the utilisation of transformers requires that the hot-spot and top. An alternative method for assessing transformer model reliability is provided. 1 Introduction The maximally

  5. Wind turbine reliability : a database and analysis approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsday, James; Briand, Daniel; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Benjamin, Allan S.

    2008-02-01

    The US wind Industry has experienced remarkable growth since the turn of the century. At the same time, the physical size and electrical generation capabilities of wind turbines has also experienced remarkable growth. As the market continues to expand, and as wind generation continues to gain a significant share of the generation portfolio, the reliability of wind turbine technology becomes increasingly important. This report addresses how operations and maintenance costs are related to unreliability - that is the failures experienced by systems and components. Reliability tools are demonstrated, data needed to understand and catalog failure events is described, and practical wind turbine reliability models are illustrated, including preliminary results. This report also presents a continuing process of how to proceed with controlling industry requirements, needs, and expectations related to Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety. A simply stated goal of this process is to better understand and to improve the operable reliability of wind turbine installations.

  6. Joint Architecture Standard (JAS) Reliable Data Delivery Protocol (RDDP) specification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enderle, Justin Wayne; Daniels, James W.; Gardner, Michael T.; Eldridge, John M.; Hunt, Richard D.; Gallegos, Daniel E.

    2011-05-01

    The Joint Architecture Standard (JAS) program at Sandia National Laboratories requires the use of a reliable data delivery protocol over SpaceWire. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, developed and specified a reliable protocol for its Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite known as GOES-R Reliable Data Delivery Protocol (GRDDP). The JAS program implemented and tested GRDDP and then suggested a number of modifications to the original specification to meet its program specific requirements. This document details the full RDDP specification as modified for JAS. The JAS Reliable Data Delivery Protocol uses the lower-level SpaceWire data link layer to provide reliable packet delivery services to one or more higher-level host application processes. This document specifies the functional requirements for JRDDP but does not specify the interfaces to the lower- or higher-level processes, which may be implementation-dependent.

  7. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  8. Final report : impacts analysis for cyber attack on electric power systems (National SCADA Test Bed FY08).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stamp, Jason Edwin; LaViolette, Randall A.

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the risks due to cyber attack against control systems used in the United States electrical infrastructure, new algorithms are needed to determine the possible impacts. This research is studying the Reliability Impact of Cyber ttack (RICA) in a two-pronged approach. First, malevolent cyber actions are analyzed in terms of reduced grid reliability. Second, power system impacts are investigated using an abstraction of the grid's dynamic model. This second year of esearch extends the work done during the first year.

  9. A Dirichlet reputation system in reliable routing of wireless ad hoc network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dr. Li [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Cemerlic, Alma [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Ad hoc networks are very helpful in situations when no fixed network infrastructure is available, such as natural disasters and military conflicts. In such a network, all wireless nodes are equal peers simultaneously serving as both senders and routers for other nodes. Therefore, how to route packets through reliable paths becomes a fundamental problems when behaviors of certain nodes deviate from wireless ad hoc routing protocols. We proposed a novel Dirichlet reputation model based on Bayesian inference theory which evaluates reliability of each node in terms of packet delivery. Our system offers a way to predict and select a reliable path through combination of first-hand observation and second-hand reputation reports. We also proposed moving window mechanism which helps to adjust ours responsiveness of our system to changes of node behaviors. We integrated the Dirichlet reputation into routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks. Our extensive simulation indicates that our proposed reputation system can improve good throughput of the network and reduce negative impacts caused by misbehaving nodes.

  10. Is This Cost Estimate Reliable?Is This Cost Estimate Reliable? -The Relationship between Homogeneity of Analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Is This Cost Estimate Reliable?Is This Cost Estimate Reliable? - The Relationship between/4)( / ) Software cost estimation Definition · Task of predicting the cost required to complete a software projectproject Techniques for software cost estimation · Algorithmic estimationAlgorithmic estimation ­ Calculate

  11. Robust Design of Reliability Test Plans Using Degradation Measures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Jonathan Wesley; Lane, Jonathan Wesley; Crowder, Stephen V.; Crowder, Stephen V.

    2014-10-01

    With short production development times, there is an increased need to demonstrate product reliability relatively quickly with minimal testing. In such cases there may be few if any observed failures. Thus, it may be difficult to assess reliability using the traditional reliability test plans that measure only time (or cycles) to failure. For many components, degradation measures will contain important information about performance and reliability. These measures can be used to design a minimal test plan, in terms of number of units placed on test and duration of the test, necessary to demonstrate a reliability goal. Generally, the assumption is made that the error associated with a degradation measure follows a known distribution, usually normal, although in practice cases may arise where that assumption is not valid. In this paper, we examine such degradation measures, both simulated and real, and present non-parametric methods to demonstrate reliability and to develop reliability test plans for the future production of components with this form of degradation.

  12. Reliable and unreliable dynamics in driven coupled oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin K. Lin; Eric Shea-Brown; Lai-Sang Young

    2006-08-10

    This letter concerns the reliability of coupled oscillator networks in response to fluctuating inputs. Reliability means that (following a transient) an input elicits identical responses upon repeated presentations, regardless of the system's initial condition. Here, we analyze this property for two coupled oscillators, demonstrating that oscillator networks exhibit both reliable and unreliable dynamics for broad ranges of coupling strengths. We further argue that unreliable dynamics are characterized by strange attractors with random SRB measures, implying that though unreliable, the responses lie on low-dimensional sets. Finally, we show that 1:1 phase locking in the zero-input system corresponds to high susceptibility for unreliable responses. A geometric explanation is proposed.

  13. Correlation of Clinical and Dosimetric Factors With Adverse Pulmonary Outcomes in Children After Lung Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Kamath, Sunil; Wong, Kenneth; Malvar, Jemily; Sposto, Richard; Goodarzian, Fariba; Freyer, David R.; Keens, Thomas G.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. Results: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V{sub 22} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?22 Gy) and V{sub 30} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ?30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and V{sub dose} (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). Conclusions: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed dose should be used to perform risk stratification of patients receiving lung irradiation.

  14. The validation of an invitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keating, Christopher, E-mail: C.Keating@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Martinez, Vicente; Ewart, Lorna [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Gibbons, Stephen; Grundy, Luke [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Valentin, Jean-Pierre [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Grundy, David [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Motility-related gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (GADRs), such as constipation and diarrhea, are some of the most frequently reported adverse events associated with the clinical development of new chemical entities, and for marketed drugs. However, biomarkers capable of detecting such GADRs are lacking. Here, we describe an in vitro assay developed to detect and quantify changes in intestinal motility as a surrogate biomarker for constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. In vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure were used to monitor the presence of colonic peristaltic motor complexes (CPMCs) in mouse colonic segments. CPMC frequency, contractile and total mechanical activity were assessed. To validate the assay, two experimental protocols were conducted. Initially, five drugs with known gastrointestinal effects were tested to determine optimal parameters describing excitation and inhibition as markers for disturbances in colonic motility. This was followed by a 'blinded' evaluation of nine drugs associated with or without clinically identified constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. Concentration-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the effects were compared with their maximal free therapeutic plasma concentration in humans. The assay detected stimulatory and inhibitory responses, likely correlating to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation. Concentration-related effects were identified and potential mechanisms of action were inferred for several drugs. Based on the results from the fourteen drugs assessed, the sensitivity of the assay was calculated at 90%, with a specificity of 75% and predictive capacity of 86%. These results support the potential use of this assay in screening for motility-related GADRs during early discovery phase, safety pharmacology assessment.

  15. Potential Climatic Impacts and Reliability of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien

    The vast availability of wind power has fueled substantial interest in this renewable energy source as a potential near-zero greenhouse gas emission technology for meeting future world energy needs while addressing the ...

  16. Potential Climatic Impacts and Reliability of Very Large-Scale Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien

    Meeting future world energy needs while addressing climate change requires large-scale deployment of low or zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emission technologies such as wind energy. The widespread availability of wind power has ...

  17. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-10-27

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  18. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix E: Transmission Reinforcement Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Five transmission line options and several reactive (voltage support) options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAERP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. These options were derived from earlier study work that was summarized in Puget Sound Reinforcement Transmission Options'' and New Cross Mountain Transmission Line Alternative: The Crosstie'', which are attached. The initial Transmission Options study report recognized the value to system performance of adding an entirely new circuit rather than rebuilding an existing one. However, siting realities require that rebuild options be considered. Typically, the most attractive rebuild options would be the lowest capacity (lowest voltage) circuits. But because of corridor location, length and terminal proximity, the rebuild options listed below appear to be the most promising. Schematic diagrams and QV Curves of each option are also attached. It should be noted that Snoqualmie and Echo Lake refer to the same station east of Puget Sound and Naneum and Kittitas refer to the same station in the Ellensburg area. 100 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Reliability Modeling and Evaluation in Aging Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hag-Kwen

    2010-01-14

    Carlo simulation is introduced. Power Law Process is modeled as the failure rate function of aging components. Power system reliability analysis can be made at the generation capacity level where transmission constraints may be included. The simulation...

  20. Estimation of system reliability using a semiparametric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Leon

    An important problem in reliability engineering is to predict the failure rate, that is, the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails. This paper presents a new method of estimating failure rate using ...

  1. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    ON METHODOLOGY: FROM WIND POWER FREQUENCY TO LOSS-OF-LOADJ.P. , "Some Aspects of Wind Power Statistics, " J. of Appl.S£CTION Reliability of Wind Power From Dispersed Sites: A Pr

  2. Travel Time Reliability: Its Measurement and Prediction | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Travel Time Reliability: Its Measurement and Prediction Apr 02 2014 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM George List, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, and Richard Margiotta, Cambridge...

  3. Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available September 25, 2014 - 11:43am Addthis OE's...

  4. Multi-hazard Reliability Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mardfekri Rastehkenari, Maryam 1981-

    2012-12-04

    A probabilistic framework is developed to assess the structural reliability of offshore wind turbines. Probabilistic models are developed to predict the deformation, shear force and bending moment demands on the support structure of wind turbines...

  5. Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungjun

    2013-08-01

    In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we ...

  6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reliable Secret Sharing With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marten van Dijk, Daihyun Lim, Srinivas Devadas 2004 Computation Structures Group Memo 475 The Stata Laboratory #12;#12;Reliable Secret Sharing With Physical Random Functions Marten van Dijk Daihyun Lim

  7. Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

  8. Reliability improvement project decision making : water cooling system redesign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devine, Paul (Paul S.)

    2006-01-01

    Deciding on which reliability & performance improvement projects to launch or to reject has historically been an extremely challenging responsibility of Teradyne management. Incorrect decisions can lead to major customer ...

  9. Request for Information: Photovoltaic Reliability and Durability Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) – Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) seeks feedback from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on issues related to solar photovoltaic (PV) reliability and durability research and development.

  10. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  11. Some optimization problems in power system reliability analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirutitijaroen, Panida

    2009-05-15

    This dissertation aims to address two optimization problems involving power system reliabilty analysis, namely multi-area power system adequacy planning and transformer maintenance optimization. A new simulation method for power system reliability...

  12. Reliability-based Design of Offshore Mooring Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mir Emad

    2013-02-05

    This study proposes new methods for the reliability-based design of structural systems, with emphasis on offshore mooring systems. After a brief introduction to the mooring systems, two main objectives are discussed in this dissertation. The first...

  13. Automatic Reconfiguration for Large-Scale Reliable Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Rodrigo

    Byzantine-fault-tolerant replication enhances the availability and reliability of Internet services that store critical state and preserve it despite attacks or software errors. However, existing Byzantine-fault-tolerant ...

  14. A Monte Carlo tool for multi-node reliability evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thalasila, Chander Pravin

    1993-01-01

    -Area Reliability Program(NARP) is based on the random sampling of generator and transmission line status for each hour. Monte Carlo Approach for Estimating Contingency Statistics along with the Evaluation Subroutine(MACS-ES) advances the generation...

  15. The reliability of a dialogue structure coding scheme. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carletta, Jean; Isard, Amy; Isard, Stephen; Kowtko, Jacqueline C; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Anderson, Anne H

    1997-01-01

    This papers describes the reliability of a dialogue structure coding scheme which is based on utterance function, game structure, and higher level transaction function, and which has been applied to a corpus of spontaneous ...

  16. 2012 CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reliability R&D Internal Program Review June 12-13, 2012 LBNL Project Office 901 D St., SW Washington DC Nancy Lewis' cell: 510.918.3155 Revised Agenda: June 5, 2012 June 12, Day...

  17. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

  18. Reliability assessment of electrical power systems using genetic algorithms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samaan, Nader Amin Aziz

    2004-11-15

    The first part of this dissertation presents an innovative method for the assessment of generation system reliability. In this method, genetic algorithm (GA) is used as a search tool to truncate the probability state space ...

  19. High-reliability computing for the smarter planet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [UNIV OF PADOVA; Dehon, Andre [UNIV OF PENN; Carter, Nicholas [INTEL CORPORATION

    2010-01-01

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance, known as Moore's Law, has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. In this paper, we will present the concept of the smarter planet, how reliability failures affect current systems, and methods that can be used to increase the reliable adoption of new automation in the future. We will illustrate these issues using a number of different electronic devices in a couple of different scenarios. Recently IBM has been presenting the idea of a 'smarter planet.' In smarter planet documents, IBM discusses increased computer automation of roadways, banking, healthcare, and infrastructure, as automation could create more efficient systems. A necessary component of the smarter planet concept is to ensure that these new systems have very high reliability. Even extremely rare reliability problems can easily escalate to problematic scenarios when implemented at very large scales. For life-critical systems, such as automobiles, infrastructure, medical implantables, and avionic systems, unmitigated failures could be dangerous. As more automation moves into these types of critical systems, reliability failures will need to be managed. As computer automation continues to increase in our society, the need for greater radiation reliability is necessary. Already critical infrastructure is failing too frequently. In this paper, we will introduce the Cross-Layer Reliability concept for designing more reliable computer systems.

  20. Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications I.S.W.B. Prasetya, T.E.J. Vos, S UU-CS-2005-002 www.cs.uu.nl #12;Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications I@cs.uu.nl, tanja@iti.upv.es, doaitse@cs.uu.nl, bela@cs.ui.ac.id Abstract Web Cube is a server side programming

  1. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM); Campbell, David V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer.

  2. A Systematic and Comprehensive Tool for Software Reliability Modeling and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    reliability. This trend makes the estimation of software reliability more and more crit­ ical to most large­scale projects in their reliability engineering aspects. Traditionally, software reliability modeling is a setA Systematic and Comprehensive Tool for Software Reliability Modeling and Measurement Michael R

  3. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O'TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  4. Occidental Geothermal, Inc. , Oxy Geothermal Power Plant No. 1: draft environmental impact report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The following aspects of the proposed geothermal power plant are discussed: the project description; the environment in the vicinity of project as it exists before the project begins, from both a local and regional perspective; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the growth inducing impacts. (MHR)

  5. Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumdar, Mainak

    Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model. Keywords: Software reliability; Modular Operational Tests; Sample Size Determination; Mathematical Programming #12;Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

  6. Reliability and Availability Requirements Engineering within the Unified Process using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    Reliability and Availability Requirements Engineering within the Unified Process using to support quantifiable, testable reliability and availability requirements (R&AR) elicitation, reliability and availability re- quirements, Unified Modeling Language profile, misuse cases, fault trees. I

  7. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Ecological Risk Assessment: Bridging to Population-Level Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Vincent J.; Etterson, Matthew A.; Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Spade, Daniel J.; Spromberg, Julann A.; Wang, Magnus; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2010-11-24

    The viability of populations of plants and animals is a key focus for environmental regulation. Population-level responses integrate the cumulative effects of chemical stressors on individuals as those individuals interact with and are affected by their con-specifics, competitors, predators, prey, habitat and other biotic and abiotic factors. Models of population-level effects of contaminants can integrate information from lower levels of biological organization and feed that information into higher-level community and ecosystem models. As individual-level endpoints are utilized to predict population responses, this requires that biological responses at lower levels of organization be translated into a form that is useable by the population modeler. In this paper we describe how mechanistic data, as captured in adverse outcome pathways, can be translated into modeling focused on population-level risk assessments. First, we present a succinct overview of different approaches to population modeling, and discuss the types of data needed for these models. Then we discuss how toxicity data are used currently for population modeling, and provide recommendations as to how testing might be modified to better generate information to support modeling. From this we describe how different key processes measured at the level of the individual serve as the bridge between mechanistic toxicology data and predictions of population status, and provide case examples of how this linkage has been/can be achieved.

  8. Scientific Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment Top Scientific Impact Since its inception over twenty

  9. MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

    2000-01-01

    The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

  10. OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT, UNITED STATES, 1992-95

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT) in streambed sediment were assessed at 536 sites in 20 major river basins across the United States from 1992 density, and PAHs also correlated with physical/chemical properties. On the basis of sediment

  11. Investigating the Detection of Adverse Drug Events in a UK General Practice Electronic Health-Care Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    -Care Database Jenna Reps1, Jan Feyereisl1, Jonathan M. Garibaldi1, Uwe Aickelin1, Jack E. Gibson2, Richard B databases. These techniques aim to find adverse drug events accurately and efficiently. Spon- taneous reporting databases are prone to missing information, under reporting and incorrect entries. This often

  12. A Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Hydrogen-based Transportation Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    2. Define reliability in hydrogen energy systems 3.metrics to value reliability in hydrogen energy systems 4.Specify hydrogen energy systems to evaluate 5. Develop

  13. DAKOTA reliability methods applied to RAVEN/RELAP-7.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Mandelli, Diego; Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on the use of reliability methods within the RAVEN and RELAP-7 software framework for assessing failure probabilities as part of probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power plants. RAVEN is a software tool under development at the Idaho National Laboratory that acts as the control logic driver and post-processing tool for the newly developed Thermal-Hydraulic code RELAP-7. Dakota is a software tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories containing optimization, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification algorithms. Reliability methods are algorithms which transform the uncertainty problem to an optimization problem to solve for the failure probability, given uncertainty on problem inputs and a failure threshold on an output response. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of reliability methods in Dakota with RAVEN/RELAP-7. These capabilities are demonstrated on a demonstration of a Station Blackout analysis of a simplified Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR).

  14. Sprinkler: A reliable and energy efficient data dissemination service for extreme scale wireless networks of embedded devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naik, Vinayak; Arora, Anish; Sinha, Prasun; Zhang, Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    A RELIABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT DATA DISSEMINATION SERVICEA RELIABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT DATA DISSEMINATION SERVICEA Reliable and Energy Efficient Data Dissemination Service

  15. Human Reliability Analysis for Digital Human-Machine Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the fact that existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods do not provide guidance on digital human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Digital HMIs are becoming ubiquitous in nuclear power operations, whether through control room modernization or new-build control rooms. Legacy analog technologies like instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are costly to support, and vendors no longer develop or support analog technology, which is considered technologically obsolete. Yet, despite the inevitability of digital HMI, no current HRA method provides guidance on how to treat human reliability considerations for digital technologies.

  16. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  17. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, D.W. [ed.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  18. 1 INTRODUCTION Rational and reliable seismic design theories and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    to the seismic design of dams to be constructed and the assessment of earthquake safety of existing dams. Many is not almost considered in the seismic design of dams to be constructed and the assessment of earthquake safety1 INTRODUCTION Rational and reliable seismic design theories and analytical methods are substantial

  19. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  20. Tools and Techniques for Ensuring Automotive EMC Performance and Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    V-Model 4 Concept Design Design Requirements Detailed Design and Modeling Prototype System Validation System Integration Component Verification #12;AUTOSAR 5 APPLICATION SOFTWARE HARDWARE AUTOSAR powerful More efficient Far more reliable. Cars with intelligently designed electronic systems will be: 9

  1. The Ambient Computational Environments Architecture for Reliable, Secure,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    challenge. The ACE - Ambient Computational Environments - architecture aims at high- scale and seamlessThe Ambient Computational Environments Architecture for Reliable, Secure, and Pervasive Computing The University of Kansas #12;Abstract During the past few years, the technology world has become more and more

  2. User-Level Reliability Monitoring in Urban Personal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    TAKALA, Senior Member, IEEE Tampere University of Technology Finland Monitoring the reliability University of Technology, Tampere, Finland. 0018-9251/07/$25.00 c° 2007 IEEE I. INTRODUCTION To ensure a user University of Technology Finland ANDREAS WIESER G ´ERARD LACHAPELLE, Member, IEEE University of Calgary JARMO

  3. A TECHNIQUE FOR TESTING HIGHLY RELIABLE REAL-TIME SOFTWARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieman, James M.

    Task Plan ® A TECHNIQUE FOR TESTING HIGHLY RELIABLE REAL-TIME SOFTWARE Slide Presentation Biography that uses executable specifications based on Annotated Ada (Anna) for software testing in hard real process and does not interfere with the software under test. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Automating the verification

  4. SOFTWARE TESTING, VERIFICATION AND RELIABILITY Softw. Test. Verif. Reliab. (2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    SOFTWARE TESTING, VERIFICATION AND RELIABILITY Softw. Test. Verif. Reliab. (2014) Published online. INTRODUCTION As software evolves, engineers regression test it to validate new features and detect whether new in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/stvr.1562 Directed test suite augmentation

  5. On some statistical aspects of software testing and reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coolen, Frank

    On some statistical aspects of software testing and reliability Frank P.A. Coolen Abstract This article discusses the author's views on possible contributions statistics can make to software testing, the mes- sage is that statistical methods cannot provide proper support for software testing or provide

  6. LMS: A Router Assisted Scheme for Reliable Multicast Christos Papadopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadopoulos, Christos

    1 LMS: A Router Assisted Scheme for Reliable Multicast Christos Papadopoulos University of Southern­weight Multicast Ser­ vices (LMS), which enhance the existing multicast model with simple forwarding services that do not require transport level actions. Using LMS, routers tag and steer transport­level control

  7. Action potentials reliably invade axonal arbors of rat neocortical neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tank, David

    Action potentials reliably invade axonal arbors of rat neocortical neurons Charles L. Cox* , Winfried Denk§ , David W. Tank§ , and Karel Svoboda*¶ *Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Communicated by James D. Watson, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor

  8. SDRT: A Reliable Data Transport Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Jun-Hong

    activities such as scientific exploration and commercial exploitation, underwater sensor networks empower us networks, for mission critical applications, reliable data transport is demanded in under- water sensor channels is limited and depends on both transmission range and frequency [8], [24], [5], [6]. According

  9. Towards Reliable 5Gbps Wave-pipelined and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemieux, Guy

    Towards Reliable 5Gbps Wave-pipelined and 3Gbps Surfing Interconnect in 65nm FPGAs Paul Teehan Guy source Data destination Input switches Output switches High-speed pipelined wire Regular interconnect-speed pipelined wire #12;FPGA'09 4 of 27 Key points Base design Wave pipelining, source synchronous timing

  10. Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jing

    Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing Jing Deng Scott C.-H. Huang Yunghsiang S, Taipei, 106 Taiwan. § Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA. Abstract-- Cloud computing of scientific computation in cloud computing. We investigate a cloud selection strategy to decompose the matrix

  11. EE 850.3 (3L) Reliability Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    EE 850.3 (3L) Reliability Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Fall 2014 Karki, Ph.D., P.Eng. Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Office: Room 3B30, Engineering Building Phone: (306) 966-5384 Email: rajesh.karki@usask.ca Lectures: Monday

  12. reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department Shore Capacity - Low Profile, Easy Siting Connects to existing electricity and fuel infrastructure Cell Stack and operated with high sulfur naval logistic fuel (JP-5 jet fuel) · Over 1000 Hours of Fuel

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF RELIABLE PREDICTOR MODELS FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campi, Marco

    IDENTIFICATION OF RELIABLE PREDICTOR MODELS FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS: A DATA-CONSISTENCY APPROACH BASED mechanism ­ DGM), a selected family of models, with which we want to describe the observed data (the data, that is a statement of probability that the computed model will be consistent with future unknown data. Keywords

  14. SPEAR fuel reliability code system. General description. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, R.

    1980-03-01

    A general description is presented for the SPEAR fuel reliability code system. Included is a discussion of the methodology employed and the structure of the code system, as well as discussion of the major components: the data preparation routines, the mechanistic fuel performance model, the mechanistic cladding failure model, and the statistical failure model.

  15. Hidden Challenges to MEMS Commercialization: Design Realization and Reliability Assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWhorter, P.J.; Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; Rodger, M.S.; Yarberry, V.R.

    1999-01-20

    The successful commercialization of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is an essential prerequisite for their implementation in many critical government applications. Several unique challenges must be overcome to achieve this widespread commercialization. Challenges associated with design realization and reliability assurance are discussed, along with approaches taken by Sandia to successfully overcome these challenges.

  16. Saving power without compromising disk drive reliability Xenia Mountrouidou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butt, Ali R.

    Saving power without compromising disk drive reliability Xenia Mountrouidou College of William intervals for power savings within strict constraints: first, it is imperative to contain the delays in service of IO requests that occur during power savings since the time to bring up the disk

  17. WIND POWER SIMULATION MODEL FOR RELIABILITY EVALUATION Rajesh Karki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    WIND POWER SIMULATION MODEL FOR RELIABILITY EVALUATION Rajesh Karki Rajesh.Karki@usask.ca Po Hu poh The rapidly increasing contribution of wind power to electric power generation around the world has motivated a need to develop more widely applicable methodologies for evaluating the actual benefits of adding wind

  18. Composite System based Multi-Area Reliability Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajan, Ramya

    2011-02-22

    and no - load loss sharing policy among the areas. The proposed method is applied to standard IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) and the traditional equivalent tie-line method is applied to the multi-area configuration of the same test system. The results...

  19. Improving Work Flow Reliability Proceedings IGLC-7 275

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    , load, productivity, project planning and control, reliability, throughput, variability. 1 Director driven for speed. The production plans of upstream PUs is one source of information regarding work flow to significantly improve project performance because it allows the application of planning to production. If you

  20. Reliability Tradeoffs in Personal Storage Systems John A. Chandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    Reliability Tradeoffs in Personal Storage Systems John A. Chandy john.chandy@uconn.edu Sumit processes. These methods are most useful in storage systems where complete data protection or availability Disk arrays have long been used to improve the performance of storage systems [5, 10]. The parallelism

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY 1 Optimal Maintenance Strategies for Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ntaimo, Lewis

    conditions. In-situ sensors installed at wind turbines produce useful information about the physical guidelines that reduces the repair costs and increases the marketability of wind energy generation. #12;IEEEIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY 1 Optimal Maintenance Strategies for Wind Turbine Systems Under

  2. Toward Reliable and Efficient Reporting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Bouabdallah, and Raouf Boutaba, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Energy efficiency is one of the major concerns and as the first main contribution, we derive the optimal number of reporting nodes Nopt energy that minimizes the energy consumed to report reliably the occurrence of an event. In other words, we prove that limiting

  3. Reliable and Scalable Communication for the Power Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    Reliable and Scalable Communication for the Power Grid Christopher Zimmer, Frank Mueller Abstract Future smart power grids require constant data availability for actuation of control decisions. The job topologies of smart devices that enable multi-route discovery in an intelligent power grid. This is ac

  4. Validity and Reliability of Web Accessibility Guidelines Giorgio Brajnik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brajnik, Giorgio

    checkpoints taken from WCAG 1.0 and WCAG 2.0. The experiment employed 35 young web developers with some the viewpoint of their validity and reliability. WCAG 2.0 explicitly claim that they are based on "testable knowledge on web accessibility. Although this is a small-scale experiment, unlikely to provide definite

  5. Hierarchical Reliable Multicast: performance analysis and placement of proxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobagi, Fouad

    the term Hierarchical Reliable Multicast (HRM). For each subgroup, there is a designated node, the proxy and its loss characteristics. Furthermore, the performance of the HRM approach, in particular, strongly model the HRM problem, then define and compute appropriate performance metrics and finally give insights

  6. RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

    2013-09-03

    A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

  7. Using data fusion for scoring reliability of proteinprotein interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Limsoon

    Using data fusion for scoring reliability of protein­protein interactions Alireza Vazifedoost@ut.ac.ir **Rahgozar@ut.ac.ir moshiri@ut.ac.ir sadeghi@nigeb.ac.ir § § hnchua@i2r.a-star.edu.sg ¶¶ skng@i2r.a-star data fusion to model potential interactions between the multiple information sources. Using data fusion

  8. Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control Daniel J. Tylavsky--Eventually all large transformers will be dynamically loaded using models updated regularly from field measured data. Models obtained from measured data give more accurate results than models based on transformer

  9. System Reliability Analysis of an Nversion Programming Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    reliability anal­ ysis of a system designed to tolerate both hardware and software faults. The system being hardware. The analysis of the system considers independent soft­ ware faults, related software faults, transient hardware faults, permanent hardware faults, and imperfect cov­ erage. The overall model

  10. Reliable Cellular Automata with SelfOrganization Peter Gacs 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gacs, Peter

    Reliable Cellular Automata with Self­Organization Peter Gâ??acs 1 Computer Science Department Boston University Boston, MA 02215 gacs@bu.edu Abstract In a noisy cellular automaton, even if it is infinite solution in 2 dimensions has been applied to a simple 3­dimensional fault­tolerant cellular automaton

  11. RELIABLE CELLULAR AUTOMATA WITH SELF-ORGANIZATION PETER G ACS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gacs, Peter

    RELIABLE CELLULAR AUTOMATA WITH SELF-ORGANIZATION PETER G ´ACS ABSTRACT. In a probabilistic cellular automaton in which all local transitions have positive probability, the problem of keeping a bit-tolerant cellular automaton. This technique does not help much to solve the following problems: remembering a bit

  12. Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE) Microgrid: Models & Tools (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    This brochure describes Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE), a trademarked process NREL employs to produce conceptual microgrid designs. This systems-based process enables designs to be optimized for economic value, energy surety, and sustainability. Capabilities NREL offers in support of microgrid design are explained.

  13. What makes information valuable: signal reliability and environmental uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, David W.

    uncertainty in animal signal use. We de- veloped a simple model that predicted when animals should switch The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Many aspects. An example of a reliable signal is the carotenoid-based plumage colora- tion in male house finches

  14. Reliability and Throughput in Future Automotive Communication Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

    Reliability and Throughput in Future Automotive Communication Networks John Liu, Timothy TaltyStar. This action created a new industry called automotive telematics, helping to save lives and providing, the automotive telematics industry has experienced a healthy growth in North America. During the current economic

  15. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  16. Modeling Stochastic Correlated Failures and their Effects on Network Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    in this field have used this concept to generate geographically correlated failures (e.g. [1] and [2]). SomeModeling Stochastic Correlated Failures and their Effects on Network Reliability Mahshid Rahnamay--The physical infrastructure of communication net- works is vulnerable to spatially correlated failures arising

  17. Reliable Contracts for Unreliable Half-Duplex Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    indicate useful criteria for the design of WSDL. We moreover establish a polynomial-time complexity explains the criteria proposed by Stengel and Bultan for Sing# contracts to be reliable, and possibly. The primary goal of session types is to ensure type-safety, e.g. that communications over a typed channel

  18. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  19. Automated Modeling of Dynamic Reliability Block Diagrams Using Colored Petri Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Haiping

    solution to automated verification of DRBD models. Index Terms--System reliability, reliability block \\ Abstract--Computer system reliability is conventionally modeled and analyzed using techniques such as fault), defines a framework for modeling dynamic reliability behavior of computer-based systems. However

  20. Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2009-01-01

    distributed generation, real options analysis of renewable energyDelivery and Energy Reliability, Renewable and Distributed

  1. Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for Power Electronics Packaging Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation discusses the thermal performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for power electronics packaging applications.

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, VOL. 49, NO. 1, MARCH 2000 37 Failure Correlation in Software Reliability Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    property of the developed Markov renewal modeling approach is its flexibility. It allows con- struction the analysis either on Markov chain theory or on renewal process theory. Thus, our modeling approach Reliability Models Katerina Goseva-Popstojanova, Member, IEEE, and Kishor S. Trivedi, Fellow, IEEE Abstract

  3. Fan System Effects: How Fan Ductwork Design Impacts Overall System Efficiency and What the Approach Should be for Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, V.

    2009-01-01

    expectations once they are installed on the systems for which they have been sold. This is primarily due to the adverse aerodynamic impact of the inlet or outlet connections on the performance capacity of the fan and thus on the overall system efficiency...

  4. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e.g., forecast reserves fall below a threshold), rather than those triggered by price (e.g., real-time prices). Third, the report examines the status of the underlying metering, communication, and control technologies required to enable customer loads to participate in competitive electricity markets (Section 4). Following the three-part assessment, we offer preliminary thoughts on directions for future research (Section 5).

  5. Economic Assessment Environmental impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - ". Economic Assessment Environmental impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides Background Economic Assessment Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 3 BACKGROUND Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Radionuclides. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS

  6. Impact Cratering and Post-impact Sedimentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsvik, Trond Helge

    Chapter 5 Impact Cratering and Post-impact Sedimentation Henning Dypvik, Morten Smelror, Atle Mørk; Dypvik and Attrep 1999; Sandbakken 2002) (see Figs. 6.2 and 6.3). In this chapter the Mjølnir core (7329-0316 Oslo, Norway e-mail: henning.dypvik@geo.uio.no 139H. Dypvik et al. (eds.), The Mjølnir Impact

  7. Comparative assessment of health and safety impacts of coal use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Increasing the use of coal to replace oil and gas consumption is considered beneficial for economic and political reasons. The evaluation of this report, however, is that the shift to coal can involve significant health, safety, and environmental impacts compared to those from oil and natural gas systems, which are considerably less adverse than those of any coal energy system in use today. An evaluation and comparison of the potential impacts from the various alternative coal technologies would be useful to both governmental and industrial policy planners and would provide them with information relevant to a decision on assistance, incentives, and prioritization among the energy technologies. It is, therefore, the main objective of this report to review the key health, safety, and environmental impacts of some promising coal energy technologies and to compare them.

  8. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation.

  9. Reliability estimates for selected sensors in fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study to define several types of sensors in use, the qualitative reliability (failure modes) and quantitative reliability (average failure rates) for these types of process sensors. Temperature, pressure, flow, and level sensors are discussed for water coolant and for cryogenic coolants. The failure rates that have been found are useful for risk assessment and safety analysis. Repair times and calibration intervals are also given when found in the literature. All of these values can also be useful to plant operators and maintenance personnel. Designers may be able to make use of these data when planning systems. The final chapter in this report discusses failure rates for several types of personnel safety sensors, including ionizing radiation monitors, toxic and combustible gas detectors, humidity sensors, and magnetic field sensors. These data could be useful to industrial hygienists and other safety professionals when designing or auditing for personnel safety.

  10. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Call, O. J.; Jacobson, J. A.

    1988-09-01

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability and hardware component failure data. The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer and can be used to furnish data inputs for both human and hardware reliability analysis in support of a variety of risk assessment activities. The NUCLARR system is documented in a five-volume series of reports. Volume 2 of this series is the Programmer's Guide for maintaining the NUCLARR system software. This Programmer's Guide provides, for the software engineer, an orientation to the software elements involved, discusses maintenance methods, and presents useful aids and examples. 4 refs., 75 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Reliability analysis of electric power systems including time dependent sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Younjong

    1987-01-01

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Chanan Singh A method for reliability analysis of electric power systems with time dependent sources, such as photovoltaic and wind generation, is introduced. The fluctuating characteristic of unconventional generation... and active solar. wind, geothermal, and hydropower. Of all the renewable energy technologies that have been the focus of encouraging government and private R k D efforts, photovoltaic generation and wind turbine generation appear to be the leading...

  12. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P.; He, Hongbo; Menicucci, David F.; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Burch, Jay

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  13. SLAC modulator operation and reliability in the SLC Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Ashton, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    A discussion of the operation and reliability of the 244 modulators in the SLAC linac with an emphasis on the past three years of operation. The linac modulators were designed and built in the 60`s, upgraded for the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) in the mid 80s, and despite their age are still reliable accelerator components. The 60s modulator operated at 65 MW peak and 83 kW average power. The upgrade resulted in 150 MW peak output at an average power of 87 kW, a modest increase since the repetition rate was dropped from 360 to 120 Hz. In the present accelerator configuration, the Linac operates as a source of electrons and positrons to a single pass coillider. The classic collider is a storage ring filled with oppositely charged, counter-rotating particles which are allowed to collide until an accelerator fault occurs and the stored beams are aborted. A reasonable storage ring can store and collide particles for as long as eight hours with a 10 or 20 minute filling time. A single pass collider, + on the other hand, can only produce e{sup {minus}} and e{sup +} collisions at whatever rate the source operates. To be effective the SLC must operate at 120 Hz with a very high degree of reliability and on a continuous basis. Fortunately, the linac has a modest excess of modulator/klystron systems which allows some measure of redundancy and hence some freedom from the constraint that all 244 modulator/klystrons operate simultaneously. Nonetheless, high importance is placed on modulator MTBF and MTRR or, in the parlance of reliability experts and accelerator physicists, availability. This is especially true of the modulators associated with the fundamental requirements of a collider such as injection, compression and positron production.

  14. SLAC modulator operation and reliability in the SLC Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Ashton, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    A discussion of the operation and reliability of the 244 modulators in the SLAC linac with an emphasis on the past three years of operation. The linac modulators were designed and built in the 60's, upgraded for the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) in the mid 80s, and despite their age are still reliable accelerator components. The 60s modulator operated at 65 MW peak and 83 kW average power. The upgrade resulted in 150 MW peak output at an average power of 87 kW, a modest increase since the repetition rate was dropped from 360 to 120 Hz. In the present accelerator configuration, the Linac operates as a source of electrons and positrons to a single pass coillider. The classic collider is a storage ring filled with oppositely charged, counter-rotating particles which are allowed to collide until an accelerator fault occurs and the stored beams are aborted. A reasonable storage ring can store and collide particles for as long as eight hours with a 10 or 20 minute filling time. A single pass collider, + on the other hand, can only produce e{sup {minus}} and e{sup +} collisions at whatever rate the source operates. To be effective the SLC must operate at 120 Hz with a very high degree of reliability and on a continuous basis. Fortunately, the linac has a modest excess of modulator/klystron systems which allows some measure of redundancy and hence some freedom from the constraint that all 244 modulator/klystrons operate simultaneously. Nonetheless, high importance is placed on modulator MTBF and MTRR or, in the parlance of reliability experts and accelerator physicists, availability. This is especially true of the modulators associated with the fundamental requirements of a collider such as injection, compression and positron production.

  15. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  16. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  17. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 3 Gearbox 2 Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, H.; Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-04-01

    Gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life even though they commonly meet or exceed the design criteria specified in current design standards. One of the basic premises of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is that the low gearbox reliability results from the absence of critical elements in the design process or insufficient design tools. Key goals of the GRC are to improve design approaches and analysis tools and to recommend practices and test methods resulting in improved design standards for wind turbine gearboxes that lower the cost of energy (COE) through improved reliability. The GRC uses a combined gearbox testing, modeling and analysis approach, along with a database of information from gearbox failures collected from overhauls and investigation of gearbox condition monitoring techniques to improve wind turbine operations and maintenance practices. Testing of Gearbox 2 (GB2) using the two-speed turbine controller that has been used in prior testing. This test series will investigate non-torque loads, high-speed shaft misalignment, and reproduction of field conditions in the dynamometer. This test series will also include vibration testing using an eddy-current brake on the gearbox's high speed shaft.

  18. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  19. Creating a Transactive Energy Framework: Improving Reliability and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, Ronald B.

    2013-11-01

    The use of demand response and other flexible distributed resources over the past decade for market efficiency and grid reliability has grown dramatically. Federal and state policy objectives point to an important role for customer loads, generation and storage in the management of an increasingly unpredictable power system. As we consider the need to substantially scale the use of flexible distributed energy resources, there has been growing attention to the need to address not only the economics, but also the control system implications to ensure grid reliability. This has led to a focus on an area of activity called “Transactive Energy.” Transactive Energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques that improve grid reliability and efficiency. These techniques may also be used to optimize operations within a customer’s facility. The Department of Energy has supported the GridWise® Architecture Council (“the Council”) to develop a framework to provide opportunity for collaboration among the many stakeholders involved in the transformation of the power system.

  20. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald; Mandelli, Diego; Joe, Jeffrey; Smith, Curtis; Groth, Katrina

    2015-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  1. Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads.

  2. Managing electricity reliability risk through the futures markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2000-10-01

    In competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, often cease to exist. Typically, the burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to insure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, we model a spot market for electricity and futures markets for both electricity and AS. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its expected utility of wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optional quantities of electricity and AS traded in each market by all participants, as well as the corresponding market-clearing prices. We show that future prices for both electricity and AS depend on expectations of the spot price, statistical aspects of system demand, and production cost parameters. More important, our model captures the fact that electricity and AS are substitute products for the generators, implying that anticipated changes in the spot market will affect the equilibrium futures positions of both electricity and AS. We apply our model to the California electricity and AS markets to test its viability.

  3. Structural Reliability of Bridges Elevated with Steel Pedestals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisadi, Vahid 1980-

    2012-09-19

    Overheight vehicle impact to bridge decks is a major problem in the transportation networks in the United States. An important factor that causes this problem is inadequate vertical clearance of bridges. Using steel pedestals to elevate bridge decks...

  4. Community Partnerships Impact Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    . #12;Where is UNCW Making an Impact? · Teaching, Research, Service - Education and Social ServicesUNCW Community Partnerships Impact Report Gary L. Miller Chancellor Bill Kawczynski Community Impact · Developing a tool to identify impact of campus activities on: ­ Volunteerism ­ Service Learning

  5. On the reliability of microvariability tests in quasars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Diego, José A.

    2014-11-01

    Microvariations probe the physics and internal structure of quasars. Unpredictability and small flux variations make this phenomenon elusive and difficult to detect. Variance-based probes such as the C and F tests, or a combination of both, are popular methods to compare the light curves of the quasar and a comparison star. Recently, detection claims in some studies have depended on the agreement of the results of the C and F tests, or of two instances of the F-test, for rejecting the non-variation null hypothesis. However, the C-test is a non-reliable statistical procedure, the F-test is not robust, and the combination of tests with concurrent results is anything but a straightforward methodology. A priori power analysis calculations and post hoc analysis of Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement for the analysis of variance test to detect microvariations as well as the limitations of the F-test. Additionally, the combined tests yield correlated probabilities that make the assessment of statistical significance unworkable. However, it is possible to include data from several field stars to enhance the power in a single F-test, increasing the reliability of the statistical analysis. This would be the preferred methodology when several comparison stars are available. An example using two stars and the enhanced F-test is presented. These results show the importance of using adequate methodologies and avoiding inappropriate procedures that can jeopardize microvariability detections. Power analysis and Monte Carlo simulations are useful tools for research planning, as they can demonstrate the robustness and reliability of different research approaches.

  6. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  7. Failure and Reliability Analysis for the Master Pump Shutdown System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-05

    The Master Pump Shutdown System (MPSS) will be installed in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site to monitor and control the transfer of liquid waste between tank farms and between the 200 West and 200 East areas through the Cross-Site Transfer Line. The Safety Function provided by the MPSS is to shutdown any waste transfer process within or between tank farms if a waste leak should occur along the selected transfer route. The MPSS, which provides this Safety Class Function, is composed of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), interconnecting wires, relays, Human to Machine Interfaces (HMI), and software. These components are defined as providing a Safety Class Function and will be designated in this report as MPSS/PLC. Input signals to the MPSS/PLC are provided by leak detection systems from each of the tank farm leak detector locations along the waste transfer route. The combination of the MPSS/PLC, leak detection system, and transfer pump controller system will be referred to as MPSS/SYS. The components addressed in this analysis are associated with the MPSS/SYS. The purpose of this failure and reliability analysis is to address the following design issues of the Project Development Specification (PDS) for the MPSS/SYS (HNF 2000a): (1) Single Component Failure Criterion, (2) System Status Upon Loss of Electrical Power, (3) Physical Separation of Safety Class cables, (4) Physical Isolation of Safety Class Wiring from General Service Wiring, and (5) Meeting the MPSS/PLC Option 1b (RPP 1999) Reliability estimate. The failure and reliability analysis examined the system on a component level basis and identified any hardware or software elements that could fail and/or prevent the system from performing its intended safety function.

  8. EA-1801: Granite Reliable Power Wind Park Project in Coos County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    01: Granite Reliable Power Wind Park Project in Coos County, NH EA-1801: Granite Reliable Power Wind Park Project in Coos County, NH June 25, 2010 EA-1801: Final Environmental...

  9. Reliability Assessment of Fault-Tolerant Dc-Dc Converters for Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Reliability Assessment of Fault-Tolerant Dc-Dc Converters for Photovoltaic Applications Sairaj V in photovoltaic energy processing applications is presented. The proposed approach acknowledges the influence through several case studies. Index Terms-- Markov reliability modeling, photovoltaic systems, power

  10. A Survey of NASA and Military Standards on Fault Tolerance and Reliability Applied to Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice University - Center for Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Hazardous Environments

    A Survey of NASA and Military Standards on Fault Tolerance and Reliability Applied to Robotics of relevant Military and NASA standards for reliability and fault toler­ ance is included. 1 Introduction

  11. When Sugar Turns to Sh%&: Immediate Action Decision Making and Resilience in High Reliability Teams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesner, Bradley Scott

    2012-02-14

    more nuanced study of high reliability processes within team contexts is warranted. This study focuses on organizational teams which are faced with the challenges of maintaining high levels of reliability. Of particular interest is how teams manage...

  12. Assessing I-Grid(TM) web-based monitoring for power quality and reliability benchmarking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Divan, Deepak; Brumsickle, William; Eto, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    not affect the regional power grid. Page 7 of 10 January 23,Paradigm in Distribution Grid Power Quality And ReliabilitySheehan 2002]. The I-Grid power quality and reliability

  13. Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security Reliability Criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security reliability criterion, probabilistic reliability criterion and security criterion based on N- contingency control system as well as reasonable strength of grid originally. Because investment for power system

  14. Reliability-based calibration of design seismic response spectra and structural acceptance criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jack W.

    Reliability-based calibration of design seismic response spectra and structural acceptance criteria: Earthquake engineering design requires an evaluation of the structure's reliability over future seismic loads alternate "explicit" check, which commonly specifies a design spectrum and associated structural response

  15. Quasi-optical network analyzers and high-reliability RF MEMS switched capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grichener, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Chapter 3 High-Reliability RF MEMS Switched Capacitors 3.1Technology 1.2 RF MEMS Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . .Reliability High-Q Switched RF MEMS Capacitors” IEEE Int.

  16. System Reliability: A Case When Fuzzy Logic Enhances Probability Theory's Ability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    . Zadeh explains that probabil­ ity theory needs an infusion of fuzzy logic to enhance its ability to deal such an infusion is indeed successful: the problem of system reliability. 1. Reliability: Brief Introduction

  17. New York Completes Smart Grid Project to Build a More Reliable...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New York Completes Smart Grid Project to Build a More Reliable, Resilient Power Grid New York Completes Smart Grid Project to Build a More Reliable, Resilient Power Grid April 15,...

  18. 2012 Reliability & Markets Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics AndBeryllium Diseasem-2m-3l-04-05-2012.xlsxFront CoverDepartment ofLoad as2012 ProgramReliability

  19. Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Kevin

    2013-12-05

    With auto manufacturers expected to roll out fuel cell electric vehicles in the 2015 to 2017 timeframe, the need for a reliable hydrogen fueling infrastructure is greater than ever. That's why the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is using a robot in its Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to assess the durability of hydrogen fueling hoses, a largely untested—and currently costly—component of hydrogen fueling stations. The automated machine mimics the repetitive stress of a human bending and twisting the hose to refuel a vehicle—all under the high pressure and low temperature required to deliver hydrogen to a fuel cell vehicle's onboard storage tank.

  20. Improving reliability in the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinen, N.; Spencer, N.; Tinsman, J.

    1989-10-01

    During the past year, considerable emphasis has been placed on improving the overall reliability of the SLC control system. The Errorlog Facility has proven a useful tool to diagnose hardware and software problems. By analyzing the various error messages and their correlations, one can usually determine the software component or hardware module causing faults. Daily summaries help to identify problems so that they can be remedied before they become catastrophic; thereby bringing about a considerable increase in performance. We discuss the various tools we use and our operational experience with them. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  2. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlas, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    , and the paybacks associated with instituting a program of planned and systematic maintenance manage ment of that system. Energy costs can be reduced by 10% and maintenance costs by 20%, while achieving other tan gible improvements in the reliability...-up; and 6)'software and data base management. Several case studies, in which the concept has been success fully applied, will be presented. INTRODUCTION Energy costs have been on the rise for the last 10 years and have now leveled off due to global...

  3. Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Harrison; Kevin

    2014-06-10

    With auto manufacturers expected to roll out fuel cell electric vehicles in the 2015 to 2017 timeframe, the need for a reliable hydrogen fueling infrastructure is greater than ever. That's why the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is using a robot in its Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to assess the durability of hydrogen fueling hoses, a largely untested-and currently costly-component of hydrogen fueling stations. The automated machine mimics the repetitive stress of a human bending and twisting the hose to refuel a vehicle-all under the high pressure and low temperature required to deliver hydrogen to a fuel cell vehicle's onboard storage tank.

  4. Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison; Kevin

    2013-12-05

    With auto manufacturers expected to roll out fuel cell electric vehicles in the 2015 to 2017 timeframe, the need for a reliable hydrogen fueling infrastructure is greater than ever. That's why the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is using a robot in its Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to assess the durability of hydrogen fueling hoses, a largely untested-and currently costly-component of hydrogen fueling stations. The automated machine mimics the repetitive stress of a human bending and twisting the hose to refuel a vehicle-all under the high pressure and low temperature required to deliver hydrogen to a fuel cell vehicle's onboard storage tank.

  5. Reliable Gas Turbine Output: Attaining Temperature Independent Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeley, J. E.; Patton, S.; Holder, F.

    1992-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-10.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16831 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-10.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 RELIABLE GAS TURBINE... OUTPUT; ATTAINING TEMPERATURE INDEPENDENT PERFORMANCE James E. Neeley, P.E. Power Plant Engineer Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Improvements in gas turbine efficiency, coupled with dropping gas prices, has made gas...

  6. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  7. NREL: Gearbox Reliability Collaborative - Working with the Gearbox

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14RecentGeospatialReliability Collaborative Research Wind

  8. Reliable fuel source | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout UsRegional companiesReliability

  9. Sandia Energy - Reliability, O&M, Standards Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNewPhotoionizationPowerRadarReliability,

  10. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for high-temperature packaging.

  11. Software Selection for Reliability Optimization using Time Series Analysis and Machine Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    of Software Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for the software reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-number of bugs for software. Accumulated number of bugs

  12. Introduction to Model-based Reliability Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    Introduction to Model-based Reliability Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks C. J¨aggle J: A high level of reliability is a significant requirement for using wireless sensor networks in industrial environments. Model-based evaluation is usually applied in conventional systems to estimate the reliability

  13. A Reliable and Secure Cloud Storage Schema Using Multiple Service Providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Haiping

    A Reliable and Secure Cloud Storage Schema Using Multiple Service Providers Haiping Xu and Deepti stored in the cloud. In this paper, we propose a reliable and secure cloud storage schema using multiple at the server side, we propose a reliable and secure cloud storage schema that can be implemented at the client

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, VOL. 63, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2014 1 In Memoriam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Haijun

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, VOL. 63, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2014 1 In Memoriam Susan Hong Xu (1952­2014) (Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Reliability) SUSAN Hong Xu (1952­2014) was for twenty-seven years, Professor Xu has provided outstanding service as an Associate Editor of IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY

  15. Using Empirical Data to Find the Best Measurement for Travel Time Reliability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alemazkoor, Negin

    2014-08-20

    . In this research, data from Katy Freeway, where travelers choose between tolled but reliable lanes and free but less reliable lanes, was used in an attempt to find the best measurement of reliability that could lead to the best explanation of travelers’ lane choice...

  16. Measuring Reliability of Software Products Pankaj Jalote, Brendan Murphy, Mario Garzia, Ben Errez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalote, Pankaj

    1 Measuring Reliability of Software Products Pankaj Jalote, Brendan Murphy, Mario Garzia, Ben Errez products. In these approaches, the product reliability is traditionally measured in terms of catastrophic, and then discuss two systems being used for measuring reliability of commercial software products. 1. Introduction

  17. Performance and Reliability of Interface Materials for Automotive Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.; DeVoto, D.; Mihalic, M.; Paret, P.

    2013-07-01

    Thermal management and reliability are important because excessive temperature can degrade the performance, life, and reliability of power electronics and electric motors. Advanced thermal management technologies enable keeping temperature within limits; higher power densities; and lower cost materials, configurations and systems. Thermal interface materials, bonded interface materials and the reliability of bonded interfaces are discussed in this presentation.

  18. Reliability comparison of various nuclear propulsion configurations for Mars mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segna, D.R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States); Dagle, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lyon, W.F. III [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Currently, trade-offs are being made among the various propulsion systems being considered for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. It is necessary to investigate the reliability aspects as well as the efficiency, mass savings, and experience characteristics of the various configurations. Reliability is a very important factor for the SEI missions because of the long duration and because problems will be fixed onboard. The propulsion options that were reviewed consist of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and various configurations of each system. There were four configurations developed for comparison with the NTP as baselined in the Synthesis (1991): (1) NEP, (2) hybrid NEP/NTP, (3) hybrid with power beaming, and (4) NTP upper stage on the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV). The comparisons were based more or less on a qualitative review of complexity, stress levels and operations for each of the four configurations. Each configuration included a pressurized NEP and an NTP ascent stage propulsion system for the Mars mission.

  19. Integrated design environment for human performance and human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1997-05-01

    Work over the last few years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has included a major focus on applying human performance and human reliability knowledge and methods as an integral element of system design and development. This work has been pursued in programs in a wide variety of technical domains, beginning with nuclear power plant operations. Since the mid-1980`s the laboratory has transferred the methods and tools developed in the nuclear domain to military weapons systems and aircraft, offshore oil and shipping operations, and commercial aviation operations and aircraft design. Through these diverse applications the laboratory has developed an integrated approach and framework for application of human performance analysis, human reliability analysis (HRA), operational data analysis, and simulation studies of human performance to the design and development of complex systems. This approach was recently tested in the NASA Advanced Concepts Program {open_quotes}Structured Human Error Analysis for Aircraft Design.{close_quotes} This program resulted in the prototype software tool THEA (Tool for Human Error Analysis) for incorporating human error analysis in the design of commercial aircraft, focusing on airplane maintenance tasks. Current effort is directed toward applying this framework to the development of advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems as part of NASA`s Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program. This paper summarizes the approach, describes recent and current applications in commercial aviation, and provides perspectives on how the approach could be utilized in the nuclear power industry.

  20. Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicj

    2010-12-20

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee correct operation in spite of rare events, such as one high-threshold transistor in a billion or one erroneous gate evaluation in an hour of computation, cross-layer reliability schemes make reliability management a cooperative effort across the system stack, sharing information across layers so that they only expend energy on reliability when an error actually occurs. Figure 1 illustrates an example of such a system that uses a combination of information from the application and cheap architecture-level techniques to detect errors. When an error occurs, mechanisms at higher levels in the stack correct the error, efficiently delivering correct operation to the user in spite of errors at the device or circuit levels. In the realms of memory and communication, engineers have a long history of success in tolerating unpredictable effects such as fabrication variability, transient upsets, and lifetime wear using information sharing, limited redundancy, and cross-layer approaches that anticipate, accommodate, and suppress errors. Networks use a combination of hardware and software to guarantee end-toend correctness. Error-detection and correction codes use additional information to correct the most common errors, single-bit transmission errors. When errors occur that cannot be corrected by these codes, the network protocol requests re-transmission of one or more packets until the correct data is received. Similarly, computer memory systems exploit a cross-layer division of labor to achieve high performance with modest hardware. Rather than demanding that hardware alone provide the virtual memory abstraction, software page-fault and TLB-miss handlers allow a modest piece of hardware, the TLB, to handle the common-case operations on a cyc1e-by-cycle basis while infrequent misses are handled in system software. Unfortunately, mitigating logic errors is not as simple or as well researched as memory or communication systems. This lack of understanding has led to very expensive solutions. For example, triple-modular redundancy masks errors by triplicating computations in either time or area. T

  1. A reliability and mass perspective of SP-100 Stirling cycle lunar-base powerplant designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose was to obtain reliability and mass perspectives on selection of space power system conceptual designs based on SP-100 reactor and Stirling cycle power-generation subsystems. The approach taken was to: (1) develop a criterion for an acceptable overall reliability risk as a function of the expected range of emerging technology subsystem unit reliabilities; (2) conduct reliability and mass analyses for a diverse matrix of 800-kWe lunar-base design configurations employing single and multiple powerplants with both full and partial subsystem redundancy combinations; and (3) derive reliability and mass perspectives on selection of conceptual design configurations that meet an acceptable reliability criterion with the minimum system mass increase relative to reference powerplant design. The developed perspectives provided valuable insight into the considerations required to identify and characterize high-reliability and low-mass lunar-base powerplant conceptual design.

  2. Turbine Reliability and Operability Optimization through the use of Direct Detection Lidar Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.

  3. Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-09-01

    The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

  4. An overview of the evolution of human reliability analysis in the context of probabilistic risk assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bley, Dennis C.; Lois, Erasmia; Kolaczkowski, Alan M.; Forester, John Alan; Wreathall, John; Cooper, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the Reactor Safety Study in the early 1970's, human reliability analysis (HRA) has been evolving towards a better ability to account for the factors and conditions that can lead humans to take unsafe actions and thereby provide better estimates of the likelihood of human error for probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent reviews of operational events and advances in the behavioral sciences that have impacted the evolution of HRA methods and contributed to improvements. The paper discusses the importance of human errors in complex human-technical systems, examines why humans contribute to accidents and unsafe conditions, and discusses how lessons learned over the years have changed the perspective and approach for modeling human behavior in PRAs of complicated domains such as nuclear power plants. It is argued that it has become increasingly more important to understand and model the more cognitive aspects of human performance and to address the broader range of factors that have been shown to influence human performance in complex domains. The paper concludes by addressing the current ability of HRA to adequately predict human failure events and their likelihood.

  5. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Gearbox 1 Failure Analysis Report: December 2010 - January 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Errichello, R.; Muller, J.

    2012-02-01

    Unintended gearbox failures have a significant impact on the cost of wind farm operations. In 2007, NREL initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC). The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database in a multi-pronged approach to determine why wind turbine gearboxes do not achieve their expected design life. The collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers, and consultants focuses on gearbox testing and modeling and the development of a gearbox failure database. Collaborative members also investigate gearbox condition monitoring techniques. Data gained from the GRC will enable designers, developers, and manufacturers to improve gearbox designs and testing standards and create more robust modeling tools. GRC project essentials include the development of two identical, heavily instrumented representative gearbox designs. Knowledge gained from the field and dynamometer tests conducted on these gearboxes builds an understanding of how the selected loads and events translate into bearing and gear response. This report contains the analysis of the first gearbox design.

  6. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Appendix E, Transmission Reinforcement Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this appendix to the draft environmental impact statement (EIS) report is to provide an update of the latest study work done on transmission system options for the Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Also included in the attachments to the EIS are 2 reports analyzing the voltage stability of the Puget Sound transmission system and a review by Power Technologies, Inc. of the BPA voltage stability analysis and reactive options. Five transmission line options and several reactive options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAFRP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. Plans were designed to provide at least 500 MVAR reactive margin.

  7. A new approach to power quality and electricity reliability monitoring-case study illustrations of the capabilities of the I-GridTM system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divan, Deepak; Brumsickle, William; Eto, Joseph

    2003-04-01

    This report describes a new approach for collecting information on power quality and reliability and making it available in the public domain. Making this information readily available in a form that is meaningful to electricity consumers is necessary for enabling more informed private and public decisions regarding electricity reliability. The system dramatically reduces the cost (and expertise) needed for customers to obtain information on the most significant power quality events, called voltage sags and interruptions. The system also offers widespread access to information on power quality collected from multiple sites and the potential for capturing information on the impacts of power quality problems, together enabling a wide variety of analysis and benchmarking to improve system reliability. Six case studies demonstrate selected functionality and capabilities of the system, including: Linking measured power quality events to process interruption and downtime; Demonstrating the ability to correlate events recorded by multiple monitors to narrow and confirm the causes of power quality events; and Benchmarking power quality and reliability on a firm and regional basis.

  8. Note: Reliable low-vibration piezo-mechanical shutter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Michael, E-mail: mibauer@physik.uni-kl.de; Franzreb, Philipp Pierre; Widera, Artur [Department of Physics and State-Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Spethmann, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We present a mechanical shutter based on a bending piezo-actuator. The shutter features an active aperture of about 2 mm, allowing for full extinction and lossless transmission of a beam. Acoustic noise and mechanical vibrations produced are very low and the shutter is outstandingly long-lived; a test device has undergone 20 × 10{sup 6} cycles without breaking. A reflector makes the shutter capable of reliably interrupting a beam with at least 2 W of cw power at 780 nm. The shutter is well suited to create pulses as short as 16 ms, while pulse lengths down to 1 ms are possible. The rise and fall times are approximately 120 µs, with a delay of 2 ms. Jitter stays below 10 µs, while long-term drifts stay well below 500 µs.

  9. Module Packaging Research and Reliability: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, T. J.; delCueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K.

    2005-11-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples are described.

  10. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karns, J.J.; Fragola, J.R.; Kahan, L.; Pelaccio, D. (Science Applications International Corporation, 8 W 40th St., 14th Floor, New York, New York 10018 (United States))

    1993-01-20

    The central purpose of this analysis is to assess the achievability'' of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system in a given mission. Achievability'' is a concept introduced to indicate the extent to which a system that meets or achieves its design goals might be implemented using the existing technology base. In the context of this analysis, the objective is to assess the achievability of an NEP system for a manned Mars mission as it pertains to operational reliability and crew safety goals. By varying design parameters, then examining the resulting system achievability, the design and mission risk drivers can be identified. Additionally, conceptual changes in design approach or mission strategy which are likely to improve overall achievability of the NEP system can be examined.

  11. IDHEAS – A NEW APPROACH FOR HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. W. Parry; J.A Forester; V.N. Dang; S. M. L. Hendrickson; M. Presley; E. Lois; J. Xing

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method, IDHEAS (Integrated Decision-Tree Human Event Analysis System) that has been developed jointly by the US NRC and EPRI as an improved approach to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) that is based on an understanding of the cognitive mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that affect operator responses. The paper describes the various elements of the method, namely the performance of a detailed cognitive task analysis that is documented in a crew response tree (CRT), and the development of the associated time-line to identify the critical tasks, i.e. those whose failure results in a human failure event (HFE), and an approach to quantification that is based on explanations of why the HFE might occur.

  12. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  13. Probability distributions of some power system reliability indices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dip, Minh

    1978-01-01

    of three renewal process Let {N.(t),t>0} denote the i t h renewal process. Thus i f N (t) i s the number of renewals ( f a i l u r e s ) in (0,t) in the pooled process, then: m N D(t) = E N.(t) . (13) " i=l 1 9 10 Khintchine and Gri g e l i o n i...PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOME POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY INDICES A Thesis by MINH DIP (DIEP) Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirement f o r the degree of MASTER...

  14. NLC Reliability Analysis Notes: Klystron-Modulator System (LCC-0029)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Z.

    2004-03-23

    This paper address the reliability and availability issues to be faced in deploying and operating the klystron modulator assemblies proposed for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The rf power sources are a major system of the NLC and require a high uptime in order to reach the goal of 0.85 availability. Since the NLC is made up of several systems, not just klystron-modulator assemblies, the availability goal for the assemblies must be higher than 0.85. Currently this goal is at least 0.95. This short paper summarizes the analysis currently under way to determine whether the design of the rf power system will meet the design availability goal.

  15. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  16. Defect localization, characterization and reliability assessment in emerging photovoltaic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Haase, Gad S.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward Isaac,; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2014-04-01

    Microsystems-enabled photovoltaics (MEPV) can potentially meet increasing demands for light-weight, portable, photovoltaic solutions with high power density and efficiency. The study in this report examines failure analysis techniques to perform defect localization and evaluate MEPV modules. CMOS failure analysis techniques, including electroluminescence, light-induced voltage alteration, thermally-induced voltage alteration, optical beam induced current, and Seabeck effect imaging were successfully adapted to characterize MEPV modules. The relative advantages of each approach are reported. In addition, the effects of exposure to reverse bias and light stress are explored. MEPV was found to have good resistance to both kinds of stressors. The results form a basis for further development of failure analysis techniques for MEPVs of different materials systems or multijunction MEPVs. The incorporation of additional stress factors could be used to develop a reliability model to generate lifetime predictions for MEPVs as well as uncover opportunities for future design improvements.

  17. Component Failure Rate Data Sources for Probabilistic Safety and Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Eide

    2010-09-01

    Probabilistic safety methods are being used in several industries, including chemical, manufacturing, and energy. When performing reliability studies or using probabilistic safety approaches, a basic need arises for input data on failure rates of the mechanical, electrical, instrumentation and control, and other components that comprise the engineering systems in the facility. Some companies have many types of data stored and can retrieve these in-house data for such uses. Other companies hire consultants to perform safety assessments; the consulting firms often use their own data bases. For those analysts who do not have either of those options available, this paper presents some data sources that are retrievable from the literature. These data sources have been evaluated with a basic rating of usefulness for analysis work, and each has a description of what data can be found in the citation that can be used to support assessments in industry. The accessibility of data documents via the internet is also described.

  18. Low voltage secondary network cable reliability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to find clues to the causes of manhole fires and explosions, researchers removed several aged low voltage network cables from service on the United Illuminating Company system. Examination of their physical, chemical, and electrical properties indicated that any deterioration of the cables that had occurred during their approximately 35 year service life was minor and did not affect reliability for continued service. Cables were found to have retained excellent properties despite their long age in service. For example, AC breakdown strength, dissipation factor, and percent elongation were all satisfactory. Insulation was coherent, not brittle; and the jackets did not crack or craze on bending. The tested cables compare favorably, physically and electrically, with non-jacketed rubber cables presently in service.

  19. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. James Chang; Dennis Bley; Lawrence Criscione; Barry Kirwan; Ali Mosleh; Todd Madary; Rodney Nowell; Robert Richards; Emilie M. Roth; Scott Sieben; Antonios Zoulis

    2014-05-01

    Lack of appropriate and sufficient human performance data has been identified as a key factor affecting human reliability analysis (HRA) quality especially in the estimation of human error probability (HEP). The Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application (SACADA) database was developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to address this data need. An agreement between NRC and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) was established to support the SACADA development with aims to make the SACADA tool suitable for implementation in the nuclear power plants' operator training program to collect operator performance information. The collected data would support the STPNOC's operator training program and be shared with the NRC for improving HRA quality. This paper discusses the SACADA data taxonomy, the theoretical foundation, the prospective data to be generated from the SACADA raw data to inform human reliability and human performance, and the considerations on the use of simulator data for HRA. Each SACADA data point consists of two information segments: context and performance results. Context is a characterization of the performance challenges to task success. The performance results are the results of performing the task. The data taxonomy uses a macrocognitive functions model for the framework. At a high level, information is classified according to the macrocognitive functions of detecting the plant abnormality, understanding the abnormality, deciding the response plan, executing the response plan, and team related aspects (i.e., communication, teamwork, and supervision). The data are expected to be useful for analyzing the relations between context, error modes and error causes in human performance.

  20. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands)] [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  1. High-throughput identification of off-targets for the mechanistic study of severe adverse drug reactions induced by analgesics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Jian-Bo [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Nan; Pan, Wen; Hong, Ru [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Wang, Hao [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Zhi-Liang, E-mail: appo@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Drugs may induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when they unexpectedly bind to proteins other than their therapeutic targets. Identification of these undesired protein binding partners, called off-targets, can facilitate toxicity assessment in the early stages of drug development. In this study, a computational framework was introduced for the exploration of idiosyncratic mechanisms underlying analgesic-induced severe adverse drug reactions (SADRs). The putative analgesic-target interactions were predicted by performing reverse docking of analgesics or their active metabolites against human/mammal protein structures in a high-throughput manner. Subsequently, bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to identify ADR-associated proteins (ADRAPs) and pathways. Using the pathways and ADRAPs that this analysis identified, the mechanisms of SADRs such as cardiac disorders were explored. For instance, 53 putative ADRAPs and 24 pathways were linked with cardiac disorders, of which 10 ADRAPs were confirmed by previous experiments. Moreover, it was inferred that pathways such as base excision repair, glycolysis/glyconeogenesis, ErbB signaling, calcium signaling, and phosphatidyl inositol signaling likely play pivotal roles in drug-induced cardiac disorders. In conclusion, our framework offers an opportunity to globally understand SADRs at the molecular level, which has been difficult to realize through experiments. It also provides some valuable clues for drug repurposing. - Highlights: • A novel computational framework was developed for mechanistic study of SADRs. • Off-targets of drugs were identified in large scale and in a high-throughput manner. • SADRs like cardiac disorders were systematically explored in molecular networks. • A number of ADR-associated proteins were identified.

  2. EIS-0317-S1: Kangley-Echo Lake Transmission Line Project Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has completed a supplemental draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIS) for the proposed Kangley-Echo Lake Transmission Line Project. The proposed line in central King County, Washington is needed to accommodate electrical growth and reliability concerns in the Puget Sound area. The SDEIS analyzes four additional transmission alternatives not analyzed in detail in the draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) issued in June 2001, and a number of non-transmission alternatives.

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Delivery and Energy Reliability, Renewable and DistributedDistributed Energy Resource Characterizations”, National Renewable EnergyDelivery and Energy Reliability’s Renewable and Distributed

  4. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.

  5. Report on Wind Turbine Subsystem Reliability - A Survey of Various Databases (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2013-07-01

    Wind industry has been challenged by premature subsystem/component failures. Various reliability data collection efforts have demonstrated their values in supporting wind turbine reliability and availability research & development and industrial activities. However, most information on these data collection efforts are scattered and not in a centralized place. With the objective of getting updated reliability statistics of wind turbines and/or subsystems so as to benefit future wind reliability and availability activities, this report is put together based on a survey of various reliability databases that are accessible directly or indirectly by NREL. For each database, whenever feasible, a brief description summarizing database population, life span, and data collected is given along with its features & status. Then selective results deemed beneficial to the industry and generated based on the database are highlighted. This report concludes with several observations obtained throughout the survey and several reliability data collection opportunities in the future.

  6. Electron-Impact lonization Cross Sections for Polyatomic Molecules, Radicals, and Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S.A. Abstract. The binary-encounter-Bethe(BEB) model for calculating electron-impact ionization cross sections for molecules is described with emphasis on polyatomic molecules and their radicals and ions. The BEB model the molecular cross section. The BEB model produces reliable ionization cross sections from the threshold

  7. Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caron, David

    Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California David Available online 30 June 2009 Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Desalination Red tides Phytoplankton Phytotoxins a b s t r a c t Seawater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is a reliable method for augmenting

  8. PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones Grid Integration Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract-- High penetrations of PV reliability problems. In order to improve the interconnection study process, the use of feeder zones and PV

  9. The Energy Policy Act's Reliability Provisions: Uncontroversial, Yes, but Doomed to Ineffectiveness?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Greg; Robinson, Andrea R.

    2006-02-01

    The electric industry grew up and matured under a regulatory regime that fostered reliable service as consistent with the service providers' best economic interests. But changes in the focus and structure of the electric industry have put strains on that regime - as starkly revealed in the 2003 blackout. Efforts to adopt enforceable reliability standards depend on the threat of penalties to outweigh the profit incentives that undermine reliability. It is not clear that those penalties will work.

  10. Can a photometric redshift code reliably determine dust extinction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. S. R Babbedge; R. Whitaker; S. Morris

    2005-05-05

    Photometric redshifts can be routinely obtained to accuracies of better than 0.1 in Delta(z)/(1+z). However, the issue of dust extinction is one that has still not been well quantified. In this paper the success of two template-fitting photometric redshift codes (IMPZ and HYPERZ) at reliably returning Av in addition to redshift is explored. New data on the CNOC2 spectroscopic sample of 0.2

  11. A Test Stand for Ion Sources of Ultimate Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enparantza, R.; Uriarte, L.; Romano, P.; Alonso, J.; Ariz, I.; Egiraun, M.; Bermejo, F. J.; Etxebarria, V.; Lucas, J.; Del Rio, J. M.; Letchford, A.; Faircloth, D.; Stockli, M.

    2009-03-12

    The rationale behind the ITUR project is to perform a comparison between different kinds of H{sup -} ion sources using the same beam diagnostics setup. In particular, a direct comparison will be made in terms of the emittance characteristics of Penning Type sources such as those currently in use in the injector for the ISIS (UK) Pulsed Neutron Source and those of volumetric type such as that driving the injector for the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (TN, U.S.A.). The endeavour here pursued is thus to build an Ion Source Test Stand where virtually any type of source can be tested and its features measured and, thus compared to the results of other sources under the same gauge. It would be possible then to establish a common ground for effectively comparing different ion sources. The long term objectives are thus to contribute towards building compact sources of minimum emittance, maximum performance, high reliability-availability, high percentage of desired particle production, stability and high brightness. The project consortium is lead by Tekniker-IK4 research centre and partners are companies Elytt Energy and Jema Group. The technical viability is guaranteed by the collaboration between the project consortium and several scientific institutions, such the CSIC (Spain), the University of the Basque Country (Spain), ISIS (STFC-UK), SNS (ORNL-USA) and CEA in Saclay (France)

  12. Reliability of radio transients detected in the Nasu sky survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Daishido, Tsuneaki; Tanaka, Tai; Nakao, Ryota; Nomura, Naomi; Sugisawa, Kentaro; Niinuma, Kotaro; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Kida, Sumiko

    2014-01-20

    This article reports on the reliability of 11 radio transients detected in the Nasu sky survey. We derived false detection rates and evaluated the statistical significance of each transient source. A single source, labeled WJN J1443+3439, was statistically significant at the 10{sup –5} significance level; the other 10 sources were insignificant. On the basis of this single detection, the sky surface density of live radio transients was estimated to be 2{sub ?1.9}{sup +9}×10{sup ?6} deg{sup ?2} at a flux density above 3 Jy and a frequency of 1.42 GHz. Since this result is comparable with other survey results and known transients, WJN J1443+3439 could not be excluded. The sky surface density supported a power-law distribution of source count versus flux density. For transient events, the power-law exponent was approximately –3/2. These results are expected to assist radio variable/transient surveys in next-generation facilities such as the Square Kilometre Array.

  13. Using Accelerated Testing To Predict Module Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term reliability is critical to the cost effectiveness and commercial success of photovoltaic (PV) products. Today most PV modules are warranted for 25 years, but there is no accepted test protocol to validate a 25-year lifetime. The qualification tests do an excellent job of identifying design, materials, and process flaws that are likely to lead to premature failure (infant mortality), but they are not designed to test for wear-out mechanisms that limit lifetime. This paper presents a method for evaluating the ability of a new PV module technology to survive long-term exposure to specific stresses. The authors propose the use of baseline technologies with proven long-term field performance as controls in the accelerated stress tests. The performance of new-technology modules can then be evaluated versus that of proven-technology modules. If the new-technology demonstrates equivalent or superior performance to the proven one, there is a high likelihood that they will survive versus the tested stress in the real world.

  14. Reliability study of an emerging fire suppression system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, David A.; Rossati, Lyric M.; Fritz, Nathan K.; Cournoyer, Michael E.; Granzow, Howard N.

    2015-02-07

    Self-contained fire extinguishers are a robust, reliable and minimally invasive means of fire suppression for gloveboxes. Plutonium gloveboxes are known to present harsh environmental conditions for polymer materials, these include radiation damage and chemical exposure, both of which tend to degrade the lifetime of engineered polymer components. The primary component of interest in self-contained fire extinguishers is the nylon 6-6 machined tube that comprises the main body of the system.Thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of nylon 6-6 for use in plutonium glovebox applications has been carried out. Data has been generated regarding property degradation leading to poor, or reduced, engineering performancemore »of nylon 6-6 components. In this study, nylon 6-6 tensile specimens conforming to the casing of self-contained fire extinguisher systems have been exposed to hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric acids. This information was used to predict the performance of a load bearing engineering component comprised of nylon 6-6 and designed to operate in a consistent manner over a specified time period. The study provides a fundamental understanding of the engineering performance of the fire suppression system and the effects of environmental degradation due to acid exposure on engineering performance. Data generated help identify the limitations of self-contained fire extinguishers. No critical areas of concern for plutonium glovebox applications of nylon 6-6 have been identified when considering exposure to mineral acid.« less

  15. Enabling rich applications and reliable data collection in embedded wireless networks with low-footprint devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Shoubhik

    2009-01-01

    Data Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks . . . . . . .in Wireless Sensor Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1Network of enhanced wireless LAN with additional processing

  16. Economic analysis of the N-1 reliable unit commitment and transmission switching problem using duality concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Neill, Richard P.; Hedman, Kory W.; Krall, Eric A.; Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2010-01-01

    of the N-1 reliable unit commitment 8. Schnyder, G. ,optimization of generation unit commitment and transmissionassociated with the unit commitment formulation: u gt , v

  17. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Gearbox 3 Manufacturing Status; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.

    2015-02-17

    An update on the status of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) improved gearbox is presented, including a brief summary of key instrumentation.

  18. NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Comparing In-Field Gearbox Response to Different Dynamometer Test Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; Wallen, R.; McNiff, B.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of NREL's Gearbox Reliability Collaborative comparison of dynamometer tests conducted on a 750-kW gearbox to field testing.

  19. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) program supports projects that evaluate the degradation and failure mechanisms of concentrating...

  20. Procedure for conducting a human-reliability analysis for nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, B.J.; Swain, A.D.

    1983-05-01

    This document describes in detail a procedure to be followed in conducting a human reliability analysis as part of a probabilistic risk assessment when such an analysis is performed according to the methods described in NUREG/CR-1278, Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications. An overview of the procedure describing the major elements of a human reliability analysis is presented along with a detailed description of each element and an example of an actual analysis. An appendix consists of some sample human reliability analysis problems for further study.

  1. Reliability-based framework for fatigue damage prognosis of bonded structural elements in aerospace composite structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobbato, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    of composite unmanned aerial vehicles structural components,components of unmanned aerial vehicles, Proc. COMPDYN 2009 –of Defense, Unmanned aerial vehicles reliability study,

  2. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of Honda Motor Co., Inc. State of...

  3. Improved Reliability of Ballistic Weapons and Combustion Engines - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168Organic Photovoltaics

  4. Joint transmission system projects to improve system reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducingJobs HumanImaging NSRC Workshop5 12 JOINT NEWS

  5. Module PE.PAS.U21.5Multiarea reliability analysis 1 Module PE.PAS.U21.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Module PE.PAS.U21.5Multiarea reliability analysis 1 Module PE.PAS.U21.5 Multiarea reliability University, Ames,Iowa 50011, 515-294-4844, jdm@iastate.edu U21.1 Introduction Modules U19 and U20 have reliability problem, addressed in this module. In the multiarea reliability problem, we view the electric

  6. Characterization of Vacancy Defects in Electroplated Cu Films by Positron Annihilation and its Impact on Stress Migration Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mizushima, Y. [Fujitsu Laboratories LTD. Akiruno Technology Center 50 Fuchigami, Akiruno, Tokyo, 197-0833 (Japan); Kouno, T. [Fujitsu LTD. Akiruno Technology Center 50 Fuchigami, Akiruno, Tokyo, 197-0833 (Japan); Uedono, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsuchikawa, H. [Fujitsu Laboratories LTD. Akiruno Technology Center 50 Fuchigami, Akiruno, Tokyo, 197-0833 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2006-02-07

    Positron annihilation was used to evaluate vacancy concentrations in electroplated Cu films with different kinds of electrolytes. The influence of various electrolytes on the impurities, grain boundaries, and micro-voids were also investigated. We found a higher impurity concentration and larger micro-voids were observed in copper films with higher vacancy concentrations. We reduced the failure rate in our stress migration results using a copper film with a higher concentration of vacancy and impurity. The stress migration performance improved because impurity nucleated vacancy clusters act as effective traps for diffusing vacancies.

  7. The impact of large-scale solar photovoltaic adoption on prices and reliability in the New England power pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C

    2006-01-01

    The potential role of renewable energy in producing electricity in industrialized countries has been gaining attention as issues like climate change and high fossil fuel prices more frequently occupy the minds of the public ...

  8. Wind Vision: Impacts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Vision: Impacts Rich Tusing New West Technologies, LLC For EERE's Wind and Water Power Technologies Office July 15, 2015 2 | Wind and Water Power Technologies Office...

  9. Report: Strategic Planning Impacts

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Strategic Planning Impacts September 30, 2009 Submitted by the EMAB ARRA Implementation and Oversight Subcommittee Background: EM plans to use the influx of stimulus funding from...

  10. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resource Characterizations”, National Renewable EnergyDelivery and Energy Reliability’s Renewable and Distributed

  11. Diversity combining in laser Doppler vibrometry for improved signal reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dräbenstedt, Alexander

    2014-05-27

    Because of the speckle nature of the light reflected from rough surfaces the signal quality of a vibrometer suffers from varying signal power. Deep signal outages manifest themselves as noise bursts and spikes in the demodulated velocity signal. Here we show that the signal quality of a single point vibrometer can be substantially improved by diversity reception. This concept is widely used in RF communication and can be transferred into optical interferometry. When two statistically independent measurement channels are available which measure the same motion on the same spot, the probability for both channels to see a signal drop-out at the same time is very low. We built a prototype instrument that uses polarization diversity to constitute two independent reception channels that are separately demodulated into velocity signals. Send and receive beams go through different parts of the aperture so that the beams can be spatially separated. The two velocity channels are mixed into one more reliable signal by a PC program in real time with the help of the signal power information. An algorithm has been developed that ensures a mixing of two or more channels with minimum resulting variance. The combination algorithm delivers also an equivalent signal power for the combined signal. The combined signal lacks the vast majority of spikes that are present in the raw signals and it extracts the true vibration information present in both channels. A statistical analysis shows that the probability for deep signal outages is largely decreased. A 60 fold improvement can be shown. The reduction of spikes and noise bursts reduces the noise in the spectral analysis of vibrations too. Over certain frequency bands a reduction of the noise density by a factor above 10 can be shown.

  12. Development of a reliable, miniaturized hydrogen safety sensor prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Rangachary, Mukundan; Garzon, Fernando H; Williamson, Todd L

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the development and long-term testing of a hydrogen safety sensor for vehicle and infrastructure applications is presented. The working device is demonstrated through application of commercial and reproducible manufacturing methods and rigorous life testing results guided by materials selection, and sensor design. Fabricated using Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) as the sensing electrode, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte and Platinum (Pt) as a pseudo-counter electrode, the device was subjected to interference studies, temperature cycling, and long-testing routine. The sensor responded in real time to varying concentrations of H{sub 2} (1000 to 20,000 ppm) monitored under a humidified condition. Among the interference gases tested such as nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), the sensor showed cross-sensitivity to C{sub 3}H{sub 6}. Analyzing the overall device performance over 4000 hrs of testing for 5000 ppm of H{sub 2}, (a) the sensitivity varied {+-}21% compared to response recorded at 0 hrs, and (c) the response rise time fluctuated between 3 to 46 s. The salient features of the H{sub 2} sensor prototype designed and co-developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are (a) stable three phase interface (electrode/electrolyte/gas) leading to reliable sensor operation, (b) low power consumption, (b) compactness to fit into critical areas of application, (c) simple operation, (d) fast response, (e) a direct voltage read-out circumventing the need for any additional conditioning circuitry, and (f) conducive to commercialization.

  13. ECONOMIC IMPACT THE DOLLARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    ECONOMIC IMPACT THE DOLLARS $438,725,000 in direct annual Universi- ty-related spending in Vermont. $1,009,000,000 in direct and indirect impact on the Vermont economy. $390,725,000 in compensation-related expenditures within the Vermont economy. $1,600,000,000 in annual earnings of 31,400 alumni living in Vermont

  14. Flexibility and reliability in long-term planning exercises dedicated to the electricity sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Flexibility and reliability in long-term planning exercises dedicated to the electricity sector of these options. This paper focuses on the electricity sector and on problems of flexibility and reliability are assessed through the level of electrical losses they induced and a related cost. These approaches

  15. Trust Sensor Interface for Improving Reliability of EMG-based User Intent Recognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yan Lindsay

    ) trust evaluation that dynamically evaluates the reliability of EMG sensors. Based on the output in disturbances. Each time when a disturbance is detected on an EMG sensor, the trust evaluation module is appliedTrust Sensor Interface for Improving Reliability of EMG-based User Intent Recognition Yuhong Liu

  16. Failure Correlation in Software Reliability Models Katerina Goseva Popstojanova and Kishor Trivedi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    reliability modeling framework based on Markov renewal processes which nat- urally introduces dependence among for a more flexible and consistent model formulation and solution. The Markov renewal model pre- sentedFailure Correlation in Software Reliability Models Katerina Goseva ­ Popstojanova and Kishor

  17. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints Sean Escola1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints Sean Escola1,2 , Michael Eisele1 of Statistics Columbia University sean@neurotheory.columbia.edu, liam@stat.columbia.edu November 13, 2008 the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, there is an energy cost associated with maintaining

  18. Wireless Reliable Messaging Protocol for Web Services (WS WRM) Sangmi Lee and Geoffrey Fox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallickara, Sangmi

    Wireless Reliable Messaging Protocol for Web Services (WS ­WRM) Sangmi Lee and Geoffrey Fox Community Grid Laboratory, Indiana University {leesangm, gcf}@indiana.edu Abstract By employing Web services addressed for quality of services in Web services. In this paper, we propose a reliable message scheme

  19. ADHOC MAC: a new, flexible and reliable MAC architecture for ad-hoc networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borgonovo, Flaminio

    ADHOC MAC: a new, flexible and reliable MAC architecture for ad-hoc networks F. Borgonovo, A, make the design of a prompt, efficient, flexible, and reliable MAC very difficult. An ad hoc network.e., transmissions that reach all terminals within the range allowed by the transmitting power. Due to radio range

  20. Combining LT codes and XOR network coding for reliable and energy efficient transmissions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    Combining LT codes and XOR network coding for reliable and energy efficient transmissions the problem of providing end to end reliable transmissions in a randomly deployed wireless sensor network or several sink nodes. Due to the large scale of such networks, the transmission is multi-hop between

  1. EPROF: An Energy/Performance/Reliability Optimization Framework for Streaming Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    EPROF: An Energy/Performance/Reliability Optimization Framework for Streaming Applications Yavuz- ent energy/performance/reli-ability tradeoffs. For the StreamIt benchmarks [16], EPROF can identify challenges in si- multaneously meeting an application's energy, performance, and reliability goals. While

  2. AABBSSTTRRAACCTT MA, RUIQI. The Effect of In-Vehicle Automation and Reliability on Driver Situation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    AABBSSTTRRAACCTT MA, RUIQI. The Effect of In-Vehicle Automation and Reliability on Driver Situation by automation and in- vehicle device use. Specifically, this study investigated the implications of adaptive; investigate the effect of varying reliability of in-vehicle automation (navigation aids) on driver SA

  3. Towards Full-disclosure: Broadening Access to SCADA Data to Improve Safety, Reliability, and Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    Towards Full-disclosure: Broadening Access to SCADA Data to Improve Safety, Reliability is that openness and support for disclosure of future SCADA data can in improved safety, reliability, and security-network processing are needed to make greater openness and data sharing data viable. Today's SCADA systems are often

  4. Reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing for Static Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unreliable Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing for Static Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unreliable Links. In this paper, we address the problem of energy efficient reliable routing for wireless ad hoc networks communication, energy efficiency. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION WIRELESS ad hoc networks draw lots of attentions in recent

  5. A cost-effective mechanism for Cloud data reliability management based on proactive replica checking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yun

    A cost-effective mechanism for Cloud data reliability management based on proactive replica University, Hefei, Anhui 230039, China *** School of Systems, Management and Leadership, University--In current Cloud computing environments, management of data reliability has become a challenge. For data

  6. LESSONS FROM ENGINEERING: CAN SOFTWARE BENEFIT FROM PRODUCT BASED EVIDENCE OF RELIABILITY?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snooke, Neal

    LESSONS FROM ENGINEERING: CAN SOFTWARE BENEFIT FROM PRODUCT BASED EVIDENCE OF RELIABILITY? Position, United Kingdom nns@aber.ac.uk Keywords: Software engineering, Model-driven engineering, Reliability, Failure modes and effects analysis, Verification Abstract: This paper argues that software engineering

  7. Reliability Maps for Probabilistic Guarantees of Task Motion for Robotic Manipulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maciejewski, Anthony A. "Tony"

    Full paper Reliability Maps for Probabilistic Guarantees of Task Motion for Robotic Manipulators March 2012 Abstract 10There are many applications for which reliable and safe robots are desired. For example, assistant robots for disabled or elderly people and surgical robots are required to be safe

  8. Reliable and energy efficient cooperative detection in wireless sensor Fatma Bouabdallah a,b,d,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    to the fusion center. Finally and as a third main contribution, we balance detection reliability and energyReliable and energy efficient cooperative detection in wireless sensor networks Fatma Bouabdallah a online 14 December 2012 Keywords: Wireless sensor networks Energy conservation Routing for signal

  9. Cost and Reliability Considerations in Designing the Next-Generation IP over WDM Backbone Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    Cost and Reliability Considerations in Designing the Next-Generation IP over WDM Backbone Networks of the cost and reliability considerations involved in designing the next-generation backbone network. Our cost of the network. Hence, a fundamental redesign of the backbone network which avoids such redundant

  10. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs Supervisory Committee Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective

  11. Issues in the Next Generation of Dependability Standards Existing IEEE software reliability standards do not

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    systems. The extant software reliability standards and practices, using IEEE 982 [1] and AIAA R013 [2Issues in the Next Generation of Dependability Standards Abstract Existing IEEE software, these standards do not consider both hardware and software reliability nor do they include availability

  12. Rational design spectra for structural reliability assessment using the response spectrum method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jack W.

    Rational design spectra for structural reliability assessment using the response spectrum method" associated with a structural reliability assessment is a rational choice for a design spectrum. When structural response from any of the spectra for design checks. This observation is used to justify the CMS

  13. Using Bayesian Belief Networks to Predict the Reliability of Military Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil, Martin

    of predictive accuracy DERA's previous generation of reliability evaluation methods were found to be optimistic a feasibility study with the Centre for Software Reliability (CSR) at City University to investigate whether, using design and process capability evidence, is one way of improving predictions and positively

  14. TSV Stress-aware Full-Chip Mechanical Reliability Analysis and Optimization for 3D IC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    TSV Stress-aware Full-Chip Mechanical Reliability Analysis and Optimization for 3D IC Moongon Jung1 and accurate full-chip thermo- mechanical stress and reliability analysis tool and design optimiza- tion-mechanical stress induced by TSVs in conjunction with various associated structures such as landing pad

  15. Software Reliability S. R. Dalal, M.R. Lyu, C. L. Mallows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    Software Reliability by S. R. Dalal, M.R. Lyu, C. L. Mallows Bellcore, Lucent Technologies, AT&T Research 1. Introduction The demand for complex software systems has increased more rapidly than the ability to design, implement, test, and maintain them, and the reliability of software systems has become

  16. North American Electricity Infrastructure: System Security, Quality, Reliability, Availability, and Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    1 North American Electricity Infrastructure: System Security, Quality, Reliability, Availability for reliable and disturbance-free electricity. The massive power outages in the United States, Canada, UK and Italy in 2003 underscored electricity infrastructure's vulnerabilities [1-11]. This vital yet complex

  17. The Economic Value of Improving the Reliability of Supply on a Bulk Power Transmission Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economic Value of Improving the Reliability of Supply on a Bulk Power Transmission Network Economics and Management and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cornell University Abstract, there is no established way of measuring the economic value of reliability, and as a result, regulators have adopted

  18. A Linux-Governor Based Dynamic Reliability Manager for Android Mobile Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    of a device over time [8]. Reliability can be determined by monitoring voltage and temperature. Recent work) and Bias Temperature Insta- bility (BTI). Degradation depends on voltage and temperature stress depends on temperature and volt- age, a runtime control is needed to correctly manage the reliability

  19. RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, AND SERVICEABILITY FOR PETASCALE HIGH-END COMPUTING AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chokchai "Box" Leangsuksun

    2011-05-31

    Our project is a multi-institutional research effort that adopts interplay of RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, and SERVICEABILITY (RAS) aspects for solving resilience issues in highend scientific computing in the next generation of supercomputers. results lie in the following tracks: Failure prediction in a large scale HPC; Investigate reliability issues and mitigation techniques including in GPGPU-based HPC system; HPC resilience runtime & tools.

  20. Leveraging Biologically-inspired Mobile Agents Supporting Composite Needs of Reliability and Timeliness in Sensor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Jun

    energy consumption. Existing work consid- ers reliability, timeliness and energy consumption largely that are distributed spatially such as fire spread- ing and oil spills. Due to the sheer number of sensor nodes units for an event detection while minimizing energy consumption. Existing work considers reliability