National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for advanced biomass gasification

  1. Advanced Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc ABGT | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc ABGT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc. (ABGT) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10036 Product:...

  2. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Feed and Gasification The Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology will advance scientific knowledge of the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream steps for production of liquid transportation fuels with a lower net GHG emissions than conventional oil refining. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on

  3. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  4. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  5. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  6. Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Gasification Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification Photo of a man standing near a pilot-scale gasification system. Biomass gasification is a mature technology pathway that uses a controlled process involving heat, steam, and oxygen to convert biomass to hydrogen and other products, without combustion. Because growing biomass removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the net carbon emissions of this method can be low, especially if coupled with carbon capture, utilization, and

  7. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream ... Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring ...

  8. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  9. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via ...

  10. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biomass Gasification DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass gasification. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Biomass Gasification/Pyrolysis

  11. Gas turbine power generation from biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Litt, R.D.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Biomass Power Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as a major goal the development of cost-competitive technologies for the production of power from renewable biomass crops. The gasification of biomass provides the potential to meet this goal by efficiently and economically producing a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in high efficiency gas turbines or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development of the use of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems. Projected process economics are presented along with a description of current experimental operations coupling a gas turbine power generation system to the research scale gasifier.

  12. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director-Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute gangwal_biomass_2014.pdf (1.36

  13. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter

  14. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, ...

  15. 2007 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

  16. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-03GO13175 and DE-FC36-02GO12024) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. This multi-year effort to develop methods to effectively monitor gaseous species produced in thermochemical process streams resulted in a sampling and analysis approach that is continuous, sensitive, comprehensive, accurate, reliable, economical, and safe. The improved approach for sampling thermochemical processes that GTI developed and demonstrated in its series of field demonstrations successfully provides continuous transport of vapor-phase syngas streams extracted from the main gasification process stream to multiple, commercially available analyzers. The syngas stream is carefully managed through multiple steps to successfully convey it to the analyzers, while at the same time bringing the stream to temperature and pressure conditions that are compatible with the analyzers. The primary principle that guides the sample transport is that throughout the entire sampling train, the temperature of the syngas stream is maintained above the maximum condensation temperature

  17. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This independent review report assesses the 2009 state-of-the-art and 2020 projected capital cost, energy efficiency, and levelized cost for hydrogen production from biomass via gasification.

  18. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  19. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology

  20. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  1. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  2. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  3. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  4. Countercurrent fixed-bed gasification of biomass at laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Portoricco, G.

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale countercurrent fixed-bed gasification plant has been designed and constructed to produce data for process modeling and to compare the gasification characteristics of several biomasses (beechwood, nutshells, olive husks, and grape residues). The composition of producer gas and spatial temperature profiles have been measured for biomass gasification at different air flow rates. The gas-heating value always attains a maximum as a function of this operating variable, associated with a decrease of the air-to-fuel ratio. Optical gasification conditions of wood and agricultural residues give rise to comparable gas-heating values, comprised in the range 5--5.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3} with 28--30% CO, 5--7% CO{sub 2}, 6--8% H{sub 2}, 1--2% CH{sub 4}, and small amounts of C{sub 2}- hydrocarbons (apart from nitrogen). However, gasification of agricultural residues is more difficult because of bed transport, partial ash sintering, nonuniform flow distribution, and the presence of a muddy phase in the effluents, so that proper pretreatments are needed for largescale applications.

  5. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  6. Biomass gasification for gas turbine-based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Anson, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Biomass Power Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as a major goal the development of cost-competitive technologies for the production of power from renewable biomass crops. The gasification of biomass provides the potential to meet this goal by efficiently and economically producing a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in high-efficiency gas turbines. This paper discusses the development and first commercial demonstration of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems. Projected process economics are presented along with a description of current experimental operations coupling a gas turbine power generation system to the research scale gasifier and the process scaleup activities in Burlington, Vermont.

  7. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Industries and municipalities generate substantial amounts of biomass as high-moisture waste streams, such as animal manure, food processing sludge, stillage from ethanol production, and municipal wastewater sludge.

  8. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  9. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  10. Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Indirect Gasification: The Impact of NREL Process Development Unit Gasifier Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinchin, C. M.; Bain, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes a set of updated gasifier correlations developed by NREL to predict biomass gasification products and Minimum Hydrogen Selling Price.

  11. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program NREL/BK-6A10-51726 October

  13. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  14. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  15. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this

  16. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  17. Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. D.

    2009-07-01

    This report evaluates process design and technoeconomic criteria for a direct gasification process for conversion of biomass to ethanol. Follow-up to NREL/TP-510-41168.

  18. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  19. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  20. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-10-01

    Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.

  1. Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

    2012-06-20

    Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

  2. 2015 Gasification Systems and Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Workshop |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    netl.doe.gov 5 Gasification Systems and Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids Workshop Workshop Summary Additional materials will be added when they are received from the author. Presentations Monday, August 10, 2015 Welcome and Introduction Jenny Tennant, Technology Manager for Gasification and C&CBTL U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Wyoming Coal's Role in the World-Recent Past, Present and Future Don Collins, CEO of the Western Research Institute SESSION I

  3. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectrometer analyzes vapors during the gasification and pyrolysis processes. NREL's biomass projects are designed to advance the production of liquid transportation fuels from...

  4. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  6. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar

  7. THE PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND BIO-MASS GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to improve the hydrogen production efficiency of the steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon dioxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K.

  8. Development and commercialization of a biomass gasification/power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities.

  9. Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Adapting biomass waste molecules for energy production May 1, 2013 Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office

  10. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas

  11. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  12. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  13. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  14. Bench-scale studies on gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Wilcox, W.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of bench-scale studies on the development of catalysts for conversion of biomass to specific gas products. The primary objective of these studies was to define operating conditions that allow long lifetimes for secondary catalysts used in biomass gasification. Nickel-based catalysts that were found to be active for conversion of wood to synthesis gases in previous studies were evaluated. These catalysts remained active indefinitely in laboratory studies but lost activity rapidly when evaluated in a process research unit. Bench-scale equipment was designed and installed to resolve the differences between laboratory and PRU results. Primary catalysts (alkali carbonates) were also evaluated for their effectiveness in improving conversion yields from biomass gasification. 21 refs., 27 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project 2015 Peer Review NC A&T Renewable Energy Center -Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels March 26 th 2015 Technology Area Review: Biomass Gasification Ghasem Shahbazi Biological Engineering North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Goal Statement The major goal of this project is to study an integrated biomass gasification and hot syngas cleaning process to produce high- quality syngas from woody biomass and

  17. Technoeconomic Analysis of a Lignocellulosic Biomass Indirect Gasification Process to Make Ethanol via Mixed Alcohols Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    A technoeconomic analysis of a 2000 tonne/day lignocellulosic biomass conversion process to make mixed alcohols via gasification and catalytic synthesis was completed. The process, modeled using ASPEN Plus process modeling software for mass and energy calculations, included all major process steps to convert biomass into liquid fuels, including gasification, gas cleanup and conditioning, synthesis conversion to mixed alcohols, and product separation. The gas cleanup area features a catalytic fluidized-bed steam reformer to convert tars and hydrocarbons into syngas. Conversions for both the reformer and the synthesis catalysts were based on research targets expected to be achieved by 2012 through ongoing research. The mass and energy calculations were used to estimate capital and operating costs that were used in a discounted cash flow rate of return analysis for the process to calculate a minimum ethanol selling price of $0.267/L ($1.01/gal) ethanol (U.S.$2005).

  18. Fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Lalk, T.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A 0.61 meter (2 ft) diameter fluidized-bed combustion reactor was used for tests on direct combustion of cotton gin trash. Raw gin trash was continuously augered into the unit with fuel and air rates set to maintain bed temperatures of 760/sup 0/ to 816/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/ to 1500/sup 0/F). Particulate emissions in the hot stack gases were measured and found to be lower than federal standards for incinerators. Mild steel and stainless alloy samples were placed in the hot stack gas stream to study corrosion and erosion of materials. High rates of potassium, calcium, and sodium deposits accumulated on the samples, and high erosion rates were found. A 0.3 meter (13 in) diameter fluidized-bed gasifier was used to convert raw gin trash into a combustible gas with bed temperatures between 683/sup 0/C and 881/sup 0/C (1261/sup 0/F and 1618/sup 0/F). By limiting the amount of oxygen compared to the fuel feed, only partial combustion occurs, producing heat and endothermic gasification chemical reactions. The combustible gas was composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It had a heating value ranging from 3.40 to 4.82 M Joules per standard cubic meter (98 to 142 Btu/scf), and about 50 percent of the heat value of the gin trash was converted into this low energy gas.

  19. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  20. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-07-01

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

  1. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-01-01

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and METHANE de-NOX{reg_sign} technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

  2. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  3. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Biomass gasification at the focus of the Odeillo (France 1-MW (thermal) solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Royere, C.; Vialaron, A.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments described in this paper were undertaken to explore the use of concentrated solar radiation for the flash pyrolysis of biomass. Biomass materials (powdered, microcrystalline cellulose and ground corn cob material) have been successfully gasified in a windowed chemical reactor operating at the focus of the Odeillo 1 MW/sub th/ solar furnace. The quartz window survived radiant flux levels in excess of 1000 W/cm/sup 2/; however impurities carried by the steam flow into the reactor ultimately clouded the window. Pyrolytic char yields of the Odeillo experimetns were quite low: ranging between one and four percent. Gas yields were also relatively low, but condensible yields were high. These results reflect the important role played by the gas phase chemistry (largely unaffected by the high solar flux) in the production of permanent gases from biomass. A consideration of the characteristic times for chemical kinetic and heat transfer phenomenon within a rapidly pyrolyzing particle indicate that heat transfer (not chemical kinetics) is the rate limiting step. However, the thermochemical and optical properties of biomass materials are poorly understood and much more experimental work must be completed before definitive conclusions in this important area can be made. Because the use of concentrated solar radiation for direct gasification of biomass materials results in the formation of little or no char without reliance on the water gas or Boudourad reactions, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass holds unusual promise for the economical production of liquid and gaseous fuels from renewable resources.

  5. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary J.; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  7. Dairy Biomass-Wyoming Coal Blends Fixed Gasification Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gordillo, Gerardo; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2012-01-01

    Concenmore » trated animal feeding operations such as dairies produce a large amount of manure, termed as dairy biomass (DB), which could serve as renewable feedstock for thermal gasification. DB is a low-quality fuel compared to fossil fuels, and hence the product gases have lower heat content; however, the quality of gases can be improved by blending with coals. This paper deals with air-steam fixed-bed counterflow gasification of dairy biomass-Wyoming coal blend (DBWC). The effects of equivalence ratio ( 1.6 < Φ < 6.4 ) and steam-to-fuel ratio ( 0.4 < S : F < 0.8 ) on peak temperatures, gas composition, gross heating value of the products, and energy recovery are presented. According to experimental results, increasing Φ and ( S : F ) ratios decreases the peak temperature and increases the H 2 and CO 2 production, while CO production decreases. On the other hand, the concentrations of CH 4 and C 2 H 6 were lower compared to those of other gases and almost not affected by Φ.« less

  8. Indirectly heated fluidized bed biomass gasification using a latent heat ballast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletka, R.; Brown, R.; Smeenk, J.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this study is to improve the heating value of gas produced during gasification of biomass fuels using an indirectly heated gasifier based on latent heat ballasting. The latent heat ballast consists of lithium fluoride salt encased in tubes suspended in the reactor. The lithium fluoride has a melting point that is near the desired gasification temperature. With the ballast a single reactor operating in a cyclic mode stores energy during a combustion phase and releases it during a pyrolysis phase. Tests were carried out in a fluidized bed reactor to evaluate the concept. The time to cool the reactor during the pyrolysis phase from 1,172 K (1,650 F) to 922 K (1,200 F) increased 102% by use of the ballast system. This extended pyrolysis time allowed 33% more biomass to be gasified during a cycle. Additionally, the total fuel fraction pyrolyzed to produce useful gas increased from 74--80%. Higher heating values of 14.2 to 16.6 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (382--445 Btu/scf) on a dry basis were obtained from the ballasted gasifier.

  9. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  10. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  11. Imperium/Lanzatech Syngas Fermentation Project - Biomass Gasification and Syngas Conditioning for Fermentation Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-474

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, E.

    2014-09-01

    LanzaTech and NREL will investigate the integration between biomass gasification and LanzaTech's proprietary gas fermentation process to produce ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Using three feed materials (woody biomass, agricultural residue and herbaceous grass) NREL will produce syngas via steam indirect gasification and syngas conditioning over a range of process relevant operating conditions. The gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio of the biomass feed into the gasifier, and several levels of syngas conditioning (based on temperature) will be varied to produce multiple syngas streams that will be fed directly to 10 liter seed fermenters operating with the Lanzatech organism. The NREL gasification system will then be integrated with LanzaTech's laboratory pilot unit to produce large-scale samples of ethanol and 2,3-butanediol for conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  12. The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R.J.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

  13. Biomass 2013: How the Advanced Bioindustry is Reshaping American Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3: How the Advanced Bioindustry is Reshaping American Energy Biomass 2013: How the Advanced Bioindustry is Reshaping American Energy Biomass 2013 July 31-August 1, 2013 Washington, D.C. Convention Center 801 Mt. Vernon Place, NW Washington, D.C. 20001 On July 31-August 1, 2013, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and Advanced Biofuels USA co-hosted the Office's sixth annual conference, Biomass 2013: How the Advanced Bioindustry is Reshaping American Energy, at the

  14. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Butner, Scott S.; Zacher, Alan H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Young, James S.; McCready, David E.

    2004-07-01

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In the pressurized-water environment (20 MPa) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high-levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. Biomass trace components cause processing difficulties using the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. Results are described for both bench-scale and scaled-up reactor systems.

  15. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development and commercial demonstration of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Cascade Corporation's pulp and paper mill in DeRidder, Louisiana. The advanced power generation system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as the primary fuel resource. The novel system is based on three advanced technology components: GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and 3-stage solid fuels combustion technologies coupled with one of the power generation approaches used in DOE's HIPPS program. Phase 1 of the project is a technical and economic evaluation of the system at the DeRidder site. A Continuation Application will be submitted at the conclusion of Phase 1 for authorization to proceed to testing and design in Phase 2. Phase 2 includes pilot-scale verification of selected system components and preparation of a detailed engineering design and cost estimate for retrofit of the advanced power system at the DeRidder mill. Phase 3 will complete procurement and construction of the system at the DeRidder site along with all required permitting activities. Phase 4 of the project will included plant commissioning, startup and demonstration operations. Design information for the Gasification Island was completed during the quarter. Two vendor quotations were received for the bark/hog fuel dryers. A final layout plan for the major equipment was developed and submitted to DeRidder for review and approval. The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) completed a subcontract for a laboratory study on VOC emissions from wood waste drying using bark from the DeRidder mill. Samples of DeRidder's lime mud and green liquor dregs were collected and analyzed in GTI's laboratory. It was determined that lime mud is far too fine to be utilized as inert bed material in the

  16. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  17. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was

  18. Gasification of Biorefinery Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    This project is addressing syngas clean-up by developing a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms and kinetics of trace product formation in biomass gasification.

  19. Gasification Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is leading an effort to integrate and evaluate syngas cleanup and treatment technologies for syngas from biomass gasification processes.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  1. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  2. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  3. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  4. Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Department of Agriculture Partner: Farm Service Agency Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass...

  5. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  6. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  7. advanced-fuels-synthesis-index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Water-gas shift TDA Research is working to advance coal biomass alternate liquids by ... Poison Resistant Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts for Biomass and Coal Gasification Systems and ...

  8. Thermochemical ethanol via indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  9. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  10. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  11. Advanced integration concepts for oxygen plants and gas turbines in gasification/IGCC facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.R.; Klosek, J.; Woodward, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The commercialization of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power has been aided by concepts involving the integration of a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) with the gas turbine combined-cycle module. Other processes, such as coal-based ironmaking and combined power and industrial gas production facilities, can benefit from the integration of these two units. It is known and now widely accepted that an ASU designed for elevated pressure service and optimally integrated with the gas turbine can increase overall IGCC power output, increase overall efficiency, and decrease the net cost of power generation compared to non-integrated facilities employing low pressure ASU`s. Depending upon the specific gas turbine, gasification technology, NOx emission specification, and other site specific factors, various degrees of compressed air and nitrogen integration are optimal. Air Products has supplied ASU`s with no integration (Destec/Plaquemine IGCC), nitrogen-only integration (Tampa Electric/Polk County IGCC), and full air and nitrogen integration (Demkolec/Buggenum IGCC). Continuing advancements in both air separation and gas turbine technologies offer new integration opportunities to further improve performance and reduce costs. This paper will review basic integration principles and describe advanced concepts based on emerging high compression ratio gas turbines. Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycles, and integration of compression heat and refrigeration sources from the ASU. Operability issues associated with integration will be reviewed and control measures described for the safe, efficient, and reliable operation of these facilities.

  12. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  13. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  14. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J.; Steinfeld, G.

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  15. Thermochemical Design Report: Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot-unit level by 2012.

  16. An Affordable Advanced Biomass Cookstove with Thermoelectric Generator (TEG)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office 2015 Peer Review Biomass Cookstove Technology Review March 26, 2015 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory An Affordable Advanced Biomass Cookstove with Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Ashok Gadgil eere.energy.gov 1 Goal Statement Develop an affordable tier-4 cookstove desirable for purchase Design novel air injection configurations for flame manipulation powered

  17. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ...

  18. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels Synthesis Fuels can be produced from bio-oils using processes similar to those found in a petroleum refinery, including hydrotreating and hydrocracking to create green gasoline, an alternative to alcohol-based ethanol fuels. Some types of bio-oils can even be fully integrated into petroleum refining stream and infrastructure. The conversion of biomass derived syngas to products is typically an exothermic process, and Integrated Biorefineries can maximize their power efficiency by

  19. Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

    2012-06-01

    This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

  20. NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and commercialization of biomass gasification is the integration of the gasifier with downstream syngas processing. ... Biomass Characterization Biochemical Conversion Thermochemical ...

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  2. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  3. Gasification Systems Portfolio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Gasification Systems Project Portfolio Gasification is a clean way to efficiently produce electric power, a wide range of transportation fuels, and chemicals from coal and other solid feedstocks. By first converting the solid feedstock to a gaseous form (syngas), potential pollutants can be captured and reduced to any desired level and then converted to useful by-products or safely disposed. The Gasification Systems Program is developing advanced technologies to improve the economics and

  4. Thermochemical Conversion Research and Development: Gasification and Pyrolysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Biomass gasification and pyrolysis research and development activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Energy Co-Evolution of Biofuels Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae ... HomeBiomass Permalink One-Pot-to-Prep Biomass for Biofuels Biofuels, Biomass, Energy, ...

  6. EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS ...

  7. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  8. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  9. Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technologies that are used for biomass thermal and combined heat and power (CHP) plants are direct combustion and gasification systems. Direct combustion systems are the...

  10. Applications of organo-calcium chemistry to control contaminant aromatic hydrocarbons in advanced coal gasification processes: Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longwall, J.P.; Chang, C.C.S.; Lai, C.K.S.; Chen, P.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Peters, W.A.

    1988-09-01

    The broad goal of this contract was to provide quantitative understanding of the thermal reactions of aromatics contaminants with calcium oxide under conditions pertinent to their in situ or out-board reduction or elimination from advanced coal gasification process and waste streams. Specific objectives were formalized into the following four tasks: cracking of fresh coal pyrolysis tar, benzene cracking, CaO deactivation behavior, and preliminary economic implications. The approach primarily involved laboratory scale measurements of rates and extents of feed conversion, and of quality indices or compositions of the resulting products, when pure aromatic compounds or newly formed coal pyrolysis tars undergo controlled extents of thermal treatment with CaO of known preparation history. 70 refs., 54 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Gasification FAQS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAQS faq-header-big.jpg GASIFICATION BASICS Q: What is gasification? A: Gasification is the first step in many processes that are used to convert coal into plastic, fertilizer, gasoline, diesel fuel, hydrogen, chemicals, and electricity. Specifically, gasification is a technological process that uses heat, pressure, steam, and often oxygen or air to convert any carbonaceous (carbon-based) raw material into synthesis gas (syngas for short). Syngas is composed primarily of the colorless, odorless,

  12. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  13. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasian, Javad

    2014-07-31

    estimated cost of carbon v capture is in the range of $31-$44/ton, suggesting that a regenerative MgO-Based process can be a viable option for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture in advanced gasification based power systems.

  14. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  15. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felix, Larry; Farthing, William; Hoekman, S. Kent

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  16. JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

    2008-02-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

  17. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Gasification Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage. DOE anticipates that coal gasification for hydrogen production with carbon capture, utilization, and storage could be deployed in the mid-term time frame. How Does It Work? Chemically, coal is a complex and highly

  18. Biomass Gas Clean-Up Using a Therminator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Clean-up and conditioning of syngas is a key technical barrier to the commercialization of biomass gasification systems. Current technologies do not meet the necessary performance, cost, and environmental criteria to achieve commercialization of biomass gasification technologies.

  19. Fundamentals of thermochemical biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overend, R.P.; Milne, T.A.; Mudge, L.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Wood and biomass ultrastructure; Cellulose, hemicellulose and extractives; Lignin; Pretreatment of biomass for thermochemical biomass conversion; A kinetic isotope effect in the thermal dehydration of cellobiose; Gasification and liquefaction of forest products in supercritical water; Thermochemical fractionation and liquefaction of wood; The pyrolysis and gasification of wood in molten hydroxide eutectics; Influence of alkali carbonates on biomass volatilization; Flash pyrolysis of biomass with reactive and non-reactive gases; Pyrolytic reactions and biomass; Product formation in the pyrolysis of large wood particles; The pyrolysis under vacuum of aspen poplar; Simulation of kraft lignin pyrolysis; and Kinetics of wood gasification by carbon dioxide and steam.

  20. Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M.

    2008-12-01

    With oak and pine feedstocks, the Gasification of Biomass to Hydrogen project maximizes hydrogen production using the Full Stream Reformer during water-gas shift fixed-bed reactor testing. Results indicate that higher steam-to-biomass ratio and higher thermal cracker temperature yield higher hydrogen concentration. NREL's techno-economic models and analyses indicate hydrogen production from biomass may be viable at an estimated cost of $1.77/kg (current) and $1.47/kg (advanced in 2015). To verify these estimates, NREL used the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), an integrated system of unit operations that investigates biomass thermochemical conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels and chemicals.

  1. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  2. Energy Department Announces $2.5 Million to Advance Technologies for Clean-Burning, Efficient Biomass Cookstoves

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department announced up to $2.5 million available this year for applied research to advance clean biomass cookstove technologies for use in developing countries.

  3. Genome-Enabled Advancement of Biomass to Biofuel Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick O'Mullan, PhD

    2010-11-11

    Unlike Saccharomyces and even E. coli, the fundamental microbiology and biochemistry of Clostridium phytofermentans was largely unknown. The genus Clostridia is quite diverse and general methods to manipulate and characterize them often need to be developed. As anaerobes, they often don’t behave the way more classically studied microbes will in fermentation processes. The results from these studies have allowed: 1) A fundamental understanding of the fermentation cycle in C. phytofermentans 2) Requirements to maximize ethanol yield in a fermentation process 3) An understanding of the critical growth and nutritional parameters required to ferment biomass to ethanol 4) Identification of key targets or genes to modify in order increase or improve any of the key traits of C. phytofermentans 5) The development of a genetic system to transform and manipulate the microbe Without these achievements, an industrially significant process for biomass fermentation to ethanol would not be economically possible. The development of a fermentation process with economic return on investment can be successfully developed with the technical learning achieved

  4. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Third quarter progress report FY-1984, April 1-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-31

    The overall objective of the KRW coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) modifications to the PDU; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) advanced process design and analysis; and (5) laboratory support studies. For laboratory support studies, coal and/or char fines from Wyoming Sub C, Western Kentucky, Republic of South Africa (RSA), and Pittsburgh seam coals processed in the PDU were characterized for reactivity on a thermogravimetric analyzer. The average relative reactivity of the fines (-120 x +140 mesh) was found to be nearly the same as that for larger size distribution (18 x 60 mesh, -1.0 + 0.25 mm). This is consistent with the observations of studies reported in literature on carbon gasification reactions.

  5. Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

  6. Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where the second step of the Hydrocarb process is replaced with a methane steam reformer to convert methane to CO and H{sub 2}S without deposition of carbon; the Carnol process where CO{sub 2} from coal and the biomass power plants is reacted with hydrogen to produce methanol; and advanced biomass high efficiency power generator cycle where a continuous plasma methane decomposition reactor (PDR) is used with direct carbon fuel cell to produce power and carbon and hydrogen. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Gasification News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Modular Oxygen Production in Fossil Energy Gasification Systems August 24, 2016 Two projects were selected to develop stand-alone oxygen-production technologies for use in coal gasification processes. The new technologies will produce oxygen of at least 95 percent purity for use in small-scale (500 kilowatt to 5 megawatt) modular power plants at significantly lower cost than commercial state-of-the-art oxygen-production technologies. Archive

  8. Genomic Advances to Improve Biomass for Biofuels (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rokhsar, Daniel

    2011-04-28

    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab bioscientist Daniel Rokhsar discusses genomic advances to improve biomass for biofuels. He presented his talk Feb. 11, 2008 in Berkeley, California as part of Berkeley Lab's community lecture series. Rokhsar works with the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and Berkeley Lab's Genomics Division.

  9. NREL: Energy Analysis - Biomass Technology Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Biomass-fired integrated gasification combined-cycle system using a biomass energy crop Pulverized coal boiler representing an average U.S. coal-fired power plant Cofiring biomass ...

  10. EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline Documents Available for Download EIS-0429: Notice of Intent to Prepare an ...

  11. Advanced Gasificatioin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Gasification Research Team Members Key Contacts Advanced Gasification Carbon feedstock gasification is a promising pathway for high-efficiency, low-pollutant power generation and chemical production. The inability, however, to meet a number of operational goals could create roadblocks to widespread acceptance and commercialization of advanced gasification technologies. We must, for example, achieve gasifier online availability of 85-95 percent in utility applications, and 95 percent for

  12. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  13. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. Improved Advanced Biomass Logistics Utilizing Woody Feedstocks in the Northeast and Pacific Northwest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review March 27, 2015 Technology Area Review Improved Advanced Biomass Logistics Utilizing Woody Feedstocks in the Northeast and Pacific Northwest SUNY-ESF Timothy A. Volk 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Goal Statement * Principal goal is to lower the delivered cost of short rotation woody crops by optimizing a commercial- scale supply system: - $80 Dry Ton total cost to throat of conversion reactor - $50 Dry Ton for all cumulative

  15. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Haldor Topsoe, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Haldor Topsoe, Inc. will integrate the Carbona Gasification and the Haldor Topsoe TIGAS (Topsoe Integrated Gasoline Synthesis) proprietary processes to produce renewable gasoline from woody biomass.

  16. Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Electrical Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Pd Nanoparticles," Nanotechnology, 23, 29404. 34 Presentations * Adhikari, S., C. Brodbeck, S. Taylor. 2012. Biomass gasification for heat and power applications. ...

  17. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  18. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from ...

  19. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  20. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  1. Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

  2. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  3. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  4. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xuemei; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  5. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  8. DOE Selects Projects to Advance Technologies for the Co-Production of Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Hydrogen, Fuels or Chemicals from Coal-Biomass Feedstocks | Department of Energy to Advance Technologies for the Co-Production of Power and Hydrogen, Fuels or Chemicals from Coal-Biomass Feedstocks DOE Selects Projects to Advance Technologies for the Co-Production of Power and Hydrogen, Fuels or Chemicals from Coal-Biomass Feedstocks August 18, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Eight projects that will focus on gasification of coal/biomass to produce synthetic gas (syngas) have been

  9. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  10. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  11. Current Gasification Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    With coal gasification now in modern commercial-scale applications, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy has turned its attention to future gasification concepts that offer...

  12. Gasification | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Gasification The Wabash River Clean Coal Power Plant The Wabash River Clean Coal ... that could reduce NOx from hydrogen fired turbines to as low as 2 parts per million. ...

  13. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  14. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  15. EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Moss Point, MS | Department of Energy 8: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS Documents Available for Download November 12, 2009 EIS-0428: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Construction and Startup of the Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, Mississippi December 1, 2009 EIS-0428:

  16. EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline | Department of Energy 9: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline Documents Available for Download November 12, 2009 EIS-0429: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Construction and Startup of the Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, Indiana December

  17. Chapter 7: Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels | Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics Chapter 7: Technology Assessments Introduction The sustainable supply of quality, cost-effective feedstocks to future biorefineries is fundamental to growing the bioenergy industry. The Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant contributions to ensuring a sustainably supply of biomass. However, the inherently dispersed, highly-variable, aerobically unstable nature of biomass, among other characteristics, are still a challenge. Technologies need to be

  18. Advanced systems demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume II. Technical specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains all of the technical specifications relating to materials and construction of the biomass cogeneration facility in the state of Maine. (DMC)

  19. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-04-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies involving gas solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 9 figures, 19 tables.

  20. Gasification Systems Project Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Syngas Chemical Looping for Hydrogen Production Ohio State University Research Foundation Gasification Systems FE0024068 Increasing the Rate and Extent of Microbial Coal to ...

  1. Bioenergy `96: Partnerships to develop and apply biomass technologies. Volume I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The conference proceedings consist of two volumes of papers detailing numerous issues related to biomass energy production and use. An author and keyword index are provided in the proceedings. A total of 143 papers were selected for the database. Papers were selected from the following areas from Volume 1: feedstock production, harvest, storage, and delivery; the DOE biomass power program; technical, economic, and policy barriers and incentives; new developments in biomass combustion; advancements in biomass gasification; liquid fuels production and use; and case studies of bioenergy projects. From Volume 2, subtopics selected included: bioenergy systems for distributed generation; assessment and use of biomass wastes; non-technical barriers to bioenergy implementation; improving commercial viability through integrated systems; and anaerobic digestion.

  2. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks-From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation farris_biomass_2014.pdf (2.11 MB) More Documents & Publications High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Feedstock Supply and Logistics Feedstock Supply and

  3. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  4. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gary Stiegel

    2010-01-08

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  5. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cafferty, Kara G.; Searcy, Erin M.; Nguyen, Long; Spatari, Sabrina

    2014-11-01

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this

  6. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  7. 2006 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

  8. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Meyer

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy’s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process – High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  9. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  10. Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

    2008-03-01

    Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

  11. Power production from renewable resources in a gasification power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.; Bain, R.

    1996-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The formed coke charges were 11 to 12 charges per hour. This equates to a higher melt rate. A 10 percent increase in cupola production would be a major advantage. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofer, S.S.; Zaborsky, O.R.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  14. Integrated cellulosic enzymes hydrolysis and fermentative advanced yeast bioconversion solution ready for biomass biorefineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  15. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  16. Biostirling({trademark}): A small biomass power conversion system using an advanced stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.; Ziph, B.; McKeough, W.; Houtman, W.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past decade the need for small power conversion systems to serve rural and/or remote needs has increased dramatically. The requirements for systems <100 kW are very similar, whether the need is defined as {open_quotes}rural electrification{close_quotes} in developed countries, or as {open_quotes}village power{close_quotes} in developing countries. The availability of biomass fuel resources to serve such systems is not in doubt, be they agricultural, forestry, animal or urban wastes. The main inhibiting factor has been the absence of a biomass power conversion system characterized by: reliability, cost effectiveness, low pollution, and ease of maintenance. Stirling Thermal Motors of Ann Arbor, Michigan, is recognized as the leader worldwide in the development and application of Stirling engine technology. It is currently demonstrating a {open_quotes}BioStirling({trademark}){close_quotes} Power Conversion System which combines its unique STM4-120 engine rated at 25 kW with a proven commercial gasifier. The BioStirling({trademark}) proof-of-concept demonstration is funded by DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory and is to be completed in late 1996, with field demonstrations in 1997 and commercial availability 1998.

  17. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Phase 2, Final report, May 1, 1983-July 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-09-15

    KRW Energy Systems Inc. is engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized, carbonaceous feedstocks for electrical power generation, substitute natural gas, chemical feedstocks, and industrial fuels. This report covers Phase II of the contract period (May 1, 1983 to July 31, 1984) and is a continuation of the work performed in 1983 and reported in the Phase I final report, FE-19122-30. Included is work performed in fiscal 1983 to 1984 on PDU testing, process analysis, cold flow scaleup facility, process and component engineering and design, and laboratory support studies.

  18. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  19. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-10-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  20. Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas Production of synthesis gas or hydrogen by gasification or pyrolysis of biological feedstocks using solar-thermal energy. University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The invention provides processes that perform biomass gasification or pyrolysis for production of hydrogen, synthesis gas, liquid fuels, or other

  1. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. )

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Gasification offers an efficient approach for producing fuels and products from a wide variety of biomass. The object of this Congressionally-mandated project is to develop an indirectly-heated gasification system (ballasted gasifier) for converting switch grass into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells.

  3. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  4. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  5. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis S. Lau

    2003-09-01

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Natural gas and waste coal fines were evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. A design was developed for a cofiring combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures in a power generation boiler, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. Following the preliminary design, GTI evaluated the gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembled an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test were used to confirm the process design completed in Phase Task 1. As a result of the testing and modeling effort, the selected biomass feedstocks gasified very well, with a carbon conversion of over 98% and individual gas component yields that matched the RENUGAS{reg_sign} model. As a result of this work, the facility appears very attractive from a commercial standpoint. Similar facilities can be profitable if they have access to low cost fuels and have attractive wholesale or retail electrical rates for electricity sales. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. Phase II has not been approved for construction at this time.

  6. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Combustion and Gasification - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management

  7. Gasification Systems Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Publications Table of Contents National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Reports Patents Program Presentations Solicitations Technical Presentations & Papers New program direction concepts are described in a 3-pager Radically Engineered Modular Systems Presentation 2013 Program Plan Technology Readiness Assessment (Comprehensive Report | Overview Report) Video, Images & Photos Closely Aligned Carbon Capture & Storage and Power

  8. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  9. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  10. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  11. Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lignocellulosic Biomass - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  12. A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 21, 2013 Gasification Mike Schultz, PhD., Project PI A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas Project Goal A hybrid biorefinery design that enables the production of jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels from waste biomass System Integration, Optimization and Analysis Integration Gasification & Syngas Conditioning Fermentation & Alcohol Recovery Catalysis Catalysis Gasoline Jet Fuel Diesel Butadiene MEK EtOH 2,3BD Wood Stover Switchgrass Improve Economics and Process

  13. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power

  14. DOE Pens New Agreement with Southern Company to Test Advanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon-Capture & Gasification Technologies | Department of Energy Pens New Agreement with Southern Company to Test Advanced Carbon-Capture & Gasification Technologies DOE Pens New Agreement with Southern Company to Test Advanced Carbon-Capture & Gasification Technologies June 12, 2014 - 12:30pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has signed a new 5-year cooperative agreement with Southern Company to evaluate advanced carbon-capture and gasification

  15. Chapter 7: New Insights into Microbial Strategies for Biomass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of Biomass to Advanced Biofuels Publisher: Amsterdam, Netherlands: ... PHYSICAL, AND ANAYLYTICAL CHEMISTRY biofuels; biomass; cellulases; natural paradigms; ...

  16. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time they’ll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

  17. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight

  18. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  19. Gasification Plant Databases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Databases Welcome to the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory's Gasification Plant Databases Within these databases you will find current publicly available information on proposed projects and projects undergoing construction and initial operation within the United States and worldwide. Currently operating projects are excluded. The data have been compiled here to keep the public informed of the technologies and investments in major industrial coal

  20. Hydropyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

    1992-01-01

    The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experimental runs using the biomass (Poplar wood sawdust) were performed using a tubular reactor of dimensions 1 inch inside diameter and 8 feet long heated at a temperature of 800 C and pressures between 450 and 750 psig. At low heat-up rate the reaction precedes in two steps. First pyrolysis takes place at temperatures of 300 to 400 c and subsequent hydropyrolysis takes place at 700 C and above. This is also confirmed by pressurized thermogravimetric analysis (PTGA). Under conditions of rapid heat-up at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen pressure gasification and hydrogasification of biomass is especially effective in producing carbon monoxide and methane. An overall conversion of 88 to 90 wt % of biomass was obtained. This value is in agreement with the previous work of flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass for rapid heat-up and short residence time. Initial rates of biomass conversion indicate that the rate increases significantly with increase in hydrogen pressure. At 800 C and 755 psig the initial rate of biomass conversion to gases is 0.92 1/min.

  1. Fuel cell power plants using hydrogen from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Lau, F.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses a power generation system that offers high energy efficiency, ultra-clean environmental performance, and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass from agricultural and forestry wastes or dedicated energy farms can be used efficiently for power generation in integrated biomass gasification-fuel cell (IBGFC) systems. The energy efficiency of these systems has been projected to approach 55% or even higher if cogeneration opportunities can be utilized. Such systems, in addition to being ultra-efficient, can boast very low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates, and are essentially CO{sub 2}-neutral. With the mounting concern about greenhouse gas emissions, this approach to renewable energy is very attractive for small distributed generation markets in the US and worldwide. Biomass wastes alone, by current estimates, have the potential to provide as much as 338 GW of electrical power worldwide if utilized in this fashion, and offer the best near- to mid-term market entry opportunities for this technology. Power demand in the US will be driven by the opening of niche markets as a result of deregulation and environmental concerns, and markets in other regions will be driven by economic growth as well. In this paper, the integration of a pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell and expansion turbine bottoming cycle will be presented. Two cycles are suggested: one using conventional technology for biomass drying, feeding, and gasification, and a second, more advanced cycle using wet feeding direct to the gasifier and in-bed steam reforming to boost cycle efficiency and reduce capital costs. Both cycles use state-of-the-art molten carbonate fuel cells with an expansion turbine bottoming cycle. These options are presented along with recommended technical development activities and targets.

  2. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    This is a Congressionally-mandated effort to develop and demonstrate technologies for the conversion of biomass to ethanol in the State of Mississippi.

  3. Biomass Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedstocks to Final Products To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. Advanced biofuels are part of the United States' "all-of-the-above" energy strategy to develop domestic energy resources and win

  4. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  5. Underground gasification of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  6. Acting Biomass Program Manager Dr. Valerie Reed to Host Live Twitter Q&A on Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington, D.C. – On Friday, December 16th, the Energy Department (@energy) will be hosting a live Twitter Q&A on biofuels with Dr. Valerie Reed, Acting Manager of the Biomass Program.

  7. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  8. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume I. Scope and design criteria and project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The information in this document is the result of an intensive engineering effort to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass-fueled boilers in cogeneration applications. This design package is based upon a specific site in the State of Maine. However, the design is generic in nature and could serve as a model for other biomass conversion facilities located anywhere biomass is abundant. The project's purpose and summary information are presented: the plant, its concept of operation; and other overall information are described. The capital cost estimate for the plant, and the basis upon which it was obtained are given; a schedule of key milestones and activities required to construct the plant and put it into operation is presented; and the general findings in areas that affect the viability of the project are discussed. The technical design, biomass study, environmental impact, commercialization, and economic factors are addressed. Each major plant area and the equipment and facilities that each includes are discussed in depth. Some overall plant requirements, including noise control, reliability, maintainability, and safety, are detailed. The results of each study relating to alternatives considered for optimizing plant operation parameters and specific system process schemes are briefly presented. All economic factors that affect the feasibility and viability of the biomass project are defined and evaluated.

  9. Gasification Systems 2013 Project Selections

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy in 2013 selected ten projects that will focus on reducing the cost of gasification with carbon capture for producing electric power, fuels, and chemicals. The projects will...

  10. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  11. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  12. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  13. Design Case Summary. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburg, C.; Zhu, Y.; Walton, C. W.; Thompson, B. L.; Gerber, M. A.; Jones, S. B.; Stevens, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

  14. Biomass Research Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2013-05-28

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  16. Industrial co-generation through use of a medium BTU gas from biomass produced in a high throughput reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Ball, D.A.; Paisley, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A high-throughput gasification system has been developed for the steam gasification of woody biomass to produce a fuel gas with a heating value of 475 to 500 Btu/SCF without using oxygen. Recent developments have focused on the use of bark and sawdust as feedstocks in addition to wood chips and the testing of a new reactor concept, the so-called controlled turbulent zone (CTZ) reactor to increase gas production per unit of wood fed. Operating data from the original gasification system and the CTZ system are used to examine the preliminary economics of biomass gasification/gas turbine cogeneration systems. In addition, a ''generic'' pressurized oxygen-blown gasification system is evaluated. The economics of these gasification systems are compared with a conventional wood boiler/steam turbine cogeneration system.

  17. Biomass 2014 Poster Session

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invites students, researchers, public and private organizations, and members of the general public to submit poster abstracts for consideration for the annual Biomass Conference Poster Session. The Biomass 2014 conference theme focuses on topics that are advancing the growth of the bioeconomy, such as improvements in feedstock logistics; promising, innovative pathways for advanced biofuels; and market-enabling co-products.

  18. June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-15

    Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

  19. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lab Opens the Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit On August 18, 2011, Biomass ... a ribbon-cutting event of the Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit, located at ...

  20. Current Gasification Research | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    improvements in efficiency, fuel flexibility, economics and environmental sustainability. Fuel flexibility is especially important. Tomorrow's gasification plants conceivably could...

  1. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  2. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  3. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  4. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  5. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  6. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

  7. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Carbon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    state- of-the-art (SOTA) technology for coal-fired power generation with CCS. Advanced ... As an example, the Dakota Gasification Company's Great Plains Synfuels Plant in ...

  8. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  9. Biomass and Biofuels Technologies Available for Licensing - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Marketing Summaries (161) Success Stories ...

  10. BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McDaniel

    2002-05-01

    Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

  11. Technical and economic analyses of hydrogen production via indirectly heated gasification and pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-09-01

    Technoeconomic analyses have been conducted on two processes to produce hydrogen from biomass: indirectly-heated gasification of biomass followed by steam reforming of the syngas, and biomass pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. The analysis of the gasification-based process was highly detailed, including a process flowsheet, material and energy balances calculated with a process simulation program, equipment cost estimation, and the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen. The pyrolysis-based process analysis was of a less detailed nature, as all necessary experimental data have not been obtained; this analysis is a follow-up to the preliminary economic analysis presented at the 1994 Hydrogen Program Review. A coproduct option in which pyrolysis oil is used to produce hydrogen and a commercial adhesive was also studied for economic viability. Based on feedstock availability estimates, three plant sizes were studied: 907 T/day, 272 T/day, and 27 T/day. The necessary selling price of hydrogen produced by steam reforming syngas from the Battelle Columbus Laboratories indirectly heated biomass gasifier falls within current market values for the large and medium size plants within a wide range of feedstock costs. Results show that the small scale plant does not produce hydrogen at economically competitive prices, indicating that if gasification is used as the upstream process to produce hydrogen, local refueling stations similar to current gasoline stations, would probably not be feasible.

  12. Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Biomass Program Introduction ... has renewed the urgency for developing sustainable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. ...

  13. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  14. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  15. Advanced clean combustion technology in Shanxi province

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, K.-C.

    2004-07-01

    Biomass energy resources in China are first described, along with biomass gasification R & D now underway. In Shanxi province biomass and other regenerative energy is relatively little used but coal resources are large. Hence Shanxi is mainly developing clean coal technology to meet its economic and environmental protection requirements. Clean combustion research at Taiyuan University of Technology includes cofiring of coal and RDF in FBC, gas purification and adsorption, fundamentals of plasma-aided coal pyrolysis and gasification and coal derived liquid fuels from synthesis gas. 5 refs.

  16. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C. )

    1992-04-01

    Biomass can provide a substantial energy source. Liquids are preferred for use as transportation fuels because of their high energy density and handling ease and safety. Liquid fuel production from biomass can be accomplished by any of several different processes including hydrolysis and fermentation of the carbohydrates to alcohol fuels, thermal gasification and synthesis of alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct extraction of biologically produced hydrocarbons such as seed oils or algae lipids, or direct thermochemical conversion of the biomass to liquids and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. This report discusses direct thermochemical conversion to achieve biomass liquefaction and the requirements for wastewater treatment inherent in such processing. 21 refs.

  17. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (Oct 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.

  18. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  19. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  20. Gasification of chars produced under simulated in situ processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CHARS; GASIFICATION; COAL; PYROLYSIS; IN-SITU GASIFICATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; ...

  1. EIS-0412: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near Beaumont, TX EIS-0412: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near Beaumont, TX February 18, 2009 EIS-0412: ...

  2. Biomass Gasification and Methane Digester Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to be eligible for the exemption, methane digester equipment must be certified by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the farm must be verified as compliant under the Michig...

  3. Assistant Director, Fossil, Transmission, Biomass and Gasification (FTBG)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    **This is an Excepted Service position. This appointment will not confer Competitive Service career-conditional or career tenure status. This means that if you are selected, you would have to...

  4. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    interconnects, 50+ experienced PhDMSBS engineers and operators, 247 operations, Autocad and Aspen Modeling * Pilot plant experience >30,000 hrs Environment and Energy Group ...

  5. Coal gasification players, projects, prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-07-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been running refineries and chemical plants for decades. Power applications have dotted the globe. Two major IGCC demonstration plants operating in the United States since the mid-1900s have helped set the stage for prime time, which is now approaching. Two major reference plant designs are in the wings and at least two major US utilities are poised to build their own IGCC power plants. 2 figs.

  6. Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

    1987-04-01

    Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

  7. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  8. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  9. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  10. Innovative Gasification to Produce Fischer-Tropsch Jet and Diesel Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative Gasification to Produce Fischer- Tropsch Jet and Diesel Fuel March 23, 2015 Jerod Smeenk Frontline BioEnergy, LLC This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 Acronyms and definitions * BP - budget period (i.e., project phase) * BPD - barrel per day * BTL - biomass-to-liquids * F-76 - military spec diesel fuel * FT - Fischer-Tropsch process * IE - independent engineer engaged by the DOE to monitor and review project details *