National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for advanced anl cathode

  1. Advanced Cathode Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ACNT - ACNT-1 - ACNT without nitrogen during synthesis ACNT-2 - nitrogen-incorporated ACNT X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Determining Atomic Structure (Example: ANL) ...

  2. Advanced Cathode Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe Catalysis Working Group Kick-Off ...

  3. Advanced Cathode Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 3lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Catalysts Science ...

  4. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries High Energy Novel Cathode Alloy Automotive Cell Develop & evaluate materials & ...

  5. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress...

  6. Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on advanced cathode catalysts and supports for PEM fuel cells, was given by Mark Debe of 3M at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  7. Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on ...

  8. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy catalysts and supports for PEM fuel cells, was given by Mark Debe of 3M at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_debe_3m.pdf (145.42 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Catalysts Light Weight, Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Stacks Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    catalysts, was given by Piotr Zelenay of Los Alamos National laboratory at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_zelenay_lanl.pdf

  9. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 markovic_anl_kickoff.pdf (4.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cells: Just a Dream - or Future Reality Catalysis Working Group Meeting: January 2015

  10. Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells DE-FG36-07GO17007 Mark K. Debe 3M Company ... for optimized ECSA d) extensive fuel cell performance and durability testing e) ...

  11. ANL Beams and Applications Seminar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Seminar Sponsers AAI ASD ATLAS HEP PHY ANL Beams and Applications Seminar The ANL Beam and Applications Seminar is...

  12. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  13. Unique Carbon-Coated Cathodes Improve Electrical Conductivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Carbon-Coated Cathodes Improve Electrical Conductivity (ANL-IN-09-043) Procedure Using Carbon Precursors Have Proved Superior to Conventional Methods Argonne National...

  14. Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Advanced CFD models for high efficiency compression-ignition engines can be used to show how turbulence-chemistry interactions influence autoignition and combustion. p-19_raja.pdf (381.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet Models: TIF and TPV Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review

  15. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  16. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  17. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  18. Non Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 3anl.pdf More Documents & ...

  19. ANL | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ANL First-of-its-Kind NNSA Capability to Support Study of Materials at Extreme Conditions for Stockpile Stewardship WASHINGTON - A new first-of-its-kind-worldwide research capability will help unravel the mysteries of material behavior at extreme conditions and short time scales in support of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) vital

  20. ANL-FF-262i

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    , v-W&, ANL-FF-262i This document consists of 1 page, No.>f 7 copies. SeriesA. -,-- 22 February 1952 TO; B. Blumenthal Metallurgy From: H, Luetzow Metallurgy Re: HIGH PURITY CRANIUM TO BE ROLLID TO FOIL M r, E. Creutz of the Carnegie Institute of Technology has requested ten square inches of uranium foil 0.1 mil to 1 nil thick., The possibility of pro- ducing foil of this thickness from our foundry's graphite-melted uranium is remote because of the metalIs high carbon content. High purity

  1. High Energy Physics Division, ANL Lattice QCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Physics Division, ANL Lattice QCD in extreme environments D. K. Sinclair (HEP, Argonne) J. B. Kogut (Physics, Illinois) D. ... At large I and high temperature we observe ...

  2. Longitudinal Gradient Dipole Magnet Prototype for APS at ANL

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kashikhin, V. S.; Borland, M.; Chlachidze, G.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; DiMarco, J.; Doose, C. L.; Gardner, T. J.; Harding, D. J.; Jaski, M. S.; et al

    2016-01-26

    We planned an upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The main goal of the upgrade is to improve the storage ring performance based on more advanced optics. One of the key magnet system elements is bending dipole magnets having a field strength change along the electron beam path. Moreover, a prototype of one such longitudinal gradient dipole magnet has been designed, built, and measured in a collaborative effort of ANL and Fermilab. Our paper discusses various magnetic design options, the selected magnet design, and the fabrication technology. The prototype magnet has been measured by rotationalmore » coils, a stretched wire, and a Hall probe. Measurement results are discussed and compared with simulations.« less

  3. Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) A sample of a process to recorddocument CGD activities. Forms are included. Commercial Grade...

  4. Advanced Lithium Battery Cathodes Using Dispersed Carbon Fibers as the Current Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha, Surendra K; Kiggans, Jim; Nanda, Jagjit; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    To fabricate LiFePO4 battery cathodes, highly conductive carbon fibers of 10-20 m in diameter have been used to replace a conventional aluminum (Al) foil current collector. This disperses the current collector throughout the cathode sheet and increases the contact area with the LiFePO4 (LFP) particles. In addition, the usual organic binder plus carbon-black can be replaced by a high temperature binder of <5 weight % carbonized petroleum pitch (P-pitch). Together these replacements increase the specific energy density and energy per unit area of the electrode. Details of the coating procedure, characterization and approach for maximizing the energy density are discussed. In a side-by-side comparison with conventional cathodes sheets of LFP on Al foil, the carbon fiber composite cathodes have a longer cycle life, higher thermal stability, and high capacity utilization with little sacrifice of the rate performance.

  5. presentation_anl-SHORT-aug09

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of magnetic moments of ps states of nuclei far from stability Argonne Workshop: Aug. 8-9,2009 Noémie Benczer-Koller Rutgers University I will not talk about everything, namely: Intermediate Coulomb excitation experiments at MSU with the TF technique Recoil in vacuum (RIV) at ORNL, ANL β-NMR, etc... These require more instrumentation than the experiments I would like to start with, as well as complex calibrations although they are a good option for future experiments.

  6. A User Guide to PARET/ANL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, A. P.; Dionne, B.; Marin-Lafleche, A.; Kalimullah, M.

    2015-01-01

    PARET was originally created in 1969 at what is now Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to analyze reactivity insertion events in research and test reactor cores cooled by light or heavy water, with fuel composed of either plates or pins. The use of PARET is also appropriate for fuel assemblies with curved fuel plates when their radii of curvatures are large with respect to the fuel plate thickness. The PARET/ANL version of the code has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/NNSA, and has been used by the Reactor Conversion Program to determine the expected transient behavior of a large number of reactors. PARET/ANL models the various fueled regions of a reactor core as channels. Each of these channels consists of a single flat fuel plate/pin (including cladding and, optionally, a gap) with water coolant on each side. In slab geometry the coolant channels for a given fuel plate are of identical dimensions (mirror symmetry), but they can be of different thickness in each channel. There can be many channels, but each channel is independent and coupled only through reactivity feedback effects to the whole core. The time-dependent differential equations that represent the system are replaced by an equivalent set of finite-difference equations in space and time, which are integrated numerically. PARET/ANL uses fundamentally the same numerical scheme as RELAP5 for the time-integration of the point-kinetics equations. The one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic model includes temperature-dependent thermal properties of the solid materials, such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity, as well as the transient heat production and heat transfer from the fuel meat to the coolant. Temperature- and pressure-dependent thermal properties of the coolant such as enthalpy, density, thermal conductivity, and viscosity are also used in determining parameters such as friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The code

  7. ANL analysis of ZPPR-13A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, P.J.; Brumbach, S.B.

    1984-08-09

    The ZPPR-13 experiments provide basic physics data for radial heterogeneous LMFBR cores of approximately 700MWe size. Assemblies ZPPR-13A, ZPPR-13B and ZPPR-13C comprised the JUPITER-II cooperative program between the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and PNC of Japan. The measurements were made between August 1982 and April 1984. The core designs and the measurements were planned jointly by the two parties with substantial input from U.S. industrial interests to ensure coverage of the design requirements. This report describes in detail the results of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) analyses of phase 13A.

  8. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  9. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  10. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structural degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.

  11. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structuralmore » degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.« less

  12. Cathodes - Technological review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherkouk, Charaf; Nestler, Tina

    2014-06-16

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) was already used in the first commercialized Li-ion battery by SONY in 1990. Still, it is the most frequently used cathode material nowadays. However, LiCoO{sub 2} is intrinsically unstable in the charged state, especially at elevated temperatures and in the overcharged state causing volume changes and transport limitation for high power batteries. In this paper, some technological aspects with large impact on cell performance from the cathode material point of view will be reviewed. At first it will be focused on the degradation processes and life-time mechanisms of the cathode material LiCoO{sub 2}. Electrochemical and structural results on commercial Li-ion batteries recorded during the cycling will be discussed. Thereafter, advanced nanomaterials for new cathode materials will be presented.

  13. Advancing Internal Combustion Engine Simulations using Sensitivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing Internal Combustion Engine Simulations using Sensitivity Analysis PI Name: Sibendu Som PI Email: ssom@anl.gov Institution: Argonne National Laboratory Allocation Program:...

  14. Advanced Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling | Argonne Leadership...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling PI Name: Paul Fischer PI Email: fischer@mcs.anl.gov ... Advanced simulation is viewed as critical in bringing fast reactor technology to fruition ...

  15. Evaluating the need for a criticality alarm system at ANL-E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washburn, P.; Cohen, A.

    1997-08-01

    Under the current climate of increasing regulation and decreasing budgets, DOE nuclear facilities are forced to become more efficient in operations aimed at satisfying regulatory requirements. Efficiency necessitates increased cooperation between the regulator (DOE) and facility management, and often a mutually agreeable innovative solution. At Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E), one issue that required such an innovative solution and cooperation between contractor and regulator was the determination of whether the risk associated with an inadvertent criticality event justified the purchase and maintenance of a Criticality Alarm System (CAS) meeting ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986 requirements. According to DOE Order 420.1, the need for a CAS is based on the probability of occurrence of a criticality accident. If the probability is <10{sup {minus}6}/yr (i.e., incredible) as determined by {open_quotes}commonly accepted engineering judgement,{close_quotes} then a CAS is not necessary. Installation of a CAS after such a conclusion would be a conservative decision and an unnecessary expense. This paper discusses the use of {open_quotes}commonly accepted engineering judgement{close_quotes} to show that the probability of an inadvertent criticality at a nonreactor nuclear facility (e.g., the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility) is <10{sup {minus}6}/yr. and is therefore an incredible event.

  16. Arc discharge regulation of a megawatt hot cathode bucket ion source for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yahong; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Li Jun; Liang Lizhen; Collaboration: NBI Team

    2012-01-15

    Arc discharge of a hot cathode bucket ion source tends to be unstable what attributes to the filament self-heating and energetic electrons backstreaming from the accelerator. A regulation method, which based on the ion density measurement by a Langmuir probe, is employed for stable arc discharge operation and long pulse ion beam generation. Long pulse arc discharge of 100 s is obtained based on this regulation method of arc power. It establishes a foundation for the long pulse arc discharge of a megawatt ion source, which will be utilized a high power neutral beam injection device.

  17. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R&D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  18. SUSTAINABILITY NEWS ANL Selected as Federal Better Buildings Competition Finalist

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ANL Selected as Federal Better Buildings Competition Finalist Argonne National Laboratory's Building 224 was recently selected as a finalist in the FEMP Better Buildings Federal Award 2013 Competition. Through August 30, 2013, Building 224 will compete against 11 other Federal buildings to see which can reduce its energy use the most from a August 2012 baseline. To see the full list of building finalists visit http://go.usa.gov/g4Hh. Government Procurement Standards Promotes Private Investment

  19. lithium cobalt oxide cathode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium cobalt oxide cathode - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers lithium cobalt oxide cathode Home...

  20. Advanced Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling | Argonne Leadership Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility Temperature distribution illustrating thermal striping in a T-junction. Computed on Intrepid with Nek5000 and visualized on Eureka with VisIt at the ALCF. Paul Fischer (ANL), Aleks Obabko (ANL), and Hank Childs (LBNL) Advanced Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling PI Name: Paul Fischer PI Email: fischer@mcs.anl.gov Institution: Argonne National Laboratory Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 25 Million Year: 2012 Research Domain: Energy Technologies The DOE Nuclear

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - ANL Process Monitoring NEET Webinar.pptx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electrochemical Processing of Used Fuel J. L. Willit (willit@anl.gov) Argonne National Laboratory Introduction Principles followed in establishing the used LWR & FR fuel treatment ...

  2. A user's guide to the PLTEMP/ANL code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalimullah, M.

    2011-07-05

    PLTEMP/ANL V4.1 is a FORTRAN program that obtains a steady-state flow and temperature solution for a nuclear reactor core, or for a single fuel assembly. It is based on an evolutionary sequence of ''PLTEMP'' codes in use at ANL for the past 20 years. Fueled and non-fueled regions are modeled. Each fuel assembly consists of one or more plates or tubes separated by coolant channels. The fuel plates may have one to five layers of different materials, each with heat generation. The width of a fuel plate may be divided into multiple longitudinal stripes, each with its own axial power shape. The temperature solution is effectively 2-dimensional. It begins with a one-dimensional solution across all coolant channels and fuel plates/tubes within a given fuel assembly, at the entrance to the assembly. The temperature solution is repeated for each axial node along the length of the fuel assembly. The geometry may be either slab or radial, corresponding to fuel assemblies made of a series of flat (or slightly curved) plates, or of nested tubes. A variety of thermal-hydraulic correlations are available with which to determine safety margins such as Onset-of-Nucleate boiling (ONB), departure from nucleate boiling (DNB), and onset of flow instability (FI). Coolant properties for either light or heavy water are obtained from FORTRAN functions rather than from tables. The code is intended for thermal-hydraulic analysis of research reactor performance in the sub-cooled boiling regime. Both turbulent and laminar flow regimes can be modeled. Options to calculate both forced flow and natural circulation are available. A general search capability is available (Appendix XII) to greatly reduce the reactor analyst's time.

  3. A User's Guide to the PLTEMP/ANL Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arne P.; Kalimullah, M.

    2015-07-07

    PLTEMP/ANL V4.2 is a FORTRAN program that obtains a steady-state flow and temperature solution for a nuclear reactor core, or for a single fuel assembly. It is based on an evolutionary sequence of ''PLTEMP'' codes in use at ANL for the past 20 years. Fueled and non-fueled regions are modeled. Each fuel assembly consists of one or more plates or tubes separated by coolant channels. The fuel plates may have one to five layers of different materials, each with heat generation. The width of a fuel plate may be divided into multiple longitudinal stripes, each with its own axial power shape. The temperature solution is effectively 2-dimensional. It begins with a one-dimensional solution across all coolant channels and fuel plates/tubes within a given fuel assembly, at the entrance to the assembly. The temperature solution is repeated for each axial node along the length of the fuel assembly. The geometry may be either slab or radial, corresponding to fuel assemblies made of a series of flat (or slightly curved) plates, or of nested tubes. A variety of thermal-hydraulic correlations are available with which to determine safety margins such as Onset-of- Nucleate boiling (ONB), departure from nucleate boiling (DNB), and onset of flow instability (FI). Coolant properties for either light or heavy water are obtained from FORTRAN functions rather than from tables. The code is intended for thermal-hydraulic analysis of research reactor performance in the sub-cooled boiling regime. Both turbulent and laminar flow regimes can be modeled. Options to calculate both forced flow and natural circulation are available. A general search capability is available (Appendix XII) to greatly reduce the reactor analyst’s time.

  4. Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Errion, S.M.; Thommes, M.M. Caruthers, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL (ANL/TM 452) explains how Argonne computer users (with CMS, MVS, or VAX/VMS accounts) can print quality text and graphics on the Apple LaserWriter. Currently, applications at Argonne that are compatible with the Apple LaserWriter include Waterloo Script, CA/ISSCO graphics software (i.e., Cuechart, Tellagraf, and Disspla), SAS/Graph, ANSYS (version 4.2), and some personal computer test and graphics software. This manual does not attempt to cover use of the Apple LaserWriter with other applications, though some information on the handling of PostScript-compatible files may be valid for other applications. Refer to the documentation of those applications to learn how they work with the Apple LaserWriter. Most of the information in this manual applies to the Allied Linotype L300P typesetter in Building 222. However, the typesetter is not a high volume output device and should be used primarily for high quality (1250 and 2500 dots per inch) final copy output for Laboratory publications prior to making printing plates. You should print all drafts and proof pages on LaserWriers or other printers compatible with the PostScript page description language. Consult with Graphic Arts (at extension 2-5603) to determine the availability of the typesetter for printing the final copy of your document or graphics application. Since the Apple LaserWriter itself produces good quality output (300 dots per inch), we expect that most internal documents consisting of test or graphics will continue to be printed at LaserWriters distributed throughout the Laboratory. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: Dunn, Jennifer B. ; James, Christine ; Gaines, L G ; Gallagher, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-09-30 OSTI Identifier: 1172039 Report Number(s): ANL/ESD-14/10 108520 DOE Contract

  6. Sintered wire cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  7. Cathode Coating (IN-09-061) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cathode Coating (IN-09-061) Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> <em>Charge and discharge capacity of pristine, 250&deg;C dry air and 250&deg;C He/5%H<sub>2</sub> heated Li<sub>1.12</sub>Mn<sub>0.55</sub>Ni<sub>0.145</sub>Co<sub>0.1O2</sub>, showing better performance for the material heated with reducing

  8. ANL-14/01 Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ANL-14/01 Surveillance of Site A and Plot M Report for 2013 Environment, Safety, and Quality Assurance Argonne National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Environment, Safety, and Quality Assurance Division Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Bldg. 201 Argonne, IL 60439-4832 www.anl.gov ANL-14/01 Surveillance of Site A and Plot M Report for 2013 by Lawrence P. Moos Environment, Safety, and Quality

  9. Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, D.H.; Bazarov, I.; Dunham, B.; Harkay, K.; Hernandez-Garcia; Legg, R.; Padmore, H.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wan, W.

    2010-05-26

    This paper reviews the requirements and current status of cathodes for accelerator applications, and proposes a research and development plan for advancing cathode technology. Accelerator cathodes need to have long operational lifetimes and produce electron beams with a very low emittance. The two principal emission processes to be considered are thermionic and photoemission with the photocathodes being further subdivided into metal and semi-conductors. Field emission cathodes are not included in this analysis. The thermal emittance is derived and the formulas used to compare the various cathode materials. To date, there is no cathode which provides all the requirements needed for the proposed future light sources. Therefore a three part research plan is described to develop cathodes for these future light source applications.

  10. Assessment of the SE2-ANL code using EBR-II temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.S.; Yacout, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The SE2-ANL code is a modified version of the SUPERENERGY-2 code [1]. This code is used at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to compute the core-wide temperature profiles in Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) cores. The accuracy of this code has recently been tested by comparing the predicted temperatures with measured values in the Experimental Breeder Reactor R (EBR-II). The detailed temperature distributions in two experimental subassemblies and the mixed mean subassembly outlet temperatures were used in this validation study. The SE2-ANL predictions were found to agree well with measured values. It was also found that SE2-ANL yields results with accuracy comparable to the more detailed COBRA-WC [2] calculations at much lower computational cost.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: ANL Vehicle Technologies Analysis Modeling Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Analysis

  12. Using Rhodobacter Bacteria to Express Membrane Proteins (ANL-IN-99-089) -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Using Rhodobacter Bacteria to Express Membrane Proteins (ANL-IN-99-089) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> A strategy to express heterologous membrane proteins by using photosynthetic bacteria</p> A strategy to express heterologous membrane proteins by using photosynthetic bacteria Technology Marketing Summary Cell membranes serve as the

  13. Synthesizing Membrane Proteins Using In Vitro Methodology (ANL-IN-06-099) -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Synthesizing Membrane Proteins Using In Vitro Methodology (ANL-IN-06-099) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Schematic view of the invented method and system</p> Schematic view of the invented method and system Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory have created an in vitro, cell-free system and method for producing several

  14. Planar-focusing cathodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewellen, J. W.; Noonan, J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    Conventional {pi}-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and usually requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design. We have proposed a method for performing emittance compensation using a cathode-region focusing scheme. This technique allows the focusing strength to be adjusted somewhat independently of the on-axis field strength. Beam dynamics calculations indicate performance should be comparable to presently in-use emittance compensation schemes, with a simpler configuration and fewer possibilities for emittance degradation due to the focusing optics. There are several potential difficulties with this approach, including cathode material selection, cathode heating, and peak fields in the gun. We hope to begin experimenting with a cathode of this type in the near future, and several possibilities exist for reducing the peak gradients to more acceptable levels.

  15. Hybrid Radiator-Cooling System (ANL-IN-11-096) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid Radiator-Cooling System (ANL-IN-11-096) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Coolant radiators in highway trucks are designed to transfer maximum heat at a "design condition." The current standard design condition is a fully-loaded truck climbing up Baker Grade on the hottest summer day. The coolant system, including radiator, is sized to remove 100% of the required heat from the engine

  16. CALUTRON CATHODE INTERLOCK CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, L.W.

    1959-05-26

    A circuit arrangement is described which prevents application of the arc voltage to an ion source of a calutron before the cathode has been heated to operating temperature. (T.R.H.)

  17. Applied Cathode Enhancement and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied Cathode Enhancement and Robustness Technologies (ACERT) Team Our project team, a part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) comprised of world leading experts from fields of accelerator design & testing, chemical synthesis of nanomaterials (quantum dots), and shielding application of nanomaterials (graphene and other atomically-thin sheets). Our goal is to develop and demonstrate 'designer' cold cathode electron sources with tunable parameters (bandgap, efficiency, optical

  18. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  19. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Cathode material for lithium batteries A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium ...

  20. Cathode materials review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus Mohanty, Debasish Li, Jianlin Wood, David L.

    2014-06-16

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  1. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment (ANL-IN-07-170)

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-02-07

    Because they grow more quickly than healthy cells, cancer cells are typically a few degrees higher in temperature. This attribute makes it possible to detect cancer cells through thermal imaging. In active thermal imaging, heat or cold is applied to an object and an infrared camera is used to observe the resulting temperature change. For this reason, thermal imaging is helpful in detecting breast cancer and determining skin damage as a result of radiation cancer treatment. A recent...

  2. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANL/Corning/Caterpillar CRADA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  3. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  4. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  5. High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es131_choi_2012_p.pdf (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

  6. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace024_lee_2011_o.pdf (1.73 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANL/Corning/Caterpillar CRADA)

  7. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  8. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  9. JUPITER-II Program: ANL analysis of ZPPR-13A and ZPPR-13B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, P.J.; Brumbach, S.B.

    1984-08-09

    The ZPPR-13 experiments provide basic physics data for radial-heterogeneous LMFBR cores of approximately 700 MWe size. Assemblies ZPPR-13A, ZPPR-13B and ZPPR-13C comprised the JUPITER-II cooperative program between US-DOE and PNC of Japan. The measurements were made between August 1982 and April 1984. This report describes in detail the results of the ANL analyses of phases 13A and 13B/1 and includes preliminary results for the later assemblies of phase 13B. The data were compiled primarily for discussions at the Third Jupiter Analysis Meeting to be held at ANL-West between September 11th and 14th, 1984.

  10. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

    2006-08-01

    Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of

  11. Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301)

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - ANL Process Monitoring NEET Webinar.pptx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrochemical Processing of Used Fuel J. L. Willit (willit@anl.gov) Argonne National Laboratory Introduction Principles followed in establishing the used LWR & FR fuel treatment processes - Industrially practicable and economic - Safeguardable system that meets U.S. non-proliferation objectives - Maximize actinide recovery to maximize resource utilization and enhance repository performance - Encapsulate fission product waste in engineered waste forms that can be disposed in an

  13. ANL-08/04 Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ANL-08/04 Surveillance of Site A and Plot M Report for 2007 Environment, Safety, and Health/Quality Assurance Oversight Division Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor UChicago Argonne, LLC, nor any of their employees or offcers, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  14. DOEIEV.0005/35 ANL-OHS/HP-83403 FORMERLY UTILIZED MEDIAEC SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    p, .' jl&Lj p ' -7 c. .3- 4; .z 1. . . ' 1 DOEIEV.0005/35 ANL-OHS/HP-83403 FORMERLY UTILIZED MEDIAEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CHEMICALS GROUP, OLIN CORPORATION (Formerly Blockson Chemical Company) JOLIET, ILLINOIS March 27,November 28, 1978 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY DIVISION Health Physics Section ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY, ARGONNE, ILLINOIS Operated by THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract W-31-10%Eng-38 ..__^ --

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: ANL IC3P Research Focus on Diagnostic Studies at BNL

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ANL IC3P research focus on diagnostic...

  16. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  17. DOEIEV-0005/39 ANL-OHSIHP-83-101 FORMERLY UTILIZED MED/AEC SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    t ,-?/ . DOEIEV-0005/39 ANL-OHSIHP-83-101 FORMERLY UTILIZED MED/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ALBANY METALLURGICAL RESEARCH CENTER UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES BIOMASS FACILITY AND THE "BACK FORTY" AREA ALBANY, OREGON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY DIVISION pQ^'^'^o,,,oc/c~~ ~Health Physics Section 4,^of, ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY, ARGONNE, ILLINOIS %+Y, ^I~ 60Operated by THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 0t'~ ^ for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under

  18. ANL-10/01 Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ANL-10/01 Surveillance of Site A and Plot M Report for 2009 Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance Division Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also available on paper to the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, for a processing fee, from: U.S. Department of Energy Offce of Scientifc and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone (865) 576-8401 fax (865) 576-5728

  19. DOEIEV-0005/37 ANL=OHS/HP-83406 FORMERLY UTILIZED MEDIAEC SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    //, .<.' I ' 1 TL\ t+, -- DOEIEV-0005/37 ANL=OHS/HP-83406 FORMERLY UTILIZED MEDIAEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE FORMER WATERTOWN ARSENAL PROPERTY SITE 34 AND SITE 41 WATERTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS o\o\-0 G /Q e-+ a+ -? q+ mii ' ( . % QL G+ OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY INViSiON Health Physics Section ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY, ARGONNE, ILLINOIS Operated by THE UNIVERSITY O F CHICAGO for the U. S. DEPARTMENT O F ENERGY under Contract W=314 09.Eng-38 Argonne National

  20. Automated Testing of Supercomputers ANL/ALCF/TM-13/3 Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automated Testing of Supercomputers ANL/ALCF/TM-13/3 Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also available on paper to the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, for a processing fee, from: U.S. Department of Energy Offce of Scientifc and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone (865) 576-8401 fax (865) 576-5728 reports@adonis.osti.gov Disclaimer This report was

  1. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet

  2. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  3. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  4. APS Publications | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Sector(s)CAT(s) beamline(s) where the work was done, and whether or not GUP beam time was used, to apspubs@aps.anl.gov. Reminder for ANL employees: ANL employees are not...

  5. Studies on Oxide Cathode Crystals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 3 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es106_nanda_2013_o.pdf (2.38 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrochemical Modeling of LMR-NMC Materials and Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials

    es069_chen_2011_o.pdf (5.27 MB)

  6. JUPITER-II Program: ANL analysis of ZPPR-13A and ZPPR-13B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, P.J.; Brumbach, S.B.

    1984-08-01

    The ZPPR-13 experiments provide basic physics data for radial heterogeneous LMFBR cores of approximately 700MWe size. Assemblies ZPPR-13A, ZPPR-13B and ZPPR-13A comprised the JUPITER-II cooperative program between the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and PNC of Japan. The measurements were made between August 1982 and April 1984. The core designs and the measurements were planned jointly by the two parties with substantial input from U.S. industrial interests to ensure coverage of the design requirements. This report describes in detail the results of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) analyses of phases 13A and 13B/1 and includes preliminary results for the later assemblies of phase 13B..

  7. Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trapp, D.; Crow, G.

    2011-06-06

    In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs is that the 6CVS credits the inner O-ring seal as the containment boundary while the SRNL design credits the outer O-ring seal. Since the leak test must be done with the inner O-ring in place, the containment vessel does not have a pathway for getting the helium into the vessel during the leak test. The leak testing contractor was not able to get acceptable leak rates with the specified O-ring, but they were able to pass the leak test with a slightly larger O-ring. ANL asked the SRNL to duplicate the leak test vendor's method to determine the cause of the high leak rates. The SRNL testing showed that the helium leak indications were caused by residual helium left within the 6CVS Closure Assembly by the leak test technique, and by helium permeation through the Viton O-ring seals. After SRNL completed their tests, the leak testing contractor was able to measure acceptable leak rates by using the slightly larger O-ring size, by purging helium from the lid threads, and by being very quick in getting the bell jar under a full vacuum. This paper describes the leak test vendor's test technique, and other techniques that could be have been used to successfully leak test the 6CVS's.

  8. CCD detector development projects by the beamline technical support group at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. H.; Fernandez, P.; Madden, T.; Molitsky, M.; Weizeorick, J.

    2007-11-11

    This paper will describe two ongoing detector projects being developed by the Beamline Technical Support Group at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The first project is the design and construction of two detectors: a single-CCD system and a two-by-two Mosaic CCD camera for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Both of these systems utilize the Kodak KAF-4320E CCD coupled to fiber optic tapers, custom mechanical hardware, electronics, and software developed at ANL. The second project is a Fast-CCD (FCCD) detector being developed in a collaboration between ANL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This detector will use ANL-designed readout electronics and a custom LBNL-designed CCD, with 480 x 480 pixels and 96 outputs, giving very fast readout.

  9. Magnetic-cusp, cathodic-arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic-cusp for a cathodic-arc source wherein the arc is confined to the desired cathode surface, provides a current path for electrons from the cathode to the anode, and utilizes electric and magnetic fields to guide ions from the cathode to a point of use, such as substrates to be coated. The magnetic-cusp insures arc stability by an easy magnetic path from anode to cathode, while the straight-through arrangement leads to high ion transmission.

  10. Operation of thoriated tungsten cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J.E. )

    1993-01-20

    The operating temperature of thoriated tungsten cathodes used in electric thrusters depends on the surface coverage of thorium, which is determined by a balance of rate processes which supply and deplete the surface layer. The fundamental processes and rates are first reviewed in detail, then a phenomenological model based on these rate processes is described. The model indicates that the thermionic emission capabilities of thoriated tungsten cathodes decay rapidly because of thorium depletion at temperatures encountered in electric thrusters.

  11. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  12. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denny, Edward C.

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  13. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    49thackeray2011o.pdf (1.66 MB) More Documents & Publications Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Layered Cathode Materials

  14. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode ...

  15. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles Pilot Program...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Use: Simple Website: www.transportation.anl.govmodelingsimulationAirCredindex.html Web Application Link: www.transportation.anl.govmodelingsimulation...

  16. High Current Density, Long Life Cathodes for High Power RF Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Collins, George; Falce, Lou; Schwartzkopf, Steve; Busbaher, Daniel

    2014-01-22

    This program was tasked with improving the quality and expanding applications for Controlled Porosity Reservoir (CPR) cathodes. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) initially developed CPR cathodes on a DOE-funded SBIR program to improve cathodes for magnetron injection guns. Subsequent funding was received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program developed design requirements for implementation of the technology into high current density cathodes for high frequency applications. During Phase I of this program, CCR was awarded the prestigious 2011 R&D100 award for this technology. Subsequently, the technology was presented at numerous technical conferences. A patent was issued for the technology in 2009. These cathodes are now marketed by Semicon Associates, Inc. in Lexington, KY. They are the world’s largest producer of cathodes for vacuum electron devices. During this program, CCR teamed with Semicon Associates, Inc. and Ron Witherspoon, Inc. to improve the fabrication processes and expand applications for the cathodes. Specific fabrications issues included the quality of the wire winding that provides the basic structure and the sintering to bond the wires into a robust, cohesive structure. The program also developed improved techniques for integrating the resulting material into cathodes for electron guns.

  17. High power test results of the first SRRC/ANL high current L-band RF gun.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. H.

    1998-09-11

    A joint program is underway between the SRRC (Synchrotrons Radiation Research Center, Taiwan) and ANL (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) for developing a high current L-band photocathode rf guns. We have constructed an L-Band (1.3 Ghz), single cell rf photocathode gun and conducted low power tests at SRRC. High power rf conditioning of the cavity has been completed at ANL. In this paper we report on the construction and high power test results. So far we have been able to achieve > 120 MV/m axial electric field with minimal dark current. This gun will be used to replace the AWA (Argonne Wakefield Accelerator)[l] high current gun.

  18. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  19. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  20. Dual-porosity ribbed fuel cell cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Richard; Yuh, Chao-Yi; Alexander, Michael

    2005-05-10

    A fuel cell cathode comprising a cathode body having rib regions and base regions which connect the rib regions, the rib regions being of greater thickness and of less porosity than the base regions.

  1. Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Beck, Theodore R.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2003-07-16

    Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

  2. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, Lars D.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  3. Fluoride based cathodes and electrolytes for high energy thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briscoe, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A research and development program is being conducted at the Saft Advanced Technologies Division in Hunt Valley, MD to double the energy density of a thermal battery. A study of high voltage cathodes to replace iron disulfide is in progress. Single cells are being studied with a lithium anode and either a copper(II) fluoride, silver(II) fluoride, or iron(III) fluoride cathode. Due to the high reactivity of these cathodes, conventional alkali metal chloride and bromide salt electrolytes must be replaced by alkali metal fluoride electrolytes. Parametric studies using design-of-experiments matrices will be performed so that the best cathode for an improved battery design can be selected. Titanium hardware for the design will provide a higher strength to weight ratio with lower emissivity than conventional stainless steel. The battery will consist of two power sections. The goals are battery activation in less than 0.2 s, 88 Wh/kg, 1,385 W/kg, and 179 Wh/L over an environmental temperature range of {minus}40 C to +70 C.

  4. High-emission cold cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mancebo, L.

    1974-01-29

    A field-emission cathode having a multitude of field emission points for emitting a copious stream of electrons when subjected to a high field is described. The cathode is constructed by compressing a multitude of tungsten strips alternately arranged with molybdenum strips and copper ribbons or compressing alternately arranged copper plated tungsten and molybdenum strips, heating the arrangement to braze the tungsten and molybdenum strips together with the copper, machining and grinding the exposed strip edges of one side of the brazed arrangement to obtain a precisely planar surface, etching a portion of the molybdenum and copper to leave the edges of the tungsten strips protruding for electron emission, and subjecting the protruding edges of the tungsten strips to a high electric field to degas and roughen the surface to pnovide a large number of emitting points. The resulting structure is particularly useful as a cathode in a transversely excited gaseous laser where the cathode is mounted in a vacuum chamber for emitting electrons under the influence of a high electric field between the cathode and an extractor grid. The electrons pass through the extractor grid, a thin window in the wall of the laser chamber and into the laser chamber which is filled with a gaseous mixture of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. A second grid is mounted on the gaseous side of the window. The electrons pass into the laser chamber under the influence of a second electric field between the second grid and an anode in the laser chamber to raise selected gas atoms of the gaseous mixture to appropriately excited states so that a subsequent coherent light beam passing through the mixture transversely to the electron stream through windows in opposite ends of the laser chamber stimulates the excited atoms to amplify the beam. (Official Gazette)

  5. Accelerator Operations and Physics - Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soliday@aps.anl.gov Lee Teng Physicist, Argonne Emeritus Scientist teng@aps.anl.gov Marion White Senior Physicist mwhite@aps.anl.gov Aimin Xiao Physicist, Deputy Storage Ring...

  6. Magnetic-cusp, cathodic-arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.

    1995-11-21

    A magnetic-cusp for a cathodic-arc source wherein the arc is confined to the desired cathode surface, provides a current path for electrons from the cathode to the anode, and utilizes electric and magnetic fields to guide ions from the cathode to a point of use, such as substrates to be coated. The magnetic-cusp insures arc stability by an easy magnetic path from anode to cathode, while the straight-through arrangement leads to high ion transmission. 3 figs.

  7. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  8. Argonne National Laboratory Partners with Advanced Magnet Lab to Develop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    First Fully Superconducting Direct-Drive Generator | Department of Energy Partners with Advanced Magnet Lab to Develop First Fully Superconducting Direct-Drive Generator Argonne National Laboratory Partners with Advanced Magnet Lab to Develop First Fully Superconducting Direct-Drive Generator December 19, 2011 - 9:24am Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The Department of Energy (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advancements in Fuel Spray

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Combustion Modeling with High Performance Computing Resources | Department of Energy Advancements in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling with High Performance Computing Resources Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advancements in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling with High Performance Computing Resources Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer

  10. Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Dong; Liu, Mingfei; Lai, Samson; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Meilin

    2012-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to systematically characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF, aiming to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating. The understanding gained will help us to optimize the composition and morphology of the catalyst layer and microstructure of the LSCF backbone for better performance. More specifically, the technical objectives include: (1) to characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF; (2) to characterize the microscopic details and stability of the LSCF-catalyst (e.g., LSM) interfaces; (3) to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating; and (4) to demonstrate that the performance and stability of porous LSCF cathodes can be enhanced by the application of a thin-film coating of LSM through a solution infiltration process in small homemade button cells and in commercially available cells of larger dimension. We have successfully developed dense, conformal LSM films with desired structure, composition, morphology, and thickness on the LSCF surfaces by two different infiltration processes: a non-aqueous and a water-based sol-gel process. It is demonstrated that the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes can be improved by the introduction of a thin-film LSM coating through an infiltration process. Surface and interface of the LSM-coated LSCF cathode were systematically characterized using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM observation suggests that a layer of La and Sr oxide was formed on LSCF surfaces after annealing. With LSM infiltration, in contrast, we no longer observe such La/Sr oxide layer on the LSM-coated LSCF samples after annealing under similar

  11. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  12. Nickel-titanium-phosphate cathodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-16

    Cathode materials having an improved electronic conductivity allowing for faster kinetics in the electrochemical reaction, as well as higher conductivity to meet the power requirements for many consumer applications, especially at low temperatures. The cathode material comprises a compound from the family of compounds where the basic unit is generally represented by Li.sub.xNi.sub.0.5TiOPO.sub.4. The structure of Li.sub.xNi.sub.0.5TiOPO.sub.4 includes corner sharing octahedra [TiO.sub.6] running along the C-axis. The structure is such that nearly three Li atoms are being inserted in Li.sub.xNi.sub.0.5TiOPO.sub.4. A cell in accordance with the principles of the present invention is rechargable and demonstrates a high capacity of lithium intercalation and fast kinetics.

  13. Pyrite cathode material for a thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, J.P.; Litchfield, J.K.

    1991-02-07

    The present invention relates in general to a synthetic cathode material for a molten salt battery and, more particularly, to a process of providing and using synthetic pyrite for use as a cathode in a thermal battery. These batteries, which have been successfully used in a number of military applications, include iron disulfide cathode material obtained as benefacted or from natural occurring pyrite deposits, or as a byproduct of flotation concentrate from the processing of base or noble metal ores.

  14. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  15. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies Brookhaven ... activation of the cell of a lithium battery having a primary metal sulfide additive ...

  16. Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  17. Layered Nickel Oxide-Based Cathodes for Lithium Cells: Analysis ofPerformance Loss Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlau, Marie; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Cairns, Elton J.

    2004-10-01

    Spectroscopic and electrochemical diagnostic measurements are reported for the cell components of a Generation 2 (Gen 2) Li-Ion cell from the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project. The cells are composed of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} positive electrodes (cathode), carbon graphite anodes and electrolyte consisting of 1.2 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC:EMC 3:7. Fluorophosphates were observed by {sup 19}F and {sup 31}P NMR in the electrolyte obtained from a Gen 2 cell aged 72 weeks at 45 C and presenting 50% power fade. These electrolyte decomposition products were also observed by {sup 31}P solid-state NMR on the surface of the cathode of the same cell. Samples were cut from the aged cathode from the original cell, subjected to different treatments (ultrasonic washing in anhydrous DMC, pressing, ultrasonic washing and pressing), and subsequently reassembled into small lab cells for electrochemical characterization. These treatments recovered the capacity of the electrodes to within a few percent of the original value, with the most improvement being obtained with the washed and pressed cathode. The impedance of the cathodes was also lowered after the ultrasonic washing and pressing treatments. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrasonic washing of the aged Gen 2 cathode material resulted in the removal of small particles covering the surface of the active cathode. These findings are interpreted in terms of a model whereby capacity loss, and thus power capability, is restored by removing the fluorophosphate deposit and restoring electronic contact to the active cathode material.

  18. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; James, Christine; Gaines, Linda; Gallagher, Kevin; Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  19. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High ...

  20. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes Design and ...

  1. Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen Doping in LithiumSulfur ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode ...

  2. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density Prev Next Title: Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high...

  3. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and surface effects from diamond cathodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes Authors: Dimitrov D. ...

  4. Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit ...

  5. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  6. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    -power lithium-ion battery cathode needed for advanced EV and HEVs. Several technical advancements will still be required to meet this goal, and are likely topics for future SBIR feasibility studies.

  7. Verification and Validation of the PLTEMP/ANL Code for Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Experimental and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalimullah, M.; Olson, Arne P.; Feldman, E. E.; Hanan, N.; Dionne, B.

    2015-04-07

    The document compiles in a single volume several verification and validation works done for the PLTEMP/ANL code during the years of its development and improvement. Some works that are available in the open literature are simply referenced at the outset, and are not included in the document. PLTEMP has been used in conversion safety analysis reports of several US and foreign research reactors that have been licensed and converted. A list of such reactors is given. Each chapter of the document deals with the verification or validation of a specific model. The model verification is usually done by comparing the code with hand calculation, Microsoft spreadsheet calculation, or Mathematica calculation. The model validation is done by comparing the code with experimental data or a more validated code like the RELAP5 code.

  8. Cathode for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Gruzalski, Greg R.; Luck, Christopher F.

    2001-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  9. An ultrafast electron microscope gun driven by two-photon photoemission from a nanotip cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bormann, Reiner; Strauch, Stefanie; Schäfer, Sascha Ropers, Claus

    2015-11-07

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the performance of an advanced ultrafast electron source, based on two-photon photoemission from a tungsten needle cathode incorporated in an electron microscope gun geometry. Emission properties are characterized as a function of the electrostatic gun settings, and operating conditions leading to laser-triggered electron beams of very low emittance (below 20 nm mrad) are identified. The results highlight the excellent suitability of optically driven nano-cathodes for the further development of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Cathode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Mrazek, Franklin C.

    1990-01-01

    A porous sintered cathode for a molten carbonate fuel cell and method of making same, the cathode including a skeletal structure of a first electronically conductive material slightly soluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell covered by fine particles of a second material of possibly lesser electronic conductivity insoluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell, the cathode having a porosity in the range of from about 60% to about 70% at steady-state cell operating conditions consisting of both macro-pores and micro-pores.

  11. Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Yoshi; Skotheim, Terje A.; Lee, Hung S.

    1995-08-15

    The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS.sub.x).sub.n, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode.

  12. Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Y.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.

    1995-08-15

    The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS{sub x}){sub n}, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode. 5 figs.

  13. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CATHODES; ELECTRODES; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; ELEMENTS; INFRARED RADIATION; INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; METALS; RADIATIONS; SPECTRA; SPECTROMETERS; ...

  14. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  15. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material. Inventors: Park, Sang-Ho ; Amine, Khalil Issue Date: 2015-01-13 ...

  16. High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Shelly X.

    2010-06-29

    A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.

  17. Process Development and Scale-up of Advanced Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Process Development and Scale-up of Advanced Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  20. Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Cathodic protection of storage field well casings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    Downhole logging of gas storage field wells to determine cathodic protection (CP) levels is expensive and requires removing the well from service. A technique allowing the prediction of downhole CP levels by modeling combined with limiting field measurements would provide the industry with a cost-effective means of implementing and monitoring casing protection. A computer model has been developed for a cathodically protected well casing.

  2. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  3. Plasma processes inside dispenser hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2006-06-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma and neutral gas inside dispenser orificed hollow cathodes has been developed to quantify plasma processes that ultimately determine the life of the porous emitters inserted in these devices. The model self-consistently accounts for electron emission from the insert as well as for electron and ion flux losses from the plasma. Two cathodes, which are distinctively different in size and operating conditions, have been simulated numerically. It is found that the larger cathode, with outer tube diameter of 1.5 cm and orifice diameter of 0.3 cm, establishes an effective emission zone that spans approximately the full length of the emitter when operated at a discharge current of 25 A and a flow rate of 5.5 sccm. The net heating of the emitter is caused by ions that are produced by ionization of the neutral gas inside the tube and are then accelerated by the sheath along the emitter. The smaller cathode, with an outer diameter of 0.635 cm and an orifice diameter of 0.1 cm, does not exhibit the same operational characteristics. At a flow rate of 4.25 sccm and discharge current of 12 A, the smaller cathode requires 4.5 times the current density near the orifice and operates with more than 6 times the neutral particle density compared to the large cathode. As a result, the plasma particle density is almost one order of magnitude higher compared to the large cathode. The plasma density in this small cathode is high enough such that the Debye length is sufficiently small to allow 'sheath funneling' into the pores of the emitter. By accessing areas deeper into the insert material, it is postulated that the overall emission of electrons is significantly enhanced. The maximum emission current density is found to be about 1 A/mm{sup 2} in the small cathode, which is about one order of magnitude higher than attained in the large cathode. The effective emission zone in the small cathode extends to about 15% of the emitter length only, and

  4. 2013 Estorm - Invited Paper - Cathode Materials Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus; Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403 431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783 789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  5. Improved cathode materials for microbial electrosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T; Nie, HR; Bain, TS; Lu, HY; Cui, MM; Snoeyenbos-West, OL; Franks, AE; Nevin, KP; Russell, TP; Lovley, DR

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis is a promising strategy for the microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels and other organic commodities, but optimization of this process is required for commercialization. Cathodes which enhance electrode-microbe electron transfer might improve rates of product formation. To evaluate this possibility, biofilms of Sporomusa ovata, which are effective in acetate electrosynthesis, were grown on a range of cathode materials and acetate production was monitored over time. Modifications of carbon cloth that resulted in a positive-charge enhanced microbial electrosynthesis. Functionalization with chitosan or cyanuric chloride increased acetate production rates 6-7 fold and modification with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane gave rates 3-fold higher than untreated controls. A 3-fold increase in electrosynthesis over untreated carbon cloth cathodes was also achieved with polyaniline cathodes. However, not all strategies to provide positively charged surfaces were successful, as treatment of carbon cloth with melamine or ammonia gas did not stimulate acetate electrosynthesis. Treating carbon cloth with metal, in particular gold, palladium, or nickel nanoparticles, also promoted electrosynthesis, yielding electrosynthesis rates that were 6-,4.7- or 4.5-fold faster than the untreated control, respectively. Cathodes comprised of cotton or polyester fabric treated with carbon nanotubes yielded cathodes that supported acetate electrosynthesis rates that were similar to 3-fold higher than carbon cloth controls. Recovery of electrons consumed in acetate was similar to 80% for all materials. The results demonstrate that one approach to increase rates of carbon dioxide reduction in microbial electrosynthesis is to modify cathode surfaces to improve microbe-electrode interactions.

  6. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  7. Field free, directly heated lanthanum boride cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Moussa, David; Wilde, Stephen B.

    1991-01-01

    A directly heated cylindrical lanthanum boride cathode assembly is disclosed which minimizes generation of magnetic fields which would interfere with electron emission from the cathode. The cathode assembly comprises a lanthanum boride cylinder in electrical contact at one end with a central support shaft which functions as one electrode to carry current to the lanthanum boride cylinder and in electrical contact, at its opposite end with a second electrode which is coaxially position around the central support shaft so that magnetic fields generated by heater current flowing in one direction through the central support shaft are cancelled by an opposite magnetic field generated by current flowing through the lanthanum boride cylinder and the coaxial electrode in a direction opposite to the current flow in the central shaft.

  8. Field free, directly heated lanthanum boride cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Moussa, D.; Wilde, S.B.

    1987-02-02

    A directly heated cylindrical lanthanum boride cathode assembly is disclosed which minimizes generation of magnetic field which would interfere with electron emission from the cathode. The cathode assembly comprises a lanthanum boride cylinder in electrical contact at one end with a central support shaft which functions as one electrode to carry current to the lanthanum boride cylinder and in electrical contact, at its opposite end with a second electrode which is coaxially position around the central support shaft so that magnetic fields generated by heater current flowing in one direction through the central support shaft are cancelled by an opposite magnetic field generated by current flowing through the lanthanum boride cylinder and the coaxial electrode in a direction opposite to the current flow in the central shaft.

  9. Synchrotron Investigations of SOFC Cathode Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2013-09-30

    The atomic variations occurring in cathode/electrolyte interface regions of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-?} (LSCF) cathodes and other SOFC related materials have been investigated and characterized using soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse soft X-ray Resonant Scattering (XRS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region (soft XAS) is shown to be a sensitive technique to quantify the disruption that occurs and can be used to suggest a concrete mechanism for the degradation. For LSC, LSF, and LSCF films, a significant degradation mechanism is shown to be Sr out-diffusion. By using the XAS spectra of hexavalent Cr in SrCrO4 and trivalent Cr in Cr2O3, the driving factor for Sr segregation was identified to be the oxygen vacancy concentration at the anode and cathode side of of symmetric LSCF/GDC/LSCF heterostructures. This is direct evidence of vacancy induced cation diffusion and is shown to be a significant indicator of cathode/electrolyte interfacial degradation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the occupation of the A-sites and B-sites for LSC, LSF, and LSCF cathodes doped with other transition metals, including doping induced migration of Sr to the anti-site for Sr, a significant cathode degradation indicator. By using spatially resolved valence mapping of Co, a complete picture of the surface electrochemistry can be determined. This is especially important in identifying degradation phenomena where the degradation is spatially localized to the extremities of the electrochemistry and not the average. For samples that have electrochemical parameters that are measured to be spatially uniform, the Co valence modifications were correlated to the effects of current density, overpotential, and humidity.

  10. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-03-09

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function value). We

  11. High energy density battery with cathode composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalewajek, D.; Eibeck, R. E.; Sukornick, B.

    1985-10-22

    A cell which employs an active metal anode such as lithium and a liquid organic electrolyte that is improved by the use of a cathode comprised of carbon fluoride chloride is described. The cathode comprises a carbon fluoride chloride of the general formula (C /SUB y/ F /SUB x/ Cl /SUB z/ ) /SUB n/ wherein y is 1 to 2, x is greater than 0 to 1.2, z is less than or equal to0.1 and n defines the number of repeating units occurring in the carbon fluoride chloride molecule of high molecular weight. The resulting battery has improved discharge and shelf-life characteristics.

  12. Cathodic protection of pipelines in discontinuous permafrost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, C.J.; Wright, M.D.; Waslen, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the challenges in providing cathodic protection for a pipeline located in an area with discontinuous permafrost. Specific challenges included: unknown time for the permafrost to melt out, unpredictable current distribution characteristics and wet, inaccessible terrain. Based on preliminary pipe-to-soil data, it appears that cathodic protection coverage was achieved in discontinuous permafrost regions without the need of local anodes. Future work is required to verify whether this conclusion can be extended over the course of an annual freeze-thaw cycle.

  13. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  14. EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric Vehicles EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric Vehicles August 13, 2015 - ...

  15. Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts This presentation, which focuses on non-platinum bimetallic cathode electrocatalysts, was given by Debbie Myers of Argonne National Laboratory at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_myers_argonne.pdf (1.74 MB) More Documents & Publications Non Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts Catalysis Working Group Meeting: June 2015 Catalysis Working Group Meeting: January

  16. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Dischargin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating does not hinder battery ...

  17. Reproducible cold fusion reaction using a complex cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arata, Y.; Zhang, Y.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses a new complex cathode which was developed, consisting of a nickel (or palladium) rod with a palladium layer applied by plasma spraying. High reproducibility of a cold fusion reaction is confirmed by using this cathode. The palladium layer activates the surface functions of the deuterated cathode, and reliable evidence is obtained that a new type of heat generation occurred in the complex cathode.

  18. Cathodic protection of wastewater treatment equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, P.

    1984-05-01

    The galvanic couple between the rebar and the structure is the major factor influencing corrosion in a concrete reinforced basin. Cathodic protection anodes coupled closely to the protected structure will provide the most uniform current distribution without stressing the coating. IR drop-free potential measurements should not be used to monitor potentials.

  19. Cathodic protection of pipelines in discontinuous permafrost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, C.J.; Wright, M.D.; Waslen, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    There are many unknowns and challenges in providing cathodic protection (CP) for a pipeline located in discontinuous permafrost areas. Preliminary pipe-to-soil data indicates that CP coverage was achieved in these regions without needing local anodes. Work is required to verify whether this conclusion can be extended over the course of an annual freeze-thaw cycle.

  20. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-03-29

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of LSC (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2CoO.sub.3) and lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1).

  1. Carbon-containing cathodes for enhanced electron emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, Renyu; Pan, Lawrence; Vergara, German; Fox, Ciaran

    2000-01-01

    A cathode has electropositive atoms directly bonded to a carbon-containing substrate. Preferably, the substrate comprises diamond or diamond-like (sp.sup.3) carbon, and the electropositive atoms are Cs. The cathode displays superior efficiency and durability. In one embodiment, the cathode has a negative electron affinity (NEA). The cathode can be used for field emission, thermionic emission, or photoemission. Upon exposure to air or oxygen, the cathode performance can be restored by annealing or other methods. Applications include detectors, electron multipliers, sensors, imaging systems, and displays, particularly flat panel displays.

  2. ANL/NDH-111

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... ANLNDM-76 Alan B. Smith and Peter T. Guenther, Scattering of Fast Neutrons from Elemental Molybdenum, November 1982. ANLNDM-77 Donald L. Smith, A Least-squares Method for ...

  3. ANL News 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behaves in simulant agent, a chemical that structurally resembles mustard but lacks its toxic properties. The goal is to find disposal methods that do not release toxic mercury to...

  4. tracc.anl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About TRACC Article Count: 10 TRACC Article Count: 22 CFD Article Count: 24 CSM Article Count: 15 TRAFFIC Article Count: 49 Collaboration Article Count: 4 Computing Article Count: 4 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Article Count: 2 Polaris Article Count: 2 Blog Article Count: 1

  5. Cathode scraper system and method of using the same for removing uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2015-02-03

    Embodiments include a cathode scraper system and/or method of using the same for removing uranium. The cathode scraper system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly includes a plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper system also includes a cathode scraper assembly configured to remove purified uranium deposited on the plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper assembly includes a plurality of scrapers arranged in a lattice, and each scraper of the plurality of scrapers is arranged to correspond to a different cathode rod.

  6. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  7. Contacts | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (on-call pager) From on-site phone: 2-0101 General Inquiries & Media Contact Rick Fenner fenner@aps.anl.gov 630-252-5280 Important Numbers Off-hour access: 630-252-0101 Safety...

  8. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  9. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2014-05-14

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice

  10. Overview of 2007 ANL progress for conversion of HEU- based Mo-99 production as part of the U.S. global threat reduction--conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandegrift, George F.; Bakel, Allen J.; Thomas, Justin W.

    2008-07-15

    ANL effort is divided into five areas: (1) cooperation with Argentina to demonstrate the use of LEU-foil targets in alkaline-based processes, (2) cooperation with Indonesia in converting their HEU-based Cintichem process to LEU-foil targets, (3) technical assistance to two potential U.S. domestic suppliers (MURR and BWTX), (4) responding to the National Academies Study, and (5) participation in the IAEA CRP for Indigenous Mo-99 production. This paper presents highlights of these activities. A short description of how the dose emitted by spent HEU target material compared to spent fuel is also included. (author)

  11. Overview of 2007 ANL progress for conversion of HEU-based Mo-99 production as part of the U.S. Global Threat Reduction--Conversion program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Bakel, A. J.; Thomas, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    ANL effort is divided into five areas: (1) cooperation with Argentina to demonstrate the use of LEU-foil targets in alkaline-based processes, (2) cooperation with Indonesia in converting their HEU-based Cintichem process to LEU-foil targets, (3) technical assistance to two potential U.S. domestic suppliers (MURR and BWTX), (4) responding to the National Academies Study, and (5) participation in the IAEA CRP for Indigenous Mo-99 production. This paper presents highlights of these activities. A short description of how the dose emitted by spent HEU target material compared to spent fuel is also included.

  12. Spinel compounds as multivalent battery cathodes: A systematic evaluation based on ab initio calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Miao; Rong, Ziqin; Malik, Rahul; Canepa, Pieremanuele; Jain, Anubhav; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.

    2014-12-16

    In this study, batteries that shuttle multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions are promising candidates for achieving higher energy density than available with current Li-ion technology. Finding electrode materials that reversibly store and release these multivalent cations is considered a major challenge for enabling such multivalent battery technology. In this paper, we use recent advances in high-throughput first-principles calculations to systematically evaluate the performance of compounds with the spinel structure as multivalent intercalation cathode materials, spanning a matrix of five different intercalating ions and seven transition metal redox active cations. We estimate the insertion voltage, capacity, thermodynamic stabilitymore » of charged and discharged states, as well as the intercalating ion mobility and use these properties to evaluate promising directions. Our calculations indicate that the Mn2O4 spinel phase based on Mg and Ca are feasible cathode materials. In general, we find that multivalent cathodes exhibit lower voltages compared to Li cathodes; the voltages of Ca spinels are ~0.2 V higher than those of Mg compounds (versus their corresponding metals), and the voltages of Mg compounds are ~1.4 V higher than Zn compounds; consequently, Ca and Mg spinels exhibit the highest energy densities amongst all the multivalent cation species. The activation barrier for the Al³⁺ ion migration in the Mn₂O₄ spinel is very high (~1400 meV for Al3+ in the dilute limit); thus, the use of an Al based Mn spinel intercalation cathode is unlikely. Amongst the choice of transition metals, Mn-based spinel structures rank highest when balancing all the considered properties.« less

  13. In situ acquisition of cathodic protection parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baptista, W.; Costa, J.C.M. da

    1997-01-01

    Present, offshore cathodic protection (CP) design in Brazil uses parameters found in the literature and in international norms, such as: initial and average current density, coating efficiency, leaked current at the buried part of the wet Xmas tree, etc. Five data acquisition systems (DAS) were launched at the Campos Basin water in depths of 102, 290, and 975 m. The DASs were recovered after 8, 11, and 14 months, respectively. Adequate methods of data processing guaranteed the acquisition of reliable parameters for use in CP projects in seawater: initial and average current densities, anode current capacity, and polarization curves at several time intervals. The potential of {minus}800 mV{sub Ag/AgCl} is generally accepted as norm for carbon steel protection in seawater. The cathodic current density necessary to obtain this potential is extremely dependent upon environmental conditions, and the geometry and superficial condition of the submerged steel structure.

  14. Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode pockels cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating. pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal.

  15. Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode Pockels cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, M.A.

    1995-04-25

    Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal. 5 figs.

  16. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CATHODE CONTACT MATERIAL DENSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeppel, Brian J.; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-11-01

    Numerical modeling was used to simulate the constrained sintering process of the cathode contact layer during assembly of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A finite element model based on the continuum theory for sintering of porous bodies was developed and used to investigate candidate low-temperature cathode contact materials. Constitutive parameters for various contact materials under investigation were estimated from dilatometry screening tests, and the influence of processing time, processing temperature, initial grain size, and applied compressive stress on the free sintering response was predicted for selected candidate materials. The densification behavior and generated stresses within a 5-cell planar SOFC stack during sintering, high temperature operation, and room temperature shutdown were predicted. Insufficient constrained densification was observed in the stack at the proposed heat treatment, but beneficial effects of reduced grain size, compressive stack preload, and reduced thermal expansion coefficient on the contact layer densification and stresses were observed.

  17. Monitoring cathodic protection of well casings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Because conventional downhole logging of gas storage wells to determine cathodic-protection levels is expensive and inconvenient, a program was developed (1) to predict downhole casing-to-soil potentials from wellhead measurements in the presence of interference and (2 )to model the mutual interference effects occurring between the wells and the cathodic-protection systems. In the first phase of this project, a transmission-line model that was developed to represent the well casing electrically adequately predicted the downhole potentials for both ideal and nonideal polarization conditions. By allowing the number of sections used and their parameter values as variables, the model can accommodate different environments and casing configurations. The model's representation of a well casing by a lumped-parameter electrical network will also permit interference studies between mutually coupled wells.

  18. Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts Debbie Myers - Argonne National Laboratory William A. Goddard, III - California Institute of Technology Clemens Heske - University of Nevada - Las Vegas Karren More - Oak Ridge National Laboratory John R. Regalbuto - University of Illinois - Chicago Piotr Zelenay - Los Alamos National Laboratory (beginning FY'08) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies New Project Kick-Off Meeting Washington, D.C., February 13-14, 2007 This presentation does not

  19. Applied Cathode Enhancement and Robustness Technologies (ACERT)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerators, Electrodynamics » ACERT Applied Cathode Enhancement and Robustness Technologies (ACERT) World leading experts from fields of accelerator design & testing, chemical synthesis of nanomaterials, and shielding application of nanomaterials. thumbnail of Nathan Moody Nathan Moody Principal Investigator (PI) Email ACERT Logo Team Our project team, a part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) comprised of world leading experts from fields of accelerator design & testing,

  20. Cathode Ion Bombardment in RF Photoguns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozdeyev,E.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we use the method of rapid oscillating field to solve the equation of ion motion in an RF gun. We apply the method to the BNL 1/2-cell SRF photogun and demonstrate that a significant portion of ions produced in the gun can reach the cathode if no special precautions are taken. Also, the paper proposes a simple mitigation recipe that can reduce the rate of ion bombardment.

  1. Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2014-11-11

    Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

  2. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

    2007-09-15

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  3. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced Technology Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lab Benchmarking (L1&L2) | Department of Energy Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking (L1&L2) Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking (L1&L2) Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Vehicle Systems vs030_stutenberg_2016_o_web.pdf (3.46 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle

  5. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of Energy Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 3_pnnl.pdf (21.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda 2015 Pathways

  6. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability This presentation, which focuses on alloy cathode catalysts, was given by T. D. Jarvi of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_jarvi_utc.pdf (576 KB) More Documents & Publications PEM Fuel Cell Technology, Key Research Needs and Approaches (Presentation) PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update Development of

  7. Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 18, 2015, Research Highlights Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode Powder diffraction of oxyfluoridecathode with intercalated Mg and capacities of oxyfluorideand oxide cathodes Scientific Achievement Magnesium was reversibly intercalated at room temperature into an oxyfluoride cathode without the co-intercalation of electrolytes or protons and without the formation of unwanted side-products that commonly

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  9. EERE Success Story-BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility EERE Success Story-BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility March 5, 2015 - 6:27pm Addthis BASF Catalysts, a battery component manufacturer, is running the largest cathode materials manufacturing facility in the country with support from EERE's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO). The factory was supported by a $25 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project. Located in Elyria, Ohio, the facility at full

  10. Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced...

  11. Illinois: High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material for Plug-in Hybrids and All-Electric Vehicles Could Reduce Batteries' Cost and Size Illinois: High-Energy,...

  12. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High...

  13. Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

  14. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for ...

  15. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Design and Evaluation of High...

  16. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-25

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  17. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  18. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - ...

  19. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells PNNL: Yong Wang ... Ballard Power Systems: Stephen Campbell University of ... to oxidation under fuel cell operating conditions. ...

  20. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es019kang2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures Development of...

  1. Process for synthesis of a layered oxide cathode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrovic, Ivan; Thurston, Anthony; Sheargold, Stephen

    2015-03-31

    A method for preparing a layered oxide cathode using a two step calcination procedure, wherein the first step includes pre-calcination utilizing a rotary calciner.

  2. Block Copolymer Cathode Binder to Simultaneously Transport Electronic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single material serves as cathode binder and conductor of electronic charge and ions Lower cost Semiconducting properties Simpler battery assembly process Lighter weight ...

  3. Cathodic protection of a remote river pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, B.A. )

    1994-03-01

    The 261-km long 500-mm diam Kutubu pipeline, which runs through dense jungle swamps in Papua, New Guinea, was built for Chevron Niugini to transport oil from the remote Kutubu oil production facility in the Southern Highlands to an offshore loading facility. The pipeline was laid with a section in the bed of a wide, fast-flowing river. This section was subject to substantial telluric effects and current density variations from changing water resistivities. The cathodic protection system's effectiveness was monitored by coupon off'' potentials and required an innovative approach.

  4. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  5. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY T. D. Jarvi UTC Power Corporation This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATALYST Objectives of project Characteristic DOE 2010 Target Pt group metal Total Content 0.50 g/kW rated Pt group metal Total Loading 0.30 mg PGM/cm 2 Durability with cycling <80 o C; >80 o C 5000 h; 2000 h Electrochemical Area Loss < 40 % Mass Activity at 900 mV RHE (IR-Free) 0.44 A/mg Pt

  6. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  7. Nanofiber Scaffold for Cathode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mingjia Zhi; Nicholas Mariani; Randall Gemmen; Kirk Gerdes; Nianqiang Wu

    2010-10-01

    A high performance solid oxide fuel cell cathode using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanofibers scaffold with the infiltrated La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM) shows an enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. Such a cathode offers a continuous path for charge transport and an increased number of triple-phase boundary sites.

  8. Single-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Marshall P.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Kim, Bumjung; Kim, Keun Soo; Jia, Zhang; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    A laminated single-layer graphene is demonstrated as a cathode for organic photovoltaicdevices. The measured properties indicate that graphene offers two potential advantages over conventional photovoltaic electrode materials; work function matching via contact doping, and increased power conversion efficiency due to transparency. These findings indicate that flexible, light-weight all carbon solar cells can be constructed using graphene as the cathode material.

  9. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  10. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  11. Effects of Humidity on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar; Mahapatra, Manoj K.; Wachsman, E. D.; Liu, Meilin; Gerdes, Kirk R.

    2015-03-17

    This report summarizes results from experimental studies performed by a team of researchers assembled on behalf of the Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program. Team participants employed a variety of techniques to evaluate and mitigate the effects of humidity in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode air streams on cathode chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical performance.

  12. Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cathode Materials Production Facility Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt017_es_han_2013_p.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Material/Component Production Facilities

  13. Neutronic, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Kazakhstan VVR-K reactor with LEU fuel: ANL independent verification results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanan, Nelson A.; Garner, Patrick L.

    2015-08-01

    Calculations have been performed for steady state and postulated transients in the VVR-K reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), Kazakhstan. (The reactor designation in Cyrillic is BBP-K; transliterating characters to English gives VVR-K but translating words gives WWR-K.) These calculations have been performed at the request of staff of the INP who are performing similar calculations. The selection of the transients considered started during working meetings and email correspondence between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and INP staff. In the end the transient were defined by the INP staff. Calculations were performed for the fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) core and for four subsequent cores as beryllium is added to maintain critically during the first 15 cycles. These calculations have been performed independently from those being performed by INP and serve as one step in the verification process.

  14. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Title Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

  15. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-Benzoquinone (DMBQ) as Organic Cathode for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cathode for Rechargeable Magnesium-Ion Batteries Image for Organic Cathode Scientific ... non-aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries Significance and Impact Mg-DMBQ ...

  16. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2013-10-15

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  17. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  18. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.; Turk, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  19. Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AdvAnced combustion, emission controls, HeAltH impActs, And Fuels merit review And peer evAluAtion Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2006 Dear Colleague: This document summarizes the comments provided by the Review Panel for the FY 2006 Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Combustion, Emission Controls, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, the "ACE Review," held on May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The raw evaluations

  20. Field Emission Cathode Gating for RF Electron Guns (IN-04-039...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact ANL About This Technology

    Field emission (FE) gun          

    Field emission (FE) gun

  1. Two-dimensional modeling of the cathode sheath formation during the streamer-cathode interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wen; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Fucheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, a computational simulation of the sheath formation during the streamer-surface interaction at atmospheric pressure is presented. A two-dimensional fluid model of a point-to-plane configuration is applied to investigate the evolution of the discharge in the vicinity of cathode plane. The effects of the surfaces on the properties of streamer have been studied for three cases, i.e., conductive surface with secondary electron emission (SEE), conductive surface without SEE, and dielectric surface. In all cases, we found that the axial propagation velocity of the streamer front decreases as the streamer arrives at the boundary of the cathode sheath. And the simulation results showed that the properties of the surface have a significant effect on the streamer. Besides the influences, the secondary emission coefficient and the relative permittivity on the streamer-surface interactions are also studied.

  2. Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma of Thallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2006-10-02

    Thallium arc plasma was investigated in a vacuum arc ionsource. As expected from previous consideration of cathode materials inthe Periodic Table of the Elements, thallium plasma shows lead-likebehavior. Its mean ion charge state exceeds 2.0 immediately after arctriggering, reaches the predicted 1.60 and 1.45 after about 100 microsecand 150 microsec, respectively. The most likely ion velocity is initially8000 m/s and decays to 6500 m/s and 6200 m/s after 100 microsec and 150microsec, respectively. Both ion charge states and ion velocities decayfurther towards steady state values, which are not reached within the 300microsec pulses used here. It is argued that the exceptionally high vaporpressure and charge exchange reactions are associated with theestablishment of steady state ion values.

  3. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  4. Potential fluctuations and energetic ion production in hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2007-10-15

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the applied discharge voltage have been reported for many years in hollow cathode discharges. Models of dc potential hills downstream of the cathode and instabilities in postulated double layers in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain this, but have not been substantiated. Measurements of the dc and rf plasma density and potential profiles near the exit of hollow cathodes by miniature fast-scanning probes suggests that turbulent ion acoustic fluctuations and ionization instabilities in the cathode plume significantly increase the energy of the ions that flow from this region. Increases in the discharge current and/or decreases in the cathode gas flow enhance the amplitude of the fluctuations and increase the number and energy of the energetic ions, which increases the erosion rate of the cathode electrodes. The transition from the quiescent 'spot mode' to the noisy 'plume mode' characteristic of these discharges is found to be a gradual transition of increasing fluctuation amplitudes.

  5. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Eddie C.; Miller, William E.; Laidler, James J.

    1997-01-01

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

  6. Performance of field emission cathodes in xenon environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrese, C.M.; Polk, J.E.; Jensen, K.L.; Gallimore, A.D.; Spindt, C.; Fink, R.L.; Tolt, Z.L.; Palmer, W.D.

    1999-07-01

    Field emission (FE) cathodes are currently being considered to supply electrons in electric propulsion systems for propellant ionization and ion beam neutralization. Hollow cathodes with thermionic electron emitters typically used with Hall and ion thrusters require propellant and heaters for operation. Therefore there are lower limits on their size and power. Because FE cathodes do not require propellant or heaters they can be used with small and micropropulsion systems. The primary concern with integrating these two technologies is cathode lifetime. An FE cathode must be capable of operation in a plasma environment where xenon pressures exceed 2 x 10{sup {minus}6} Torr. Experiments were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to evaluate the performance of silicon and molybdenum microtip field emission array cathodes, and carbon film cathodes in xenon pressures up to 2 x 10{sup {minus}5} Torr. Experimental and modeling results were used to determine energy thresholds for sputtering silicon and molybdenum by xenon ions. Experiments and theoretical results are presented for performance degradation in xenon environments.

  7. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1997-07-22

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two. 12 figs.

  8. Emission mechanism of barium-containing thermionic cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enqui, Z.; Xeuque, L.

    1991-03-27

    Through the analysis and synthesis of data obtained from barium containing thermionic cathodes, especially those by modern surface analysis technique, the authors have come to a unified theory--the dynamical surface emission center model. Barium absorbed on the surface of alkaline earth metal oxides in case of oxide cathode or of aluminate, tungstate etc. in case of dispenser cathode may form the emission center. Its size should be large enough to screen off the attractive field produced by the substrate, but small enough to facilitate the transport of electrons from the substrate to the emitting center. The compositions and the dynamical characters of the surface emission center are also discussed.

  9. Final Report: Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Craig W

    2002-09-30

    A low-temperature aluminum smelting process being developed differs from the Hall-Heroult process in several significant ways. The low-temperature process employs a more acidic electrolyte than cryolite, an alumina slurry, oxygen-generating metal anodes, and vertically suspended electrodes. Wetted and drained vertical cathodes are crucial to the new process. Such cathodes represent a significant portion of the capital costs projected for the new technology. Although studies exist of wetted cathode technology with Hall-Heoult cells, the differences make such a study desirable with the new process.

  10. Characterization of plasma chemistry and ion energy in cathodic arc plasma from Ti-Si cathodes of different compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksson, A. O.; Zhirkov, I.; Dahlqvist, M.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Rosen, J.

    2013-04-28

    Arc plasma from Ti-Si compound cathodes with up to 25 at. % Si was characterized in a DC arc system with respect to chemistry and charge-state-resolved ion energy. The plasma ion composition showed a lower Si content, diverging up to 12 at. % compared to the cathode composition, yet concurrently deposited films were in accordance with the cathode stoichiometry. Significant contribution to film growth from neutrals is inferred besides ions, since the contribution from macroparticles, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, cannot alone account for the compositional difference between cathode, plasma, and film. The average ion charge states for Ti and Si were higher than reference data for elemental cathodes. This result is likely related to TiSi{sub x} phases of higher cohesive energies in the compound cathodes and higher effective electron temperature in plasma formation. The ion energy distributions extended up to {approx}200 and {approx}130 eV for Ti and Si, respectively, with corresponding average energies of {approx}60 and {approx}30 eV. These averages were, however, not dependent on Si content in the cathode, except for 25 at. % Si where the average energies were increased up to 72 eV for Ti and 47 eV for Si.

  11. Advanced electrorefiner design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Gay, E.C.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1996-07-02

    A combination anode and cathode is described for an electrorefiner which includes a hollow cathode and an anode positioned inside the hollow cathode such that a portion of the anode is near the cathode. A retaining member is positioned at the bottom of the cathode. Mechanism is included for providing relative movement between the anode and the cathode during deposition of metal on the inside surface of the cathode during operation of the electrorefiner to refine spent nuclear fuel. A method is also disclosed which includes electrical power means selectively connectable to the anode and the hollow cathode for providing electrical power to the cell components, electrically transferring uranium values and plutonium values from the anode to the electrolyte, and electrolytically depositing substantially pure uranium on the hollow cathode. Uranium and plutonium are deposited at a liquid cathode together after the PuCl{sub 3} to UCl{sub 3} ratio is greater than 2:1. Slots in the hollow cathode provides close anode access for the liquid pool in the liquid cathode. 6 figs.

  12. Advanced electrorefiner design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E.; Gay, Eddie C.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1996-01-01

    A combination anode and cathode for an electrorefiner which includes a hollow cathode and an anode positioned inside the hollow cathode such that a portion of the anode is near the cathode. A retaining member is positioned at the bottom of the cathode. Mechanism is included for providing relative movement between the anode and the cathode during deposition of metal on the inside surface of the cathode during operation of the electrorefiner to refine spent nuclear fuel. A method is also disclosed which includes electrical power means selectively connectable to the anode and the hollow cathode for providing electrical power to the cell components, electrically transferring uranium values and plutonium values from the anode to the electrolyte, and electrolytically depositing substantially pure uranium on the hollow cathode. Uranium and plutonium are deposited at a liquid cathode together after the PuCl.sub.3 to UCl.sub.3 ratio is greater than 2:1. Slots in the hollow cathode provides close anode access for the liquid pool in the liquid cathode.

  13. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 3utc.pdf More Documents & Publications Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst ...

  14. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    17johnson2011p.pdf (651.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells ...

  15. Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp14kang.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials ...

  16. EERE Success Story-BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 5, 2015 - 6:27pm Addthis BASF Catalysts, a battery component manufacturer, is ... forward; in 2012, they lowered the production costs of battery cathodes by more than 15%. ...

  17. Illinois: High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a high-energy, concentration-gradient cathode material for plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles. ... market growth, leading to reductions in carbon pollution and imported oil. ...

  18. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  19. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es019kang2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures Development of...

  20. Spinel compounds as multivalent battery cathodes: A systematic evaluation based on ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Miao; Rong, Ziqin; Malik, Rahul; Canepa, Pieremanuele; Jain, Anubhav; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.

    2014-12-16

    In this study, batteries that shuttle multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions are promising candidates for achieving higher energy density than available with current Li-ion technology. Finding electrode materials that reversibly store and release these multivalent cations is considered a major challenge for enabling such multivalent battery technology. In this paper, we use recent advances in high-throughput first-principles calculations to systematically evaluate the performance of compounds with the spinel structure as multivalent intercalation cathode materials, spanning a matrix of five different intercalating ions and seven transition metal redox active cations. We estimate the insertion voltage, capacity, thermodynamic stability of charged and discharged states, as well as the intercalating ion mobility and use these properties to evaluate promising directions. Our calculations indicate that the Mn2O4 spinel phase based on Mg and Ca are feasible cathode materials. In general, we find that multivalent cathodes exhibit lower voltages compared to Li cathodes; the voltages of Ca spinels are ~0.2 V higher than those of Mg compounds (versus their corresponding metals), and the voltages of Mg compounds are ~1.4 V higher than Zn compounds; consequently, Ca and Mg spinels exhibit the highest energy densities amongst all the multivalent cation species. The activation barrier for the Al³⁺ ion migration in the Mn₂O₄ spinel is very high (~1400 meV for Al3+ in the dilute limit); thus, the use of an Al based Mn spinel intercalation cathode is unlikely. Amongst the choice of transition metals, Mn-based spinel structures rank highest when balancing all the considered properties.

  1. Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric Vehicles of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Today | Department of Energy Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric Vehicles of Today Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric Vehicles of Today February 14, 2011 - 6:15pm Addthis Jeff Chamberlain Speaks at Brookings Battery Forum | Photo Courtesy of Audra Capas, 5StarPR Jeff Chamberlain Speaks at Brookings Battery Forum | Photo Courtesy of Audra Capas, 5StarPR David Moore Presidential Management Fellow, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable

  2. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  3. Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-11-08

    The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

  4. Chromium (V) compounds as cathode material in electrochemical power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Guidotti, R.A.; McCarthy, D.K.

    A cathode for use in a thermal battery, comprising a chromium (V) compound. The preferred materials for this use are Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)/sub 3/Cl, Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)OH, and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The chromium (V) compound can be employed as a cathode material in ambient temperature batteries when blended with a suitably conductive filler, preferably carbon black.

  5. Chromium (V) compounds as cathode material in electrochemical power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.; Guidotti, Ronald A.; McCarthy, David K.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode for use in a thermal battery, comprising a chromium (V) compound. The preferred materials for this use are Ca.sub.5 (CrO.sub.4).sub.3 Cl, Ca.sub.5 (CrO.sub.4).sub.3 OH, and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.5. The chromium (V) compound can be employed as a cathode material in ambient temperature batteries when blended with a suitably conductive filler, preferably carbon black.

  6. Evaluation of Sulfur Spinel Compounds for Multivalent Battery Cathode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research August 17, 2016, Research Highlights Evaluation of Sulfur Spinel Compounds for Multivalent Battery Cathode Applications A group of 3d transition-metal sulfur-spinel compounds were systematically assessed for MV cathode applications, based on their electrochemical and thermodynamic properties . Cr2S4, Ti2S4 and Mn2S4 spinel compounds exhibit superior Mg2+ mobility, and hence, emerge as the top three candidates. Scientific Achievement

  7. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating does not hinder battery performance Provides two coating processes that yield surface-treated, electro-active materials for a variety of applications, such as in a rechargeable lithium battery in both processes, and primary and secondary lithium battery applications in another process.

  8. Chromium (V) compounds as cathode material in electrochemical power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F. M.; Guidotti, R. A.; McCarthy, D. K.

    1985-04-02

    A cathode for use in a thermal battery, comprising a chromium (V) compound. The preferred materials for this use are Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)/sub 3/Cp, Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)/sub 3/OH, and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The chromium (V) compound can be employed as a cathode material in ambient temperature batteries when blended with a suitably conductive filler, preferably carbon black.

  9. Cathodic Protection of the Yaquina Bay Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Laylor, H.M.; Cryer, C.B.

    2001-02-01

    The Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport, Oregon, was designed by Conde B. McCullough and built in 1936. The 3,223-foot (982 m) structure is a combination of concrete arch approach spans and a steel through arch over the shipping channel. Cathodic protection is used to prevent corrosion damage to the concrete arches. The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) installed a carbon anode coating (DAC-85) on two of the north approach spans in 1985. This anode was operated at a current density of 6.6 mA/m2(0.6 mA/ft2). No failure of the conductive anode was observed in 1990, five years after application, or in 2000, 15 years after application. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 20 mils (0.5 mm) thick were applied to half the south approach spans beginning in 1990. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 15 mils (0.4 mm) thick were applied to the remaining spans in 1996. These anodes were operated at a current density of 2.2 mA/m2(0.2 mA/ft2). In 1999, four zones on the approach spans were included in a two-year field trial of humectants to improve zinc anode performance. The humectants LiNO3 and LiBr were applied to two zones; the two adjacent zones were left untreated as controls. The humectants substantially reduced circuit resistance compared to the controls.

  10. PPPL lends General Electric a hand in developing an advanced power switch |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL lends General Electric a hand in developing an advanced power switch By John Greenwald August 28, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Laboratory test of a liquid-metal cathode. (Photo by General Electric Co.) Laboratory test of a liquid-metal cathode. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are assisting General Electric Co. in developing an electrical switch that could help lower utility

  11. PPPL lends General Electric a hand in developing an advanced power switch |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab lends General Electric a hand in developing an advanced power switch By John Greenwald August 28, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Laboratory test of a liquid-metal cathode. (Photo by General Electric Co. ) Laboratory test of a liquid-metal cathode. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are assisting General Electric Co. in developing an electrical switch that could help lower utility

  12. Advanced Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design » Design for Efficiency » Advanced House Framing Advanced House Framing Two-story home using advanced framing techniques. Two-story home using advanced framing techniques. Advanced house framing, sometimes called optimum value engineering (OVE), refers to framing techniques designed to reduce the amount of lumber used and waste generated in the construction of a wood-framed house. These techniques boost energy efficiency by replacing lumber with insulation material while maintaining the

  13. Advanced Hybrid Batteries with a Magnesium Metal Anode and Spinel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LiMn₂O₄ Cathode - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research July 11, 2016, Research Highlights Advanced Hybrid Batteries with a Magnesium Metal Anode and Spinel LiMn₂O₄ Cathode Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes were successfully developed and can enable rechargeable Mg-LiMn2O4 batteries Scientific Achievement Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes were developed with excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs Mg/Mg2+) on a aluminum current collector, enabling the

  14. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Yang; Ze Liu; Shizhone Wang; Jaewung Lee; Meilin Liu

    2008-04-30

    The main objective of this DOE project is to demonstrate that the performance and long-term stability of the state-of-the-art LSCF cathode can be enhanced by a catalytically active coating (e.g., LSM or SSC). We have successfully developed a methodology for reliably evaluating the intrinsic surface catalytic properties of cathode materials. One of the key components of the test cell is a dense LSCF film, which will function as the current collector for the electrode material under evaluation to eliminate the effect of ionic and electronic transport. Since it is dense, the effect of geometry would be eliminated as well. From the dependence of the electrode polarization resistance on the thickness of a dense LSCF electrode and on partial pressure of oxygen, we have confirmed that the surface catalytic activity of LSCF limits the performances of LSCF-based cathodes. Further, we have demonstrated, using test cells of different configurations, that the performance of LSCF-based electrodes can be significantly enhanced by infiltration of a thin film of LSM or SSC. In addition, the stability of LSCF-based cathodes was also improved by infiltration of LSM or SSC. While the concept feasibility of the electrode architecture is demonstrated, many details are yet to be determined. For example, it is not clear how the surface morphology, composition, and thickness of the coatings change under operating conditions over time, how these changes influence the electrochemical behavior of the cathodes, and how to control the microscopic details of the coatings in order to optimize the performance. The selection of the catalytic materials as well as the detailed microstructures of the porous LSCF and the catalyst layer may critically impact the performance of the proposed cathodes. Further, other fundamental questions still remain; it is not clear why the degradation rates of LSCF cathodes are relatively high, why a LSM coating improves the stability of LSCF cathodes, which catalysts

  15. Asymmetric injection of cathodic arc plasma into a macroparticlefilter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2004-02-11

    The cathodic arc plasmas produced by cathode spots usuallyinclude macroparticles, which is undesirable for many applications. Acommon way of removing macroparticles is to use curved solenoid filterswhich guide the plasma from the source to the substrate. In this work, anarc source with relatively small cathode is used, limiting the possiblelocations of plasma production. The relative position of cathodic arcsource and macroparticle filtered was systematically varied and thefiltered plasma current was recorded. It was found that axis-symmetricplasma injection leads to maximum throughput only if an anode aperturewas used, which limited the plasma to near-axis flow by scraping offplasma at larger angles to the axis. When the anode aperture was removed,more plasma could enter the filter. In this case, maximum filtered ioncurrent was achieved when the plasma was injected off-axis, namely offsetin the direction where the filter is curved. Such behavior wasanticipated because the plasma column in the filter is known to beshifted by ExB and centrifugal drift as well as by non-axis-symmetriccomponents of the magnetic field in the filter entrance and exit plane.The data have implications for plasma transport variations caused bydifferent spot locations on cathodes that are not small compared to thefilter cross section.

  16. Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, W.; Li, M.; Chen, L.

    2012-02-15

    In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper.

  17. Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.

    1998-05-05

    A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape. 3 figs.

  18. Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

  19. Carbonaceous cathode with enhanced wettability for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Rudolf; Gatty, David G.; Barca, Brian J.

    2003-09-09

    A method of preparing carbonaceous blocks or bodies for use in a cathode in an electrolytic cell for producing aluminum wherein the cell contains an electrolyte and has molten aluminum contacting the cathode, the cathode having improved wettability with molten aluminum. The method comprises the steps of providing a carbonaceous block and a boron oxide containing melt. The carbonaceous block is immersed in the melt and pressure is applied to the melt to impregnate the melt into pores in the block. Thereafter, the carbonaceous block is withdrawn from the melt, the block having boron oxide containing melt intruded into pores therein, the boron oxide capable of reacting with a source of titanium or zirconium or like metal to form titanium or zirconium diboride during heatup or operation of said cell.

  20. LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-31

    To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

  1. Maximum voltage gradient, uniformity and brightness of dispenser cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, W.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Green, M.C.; Miram, G.V.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Initial measurements of current uniformity and intrinsic cathode brightness are presented a 5.1 cm diameter osmium alloy coated dispenser cathode. The data are obtained with a planar diode driven with a 35ns Blumlein pulse line. Pepper pot images are observed with a fast phosphor and gated camera. The current density and beamlet divergence angle are uniform within +-10% and a brightness J = 1.6E10A/m/sup 2/rad/sup 2/ is observed at a current density j=44A/cm/sup 2/. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Axis-1 diode simulations I: standard 2-inch cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    The standard configuration of the DARHT Axis-I diode features a 5.08-cm diameter velvet emitter mounted in the flat surface of the cathode shroud. The surface of the velvet is slightly recessed {approx}2.5 mm. This configuration produces a 1.75 kA beam when a 3.8-MV pulse is applied to the anode-cathode (AK) gap. This note addresses some of the physics of this diode through the use of finite-element simulations.

  3. Rotating dipole and quadrupole field for a multiple cathode system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skarita, J.; Wang, E.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    A multiple cathode system has been designed to provide the high average current polarized electron bunches for the future electron-ion collider eRHIC [1]. One of the key research topics in this design is the technique to generate a combined dipole and quadrupole rotating field at high frequency (700 kHz). This type of field is necessary for combining bunches from different cathodes to the same axis with minimum emittance growth. Our simulations and the prototype test results to achieve this will be presented. The future eRHIC project, next upgrade of EHIC, will be the first electron-heavy ion collider in the world. For polarized-electron and polarized proton collisions, it requires a polarized electron source with high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), emittance of about 20 {micro}m and energy spread of {approx}1% at 10 MeV. The state-of-art polarized electron cathode can generate average current of about more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA. The current is limited by the quantum efficiency, lifetime, space charge and ultra-high vacuum requirement of the polarized cathode. A possible approach to achieve the 50 mA beam is to employ multiple cathodes, such as 20 cathodes, and combine the multiple bunched beams from cathodes to the same axis. We name it as 'Gatling gun' because its operations bear similarity to a multi-barrel Gatling gun. The electron spin direction is not affected by electric field but will follow to the direction of the magnetic bending. This requires that, to preserve the spin polarization from cathode, the fixed bending field after the solenoid and the rotating bending field in combiner must be either a pair of electric bendings or a pair of magnetic bendings. We choose the scheme with a pair of magnetic bendings because it is much easier than the scheme with a pair of electric bendings at our 200 keV electron energy level.

  4. Cathode preparation method for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.; Sim, James W.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparing a porous cathode structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell begins by providing a porous integral plaque of sintered nickel oxide particles. The nickel oxide plaque can be obtained by oxidizing a sintered plaque of nickel metal or by compacting and sintering finely divided nickel oxide particles to the desired pore structure. The porous sintered nickel oxide plaque is contacted with a lithium salt for a sufficient time to lithiate the nickel oxide structure and thus enhance its electronic conductivity. The lithiation can be carried out either within an operating fuel cell or prior to assembling the plaque as a cathode within the fuel cell.

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement of cathodically protected subsea bolting alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, L.H.; Burnette, C.C.; Joosten, M.W. )

    1993-07-01

    Normal operations of cathodic protection (CP) systems caused hydrogen embrittlement failures of subsea bolts made of Monel K-500 alloy (UNS N05500) on offshore platforms. Subsequent testing showed that the embrittlement could be predicted from cathodically protected slow strain rate tensile tests. Additional slow strain rate tests have shown that CP caused embrittlement of Ferralium 255 (S32550), Inconel X-750 (N07750), Inconel 718 (N07718), high strength steel, and 13% chromium alloys. Beryllium copper (C17200), A-286 steel (S66286), Beta-C titanium (R58640), and steel at a yield strength of 793 MPa (115 ksi) were not embrittled under the same conditions.

  6. Instability of plasma plume of micro-hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-11-15

    The micro-hollow cathode gas discharge driven by thermionic emission is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions simulation. The electron current is extracted from the plasma plume penetrating into the keeper–anode space through a small keeper orifice from the cathode-keeper space. The results of simulations and a simplified analytical model showed that the plasma density and extracted current can exhibit deep modulation in the range of frequencies of tens of MHz. This modulation appears when the space-charge limited current between the plume boundary and the anode exceeds the plasma thermal electron current through the orifice.

  7. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after "Pressure ...

  8. Research and Development of a New Field Enhanced Low Temperature Thermionic Cathode that Enables Fluorescent Dimming and Loan Shedding without Auxiliary Cathode Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Jin

    2009-01-07

    This is the final report for project entitled 'Research and development of a new field enhanced low temperature thermionic cathode that enables fluorescent dimming and load shedding without auxiliary cathode heating', under Agreement Number: DE-FC26-04NT-42329. Under this project, a highly efficient CNT based thermionic cathode was demonstrated. This cathode is capable of emitting electron at a current density two order of magnitude stronger then a typical fluorescent cathode at same temperatures, or capable of emitting at same current density but at temperature about 300 C lower than that of a fluorescent cathode. Detailed fabrication techniques were developed including CVD growth of CNTs and sputter deposition of oxide thin films on CNTs. These are mature technologies that have been widely used in industry for large scale materials processing and device fabrications, thus, with further development work, the techniques developed in this project can be scaled-up in manufacturing environment. The prototype cathodes developed in this project were tested in lighting plasma discharge environment. In many cases, they not only lit and sustain the plasma, but also out perform the fluorescent cathodes in key parameters such like cathode fall voltages. More work will be needed to further evaluate more detailed and longer term performance of the prototype cathode in lighting plasma.

  9. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-03-28

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high

  10. ANL-FF-262i

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    from our foundry's graphite-melted uranium is remote because of the metalIs high carbon content. High purity metal isto be considered a possible solution of many of the...

  11. Ahn-ANL_User_Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OPPORTUNITIES WITH THE PROTOTYPE AT-TPC AT ATLAS Tan Ahn! National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University! ! Single-Particle Structure and Reactions Session! ATLAS Users Meeting! May 15, 2014 PROTOTYPE AT-TPC e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - D. Suzuki et al., NIM A 660, 64 (2011) PROTOTYPE AT-TPC e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - active-target volume D. Suzuki et al., NIM A 660, 64 (2011) PROTOTYPE AT-TPC e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e - e -

  12. ANL2014-JMA.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 8 Oxford Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom *Research sponsored by...

  13. Djurcic_ANL_June2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from MiniBooNE Zelimir Djurcic Zelimir Djurcic Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Argonne High Energy Physics Seminar Argonne High Energy Physics Seminar June 23rd, 2010 June 23rd, 2010 Outline Outline * * MiniBooNE MiniBooNE Experiment Description Experiment Description * * MiniBooNE MiniBooNE ' ' s s Neutrino Results Neutrino Results * * MiniBooNE MiniBooNE ' ' s s Anti-neutrino Anti-neutrino Results Results * * Next Steps and Summary Next Steps and Summary This signal

  14. ANL's Map and Data Browser

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-07-13

    The MaD browser is a web browser Java applet developed to display and interact with vector graphic (map) objects, relational database tables, and other data sources. It was designed for use in remedial action projects to quickly and widely disseminate sampling results but is generally applicable to many other mapping situations. Its primary value is its simplicity and general availability.

  15. ANL: Prototype Cell Fabrication Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  16. A reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell with three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sumi, H.; Fujishiro, Y.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode was fabricated for a zirconia based micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Three different cathodes (cathode A, no pore former; cathode B, with pore former (1.5 {micro}m in diameter); cathode C, with pore former (0.8 {micro}m in diameter)) were compared to investigate how the microstructure of it affected the cell performance at various operating temperatures. Micro-sized pores were well distributed within cathode B and C. The total porosity of cathode A is 35%, while it respectively reached 42 and 50% for cathodes B and C. At the same time, the specific surface area of them was 28.8 and 52.0% larger than that of the cathode A. As a result, the peak power density of the zirconia based cell, with cathode C, was 0.25 and 0.56 W cm{sup -2} at 550 and 600 C, while the respective value was just 0.11 and 0.30 W cm{sup -2} for the cell with cathode A. Thus, optimizing microstructure of cathode should be one of the best approaches for lowering the operating temperature for SOFCs.

  17. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 17_johnson_2011_p.pdf (651.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

  18. Development of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es056_zhang_2011_o.pdf (841.53 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries Phase Behavior and Solid State Chemistry in Olivines Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials

  19. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for x-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgens, C.R.

    1983-06-03

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight tubular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  20. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgens, Claude R.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight bular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, and insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  1. New High Energy Gradient Concentration Cathode Material | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 6_amine_2011_p.pdf (1.42 MB) More Documents & Publications FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material

  2. Investigating Microbial Fuel Cell Bioanode Performance Under Different Cathode Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Aaron, D; Tsouris, Costas

    2009-01-01

    A compact, three-in-one, flow-through, porous, electrode design with minimal electrode spacing and minimal dead volume was implemented to develop a microbial fuel cell (MFC) with improved anode performance. A biofilm-dominated anode consortium enriched under a multimode, continuous-flow regime was used. The increase in the power density of the MFC was investigated by changing the cathode (type, as well as catholyte strength) to determine whether anode was limiting. The power density obtained with an air-breathing cathode was 56 W/m3 of net anode volume (590 mW/m2) and 203 W/m3 (2160 mW/m2) with a 50-mM ferricyanide- based cathode. Increasing the ferricyanide concentration and ionic strength further increased the power density, reaching 304 W/m3 (3220 mW/m2, with 200 mM ferricyanide and 200 mM buffer concentration). The increasing trend in the power density indicated that the anode was not limiting and that higher power densities could be obtained using cathodes capable of higher rates of oxidation. The internal solution resistance for the MFC was 5 6 X, which supported the improved performance of the anode design. A new parameter defined as the ratio of projected surface area to total anode volume is suggested as a design parameter to relate volumetric and area-based power densities and to enable comparison of various MFC configurations.

  3. Individually addressable cathodes with integrated focusing stack or detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Lowndes, Douglas; Whealton, John; Whitson, John C.; Wilgen, John B.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and method are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A plurality of individually addressable cathodes are integrated with an electrostatic focusing stack and/or a plurality of detectors on the addressable field emission array. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  4. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off P I : Branko N Popov ...

  5. Spinel Compounds as Multivalent Battery Cathodes: A Systematic Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Based on ab initio Calculations - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 16, 2014, Research Highlights Spinel Compounds as Multivalent Battery Cathodes: A Systematic Evaluation Based on ab initio Calculations Evaluation of multivalent spinel compounds based on multiple performance characteristics such as voltage, specific energy, thermodynamic stability, thermal stability and intercalant mobility. The favorable (unfavorable) properties are represented with light (dark) color

  6. Advanced Gasificatioin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Gasification Research Team Members Key Contacts Advanced Gasification Carbon feedstock gasification is a promising pathway for high-efficiency, low-pollutant power generation and chemical production. The inability, however, to meet a number of operational goals could create roadblocks to widespread acceptance and commercialization of advanced gasification technologies. We must, for example, achieve gasifier online availability of 85-95 percent in utility applications, and 95 percent for

  7. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Zelenay, Piotr

    2006-03-21

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  8. Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Zelenay, Piotr

    2006-09-05

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of Pt.sub.3Cr/C so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  9. Advanced Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Combustion Background Conventional coal-fired power plants utilize steam turbines to ... development of large-scale Ni-based superalloy castings for power plant applications. ...

  10. Joule heat generation in thermionic cathodes of high-pressure arc discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benilov, M. S.; Cunha, M. D.

    2013-02-14

    The nonlinear surface heating model of plasma-cathode interaction in high-pressure arcs is extended to take into account the Joule effect inside the cathode body. Calculation results are given for different modes of current transfer to tungsten cathodes of different configurations in argon plasmas of atmospheric or higher pressures. Special attention is paid to analysis of energy balances of the cathode and the near-cathode plasma layer. In all the cases, the variation of potential inside the cathode is much smaller than the near-cathode voltage drop. However, this variation can be comparable to the volt equivalent of the energy flux from the plasma to the cathode and then the Joule effect is essential. Such is the case of the diffuse and mixed modes on rod cathodes at high currents, where the Joule heating causes a dramatic change of thermal and electrical regimes of the cathode. The Joule heating has virtually no effect over characteristics of spots on rod and infinite planar cathodes.

  11. Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-01-28

    Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

  12. Modular cathode assemblies and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-12-02

    Modular cathode assemblies are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include a basket through which fluid electrolyte may pass and exchange charge with a material to be reduced in the basket. The basket can be divided into upper and lower sections to provide entry for the material. Example embodiment cathode assemblies may have any shape to permit modular placement at any position in reduction systems. Modular cathode assemblies include a cathode plate in the basket, to which unique and opposite electrical power may be supplied. Example embodiment modular cathode assemblies may have standardized electrical connectors. Modular cathode assemblies may be supported by a top plate of an electrolytic reduction system. Electrolytic oxide reduction systems are operated by positioning modular cathode and anode assemblies at desired positions, placing a material in the basket, and charging the modular assemblies to reduce the metal oxide.

  13. Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.F. Simmons; C.M. Fortgang; D.B. Holtkamp

    2001-09-01

    Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm{sup 2} at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes.

  14. 2014 Advanced Grid Modeling Peer Review Presentations - Day Two...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Two Morning Session The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability held ... ANL (1.13 MB) Chance-constrained OPF and Unit Commitment -- Incorporating High-Performance ...

  15. Energy Department Announces New Investments in Advanced Nuclear...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Westinghouse Electric Company partnering with ANL and the University of Pittsburg-- Development of thermo-acoustic sensors for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) Find more ...

  16. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Glass-state conversion reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kercher, Andrew K.; Kolopus, James A.; Carroll, Kyler; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kirklin, S.; Wolverton, C.; Stooksbury, Shelby L.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses can undergo glass-state conversion (GSC) reactions to provide an alternate class of high-capacity cathode materials. GSC reactions have been demonstrated in phosphate/vanadate glasses with Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni cations. These MP glasses provided high capacity and good high power performance, but suffer from moderate voltages, large voltage hysteresis, and significant capacity fade with cycling. Details of the GSC reaction have been revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of ex situ cathodes at key states of charge. Using the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), a computational thermodynamic model hasmore » been developed to predict the near-equilibrium voltages of glass-state conversion reactions in MP glasses.« less

  17. A multi-component approach to cathodic protection monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cederquist, S.C.

    1999-11-01

    In 1977, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) began transporting crude oil from Alaska's North Slope 1,288 km (800 miles) south to the Valdez Marine Terminal--the northernmost ice-free port in North America. Long considered to be one of the most difficult engineering feats, the pipeline crosses several major mountain ranges and rivers. TAPS transports approximately 20% of the crude oil produced in the US, averaging 1.10 million BPD in 1999. A comprehensive Corrosion Control Management Plan (CCMP) was introduced by Alyeska earlier this year to ensure that sound engineering practice is being used to determine the adequacy of cathodic protection (CP) on TAPS. Corrosion is a significant issue mainly on the 612 km (380 miles) of buried pipeline. The remaining 676 km (420 miles) of pipeline are located aboveground. The paper describes the maintenance of the cathodic protection system.

  18. Electroconvection under injection from cathode and heating from above

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mordvinov, A. N.; Smorodin, B. L.

    2012-05-15

    We study the electroconvection that appears in a nonuniformly heated, poorly conducting liquid in a parallel-plate horizontal capacitor due to the action of an external static electric field on the charge injected from the cathode. It is shown that the heating of the layer from above prevents steady-state convection and that, unlike the isothermal situation, electroconvection can appear in the oscillatory manner as a result of direct Hopf bifurcation. The effect of the heating intensity, the intensity of charge injection from the cathode, and the charge mobility on the thresholds of oscillatory and monotonic electroconvection is analyzed and the characteristic scales and frequencies of critical perturbations are determined. The nonlinear wave and steady-state regimes of the 2D convective structures formed in the poorly conducting liquid under the action of thermogravitational and injection mechanisms of convection are analyzed. The domains of existence of standing, traveling, and modulated waves are determined.

  19. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Glass-state conversion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K.; Kolopus, James A.; Carroll, Kyler; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kirklin, S.; Wolverton, C.; Stooksbury, Shelby L.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses can undergo glass-state conversion (GSC) reactions to provide an alternate class of high-capacity cathode materials. GSC reactions have been demonstrated in phosphate/vanadate glasses with Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni cations. These MP glasses provided high capacity and good high power performance, but suffer from moderate voltages, large voltage hysteresis, and significant capacity fade with cycling. Details of the GSC reaction have been revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of ex situ cathodes at key states of charge. Using the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), a computational thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the near-equilibrium voltages of glass-state conversion reactions in MP glasses.

  20. Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurkin, S. A. Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2014-09-15

    The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.

  1. Recent developments at the cathode processor for spent fuel treatment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B. R.; Vaden, D.; Hua, T. Q.; Willit, J. L.; Laug, D. V.

    2002-07-29

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a molten salt electrolyte, primarily consisting of a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides with minor amounts of fission product chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a batch operation called cathode processing. Described in this paper are recent developments, both equipment and process-related, at the cathode processor during the treatment of blanket-type spent fuel. For the equipment developments, the installation of a new induction heating coil has produced significant improvements in equipment performance. The process developments include the elimination of a process step and the study of plutonium in the uranium product.

  2. Limitations in using pulsed rectifiers for well casing cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Due to earth propagation losses the rectifier current pulses suffer considerable waveform deterioration as the penetration depth increases. Hence, cathodic protection benefits attributable to the use of a pulsed rectifier will not be attainable below a certain depth which is a function of the pulse characteristics and the soil resistivity. In this paper a hypothetical 3,000 meter length well casing is modeled as a distributed lossy electrical transmission line. It is shown that below a depth of 300 to 500 meters, the higher frequency content of the pulse is severely attenuated. The cathodic protection process at these and increased depths, therefore, will not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-pulsed dc rectifier.

  3. Additive for iron disulfide cathodes used in thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, James R.; Searcy, Jimmie Q.

    1983-01-01

    The invention comprises thermal batteries employing an FeS.sub.2 depolarizer, i.e. cathode material, and the depolarizer itself. A minor amount of CaSi.sub.2 preferably, 1-3% by weight is provided as an additive in the FeS.sub.2 depolarizer to eliminate the voltage transient (spike) which normally occurs upon activation of batteries of this type. The amount of FeS.sub.2 by weight generally comprises 64-90%.

  4. John B. Goodenough, Cathode Materials, and Rechargeable Lithium-ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries John B. Goodenough, Cathode Materials, and Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries Resources with Additional Information * Awards * Patents John B. Goodenough Photo Credit: Courtesy of The University of Texas at Austin Cockrell School of Engineering On September 17, 2009, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu named John B. Goodenough as a winner of the Enrico Fermi Award ' in recognition for his lasting contributions to materials science and technology, especially the science underlying

  5. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  6. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, E.

    1984-04-10

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  7. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  8. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  9. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASFs battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASFs already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEMs and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  10. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael; Beilis, Isak

    2012-06-15

    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100-200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  11. Humectant use in the cathodic protection of reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Collins, W.K.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

    2000-11-01

    Use of humectants to improve the thermal-sprayed zinc anode performance during the cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete was examined. A humectant is a hygroscopic material. It is applied onto the surface of the zinc anode to keep the concrete-anode interface moist and a good conductor. The thermodynamics of humectants are discussed. Laboratory results are presented on the effects of using lithium bromide (LiBr) and lithium nitrate (LiNO{sub 3}) as humectants in galvanic cathodic protection (GCP) and impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems, in high and low relative humidities, and on new and previously electrochemically aged CP systems. LiNO{sub 3} and LiBr promoted more effective CP performance. Both improved the performance of aged slabs, suggesting that application of humectants onto existing CP systems would be of benefit. Microscopy showed that humectant-treated slabs develop the same cement-reaction zone, zinc anode structures as untreated slabs. Microscopy of LiBr-treated slabs revealed that the highest concentration of bromide was in the reaction zone. In GCP tests, LiBr was more effective than LiNO{sub 3}. In accelerated ICCP tests, LiNO{sub 3} was more effective than LiBr. It was surmised that bromide could be oxidized in the high-voltage accelerated ICCP tests. At the lower impressed currents of most installed ICCP systems, LiBr may perform as well as or better than LiNO{sub 3}.

  12. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2010-01-15

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a {sup 7}Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10{sup 12} charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  13. Apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a thin-film substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Eric J.; Kooyer, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a surface of a continuous thin-film substrate and a treated thin-film cathode having increased smoothness are disclosed. A web of untreated cathode material is moved between a feed mechanism and a take-up mechanism, and passed through a treatment station. The web of cathode material typically includes areas having surface defects, such as prominences extending from the surface of the cathode material. The surface of the cathode material is treated with an abrasive material to reduce the height of the prominences so as to increase an 85 degree gloss value of the cathode material surface by at least approximately 10. The web of cathode material may be subjected to a subsequent abrasive treatment at the same or other treatment station. Burnishing or lapping film is employed at a treatment station to process the cathode material. An abrasive roller may alternatively be used to process the web of cathode material. The apparatus and method of the present invention may also be employed to treat the surface of a lithium anode foil so as to cleanse and reduce the roughness of the anode foil surface.

  14. Apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a thin-film substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Eric J.; Kooyer, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a surface of a continuous thin-film substrate and a treated thin-film cathode having increased smoothness are disclosed. A web of untreated cathode material is moved between a feed mechanism and a take-up mechanism, and passed through a treatment station. The web of cathode material typically includes areas having surface defects, such as prominences extending from the surface of the cathode material. The surface of the cathode material is treated with an abrasive material to reduce the height of the prominences so as to increase an 85 degree gloss value of the cathode material surface by at least approximately 10. The web of cathode material may be subjected to a subsequent abrasive treatment at the same or other treatment station. Burnishing or lapping film is employed at a treatment station to process the cathode material. An abrasive roller may alternatively be used to process the web of cathode material. The apparatus and method of the present invention may also be employed to treat the surface of a lithium anode foil so as to cleanse and reduce the roughness of the anode foil surface.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Process Development and Scale-up of Advanced Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about process development and scale...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Design and Synthesis of Advanced High-Energy Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Design and Synthesis of Advanced High-Energy Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about design...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Design and Synthesis of Advanced High-Energy Cathode Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

  20. Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. H. Zhu

    2009-07-31

    This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling

  1. Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Scientific Computing Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research Discovering, ... The DOE Office of Science's Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program ...

  2. Large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride cathode structure having predetermined emission profile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gordon, K.C.; Kippenhan, D.O.; Purgalis, P.; Moussa, D.; Williams, M.D.; Wilde, S.B.; West, M.W.

    1987-10-16

    A large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB/sub 6/) cathode system is disclosed. The system comprises a LaB/sub 6/ cathode element generally circular in shape about a central axis. The cathode element has a head with an upper substantially planar emission surface, and a lower downwardly and an intermediate body portion which diminishes in cross-section from the head towards the base of the cathode element. A central rod is connected to the base of the cathode element and extends along the central axis. Plural upstanding spring fingers are urged against an outer peripheral contact surface of the head end to provide a mechanical and electrical connection to the cathode element. 7 figs

  3. Large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride cathode structure having predetermined emission profile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gordon, Keith C.; Kippenham, Dean O.; Purgalis, Peter; Moussa, David; Williams, Malcom D.; Wilde, Stephen B.; West, Mark W.

    1989-01-01

    A large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB.sub.6) cathode system (10) is disclosed. The system comprises a LaB.sub.6 cathode element (11) generally circular in shape about a central axis. The cathode element (11) has a head (21) with an upper substantially planar emission surface (23), and a lower downwardly and an intermediate body portion (26) which diminishes in cross-section from the head (21) towards the base (22) of the cathode element (11). A central rod (14) is connected to the base (22) of the cathode element (11) and extends along the central axis. Plural upstanding spring fingers (37) are urged against an outer peripheral contact surface (24) of the head end (21) to provide a mechanical and electrical connection to the cathode element (11).

  4. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  5. Characterization of Atomic and Electronic Structures of Electrochemically Active SOFC Cathode Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Blinn; Yongman Choi; Meilin Liu

    2009-08-11

    The objective of this project is to gain a fundamental understanding of the oxygen-reduction mechanism on mixed conducting cathode materials by means of quantum-chemical calculations coupled with direct experimental measurements, such as vibrational spectroscopy. We have made progress in the elucidation of the mechanisms of oxygen reduction of perovkite-type cathode materials for SOFCs using these quantum chemical calculations. We established computational framework for predicting properties such as oxygen diffusivity and reaction rate constants for adsorption, incorporation, and TPB reactions, and formulated predictions for LSM- and LSC-based cathode materials. We have also further developed Raman spectroscopy as well as SERS as a characterization tool for SOFC cathode materials. Raman spectroscopy was used to detect chemical changes in the cathode from operation conditions, and SERS was used to probe for pertinent adsorbed species in oxygen reduction. However, much work on the subject of unraveling oxygen reduction for SOFC cathodes remains to be done.

  6. Composite Organic Radical - Inorganic Hybrid Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qian; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Koech, Phillip K.; Choi, Daiwon; Lemmon, John P.

    2013-07-01

    A new organic radical inorganic hybrid cathode comprised of PTMA/LiFePO4 composite system is developed and reported for the first time. The hybrid cathodes demonstrate high pulse power capability resulting in a significant improvement over the pure PTMA or LiFePO4 cathode which is very promising for transportation and other high pulse power applications that require long cycle life and lower cost.

  7. Surface topography of a palladium cathode after electrolysis in heavy water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silver, D.S. ); Dash, J.; Keefe, P.S. )

    1993-12-01

    Electrolysis was performed with a palladium cathode and an electrolyte containing both hydrogen and deuterium ions. The cathode bends toward the anode during this process. Examination of both the concave and the convex surfaces with the scanning electron microscope, scanning tunneling microscope, and atomic force microscope shows unusual surface characteristics. Rimmed craters with faceted crystals inside and multitextural surfaces were observed on an electrolyzed palladium cathode but not on palladium that has not been electrolyzed. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 7_usc_popov.pdf (1.59 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability

  9. Effect of an Ultrathin Coating on Stabilizing Li-ion Battery Cathodes |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Effect of an Ultrathin Coating on Stabilizing Li-ion Battery Cathodes Sunday, January 31, 2016 Improvements in the high-voltage cycling stability of lithium ion battery cathode materials are needed to enable the wide-spread adoption of renewable energy technologies such as electric vehicles. One cathode material which exhibits significant advantages over the commonly-used commercial material LiCoO2 in terms of higher capacity, increased thermal

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, Srikanth

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  11. Battery Cathodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center at Cornell Cathodes Figure 1. Acceleration of DMcT Oxidation and Reduction at PEDOT-Modified Electrode Research on new cathodes for lithium-ion batteries has long been directed towards crystalline metal oxide-based materials, with charge stored by lithium insertion into the material matrix. Research in the Energy Frontier Research Center is pursuing an alternate approach to battery cathodes based on the reaction of lithium with naturally abundant, light-weight, and amorphous organic

  12. Oxygen reduction and transportation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li YH, Gemmen R, Liu XB

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, various models have been developed for describing the reaction mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) especially for the cathode electrode. However, many fundamental issues regarding the transport of oxygen and electrode kinetics have not been fully understood. This review tried to summarize the present status of the SOFC cathode modeling efforts, and associated experimental approaches on this topic. In addition, unsolved problems and possible future research directions for SOFC cathode kinetics had been discussed

  13. Cathode cooling by expansion of hydrogen in calorimetric tests for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gammon, B.E. )

    1993-05-01

    Expansion of hydrogen and its isotopes from hydrogen-absorbing cathodes can transfer significant amounts of energy to the surrounding aqueous media. In calorimetric efforts to confirm cold fusion, allowance must be made for thermal conduction along electrical leads. In conjunction with consideration of the extent of cathode cooling by expansion of hydrogen, the rupturing of the cavities within the cathodes and limitations to charging of the electrode by hydrogen flowing from fresh cracks are briefly addressed. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  14. A Functional Impurity for Li-O2 Battery Cathode - Joint Center for Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Research December 2, 2015, Research Highlights A Functional Impurity for Li-O2 Battery Cathode Galvanostatic discharge curves of activated carbon cathodes (a) with different K-impurity levels (i.e. KAC4 to KAC16) at 0.1 mA/cm2 and the corresponding SEM images (b to e) of the discharged cathode. Scientific Achievement Demonstrated that alkali metal can be used as a catalyst Li-O2 cell cathode design and opens the possibility of future optimization of functional K-doping in carbon

  15. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaoping Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-15

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation.

  16. Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Coffey, Gregory W

    2014-05-20

    The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

  17. Composition and Manufacturing Effects on Electrical Properties of Li/FeS2 Thermal Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinholz, Emilee Lolita

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to better understand the relationship between processing, microstructure, and electrical conductivity of LiFeS2 thermal battery cathodes.

  18. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the ...

  19. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on cathode supports for PEM fuel cells, was given by Yong Wang of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  20. Simulations of multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC of 112 MHz superconducting electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.

    2012-05-20

    A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be used for testing of the performance of various high quantum efficiency photocathodes. In a previous paper, we presented the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). In this paper we present updated designs of the cathode stalk and FPC. Multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC was simulated using three different codes. All simulation results show no serious multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC.

  1. Multi-variable mathematical models for the air-cathode microbial fuel cell system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-03-10

    This research adopted the version control system into the model construction for the single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, to understand the interrelation of biological, chemical, and electrochemical reactions. The anodic steady state model was used to consider the chemical species diffusion and electric migration influence to the MFC performance. In the cathodic steady state model, the mass transport and reactions in a multi-layer, abiotic cathode and multi-bacteria cathode biofilm were simulated. Transport of hydroxide was assumed for cathodic pH change. This assumption is an alternative to the typical notion of proton consumption during oxygen reduction to explainmore » elevated cathode pH. The cathodic steady state model provided the power density and polarization curve performance results that can be compared to an experimental MFC system. Another aspect we considered was the relative contributions of platinum catalyst and microbes on the cathode to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We found simulation results showed that the biocatalyst in a cathode that includes a Pt/C catalyst likely plays a minor role in ORR, contributing up to 8% of the total power calculated by the models.« less

  2. 1995 Annual Cathodic Protection Survey Report for the Hanford 200 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, T.J.

    1996-09-24

    Compilation of the CY 1995 Cathodic Protection Surveys performed for the 200 areas (East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, Evaporator, PFP, Purex, 222-S Labs).

  3. EERE Success Story-PNNL Advances Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PNNL Advances Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Technologies EERE Success Story-PNNL Advances Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Technologies July 26, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Through multiple projects, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is improving the performance and decreasing the cost of hydrogen fuel production and fuel cell technologies. PNNL's research is developing new materials-like a durable, high-performance cathode support-and improving the manufacturing processes by

  4. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Download the presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell," held February 12, 2013. Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Webinar Slides (11.2 MB) More Documents & Publications Catalysis Working Group Meeting: January 2015 Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Fuel Cells: Just a Dream - or Future Reality of Energy

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle

  5. ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS USING COLD-CATHODE TRIODE VALVES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.

    1957-11-26

    An electrical circuit which may be utilized as a pulse generator or voltage stabilizer is presented. The circuit employs a cold-cathode triode valve arranged to oscillate between its on and off stages by the use of selected resistance-capacitance time constant components in the plate and trigger grid circuits. The magnitude of the d-c voltage applied to the trigger grid circuit effectively controls the repetition rate of the output pulses. In the voltage stabilizer arrangement the d-c control voltage is a portion of the supply voltage and the rectified output voltage is substantially constant.

  6. A novel electron gun with an independently addressable cathode array.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pea, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.

    2006-08-01

    The design of a novel electron gun with an array of independently addressable cathode elements is presented. Issues relating to operation in a 6.5 Tesla axial magnetic field are discussed. Simulations with the TriComp [1] electromagnetic field code that were used to determine the space charge limited tube characteristic and to model focusing of the electron beam in the magnetic field are reviewed. Foil heating and stress calculations are discussed. The results of CYLTRAN [2] simulations yielding the energy spectrum of the electron beam and the current transmitted through the foil window are presented.

  7. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  8. Cathodic deposition of amorphous alloys of silicon, carbon, and fluorine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Kroger, F.A.

    1982-05-01

    Amorphous silicon containing fluorine and carbon, pure and doped with boron or phosphorus, was deposited cathodically from solutions of K/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/ in acetone with HF. The conditions for optimum deposition were determined, and the deposits were characterized by electron microprobe x-ray emission, electrical conductivity, and infrared absorption. Doping with phosphorus causes a change from p- to n-type semiconductor behavior, with a maximum of resistivity >10/sup 13/ /OMEGA/ cm at the compensation point. 48 refs.

  9. Pulsed rectifier limitations for well casing cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Rectifier current pulses applied to deep well casings suffer considerable waveform deterioration as well depth increases. Cathodic protection (CP) attributed to the use of a pulsed rectifier will not be effective below a certain depth, which is a function of pulse characteristics and soil resistivity. A hypothetical 3,000-m length well casing is modeled as a distributed lossy electrical transmission line. Below 300- to 500-m depths, the higher frequency of the pulse is severely attenuated. Therefore, the CP process results at greater depths will not differ significantly from those obtained with a nonpulsed DC rectifier.

  10. Electrical properties of a-C:Mo films produced by dual-cathode filtered cathodic arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansongsiri, Sakon; Anders, Andre; Yodsombat, Banchob

    2008-01-20

    Molybdenum-containing amorphous carbon (a-C:Mo) thin films were prepared using a dual-cathode filtered cathodic arc plasma source with a molybdenum and a carbon (graphite) cathode. The Mo content in the films was controlled by varying the deposition pulse ratio of Mo and C. Film sheet resistance was measured in situ at process temperature, which was close to room temperature, as well as ex situ as a function of temperature (300-515 K) in ambient air. Film resistivity and electrical activation energy were derived for different Mo and C ratios and substrate bias. Film thickness was in the range 8-28 nm. Film resistivity varied from 3.55x10-4 Omega m to 2.27x10-6 Omega m when the Mo/C pulse ratio was increased from 0.05 to 0.4, with no substrate bias applied. With carbon-selective bias, the film resistivity was in the range of 4.59x10-2 and 4.05 Omega m at a Mo/C pulse ratio of 0.05. The electrical activation energy decreased from 3.80x10-2 to 3.36x10-4 eV when the Mo/C pulse ratio was increased in the absence of bias, and from 0.19 to 0.14 eV for carbon-selective bias conditions. The resistivity of the film shifts systematically with the amounts of Mo and upon application of substrate bias voltage. The intensity ratio of the Raman D-peak and G-peak (ID/IG) correlated with the pre-exponential factor (sigma 0) which included charge carrier density and density of states.

  11. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles A.; Trowbridge, Frank R.

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  12. Raman Microscopy of Lithium-Manganese-Rich Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruther, Rose E; Callender, Andrew F.; Zhou, Hui; Martha, Surendra; Nanda, Jagjit

    2014-01-01

    Lithium rich, manganese rich composites with general formula xLi2MnO3 (1-x)LiMO2 are promising candidates for high capacity and high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Lithium rich oxides crystallize as a nanocomposite of layered phases whose structure further evolves with electrochemical cycling. Raman spectroscopy is potentially a powerful tool to monitor the crystal chemistry and correlate phase changes with electrochemical behavior. While several groups have reported Raman spectra of lithium rich oxides, the data show considerable variability in terms of both the vibrational features observed and their interpretation. In this study Raman microscopy is used to investigate lithium-rich manganese-rich cathodes as a function of average charge and electrochemical cycling. LMR-NMC cycled at elevated temperature (60 C) has a modified crystal structure which may account for some of the observed increase in capacity. Contrary to some reports, no growth of a spinel phase is observed. However, analysis of the Raman spectra does indicate the structure of LMR-NMC deviates significantly from an ideal layered phase. The results also highlight the importance of using low laser power and large sample sizes to obtain consistent data sets.

  13. Raman Microscopy of Lithium-Manganese-Rich Cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruther, Rose E; Callender, Andrew F.; Zhou, Hui; Martha, Surendra; Nanda, Jagjit

    2014-01-01

    Lithium rich, manganese rich composites with general formula xLi2MnO3 (1-x)LiMO2 are promising candidates for high capacity and high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Lithium rich oxides crystallize as a nanocomposite of layered phases whose structure further evolves with electrochemical cycling. Raman spectroscopy is potentially a powerful tool to monitor the crystal chemistry and correlate phase changes with electrochemical behavior. While several groups have reported Raman spectra of lithium rich oxides, the data show considerable variability in terms of both the vibrational features observed and their interpretation. In this study Raman microscopy is used to investigate lithium-rich manganese-rich cathodes asmore » a function of average charge and electrochemical cycling. LMR-NMC cycled at elevated temperature (60 C) has a modified crystal structure which may account for some of the observed increase in capacity. Contrary to some reports, no growth of a spinel phase is observed. However, analysis of the Raman spectra does indicate the structure of LMR-NMC deviates significantly from an ideal layered phase. The results also highlight the importance of using low laser power and large sample sizes to obtain consistent data sets.« less

  14. Measurement of groove features and dimensions of the vertical test cathode and the choke joint of the superconducting electron gun cavity of the Energy Recovery LINAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, L.; Ke, M.

    2011-10-13

    vertical test cathode, the geometry of these grooves was altered, presenting the possibility that multipacting may, in fact, be occurring in this area and contributing to the low gradients that have been observed in the fine-grain cavity. Therefore, the Survey and Alignment group in C-AD engaged in measurements of the cavity joint, shown in Figure 2 and the cathode weldment, shown in Figure 3 for the purpose of characterizing the grooves in both the cavity and the vertical test cathode and comparing the dimensions of the cathode with those of the prints supplied by Advanced Energy Systems (AES), the original designer and manufacturer of both the test cathode and the electron gun cavity, in preparation to have a new one manufactured. The goal was to ensure that the articles as built matched the design prints in preparation for manufacturing a new vertical test cathode. This report describes the data collected by the Survey group in these efforts. The endeavor was challenging for the group given the millimeter-scale dimensions of the grooves and the requirement for high precision.

  15. advanced manufacutring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    manufacutring - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  16. Advanced Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Manufacturing Office 13 Selectees Announced for High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Program 13 Selectees Announced for High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Program EERE, in partnership with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), announced the second round of selections for the High Performance Computing for Manufacturing ("HPC4Mfg") Program. Thirteen projects were selected to receive nearly $3.8 million for manufacturers to use high-performance

  17. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  18. Effect of A-site Non-stoichiometry on LSCF Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Hardy, John S.

    2011-09-01

    LSCF Cathodes were explored when effected with A-site non-stoichiometry. At 700-800 C, the operating temperatures of intermediate temperature (IT-) SOFCs have enabled the use of stainless steels in the SOFC framework and current collectors, allowing significant reductions in cost. However, the lower operating temperatures of IT-SOFC's also result in significant decreases in power densities of cells with LSM cathodes due to their high activation energies. LSCF is a mixed ionic electronic conducting perovskite that exhibits higher performance than LSM/YSZ composites and shows potential as a replacement cathode. This study investigates the effect of A-site stoichiometry on the performance of LSCF cathodes. Cell tests showed that A-site and Sr-deficient LSCF cathodes consistently outperformed stoichiometric LSCF cathodes, exhibiting up to 10% higher cell power densities. It was also observed that all stoichiometric, A-site, and Sr-deficient LSCF cathodes degraded over time at similar rates. Contributions of ohmic and electrode polarization losses to cell degradation rates were similar regardless of cathode composition.

  19. Characterization of a Filtered High Current Pulsed Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma Source: Plasma Transport Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangines, R.; Tarrant, R. N.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Andruczyk, D.

    2008-03-19

    Studies of plasma behavior produced by a filtered high current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc system are reported. Titanium plasma is initiated from the cathode by surface flash over triggering at the centre of the cathode disk. The multiple arc spots move outwards due to their mutual repulsion and the arc current pulse is terminated as the arc spots reach the edge of the cathode disk. The plasma moves into a positively biased quarter-torus magnetic filter and is guided towards the substrate position located 150 mm beyond the filter exit. Electron density and plasma current measurements have been employed to analyze the transport of the plasma associated with different cathode currents, and its dependence on confining magnetic field and bias conditions. For a given cathode current, the optimum plasma transport to the substrate requires the right combination of the strength of the confining magnetic field and the magnetic filter positive bias. The optimum values of these two parameters were found to increase with increasing cathode current. Initially the optimum throughput of plasma increases more strongly than the arc current (roughly 1.5 times the increase in the current); however, at high cathode current regimes (2.4 kA) a significant change of the plasma behavior is seen and transport efficiency is reduced.

  20. On the mechanism of operation of a cathode spot cell in a vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Bochkarev, M. B.; Barengolts, S. A.

    2014-05-05

    The erosive structures formed on a tungsten cathode as a result of the motion of the cathode spot of a vacuum arc over the cathode surface have been examined. It has been found that the average mass of a cathode microprotrusion having the shape of a solidified jet is approximately equal to the mass of ions removed from the cathode within the lifetime of a cathode spot cell carrying a current of several amperes. The time of formation of a new liquid-metal jet under the action of the reactive force of the plasma ejected by the cathode spot is about 10?ns, which is comparable to the lifetime of a cell. The growth rate of a liquid-metal jet is ?10{sup 4}?cm/s. The geometric shape and size of a solidified jet are such that a new explosive emission center (spot cell) can be initiated within several nanoseconds during the interaction of the jet with the dense cathode plasma. This is the underlying mechanism of the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc.

  1. Cathode for a hall-heroult type electrolytic cell for producing aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum from alumina in an electrolytic cell including using a cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity and wettable with molten aluminum to form a reaction layer having a high electrical conductivity on said base layer and a cathode bar extending from said reaction layer through said base material to conduct electrical current from said reaction layer.

  2. Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Franz, Robert; Polcik, Peter; Anders, André

    2015-06-01

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al+ regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr2+ ions were dominating in Ar and N2 and Cr+ in O2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected tomore » collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings.« less

  3. Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, Robert; Polcik, Peter; Anders, Andr

    2015-06-01

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al+ regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr2+ ions were dominating in Ar and N2 and Cr+ in O2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected to collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings.

  4. Mechanism of cathode spot splitting in vacuum arcs in an oblique magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beilis, I. I.

    2015-10-15

    Experiments in the last decade showed that for cathode spots in a magnetic field that obliquely intercepts the cathode surface, the current per spot increased with the transverse component of the magnetic field and decreased with the normal component. The present work analyzes the nature of cathode spot splitting in an oblique magnetic field. A physical model for cathode spot current splitting was developed, which considered the relation between the plasma kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and applied magnetic pressure in a current carrying cathode plasma jet. The current per spot was calculated, and it was found to increase with the tangential component of the magnetic field and to decrease with the normal component, which agrees well with the experimental dependence.

  5. Vacuum encapsulated, high temperature diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, Josh; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2015-12-29

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first high-temperature solder weld disposed between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and a second high-temperature solder weld disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the cathode element. The cathode capsule is formed by a high temperature weld process under vacuum such that the first solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and the second solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the cathode element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  6. Vacuum encapsulated hermetically sealed diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, John; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2014-12-30

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first cold-weld ring disposed between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and a second cold-weld ring disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the diamond window element. The cathode capsule is formed by a vacuum cold-weld process such that the first cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and the second cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the diamond window element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  7. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, Steven H.

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a

  8. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (4.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cells: Just a Dream - or Future Reality Catalysis Working Group Meeting: January 2015

  9. Analysis of deformed palladium cathodes resulting from heavy water electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, H.K.; Jeong, E.J.; Hong, J.H.; Lee, Y.

    1995-07-01

    Earlier experiments suggested that large differences in heat release between the two sides of a palladium electrode coated with gold on one side and manganese oxide on the other cause observed electrode deformation with high-pressure D{sub 2} gas loading in an electrolysis-like cell. Similar experiments were repeated using heavy water electrolysis. Palladium/titanium coatings on one side and gold coating on the other were made for the preparation of the palladium electrodes. Biaxial bending, partial discoloration, and microcracks of palladium electrodes were observed after 18 days of electrolysis. Analysis of the deformed palladium cathodes was performed. It was discovered that to convert this configuration to a practical energy-producing cell, a coating technique must be found to reduce outward diffusion of deuterium, i.e., to maintain a high D/Pd ratio over longer periods of time. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hollow nanoparticle cathode materials for sodium electrochemical cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shevchenko, Elena; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher S.; Koo, Bonil

    2016-07-12

    A cathode comprises, in its discharged state, a layer of hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles disposed between two layers of carbon nanotubes, and preferably including a metallic current collector in contact with one of the layers of carbon nanotubes. Individual particles of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles comprise a crystalline shell of .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 including cation vacancies within the crystal structure of the shell (i.e., iron vacancies of anywhere between 3% to 90%, and preferably 44 to 77% of available octahedral iron sites). Sodium ions are intercalated within at least some of the cation vacancies within the crystalline shell of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles.

  11. Analyses of palladium cathodes used for heavy water electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, K.; Dauwalter, C.R.; Stecyk, A. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the sporadic nature of the excess heat reported from heavy water electrolysis which has attributed to variability among the different palladium cathodes used. Experimental repeatability should, therefore, be enhanced if the microstructure of the palladium can be controlled. Toward this end, palladium rod samples from two heavy water electrolysis experiments were compared to a sample representative of the as-installed condition. The samples examined showed equiaxed grains and significant abnormal grain growth. The rod axes had strong textures, which were attributed to their prior thermomechanical history. The postelectrolysis palladium rods were sampled at two locations that were suspected to have operated at different average current densities. The suspected higher current density regions consisted of single-phase Pd-D{sub 0.7} microstructures. Surface-originated cracks were seen along the grain boundaries in one of two such specimens. Cracks were absent in samples from the suspected lower current density regions, which showed two-phase microstructures with Pd-D{sub 0.7} as the dominant phase. The minor phase, indexed as palladium in the X-ray pattern, was dispersed nonuniformly, mostly in the form of stringers, across the grain boundaries. It is concluded that high current densities resulted in high deuterium loadings in palladium. Smoothing effects from the electrolytic process, resulting in preferential material removal from the grain boundaries, were seen on the cathode surface. A number of high-mass impurities were seen to have deposited on the exposed surface. An initial secondary ion mass spectrometry examination of the specimen interior indicated a significant presence of mass 2 species and considerably lower concentrations of mass 3 and 4 species. Repeat analyses failed to confirm the presence of the mass 3 and 4 species.

  12. High-current electron beam generation in a diode with a multicapillary dielectric cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleizer, J. Z.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2008-02-15

    Results of high-current electron beam generation in an {approx}200 kV, {approx}250 ns diode with a multicapillary dielectric cathode (MCDC) assisted by either velvet-type or ferroelectric plasma sources (FPSs) are presented. Multicapillary cathodes made of cordierite, glass, and quartz glass samples were studied. It was found that the source of electrons is the plasma ejected from capillaries. The plasma parameters inside capillary channels and in the vicinity of the cathode surface were determined during the accelerating pulse using visible range spectroscopy. It was shown that glass multicapillary cathodes are characterized by less surface erosion than the cordierite cathodes. Also, it was found that multicapillary cathodes assisted by a FPS showed longer lifetime and better vacuum compatibility than multicapillary cathodes assisted by a velvet-type igniter. Finally, it was found that quartz glass MCDC assisted by FPS is characterized by almost simultaneous formation of the plasma in a cross-sectional area of the dielectric sample with respect to the beginning of the accelerating pulse. The latter is explained by intense UV radiation which synchronized formation of parallel discharges due to induced secondary electron emission.

  13. Characterization of Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries using Synchrotron Based In Situ X-ray Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2007-05-23

    The emergence of portable telecommunication, computer equipment and ultimately hybrid electric vehicles has created a substantial interest in manufacturing rechargeable batteries that are less expensive, non-toxic, operate for longer time, small in size and weigh less. Li-ion batteries are taking an increasing share of the rechargeable battery market. The present commercial battery is based on a layered LiCoO{sub 2} cathode and a graphitized carbon anode. LiCoO{sub 2} is expensive but it has the advantage being easily manufactured in a reproducible manner. Other low cost layered compounds such as LiNiO{sub 2}, LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} or cubic spinels such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been considered. However, these suffer from cycle life and thermal stability problems. Recently, some battery companies have demonstrated a new concept of mixing two different types of insertion compounds to make a composite cathode, aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in ·capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and phase transitions for these composite cathodes. Understanding the structure and structural changes of electrode materials during the electrochemical cycling is the key to develop better .lithium ion batteries. The successful commercialization of the· lithium-ion battery is mainly built on the advances in solid state chemistry of the intercalation compounds. Most of the progress in understanding the lithium ion battery materials has been obtained from x-ray diffraction studies. Up to now, most XRD studies on lithium-ion battery materials have been done ex situ. Although these ex situ XRD studies have provided important information· about the structures of battery materials, they do face three major problems. First of all, the pre-selected charge (discharge) states may

  14. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-08-15

    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions inmore » a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Lastly, simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.« less

  15. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

    2014-05-13

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  16. EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric Vehicles EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric Vehicles August 13, 2015 - 12:12pm Addthis The 2011 Chevrolet Volt at a charging station. Its battery is based on a cathode technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory, which will make the battery safer, longer-lived and more powerful. Photo courtesy of General Motors The 2011 Chevrolet Volt at a

  17. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-Benzoquinone (DMBQ) as Organic Cathode for Rechargeable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnesium-Ion Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research January 13, 2016, Research Highlights 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-Benzoquinone (DMBQ) as Organic Cathode for Rechargeable Magnesium-Ion Batteries Image for Organic Cathode Scientific Achievement 2,5-dimethoxyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) was investigated as 2 V (vs Mg/Mg2+) organic cathode material for non-aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries Significance and Impact Mg-DMBQ batteries were demonstrated to work with a discharge

  18. IN-SITU XRD OF OPERATING LSFC CATHODES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-11-19

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) research capability has been developed that facilitates measuring the electrochemical performance of an operating SOFC while simultaneously performing x-ray diffraction on its cathode. The evolution of this research tools development is discussed together with a description of the instrumentation used for in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of operating SOFC cathodes. The challenges that were overcome in the process of developing this capability, which included seals and cathode current collectors, are described together with the solutions that are presently being applied to mitigate them.

  19. High-brightness, high-current density cathode for induction linac FELs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, W.C.; Chen, Y.-J.; Nexsen, W.E.; Green, M.C.; Miram, G.; Nordquist, A.V.

    1988-09-28

    We have recently initiated an investigation to determine the intrinsic operating limits of an osmium coated dispenser cathode for use in free-electron lasers (FELs) driven by an induction linear accelerator. The experimental apparatus consists of a 5.1-cm-diam osmium coated dispenser cathode driven by a 250-kV, 10-..cap omega.., 35-ns Blumlein pulse line. The pepper pot technique is used to measure intrinsic cathode brightness and uniformity. Recent measurements have yielded brightness values exceeding 1 /times/ 10/sup 10/ A/m/sup 2/rad/sup 2/ for current densities up to 140 A/cm/sup 2/. We have also obtained quantitative data on cathode poisoning caused by a number of chemical agents of interest in the induction linac environment. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy novel cathode / alloy...

  1. Nanocrystallization of LiCoO2 Cathodes for Thin Film Batteries Utilizing Pulse Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose focus is on the nanocrystallization of the LiCoO2 cathode thin films on polyimide substrates and evaluate the microstructural evolution and resistance as a function of PTP processing conditions.

  2. Evaluating the need and feasibility of cathodically protecting above ground storage tanks in a petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrien, P.; Solomon, I.

    1994-12-31

    Managing soil-side corrosion problems on Above Ground Storage Tanks (AGSTs) presents an important challenge to refinery corrosion engineers. Cathodic protection and periodic internal inspection are two methods of managing soil-side corrosion. Mobil Oil Australia conducted a study into the need and feasibility of cathodically protecting up to 120 tanks at its Altona refinery in Melbourne, Australia. The need was determined by assessing the corrosivity of the environment under the tanks from soil samples and inspection data, and the feasibility determined by conducting current drainage testing on representative tanks. Results indicated that the tanks can be cathodically protected at less than 10mA/m{sup 2} current density, using perimeter anodes. They also showed that there is little correlation between bulk foundation or surrounding soil properties, and soil-side corrosion. The paper also demonstrates how the extension of intervals between internal inspections can economically justify the application of cathodic protection.

  3. Correlation between cathode properties, burning voltage, and plasma parameters of vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Yotsombat, Banchob; Binder, Robert

    2001-06-15

    Burning voltages of vacuum arcs were measured for 54 cathode materials and compared with literature data. As anticipated, a correlation between the arc burning voltage and the plasma temperature was found. However, more importantly, a correlation between the cohesive energy of the cathode material and the arc burning voltage could be demonstrated. This link between a cathode material property, the cohesive energy, and a discharge property, the arc burning voltage, is essential for the operation of the vacuum arc discharge because is determines the plasma temperature. Energy balance considerations show that this {open_quotes}cohesive energy rule{close_quotes} is responsible for several other secondary relationships, such as the correlation between the mean ion charge state and the boiling temperature of the cathode. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Bent paths of a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase ...

  5. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The evolution of ion charge states in ...

  6. Thermal reactive ion etching technique involving use of self-heated cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, S.; Minami, Y.; Sohgawa, M.; Abe, T.

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the thermal reactive ion etching (TRIE) technique for etching hard-to-etch materials is presented. The TRIE technique employs a self-heated cathode and a thermally insulated aluminum plate is placed on the cathode of a regular reactive ion etching (RIE) system. By optimizing the beam size to support the sample stage, the temperature of the stage can be increased to a desired temperature without a cathode heater. The technique was used to etch a bulk titanium plate. An etch rate of 0.6 μm/min and an etch selectivity to nickel of 100 were achieved with SF{sub 6} plasma. The proposed technique makes a regular RIE system a more powerful etcher without the use of chlorine gas, a cathode heater, and an inductively coupled plasma source.

  7. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Molecular Design Leads to Record Performance for Li2S Cathodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Li2S and Li-S functional groups in PVP binder (left). Optical microscopy and visual images of the fine grain structure of cathode-PVP composite (top, right) and the coarse-grain ...

  9. Array of virtual Frisch-grid detectors with common cathode and reduced length of shielding electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey; James, Ralph B.; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Vernon, Emerson

    2015-09-15

    A radiation detector system that effectively solves the electron trapping problem by optimizing shielding of individual virtual Frisch-grid detectors in an array configuration with a common cathode.

  10. Array of virtual Frisch-grid detectors with common cathode and reduced length of shielding electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Yang, Ge; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B.

    2015-09-01

    A radiation detector system that solves the electron trapping problem by optimizing shielding of the individual virtual Frisch-grid detectors in an array configuration with a common cathode.

  11. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document ...

  12. Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with common cathode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with ... corrections for electron loss by reading the cathode signals to obtain depth information. ...

  13. Evaluation of plasma-sprayed CoS{sub 2} cathodes for thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1999-12-22

    Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts. These include the anode, separator, and cathode pellets (discs). Pressing parts that are less than 0.010 inch thick is difficult. The use of plasma spray to deposit thin CoS{sub 2} cathode films onto a stainless steel substrate was examined as an alternative to pressed-powder cathodes. The plasma-sprayed electrodes were tested in single cells under isothermal conditions and constant-current discharge over a temperature range of 400 C to 550 C using standard LiSi anodes and separators based on the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Similar tests were conducted with cells built with conventional pressed-powder cathodes, which were tested under the same conditions for comparative purposes. This paper presents the results of those tests.

  14. Correlation between microstructure and thermionic electron emission from Os-Ru thin films on dispenser cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartzentruber, Phillip D.; John Balk, Thomas; Effgen, Michael P.

    2014-07-01

    Osmium-ruthenium films with different microstructures were deposited onto dispenser cathodes and subjected to 1000 h of close-spaced diode testing. Tailored microstructures were achieved by applying substrate biasing during deposition, and these were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy before and after close-spaced diode testing. Knee temperatures determined from the close-spaced diode test data were used to evaluate cathode performance. Cathodes with a large (10-11) Os-Ru film texture possessed comparatively low knee temperatures. Furthermore, a low knee temperature correlated with a low effective work function as calculated from the close-spaced diode data. It is proposed that the formation of strong (10-11) texture is responsible for the superior performance of the cathode with a multilayered Os-Ru coating.

  15. Analytical expression for the electric potential in the plasma sheath near an arc-cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askari, S.; Minoo, H.

    2008-04-15

    An expression for the spatial dependence of the electric potential in a collisionless plasma sheath near an electron-emitting cathode is presented. The applicability of this expression for an arc cathode is demonstrated. Comparison with the numerical solutions of the model equations indicates that the sheath thickness and potential variation predicted by this expression are accurate in a wide range of the electron-emission yield.

  16. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capece, Angela M. Shepherd, Joseph E.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-04-21

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25?mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15?A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100?ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  17. Hollow-cathode electrode for high-power, high-pressure discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-08-22

    Several different cold cathode configurations are disclosed for a gas discharge device each having a plurality of grooves of selected spacing, depth and width to improve the emission of electrons in a gas discharge device. Each of the cold cathode configurations can be machined from a single piece of a selected material. Several of the configurations can be assembled with individual elements which is easily seen from the various figures. 8 figs.

  18. Hollow - cathode electrode for high-power, high-pressure discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Alger, Terry W.

    1995-01-01

    Several different cold cathode configurations for a gas discharge device each having a plurality of grooves of selected spacing, depth and width to improve the emission of electrons in a gas discharge device. Each of the cold cathode configurations can be machined from a single piece of a selected material. Several of the configurations can be assembled with individual elements which is easily seen from the various figures.

  19. Hollow cathode theory and experiment. II. A two-dimensional theoretical model of the emitter region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2005-12-01

    Despite their long history and wide range of applicability that includes electric propulsion, detailed understanding of the driving physics inside orificed hollow cathodes remains elusive. The theoretical complexity associated with the multicomponent fluid inside the cathode, and the difficulty of accessing empirically this region, have limited our ability to design cathodes that perform better and last longer. A two-dimensional axisymmetric theoretical model of the multispecies fluid inside an orificed hollow cathode is presented. The level of detail attained by the model is allowed by its extended system of governing equations not solved for in the past within the hollow cathode. Such detail is motivated in part by the need to quantify the effect(s) of the plasma on the emitter life, and by the need to build the foundation for future modeling that will assess erosion of the keeper plate. Results from numerical simulations of a 1.2-cm-diam cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A and a gas flow rate of 5 SCCM show that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.45 A of ion current return back to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current is 33.8 A and the peak emitter temperature is found to be 1440 K. Comparisons with the measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma is possible near the orifice region. The model predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2034 K and peak voltage drops near the emitting surface not exceeding 8 V.

  20. Numerical simulation of cathode plasma dynamics in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, C.; Genoni, T. C.; Welch, D. R.; Rose, D. V.; Clark, R. E.; Miller, C. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Kiefer, M. L.

    2015-03-15

    A novel algorithm for the simulation of cathode plasmas in particle-in-cell codes is described and applied to investigate cathode plasma evolution in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The MITL electron sheath is modeled by a fully kinetic electron species. Electron and ion macroparticles, both modeled as fluid species, form a dense plasma which is initially localized at the cathode surface. Energetic plasma electron particles can be converted to kinetic electrons to resupply the electron flux at the plasma edge (the “effective” cathode). Using this model, we compare results for the time evolution of the cathode plasma and MITL electron flow with a simplified (isothermal) diffusion model. Simulations in 1D show a slow diffusive expansion of the plasma from the cathode surface. But in multiple dimensions, the plasma can expand much more rapidly due to anomalous diffusion caused by an instability due to the strong coupling of a transverse magnetic mode in the electron sheath with the expanding resistive plasma layer.

  1. Pore Scale Modeling of the Reactive Transport of Chromium in the Cathode of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Amon, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We present a pore scale model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode. Volatile chromium species are known to migrate from the current collector of the SOFC into the cathode where over time they decrease the voltage output of the fuel cell. A pore scale model is used to investigate the reactive transport of chromium species in the cathode and to study the driving forces of chromium poisoning. A multi-scale modeling approach is proposed which uses a cell level model of the cathode, air channel and current collector to determine the boundary conditions for a pore scale model of a section of the cathode. The pore scale model uses a discrete representation of the cathode to explicitly model the surface reactions of oxygen and chromium with a cathode material. The pore scale model is used to study the reaction mechanisms of chromium by considering the effects of reaction rates, diffusion coefficients, chromium vaporization, and oxygen consumption on chromiums deposition in the cathode. The study shows that chromium poisoning is most significantly affected by the chromium reaction rates in the cathode and that the reaction rates are a function of the local current density in the cathode.

  2. Advances in High Power Compact Accelerators | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... Related Links http:www.phy.anl.govacceleratorrdindex.html External link http:accelconf.web.cern.chAccelConfLINAC2012paperstupb046.pdf External link http:...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advances in High-Efficiency Gasoline Compression Ignition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  4. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  5. Neutral beam dump with cathodic arc titanium gettering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, A.; Korepanov, S. A.; Putvinski, S.; Krivenko, A. S.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Savkin, V. Ya.

    2011-03-15

    An incomplete neutral beam capture can degrade the plasma performance in neutral beam driven plasma machines. The beam dumps mitigating the shine-through beam recycling must entrap and retain large particle loads while maintaining the beam-exposed surfaces clean of the residual impurities. The cathodic arc gettering, which provides high evaporation rate coupled with a fast time response, is a powerful and versatile technique for depositing clean getter films in vacuum. A compact neutral beam dump utilizing the titanium arc gettering was developed for a field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by 1 MW, 20-40 keV neutral hydrogen beams. The titanium evaporator features a new improved design. The beam dump is capable of handling large pulsed gas loads, has a high sorption capacity, and is robust and reliable. With the beam particle flux density of 5 x 10{sup 17} H/(cm{sup 2}s) sustained for 3-10 ms, the beam recycling coefficient, defined as twice the ratio of the hydrogen molecular flux leaving the beam dump to the incident flux of high-energy neutral atoms, is {approx}0.7. The use of the beam dump allows us to significantly reduce the recycling of the shine-through neutral beam as well as to improve the vacuum conditions in the machine.

  6. Iron-based perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ralph, James M.; Rossignol, Cecile C.R.; Vaughey, John T.

    2007-01-02

    An A and/or A' site deficient perovskite of general formula of (A.sub.1-xA'.sub.x).sub.1-yFeO.sub.3-.delta. or of general formula A.sub.1-x-yA'.sub.xFeO.sub.3-67, wherein A is La alone or with one or more of the rare earth metals or a rare earth metal other than Ce alone or a combination of rare earth metals and X is in the range of from 0 to about 1; A' is Sr or Ca or mixtures thereof and Y is in the range of from about 0.01 to about 0.3; .delta. represents the amount of compensating oxygen loss. If either A or A' is zero the remaining A or A' is deficient. A fuel cell incorporating the inventive perovskite as a cathode is disclosed as well as an oxygen separation membrane. The inventive perovskite is preferably single phase.

  7. Humectant use in the cathodic protection of reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.; Collins, W.K.; Bennett, J.E.; H.M. Laylor

    2000-03-01

    The use of humectants to improve the thermal-sprayed zinc anode performance during the cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete is examined. A humectant is a hygroscopic material. It is applied onto the surface of the zinc anode to keep the concrete-anode interface moist and a good conductor. The thermodynamics of humectants are discussed. Laboratory results are presented on the effects of using LiBr and LiNO{sub 3} as humectants in galvanic (GCP) and impressed current (ICCP) systems, in high and low relative humidities, and on new and previously electrochemically aged CP systems. LiNO{sub 3} and LiBr promoted more effective CP performance. Both improved the performance of aged slabs, suggesting that application of humectants onto existing CP systems would be of benefit. Microscopy showed that humectant-treated slabs develop the same cement-reaction zone-zinc anode structures as untreated slabs. Microscopy of LiBr-treated slabs revealed that the highest concentration of bromide was in the reaction zone. In GCP tests, LiBr was more effective than LiNO{sub 3}. In accelerated ICCP tests, LiNO{sub 3} was more effective than LiBr. It was surmised that bromide could be oxidized in the high-voltage accelerated ICCP tests. At the lower impressed currents of most installed ICCP systems, LiBr may perform as well as or better than LiNO{sub 3}.

  8. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and

  9. The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the Advanced Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the Advanced Manufacturing National Program ...

  10. Sandia Energy - Advanced Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Research & Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Advanced Research & Development Advanced Research & DevelopmentCoryne...

  11. Linear Accelerator | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linear Accelerator Producing brilliant x-ray beams at the APS begins with electrons emitted from a cathode heated to 1100 C. The electrons are accelerated by high-voltage...

  12. A mulitple cathode gun design for the eRHIC polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, E.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    The future electron-ion collider eRHIC requires a high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), low emittance ({approx}20 {micro}m) polarized electron source. The maximum average current of a polarized electron source so far is more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA, from a GaAs:Cs cathode. One possible approach to overcome the average current limit and to achieve the required 50 mA beam for eRHIC, is to combine beamlets from multiple cathodes to one beam. In this paper, we present the feasibility studies of this technique. The future eRHIC project, next upgrade of RHIC, will be the first electron-heavy ion collider in the world. It requires polarized electron source with a high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), emittance of about 20 {micro}m and energy spread of {approx}1% at 10 MeV. The state-of-art polarized electron cathode can generate average current of about more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA. The current is limited by the low quantum efficiency, space charge and ultra-high vacuum requirement of the polarized cathode. A possible approach to achieve the 50 mA beam is to employ multiple cathodes, such as 20 cathodes, and funnel the multiple bunched beams from cathodes to the same axis. Fig.1 illustrates schematically the concept of combining the multiple beams. We name it as 'Gatling gun' because it bears functional similarity to a Gatling gun. Laser beams strike the cathodes sequentially with revolution frequency of 700 kHz. Each beam bunch is focused by a solenoid and is bent toward the combiner. The combiner with rotating bending field bends all bunches arriving the combiner with a rotational pattern to the same axis. The energy of each bunch is modified by a bunching cavity (112MHz) and a 3rd harmonic cavity (336MHz). The bunch length is compressed ballistically in the drift space and is frozen after energy has been boosted to 10 MeV by the Booster linac. Each beam bunch contains 3.5 nC charge. The

  13. Influence of emission threshold of explosive emission cathodes on current waveform in foilless diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, P.; Liu, G. Z.; Huo, S. F.; Sun, J.; Chen, C. H.

    2015-08-15

    The emission threshold of explosive emission cathodes (EECs) is an important factor for beam quality. It can affect the explosive emission delay time, the plasma expansion process on the cathode surface, and even the current amplitude when the current is not fully space-charge-limited. This paper researches the influence of the emission threshold of an annular EEC on the current waveform in a foilless diode when the current is measured by a Rogowski coil. The particle-in-cell simulation which is performed under some tolerable and necessary simplifications shows that the long explosive emission delay time of high-threshold cathodes may leave an apparent peak of displacement current on the rise edge of the current waveform, and this will occur only when the electron emission starts after this peak. The experimental researches, which are performed under a diode voltage of 1 MV and a repetitive frequency of 20 Hz, demonstrate that the graphite cathode has a lower emission threshold and a longer lifetime than the stainless steel cathode according to the variation of the peak of displacement current on the rise edge of the current waveform.

  14. A Method for Monitoring Deposition at a Solid Cathode in an Electrorefiner for a Two-Species System Using Electrode Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.S. Rappleye; M.-S. Yim; M.F. Simpson; R.M. Cumberland

    2013-10-01

    Currently, process monitoring of spent nuclear fuel electrorefining relies upon sampling and destructive analysis methods coupled with extrapolative thermodynamic process models for non-interrupted operations. Corrections to those models are performed infrequently, jeopardizing both the control of the process and safeguarding of nuclear material. Furthermore, the timeliness of obtaining the results is inadequate for application of international safeguards protocol. Alternatively, a system that dynamically utilizes electrical data such as electrode potentials and cell current can hypothetically be used to achieve real-time process monitoring and more robust control as well as improved safeguards. Efforts to develop an advanced model of the electrorefiner to date have focused on a forward modeling approach by using feed and salt compositions to determine the product composition, cell current and electrode potential response. Alternatively, an inverse model was developed, and reported here, to predict the product deposition rates on a cathode using the cell current, cathode potential, and fundamental relations of electrochemistry. The model was applied to the following cases: pure uranium deposition, co-deposition of uranium and plutonium, and co-deposition of uranium and zirconium. The deposition rates predicted by the inverse model were compared to those of a forward model, ERAD.

  15. Advanced Manufacturing Office News

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-08

    News stories about advanced manufacturing, events, and office accomplishments. Subscribe to receive updates.

  16. Effect of Ti-Al cathode composition on plasma generation and plasma transport in direct current vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhirkov, I. Petruhins, A.; Dahlqvist, M.; Ingason, A. S.; Rosen, J.; Eriksson, A. O.

    2014-03-28

    DC arc plasma from Ti, Al, and Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x} (x?=?0.16, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.70) compound cathodes was characterized with respect to plasma chemistry and charge-state-resolved ion energy. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the deposited films and the cathode surfaces were used for exploring the correlation between cathode-, plasma-, and film composition. Experimental work was performed at a base pressure of 10{sup ?6}?Torr, to exclude plasma-gas interaction. The plasma ion composition showed a reduction of Al of approximately 5 at. % compared to the cathode composition, while deposited films were in accordance with the cathode stoichiometry. This may be explained by presence of neutrals in the plasma/vapour phase. The average ion charge states (Ti?=?2.2, Al?=?1.65) were consistent with reference data for elemental cathodes, and approximately independent on the cathode composition. On the contrary, the width of the ion energy distributions (IEDs) were drastically reduced when comparing the elemental Ti and Al cathodes with Ti{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}, going from??150 and ?175?eV to ?100 and ?75?eV for Ti and Al ions, respectively. This may be explained by a reduction in electron temperature, commonly associated with the high energy tail of the IED. The average Ti and Al ion energies ranged between ?50 and ?61?eV, and ?30 and ?50?eV, respectively, for different cathode compositions. The attained energy trends were explained by the velocity rule for compound cathodes, which states that the most likely velocities of ions of different mass are equal. Hence, compared to elemental cathodes, the faster Al ions will be decelerated, and the slower Ti ions will be accelerated when originating from compound cathodes. The intensity of the macroparticle generation and thickness of the deposited films were also found to be dependent on the cathode composition. The presented results may be of importance for choice of

  17. Long-pulse arc-discharge plasma source with cold cathode for diagnostic neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deichuli, P. P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Stupishin, N. V.

    2008-02-15

    Long-pulse cold cathode arc-discharge plasma generators have been successfully used as high-quality hydrogen ion sources for plasma diagnostic neutral beams. One of the main advantages of this type of plasma source is a high proton fraction (80%-90%). However, the lifetime of the plasma source is limited due to intensive electrode's erosion, especially at the cathode region. An optimized design of the cathode and the nearest electrodes is found which reduces the erosion and allows us to increase the pulse length. The plasma source produces the extracted ion current up to 3 A at a low angular divergence, and at the pulse duration up to 2 s.

  18. Composition and Manufacturing Effects on Electrical Conductivity of Li/FeS 2 Thermal Battery Cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reinholz, Emilee L.; Roberts, Scott A.; Apblett, Christopher A.; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Schunk, P. Randall

    2016-06-11

    The electrical conductivity is key to the performance of thermal battery cathodes. In this work we present the effects of manufacturing and processing conditions on the electrical conductivity of Li/FeS2 thermal battery cathodes. Finite element simulations were used to compute the conductivity of three-dimensional microcomputed tomography cathode microstructures and compare results to experimental impedance spectroscopy measurements. A regression analysis reveals a predictive relationship between composition, processing conditions, and electrical conductivity; a trend which is largely erased after thermally-induced deformation. Moreover, the trend applies to both experimental and simulation results, although is not as apparent in simulations. This research is amore » step toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of processing and composition on thermal battery component microstructure, properties, and performance.« less

  19. Stability of vacuum-ultraviolet radiometric transfer standards: Electron cyclotron resonance versus hollow cathode source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottwald, Alexander; Richter, Mathias; Ulm, Gerhard; Schuehle, Udo

    2005-02-01

    Established transfer standards such as Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources suffer from limited spectral range and, in particular, a limited lifetime and stability due to electrode erosion. The development of a vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-created plasma might overcome these limitations. To test such a source with regard to its usefulness as radiometric transfer standard, the emission intensity of a Ne plasma was monitored over an operation period of 180 days, with regard to stability and reproducibility in the 50-75 nm wavelength range. For comparison and calibration, a hollow cathode was used as transfer standard traceable to the electron storage ring BESSY II as primary standard. It was found that the ECR source exceeded the lifetime of the hollow cathode source by far, offering a more balanced spectral emission line variety with similar stability.

  20. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  1. QE Tests with Nb-Pb SRF Photoinjector and Arc Deposited Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Sekutowicz, P. Kneisel, R. Nietubyc, T. Rao, J. Smedley

    2010-05-01

    In this contribution, we report Quantum Efficiency (QE) test results with a hybrid lead/niobium superconducting RF (SRF) photoinjector at 2K and new Pb arc deposited cathodes at 300K. The ultimate goal of our effort is to build a Nb injector with the superconducting cathode made of lead, which, as reported in the past, demonstrated superior QE compared to other metallic superconducting elements. At first, we present the test results obtained with a 1.6-cell high purity Nb cavity with the emitting lead spot in the center of the back plate. The QE test results at room temperature and the SEM surface analysis of eight Pb cathodes, deposited recently under various conditions, are discussed in the second part of this contribution.

  2. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

    2010-05-18

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  3. Simulations of Field-Emission Electron Beams from CNT Cathodes in RF Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Faillace, Luigi; Panuganti, Harsha; Thangaraj, Jayakar C.T.; Piot, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Average field emission currents of up to 700 mA were produced by Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) cathodes in a 1.3 GHz RF gun at Fermilab High Brightness Electron Source Lab. (HBESL). The CNT cathodes were manufactured at Xintek and tested under DC conditions at RadiaBeam. The electron beam intensity as well as the other beam properties are directly related to the time-dependent electric field at the cathode and the geometry of the RF gun. This report focuses on simulations of the electron beam generated through field-emission and the results are compared with experimental measurements. These simulations were performed with the time-dependent Particle In Cell (PIC) code WARP.

  4. ANL Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    today that they have signed a licensing agreement for an Argonne-developed, silicon-graphene composite anode material for high-energy lithium batteries. CalBattery plans to...

  5. Recent Articles on www.anl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    even" property"content:encoded">

    Microwave heat improves nanostructured molybdenum disulfide catalyst's ability to produce hydrogen.

    Mon, 26 Oct 2015...

  6. ANL/EAD/TM-9 Derivation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Hydrogeologic information for this area was obtained from Smith (1982). This information ... from Murray et al. 1993) located approximately 6 to 8 m below the sulk'ace (Smith 1982). ...

  7. Structural and Chemical Evolution of Li- and Mn-rich Layered Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Pinghong; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Jie; Browning, Nigel D.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-24

    Lithium (Li)- and manganese-rich (LMR) layered-structure materials are very promising cathodes for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, their voltage fading mechanism and its relationships with fundamental structural changes are far from being sufficiently understood. Here we report the detailed phase transformation pathway in the LMR cathode (Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2) during cycling for the samples prepared by hydro-thermal assistant method. It is found the transformation pathway of LMR cathode is closely correlated to its initial structure and preparation conditions. The results reveal that LMR cathode prepared by HA approach experiences a phase transformation from the layered structure to a LT-LiCoO2 type defect spinel-like structure (Fd-3m space group) and then to a disordered rock-salt structure (Fm-3m space group). The voltage fade can be well correlated with the Li ion insertion into octahedral sites, rather than tetrahedral sites, in both defect spinel-like structure and disordered rock-salt structure. The reversible Li insertion/removal into/from the disordered rock-salt structure is ascribed to the Li excess environment that can satisfy the Li percolating in the disordered rock-salt structure despite the increased kinetic barrier. Meanwhile, because of the presence of a great amount of oxygen vacancies, a significant decrease of Mn valence is detected in the cycled particle, which is below that anticipated for a potentially damaging Jahn-Teller distortion (+3.5). Clarification of the phase transformation pathway, cation redistribution, oxygen vacancy and Mn valence change undoubtedly provides insights into a profound understanding on the voltage fade, and capacity degradation of LMR cathode. The results also inspire us to further enhance the reversibility of LMR cathode via improving its surface structural stability.

  8. Note: A new regulation method of stable operation of high power cathode ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. C.; Xie, Y. H. Hu, C. D.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, S.; Liang, L. Z.; Liu, Z. M.

    2015-05-15

    The hot cathode ion source will tend to be unstable when operated with high power and long pulse. In order to achieve stable operation, a new regulation method based on the arc power (discharge power) feedback control was designed and tested on the hot cathode ion source test bed with arc discharge and beam extraction. The results show that the new regulation method can achieve stable arc discharge and beam extraction. It verifies the success of feedback control of arc source with arc power.

  9. A Polyanthraquinone-based Organic Cathode for High-performance Rechargeable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnesium-ion Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research May 9, 2016, Research Highlights A Polyanthraquinone-based Organic Cathode for High-performance Rechargeable Magnesium-ion Batteries Scientific Achievement A series of anthraquinonyl-based polymers (PAQS, 14PAQ, and 26PAQ) have been prepared and evaluated as high-performance organic cathodes for rechargeable Mg-ion batteries. Mg-14PAQ system shows the best cycling stability among the series: at the current rate of 0.5C, 104.9

  10. Quantum efficiency temporal response and lifetime of a GaAs cathode in SRF electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2010-05-23

    RF electron guns with a strained super lattice GaAs cathode can generate polarized electron beam of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface. In a normal conducting RF gun, the extremely high vaccum required by these cathodes can not be met. We report on an experiment with a superconducting SRF gun, which can maintain a vacuum of nearly 10-12 torr because of cryo-pumping at the temperature of 4.2K. With conventional activation, we obtained a QE of 3% at 532 nm, with lifetime of nearly 3 days in the preparation chamber. We plan to use this cathode in a 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun to study its performance. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper. Future particle accelerators such as eRHIC and ILC require high brightness, high current polarized electrons Recently, using a superlattice crystal, the maximum polarization of 95% was reached. Activation with Cs,O lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons excited in to the conduction band and reach the surface to escape into the vacuum. Presently the polarized electron sources are based on DC gun, such as that at the CEBAF at Jlab. In these devices, the life time of the cathode is extended due to the reduced back bombardment in their UHV conditions. However, the low accelerating gradient of the DC guns lead to poor longitudinal emittance. The higher accelerating gradient of the RF gun generates low emittance beams. Superconducting RF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of the DC guns with the higher accelerating gradients of the RF guns and provide potentially a long lived cathode with very low transverse and longitudinal emittance. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the GaAs. The quantum efficient is 3% at 532 nm and is expected

  11. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Foster, John E.

    2013-11-15

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

    2014-08-12

    Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

  13. Influence of the floating potential on micro-hollow cathode operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a keeper electrode with a floating potential on the operation of a micro-hollow cathode is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The floating potential is determined self-consistently, taking into account the electron and ion charges collected by the keeper and the potential induced by the plasma non-compensated space charge. It is shown that the parameters of the micro-hollow cathode operation vary significantly, according to whether the keeper potential is floating or has a specified constant value.

  14. Situ metal plating of the cathode terminal surface of an electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge, A.H.

    1982-12-21

    A process for plating a metal, preferably gold, onto the exposed surface of a cathode terminal of an electrochemical cell. The cell is contacted with a solution containing the metal ions to be plated thereon. The cell is then permitted to self-discharge through the solution for a given period of time which causes the metal to plate out, at a given thickness, onto the surface of the cathode terminal in contact with the solution. In a preferred form, the process includes the steps of first activating the surface of the terminal by contacting it with a solution containing hydroxide ions.

  15. Cathodes for secondary electrochemical power-producing cells. [layers of porous substrates impregnated with S alternate with layers containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cairns, E.J.; Kyle, M.; Shimotake, H.

    1973-02-13

    A secondary electrochemical power-producing cell includes an anode containing lithium, an electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a cathode containing sulfur. The cathode comprises plates of a porous substrate material impregnated with sulfur alternating with layers (which may also comprise porous substrate plates) containing electrolyte.

  16. Effect of scandia doping method on the emission uniformity of scandate cathode with Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}W matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jinshu Lai, Chen; Liu, Wei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xizhu; Cui, Yuntao; Zhou, Meiling

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Emission uniformity of the cathodes prepared by mechanical mixing (a) and spray drying method (b). - Highlights: The emission uniformity of scandate cathodes has been quantitively obtained. The nanoparticles on the cathode surface lead to the electric field enhancement. The cathode prepared by spray drying method exhibits good emission uniformity. - Abstract: Scandia doped tungsten matrix dispenser cathodes were manufactured using scandia doped tungsten powder prepared by mechanical mixing, liquidsolid doping and a spray drying method. It is found the macrostructure of the cathode depended on the powder preparation method. The cathode prepared using the powder prepared by spray drying method had a homogenous and porous matrix characterized with grains with a diameter of less than 1 ?m and with many nanoparticles distributing uniformly around these grains. The cathode with submicron structure and uniform distribution of scandia exhibited good emission uniformity. The emission uniformity ?J/J of the cathode prepared by spray drying method was 0.17, about 6 times lower than that of the cathode prepared by mechanical mixing method. The calculation results showed that the nanoparticles led to electric field enhancement. A BaScO multilayer on the cathode surface and nanoparticles distributing mainly on W grains contributed to the emission property of the cathode.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about studies on high...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about studies on high...

  19. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four

  20. Advanced Combustion FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q: What is advanced combustion? A: State-of-the-art, coal-fired boilers use air for the ... Q: What could an advanced combustion power plant look like? A: An oxy-combustion power ...

  1. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L.

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) and the

  2. Palladium deuteride formation in the cathode of an electrochemical cell: An in situ neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Redey, L.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, neutron diffraction of palladium cathodes is utilized to reveal palladium deuteride formation within the crystal structure of the metal. The experiment described in this report demonstrates the efficacy of neutron powder diffraction as a tool for structural studies of metal deuterides/hydrides and the feasibility of in situ diffraction measurements from a working electrochemical cell. (JL)

  3. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 ?m operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  4. Palladium deuteride formation in the cathode of an electrochemical cell: An in situ neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Redey, L.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

    1991-12-31

    In this report, neutron diffraction of palladium cathodes is utilized to reveal palladium deuteride formation within the crystal structure of the metal. The experiment described in this report demonstrates the efficacy of neutron powder diffraction as a tool for structural studies of metal deuterides/hydrides and the feasibility of in situ diffraction measurements from a working electrochemical cell. (JL)

  5. Ion velocities in direct current arc plasma generated from compound cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhirkov, I.; Rosen, J.; Eriksson, A. O.; Oerlikon Balzers Coating AG, Iramali 18, 9496 Balzers

    2013-12-07

    Arc plasma from Ti-C, Ti-Al, and Ti-Si cathodes was characterized with respect to charge-state-resolved ion energy. The evaluated peak velocities of different ion species in plasma generated from a compound cathode were found to be equal and independent on ion mass. Therefore, measured difference in kinetic energies can be inferred from the difference in ion mass, with no dependence on ion charge state. The latter is consistent with previous work. These findings can be explained by plasma quasineutrality, ion acceleration by pressure gradients, and electron-ion coupling. Increasing the C concentration in Ti-C cathodes resulted in increasing average and peak ion energies for all ion species. This effect can be explained by the cohesive energy rule, where material and phases of higher cohesive energy generally result in increasing energies (velocities). This is also consistent with the here obtained peak velocities around 1.37, 1.42, and 1.55 (10{sup 4} m/s) for ions from Ti{sub 0.84}Al{sub 0.16}, Ti{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}, and Ti{sub 0.90}C{sub 0.10} cathodes, respectively.

  6. Suppressing Manganese Dissolution from Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel Cathodes with Single-Layer Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Puntambekar, Kanan P.; Kim, Soo; Aykol, Muratahan; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Myers, Benjamin D.; Iddir, Hakim; Russell, John T.; Saldana, Spencer J.; Kumar, Rajan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-06-24

    Spinel-structured LiMn 2 O 4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, abundance, and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, it is shown that single-layer graphene coatings suppress manganese dissolution, thus enhancing the performance and lifetime of LMO cathodes. Relative to lithium cells with uncoated LMO cathodes, cells with graphene-coated LMO cathodes provide improved capacity retention with enhanced cycling stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that graphene coatings inhibit manganese depletion from the LMO surface. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a stable solid electrolyte interphase is formed on graphene, which screens the LMO from direct contact with the electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations provide two mechanisms for the role of graphene in the suppression of manganese dissolution. First, common defects in single-layer graphene are found to allow the transport of lithium while concurrently acting as barriers for manganese diffusion. Second, graphene can chemically interact with Mn 3+ at the LMO electrode surface, promoting an oxidation state change to Mn 4+ , which suppresses dissolution.

  7. Public Data Set: Impedance of an Intense Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Tokamak Plasma Startup

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hinson, Edward T. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:000000019713140X); Barr, Jayson L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177685931); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Perry, Justin M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000171228609)

    2016-05-31

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in E.T. Hinson et al., 'Impedance of an Intense Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Tokamak Plasma Startup,' Physics of Plasmas 23, 052515 (2016).

  8. A flat-cathode thermionic injector for the PHERMEX Radiographic Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauppila, T.; Builta, L.; Burns, M.; Gregory, W.; Honaberger, D.; Watson, S.; Hughes, T.

    1993-06-01

    The PHERMEX (Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) standing-wave linear accelerator is a high-current electron beam generator used for flash-radiography. An improved electron gun has been designed employing a flat-thermionic cathode to replace the existing Pierce-geometry gun. The flat cathode yields increased current with the same applied voltage and cathode area as the Pierce gun. The ISIS code simulations indicate a beam current of 1.5 kA at 600 kV. The new geometry also reduces the probability for high voltage breakdown in the A-K gap. A reentrant magnet captures the expanding electron beam and a bucking coil nulls cathode-tinge field. A third coil is used to optimize the extraction field profile and reduce the effect of nonlinear space charge on the beam emittance. Time-resolved measurements of beam current and voltage have been made. In addition, a streak camera was used to measure beam emittance and spatial profile. Comparisons of measurements with simulations are presented.

  9. A flat-cathode thermionic injector for the PHERMEX Radiographic Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauppila, T.; Builta, L.; Burns, M.; Gregory, W.; Honaberger, D.; Watson, S. ); Hughes, T. )

    1993-01-01

    The PHERMEX (Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) standing-wave linear accelerator is a high-current electron beam generator used for flash-radiography. An improved electron gun has been designed employing a flat-thermionic cathode to replace the existing Pierce-geometry gun. The flat cathode yields increased current with the same applied voltage and cathode area as the Pierce gun. The ISIS code simulations indicate a beam current of 1.5 kA at 600 kV. The new geometry also reduces the probability for high voltage breakdown in the A-K gap. A reentrant magnet captures the expanding electron beam and a bucking coil nulls cathode-tinge field. A third coil is used to optimize the extraction field profile and reduce the effect of nonlinear space charge on the beam emittance. Time-resolved measurements of beam current and voltage have been made. In addition, a streak camera was used to measure beam emittance and spatial profile. Comparisons of measurements with simulations are presented.

  10. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  11. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  12. Experimental research of different plasma cathodes for generation of high-current electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafir, G.; Kreif, M.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Gleizer, S.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Gunin, A. V.; Kutenkov, O. P.; Rostov, V. V.; Pegel, I. V.

    2015-11-21

    The results of experimental studies of different types of cathodes—carbon-epoxy rods, carbon-epoxy capillary, edged graphite, and metal-dielectric—under the application of high-voltage pulses with an amplitude of several hundreds of kV and pulse duration of several nanoseconds are presented. The best diode performance was achieved with the edged graphite and carbon-epoxy-based cathodes characterized by uniform and fast (<1 ns) formation of explosive emission plasma spots and quasi-constant diode impedance. This result was achieved for both annular cathodes in a strong magnetic field and planar cathodes of a similar diameter (∼2 cm) with no external magnetic field. The cathodes based on carbon-epoxy rods and carbon-epoxy capillaries operating with an average current density up to 1 kA/cm{sup 2} showed insignificant erosion along 10{sup 6} pulses of the generator and the generated electron beam current showed excellent reproducibility in terms of the amplitude and waveform.

  13. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  14. Arc-melting preparation of single crystal LaB.sub.6 cathodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, Edwin D.; Verhoeven, John D.

    1977-06-21

    A method for preparing single crystals of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB.sub.6) by arc melting a rod of compacted LaB.sub.6 powder. The method is especially suitable for preparing single crystal LaB.sub.6 cathodes for use in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM).

  15. Characterization of high-voltage cathodes in CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    2000-04-20

    The transition-metal oxides LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnO{sub 2}, CrO{sub 2}, and LiCoO{sub 2} were evaluated for possible use as high-voltage cathodes for potential geothermal power applications. These were coupled with Li(Si) anodes and a low-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte that melts at 228.5 C. Single-cell tests at 250 C and 300 C at 15.8 and 31.6 mA/cm{sup 2} showed that MnO{sub 2} performed the best overall and had the lowest polarization. A 5-cell battery test using LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathodes was only modestly successful due to possible parasitic chemical reactions between the cathode and electrolyte at the much higher temperature (500 C) during discharge. The overall energy densities for these cathode were still less than for FeS{sub 2}.

  16. Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Biomass Program Introduction ... has renewed the urgency for developing sustainable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. ...

  17. Advanced Critical Advanced Energy Retrofit Education and Training...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Advanced Energy Retrofit Education and Training and Credentialing - 2014 BTO Peer Review Advanced Critical Advanced Energy Retrofit Education and Training and ...

  18. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors ...

  19. HIGH-CURRENT COLD CATHODE FIELD EMISSION ARRAY FOR ELECTRON LENS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-12-28

    During Phase I, the following goals were achieved: (1) design and fabrication of a novel, nano-dimensional CNT field emitter assembly for high current density application, with high durability; (2) fabrication of a ceramic based micro channel plate (MCP) and characterization of its secondary electron emission; and (3) characterizing the CNT/MCP cathode for high field emission and durability. As a result of these achievements, a relatively high current density of ~ 1.2 A/cm2 from a CNT cathode and single channel MCP were measured. The emission current was also extremely stable with a peak-to-peak variation of only 1.8%. The emission current could be further enhanced to meet requirements for electron lens applications by increasing the number of MCP channels. A calculation for maximum possible current density with a 1200 channel/cm2 MCP, placed over a cathode with 1200 uniformly functioning CNTs, would be ~1.46 kA/cm2, neglecting space charge limitations. Clearly this level of emission is far greater than what is needed for the electron lens application, but it does offer a highly comforting margin to account for sub-standard emitters and/or to allow the lesser challenge of building a cathode with fewer channels/cm2. A satisfactory goal for the electron lens application would be a controllable emission of 2-4 mA per channel in an ensemble of 800-1200 uniformly-functioning channels/cm2, and a cathode with overall area of about 1 cm2.

  20. Modification of polymer velvet cathode via metallic Mo coating for enhancement of high-current electron emission performances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Ying; Wang, Bing; Yi, Yong; Xia, Liansheng; Zhang, Huang

    2013-09-15

    The effect of surface Mo coating on the high-current electron emission performances for polymer velvet cathode has been investigated in a diode with A-K gap of 11.5 cm by the combination of time-resolved electrical diagnostic and temporal pressure variation. Compared with uncoated polymer velvet cathode under the single-pulsed emission mode, the Mo-coated one shows lower outgassing levels (?0.40 Pa L), slower cathode plasma expansion velocity (?2.30 cm/?s), and higher emission stability as evidences by the change in cathode current, temporal pressure variation, and diode perveance. Moreover, after Mo coating, the emission consistency of the polymer velvet cathode between two adjacent pulses is significantly improved in double-pulsed emission mode with ?500 ns interval between two pulses, which further confirms the effectiveness of Mo coating for enhancement of electron emission performance of polymer velvet cathodes. These results should be of interest to the high-repetitive high-power microwave systems with cold cathodes.

  1. Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 1 2014 U.S. DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting Kevin Stutenberg - Principal Investigator Argonne National Laboratory June 17, 2014 Project ID # VSS030 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Overview  Timeline - Benchmarking at ANL started in 1998 - FY13 & FY14 Completed Testing: * 10 vehicles tested in FY13, 4 in FY14 * Thermal impact study *

  2. The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the Advanced Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Officer National Institute of Standards and Technology Carrie Houtman Senior Public Policy Manager Dow Chemical Overview * Advanced Manufacturing Activities * Advanced ...

  3. The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the Advanced Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Program Office | Department of Energy The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office This presentation describes the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership from its beginning as a recommendation of the President's Council of Advisers on Science and Technology to its development and organization. The Advanced Manufacturing Partnership and the

  4. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  5. AdvAnced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AdvAnced test reActor At the InL advanced Unlike large, commercial power reactors, ATR is a low- temperature, low-pressure reactor. A nuclear reactor is basically an elaborate tool to produce power. reactors work by splitting atoms, the basic building blocks of matter, to release large amounts of energy. In commercial power reactors, that energy heats water, which creates steam. the steam turns turbines, generating electricity. What makes the Advanced test reactor, located at the Idaho national

  6. Advanced Studies Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this professional development experience to help aspiring young researchers advance and excel in the next stage of their careers in academia or at a national laboratory. For...

  7. Advanced Target Effects Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Target Effects Modeling for Ion Accelerators and other High-Energy-Density ... ature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally ...

  8. Overview | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APS Overview: Introduction APS Systems Map LINAC Booster Synchrotron Storage Ring Insertion Devices Experiment Hall LOMs & Beamlines Overview of the APS The Advanced Photon Source...

  9. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program is designed to promote separate but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the...

  10. Advanced Energy Design Guides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ADVANCED ENERGY DESIGN GUIDES FACT SHEET EERE Information Center 1-877-EERE-INFO ... For more information, contact: Jerome Lam Energy Technology Program Specialist Commercial ...

  11. Advanced Rooftop Unit Control

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced-Rooftop-Unit-Control Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  12. Advanced Usage Examples

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Examples Advanced Usage Examples Transferring Data from Batch Jobs Once you have set up your automatic HPSS authentication you can access HPSS within batch scripts. Read More ...

  13. Beamlines | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamlines Beamlines Home Beamlines Directory Research Techniques Sectors Directory Status and Schedule Safety and Training Beamlines The Advanced Photon Source consists of 34...

  14. Advanced Materials Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Much Cheaper, More Abundant Catalyst May Lower Hydrogen-Powered Car Costs Advanced Materials Laboratory, Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, Facilities, Highlights - Energy Research, ...

  15. Advanced Materials Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sandia Researchers Win CSP:ELEMENTS Funding Award Advanced Materials Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test ...

  16. Advanced Optical Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Advanced Optical Components and Technologies program develops, creates and provides critical optical components for laser-based missions at LLNL. Past projects focused on ...

  17. Grid Integration & Advanced Inverters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration & Advanced Inverters - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ...

  18. Co-flow anode/cathode supply heat exchanger for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2005-11-22

    In a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly, a co-flow heat exchanger is provided in the flow paths of the reformate gas and the cathode air ahead of the fuel cell stack, the reformate gas being on one side of the exchanger and the cathode air being on the other. The reformate gas is at a substantially higher temperature than is desired in the stack, and the cathode gas is substantially cooler than desired. In the co-flow heat exchanger, the temperatures of the reformate and cathode streams converge to nearly the same temperature at the outlet of the exchanger. Preferably, the heat exchanger is formed within an integrated component manifold (ICM) for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly.

  19. Particle-in-cell based parameter study of 12-cavity, 12-cathode rising-sun relativistic magnetrons for improved performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majzoobi, A.; Joshi, R. P. Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.

    2015-10-15

    Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to analyze the efficiency, output power and leakage currents in a 12-Cavity, 12-Cathode rising-sun magnetron with diffraction output (MDO). The central goal is to conduct a parameter study of a rising-sun magnetron that comprehensively incorporates performance enhancing features such as transparent cathodes, axial extraction, the use of endcaps, and cathode extensions. Our optimum results demonstrate peak output power of about 2.1 GW, with efficiencies of ∼70% and low leakage currents at a magnetic field of 0.45 Tesla, a 400 kV bias with a single endcap, for a range of cathode extensions between 3 and 6 centimeters.

  20. Cathode performance during two beam operation of the high current high polarization electron gun for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, O.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, E.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    Two electron beams from two activated bulk GaAs photocathodes were successfully combined during the recent beam test of the High Current High Polarization Electron gun for eRHIC. The beam test took place in Stangenes Industries in Palo Alto, CA, where the cathodes were placed in diagonally opposite locations inside the high voltage shroud. No significant cross talking between the cathodes was found for the pertinent vacuum and low average current operation, which is very promising towards combining multiple beams for higher average current. This paper describes the cathode preparation, transport and cathode performance in the gun for the combining test, including the QE and lifetimes of the photocathodes at various steps of the experiment.

  1. The influence of deposits on palladium cathodes in D[sub 2]O electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lihn, C.J.; Wan, C.C.; Wan, C.M.; Perng, T.P. )

    1993-11-01

    Platinum and silicon have been found deposited on the palladium cathode during the electrolysis of a 0.1 M LiOD solution with a platinum anode in a glass cell. Various techniques including surface analysis, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical permeation were used to study the surface deposits, electrochemical deuterium-sorption behavior, and permeation rate of deuterium into palladium, respectively. It was shown that palladium cathodes were contaminated by platinum and silicon deposits after a certain period of electrolysis. These deposits could affect the electrochemical processes during electrolysis. The contamination may be a cause of the sporadic results reported in [open quotes]cold fusion[close quotes] research. 18 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Measurements of the Ion Species of Cathodic Arc Plasma in an Axial Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim; Anders, Andre

    2010-10-19

    Metal and gas ion species and their charge state distributions were measured for pulsed copper cathodic arcs in argon background gas in the presence of an axial magnetic field. It was found that changing the cathode position relative to anode and ion extraction system as well as increasing the gas pressure did not much affect the arc burning voltage and the related power dissipation. However, the burning voltage and power dissipation greatly increased as the magnetic field strength was increased. The fraction of metal ions and the mean ion charge state were reduced as the discharge length was increased. The observations can be explained by the combination of charge exchange collisions and electron impact ionization. They confirm that previously published data on characteristic material-dependent charge state distributions (e.g., Anders and Yushkov, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 91, pp. 4824-4832, 2002) are not universal but valid for high vacuum conditions and the specifics of the applied magnetic fields.

  3. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in thismore » review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.« less

  4. Nitrogen Atom Energy Distributions in a Hollow-cathode Planar Sputtering Magnetron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.N. Ruzic; M.J. Goeckner; Samuel A. Cohen; Zhehui Wang

    1999-06-01

    Energy distributions of N atoms in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N I 8216.3 , well-separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson's nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of {chi}w , was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with VFTRIM results, we propose that the energetic N atoms are generated from N2+ ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode.

  5. Final Technical Report- Back-gate Field Emission-based Cathode RF Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Gary; Martin, Allen; Noonan, John

    2010-10-30

    The objective was to complete the design of an electron gun which utilizes a radio frequency (RF) power source to apply a voltage to a field emission (FE) cathode, a so called cold cathode, in order to produce an electron beam. The concept of the RF electron gun was originally conceived at Argonne National Laboratory but never reduced to practice. The research allowed the completion of the design based upon the integration of the FE electron source. Compared to other electron guns, the RF gun is very compact, less than one third the size of other comparable guns, and produces a high energy (to several MeV), high quality, high power electron beam with a long focal length with high repetition rates. The resultant electron gun may be used in welding, materials processing, analytical equipment and waste treatment.

  6. Graphene Modified LiFePO4 Cathode Materials for High Power Lithium ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.

    2011-01-24

    Graphene-modified LiFePO{sub 4} composite has been developed as a Li-ion battery cathode material with excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. The composite was prepared with LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanosheets by spray-drying and annealing processes. The LiFePO{sub 4} primary nanoparticles embedded in micro-sized spherical secondary particles were wrapped homogeneously and loosely with a graphene 3D network. Such a special nanostructure facilitated electron migration throughout the secondary particles, while the presence of abundant voids between the LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene sheets was beneficial for Li{sup +} diffusion. The composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 70 mAh g{sup -1} at 60C discharge rate and showed a capacity decay rate of <15% when cycled under 10C charging and 20C discharging for 1000 times.

  7. Investigation of reports of fusion reactions occurring at the cathode in glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, C.H.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent reports of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) neutrons resulting from nuclear reactions in or at the palladium cathode of a deuterium glow discharge were investigated. The equipment, techniques, and experimental procedures are discussed in detail, as well as various possible mechanisms to produce such reactions. The results of this investigation do not confirm the presence of d-d reactions. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Lv, Dongping; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Darsell, Jens T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Tomalia, Donald A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems because of their ultra high theoretical specific energy. To realize the practical application of Li-S batteries, however, a high S active material loading is essential (>70 wt% in the carbon-sulfur (C-S) composite cathode and >2 mg cm-2 in the electrode). A critical challenge to achieving this high capacity in practical electrodes is the dissolution of the longer lithium polysulfide reaction intermediates in the electrolyte (resulting in loss of active material from the cathode and contamination of the anode due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism). The binder material used for the cathode is therefore crucial as this is a key determinant of the bonding interactions between the active material (S) and electronic conducting support (C), as well as the maintenance of intimate contact between the electrode materials and current collector. The battery performance can thus be directly correlated with the choice of binder, but this has received only minimal attention in the relevant Li-S battery published literature. Here, we investigated the application of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as functional binders in Li-S batteries—a class of materials which has been unexplored for electrode design. By using dendrimers, it is demonstrated that high S loadings (>4 mg cm-2) can be easily achieved using "standard" (not specifically tailored) materials and simple processing methods. An exceptional electrochemical cycling performance was obtained (as compared to cathodes with conventional linear polymeric binders such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)) with >100 cycles and 85-98% capacity retention, thus demonstrating the significant utility of this new binder architecture which exhibits critical physicochemical properties and flexible nanoscale design parameters (CNDP's).

  9. Rational Design of High-Performance Li2S Cathodes - Joint Center for Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Research September 11, 2013, Research Highlights Rational Design of High-Performance Li2S Cathodes Using ab initio simulations, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) binder was found to possess strong affinity for both Li2S and lithium polysulfides. This bifunctional binder not only helps to form a uniform dispersion of active material and carbon in the electrode slurry, but also minimizes the loss of polysulfides into the electrolyte during cycling. Scientific Achievement Achieved record

  10. Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zigui; Xia, Guanguang; Templeton, Joshua D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-06-01

    A new type of material, Ni1-xCoxO, was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/interconnect contact applications. The phase structure, coefficient of thermal expansion, sintering behavior, electrical property, and mechanical bonding strength of these materials were evaluated against the requirements of the SOFC cathode/interconnect contact. A dense cathode/interconnect contact layer was developed through reaction sintering from Ni and Co metal powders. An area specific resistance (ASR) as low as 5.5 mohm.cm2 was observed after 1000 h exposure in air at 800 C for the LSM/Ni0.33Co0.67O/AISI441 assembly. Average mechanical strengths of 6.8 and 5.0 MPa were obtained for the cathode/contact/cathode and interconnect/contact/interconnect structures, respectively. The significantly low ASR was probably due to the dense structure and therefore improved electrical conductivity of the Ni0.33Co0.67O contact and the good bonding of the interfaces between the contact and the cathode, and between the contact and the interconnect.

  11. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  12. Evidence of nonclassical plasma transport in hollow cathodes for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2007-03-15

    Measurements, simplified analyses, and two-dimensional numerical simulations with a fluid plasma model show that classical resistivity cannot account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in a 25-27.5 A electric propulsion hollow cathode. The cathode consisted of a 1.5 cm hollow tube with an {approx}0.28 cm diameter orifice and was operated with 5.5 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) of xenon flow using two different anode geometries: a segmented cone and a circular flat plate. The numerical simulations show that classical resistivity yields as much as four times colder electron temperatures compared to the measured values in the orifice and near-plume regions of the cathode. Classical transport and Ohm's law also predict exceedingly high electron-ion relative drift speeds compared to the electron thermal speed (>4). It is found that the addition of anomalous resistivity based on existing growth rate formulas for electron-ion streaming instabilities improves qualitatively the comparison between the numerical results and the time-averaged measurements. Simplified analyses that have been based largely on the axial measurements support the conclusion that additional resistivity is required in Ohm's law to explain the measurements. The combined results from the two-dimensional simulations and the analyses bound the range of enhanced resistivity to be 3-100 times the classical value.

  13. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1996-09-24

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

  14. Advanced uranium enrichment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merriman, R.

    1983-03-10

    The Advanced Gas Centrifuge and Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation methods are described. The status and potential of the technologies are summarized, the programs outlined, and the economic incentives are noted. How the advanced technologies, once demonstrated, might be deployed so that SWV costs in the 1990s can be significantly reduced is described.

  15. ANL-85-51 ANL-85-51 FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATION OF CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Soc Civil Eng. 97(EM6), 1039-1060. Lighthill, M. J. 1960. Note on Swimming of Slender Fish. J. Fluid Mech. 9(2), 305-317. Lin, W. H., Wambsganss, M. W., and Jendrzejczyk, J. A. ...

  16. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  17. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  18. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle to low reactor power operation: investigations using the coupled anl plant dynamics code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor code system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2012-05-10

    design point, are more important to the overall cycle performance. Therefore, the single-shaft configuration shall be retained as the reference arrangement for S-CO{sub 2} cycle power converter preconceptual designs. Improvements to the ANL Plant Dynamics Code have been carried out. The major code improvement is the introduction of a restart capability which simplifies investigation of control strategies for very long transients. Another code modification is transfer of the entire code to a new Intel Fortran complier; the execution of the code using the new compiler was verified by demonstrating that the same results are obtained as when the previous Compaq Visual Fortran compiler was used.

  19. Development of the ANL plant dynamics code and control strategies for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle and code validation with data from the Sandia small-scale supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle test loop.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2011-11-07

    Significant progress has been made in the ongoing development of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code (PDC), the ongoing investigation and development of control strategies, and the analysis of system transient behavior for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles. Several code modifications have been introduced during FY2011 to extend the range of applicability of the PDC and to improve its calculational stability and speed. A new and innovative approach was developed to couple the Plant Dynamics Code for S-CO{sub 2} cycle calculations with SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor Code System calculations for the transient system level behavior on the reactor side of a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) or Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The new code system allows use of the full capabilities of both codes such that whole-plant transients can now be simulated without additional user interaction. Several other code modifications, including the introduction of compressor surge control, a new approach for determining the solution time step for efficient computational speed, an updated treatment of S-CO{sub 2} cycle flow mergers and splits, a modified enthalpy equation to improve the treatment of negative flow, and a revised solution of the reactor heat exchanger (RHX) equations coupling the S-CO{sub 2} cycle to the reactor, were introduced to the PDC in FY2011. All of these modifications have improved the code computational stability and computational speed, while not significantly affecting the results of transient calculations. The improved PDC was used to continue the investigation of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and transient behavior. The coupled PDC-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code capability was used to study the dynamic characteristics of a S-CO{sub 2} cycle coupled to a SFR plant. Cycle control was investigated in terms of the ability of the cycle to respond to a linear reduction in the electrical grid demand from 100% to 0% at a rate of 5

  20. Effect of Particle Size and Operating Conditions on Pt3Co PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Durability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gummalla, Mallika; Ball, Sarah; Condit, David; Rasouli, Somaye; Yu, Kang; Ferreira, Paulo; Myers, Deborah; Yang, Zhiwei

    2015-05-29

    The initial performance and decay trends of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) cathodes with Pt3Co catalysts of three mean particle sizes (4.9 nm, 8.1 nm, and 14.8 nm) with identical Pt loadings are compared. Even though the cathode based on 4.9 nm catalyst exhibited the highest initial electrochemical surface area (ECA) and mass activity, the cathode based on 8.1 nm catalyst showed better initial performance at high currents. Owing to the low mass activity of the large particles, the initial performance of the 14.8 nm Pt3Co-based electrode was the lowest. The performance decay rate of the electrodes with themore » smallest Pt3Co particle size was the highest and that of the largest Pt3Co particle size was lowest. Interestingly, with increasing number of decay cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V, 50 mV/s), the relative improvement in performance of the cathode based on 8.1 nm Pt3Co over the 4.9 nm Pt3Co increased, owing to better stability of the 8.1 nm catalyst. The electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) of the decayed membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) showed that the amount of Co in the membrane was lower for the larger particles, and the platinum loss into the membrane also decreased with increasing particle size. This suggests that the higher initial performance at high currents with 8.1 nm Pt3Co could be due to lower contamination of the ionomer in the electrode. Furthermore, lower loss of Co from the catalyst with increased particle size could be one of the factors contributing to the stability of ECA and mass activity of electrodes with larger cathode catalyst particles. To delineate the impact of particle size and alloy effects, these results are compared with prior work from our research group on size effects of pure platinum catalysts. The impact of PEMFC operating conditions, including upper potential, relative humidity, and temperature on the alloy catalyst decay trends, along with the EMPA analysis of the decayed MEAs, are reported.« less