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Sample records for adney ws nimlos

  1. WS Energia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WS Energia Jump to: navigation, search Name: WS Energia Address: Taguspark, Oeiras Place: Porto Salvo Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Solar Systems Number of Employees: 11-50...

  2. WS Energia Lda | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energia Lda Jump to: navigation, search Name: WS Energia Lda Place: Oeiras, Portugal Zip: 2740 - 122 Product: Portuguese manufacturer of turnkey concentrated PV systems for...

  3. Mark R. Nimlos | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mark R. Lochbaum About Us Mark R. Lochbaum - Lead Small Business Specialist Mark R. Lochbaum Mark Lochbaum is a Lead Small Business Specialist with Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. Prior to joining the U.S. Department of Energy, Mark worked at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) as a Contracting Officer. There, he procured a wide variety of items and services in support of the VA mission, with a primary focus on small business acquisitions. Mark holds a Masters of

  4. Friedrich: ENERGY STAR Referral (WS12C10, US12C30, and WS13C30)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred the matter of Friedrich air conditioner models WS12C10, US12C30, and WS13C30 to the EPA for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the models do not meet the ENERGY STAR specification.

  5. NREL: Biomass Research - Mark R. Nimlos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and function of cellulase enzymes and their interaction with cellulose substrates. ... for Processivity in a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module from a Fungal Cellulase." ...

  6. W.S. 35-12 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    S. 35-12 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: W.S. 35-12Legal Abstract Industrial Development Information and Siting...

  7. Edge-states ferromagnetism of WS{sub 2} nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, Nengjie; Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Renxiong; Xia, Qinglin; Li, Jingbo

    2014-05-19

    The multilayer WS{sub 2} nanosheets prepared from WO{sub 3} nanowires exhibit strong ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) of 0.0058 emu/g and coercive field (H{sub C}) of 92 Oe at room temperature. By decreasing the temperature down to 3 K the H{sub c} is increased up to 1115 Oe, revealing the existence of long-range magnetic ordering. Density functional theory spin-polarized calculations predict that strong ferromagnetic moments in WS{sub 2} nanosheets are attributed to the zigzag edge sulphur S and tungsten W atoms. Our findings also suggest that the WS{sub 2} nanosheets with a high density of edge spins could be used to fabricate spintronics devices, which are circuits utilizing the spin of the electron to process and store information.

  8. First-principles study of graphene adsorbed on WS{sub 2} monolayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sheng-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Wen

    2013-11-14

    We perform first-principles calculations to study the energetics and electronic properties of graphene adsorbed on WS{sub 2} surface (G/WS{sub 2}). We find that the graphene can be bound to WS{sub 2} monolayer with an interlayer spacing of about 3.9? with a binding energy of ?2132?meV per carbon atom dependent on graphene adsorption arrangement, suggesting a weak interaction between graphene and WS{sub 2}. The nearly linear band dispersion character of graphene can be preserved in G/WS{sub 2} system, with a sizable band gap, depending on graphene stacking patterns on WS{sub 2} and the distance between graphene and WS{sub 2} monolayer. More interestingly, when the interlayer spacing is larger than 3.0?, the energy-gap opening is mainly determined by the distortion of the isolated graphene peeled from WS{sub 2} surface, independent on the WS{sub 2} substrate. Further tight-binding model analysis demonstrates that the origin of semiconducting properties can be well understood by the variation of on-site energy of graphene induced by WS{sub 2} substrate.

  9. U-114: IBM Personal Communications WS File Processing Buffer Overflow Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability in WorkStation files (.ws) by IBM Personal Communications could allow a remote attacker to cause a denial of service (application crash) or potentially execute arbitrary code on vulnerable installations of IBM Personal Communications.

  10. Light matter interaction in WS{sub 2} nanotube-graphene hybrid devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, John P.; Jegannathan, Gobinath; Grover, Sameer; Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Bapat, Rudheer D.; Chalke, Bhagyashree A.; Purandare, S. C.; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2014-12-01

    We study the light matter interaction in WS{sub 2} nanotube-graphene hybrid devices. Using scanning photocurrent microscopy, we find that by engineering graphene electrodes for WS{sub 2} nanotubes we can improve the collection of photogenerated carriers. We observe inhomogeneous spatial photocurrent response with an external quantum efficiency of ?1% at 0?V bias. We show that defects play an important role and can be utilized to enhance and tune photocarrier generation.

  11. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chou, Stanley Shihyao; Yi-Kai Huang; Kim, Jaemyung; Kaehr, Bryan James; Foley, Brian M.; Lu, Ping; Conner Dykstra; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Jiaxing Huang; et al

    2015-01-22

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. We report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. Ultimately, this process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solutionmore » processing, enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.« less

  12. Flat band potential measurements of naked and viologen-modified n-WS[sub 2] electrodes in aqueous iodide and triiodide solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Wrighton, M.S. )

    1994-09-15

    The flat band potentials, E[sub FB], of naked n-WS[sub 2] electrodes and cationic viologen polymer-modified n-WS[sub 2] electrodes have been determined in KI and KI[sub 3] solutions by differential capacitance measurements. The E[sub FB] values for naked n-WS[sub 2] electrodes are shifted negatively in electrolyte media containing I[sup [minus

  13. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 Tesla

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-02-09

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately –230 μeV T–1 (g-factor ≃–4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radiimore » of ~1.53 and ~1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). Lastly, these results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.« less

  14. Efficient Interlayer Relaxation and Transition of Excitons in Epitaxial and Non-epitaxial MoS2/WS2 Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yifei; Hu, Shi; Su, Liqin; Huang, Lujun; Liu, Yi; Jin, Zhenghe; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Kim, Ki Wook; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Linyou

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor heterostructurs provide a powerful platform for the engineering of excitons. Here we report on the excitonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures that consist of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 stacked epitaxially or non-epitaxially in the vertical direction. We find similarly efficient interlayer relaxation and transition of excitons in both the epitaxial and non-epitaxial heterostructures. This is manifested by a two orders of magnitude decrease in the photoluminescence and an extra absorption peak at low energy region of both heterostructures. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructures show weak interlayer coupling and essentially act as an atomic-scale heterojunction with the intrinsic band structures of the two monolayers largely preserved. They are particularly promising for the applications that request efficient dissociation of excitons and strong light absorption, including photovoltaics, solar fuels, photodetectors, and optical modulators. Our results also indicate that 2D heterostructures promise to provide capabilities to engineer excitons from the atomic level without concerns of interfacial imperfection.

  15. Efficient Interlayer Relaxation and Transition of Excitons in Epitaxial and Non-epitaxial MoS2/WS2 Heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Yifei; Hu, Shi; Su, Liqin; Huang, Lujun; Liu, Yi; Jin, Zhenghe; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Kim, Ki Wook; Zhang, Yong; et al

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor heterostructurs provide a powerful platform for the engineering of excitons. Here we report on the excitonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures that consist of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 stacked epitaxially or non-epitaxially in the vertical direction. We find similarly efficient interlayer relaxation and transition of excitons in both the epitaxial and non-epitaxial heterostructures. This is manifested by a two orders of magnitude decrease in the photoluminescence and an extra absorption peak at low energy region of both heterostructures. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructures show weak interlayer coupling and essentially act as an atomic-scale heterojunction with the intrinsic band structures of themore » two monolayers largely preserved. They are particularly promising for the applications that request efficient dissociation of excitons and strong light absorption, including photovoltaics, solar fuels, photodetectors, and optical modulators. Our results also indicate that 2D heterostructures promise to provide capabilities to engineer excitons from the atomic level without concerns of interfacial imperfection.« less

  16. Tunable Polarity Behavior and Self-Driven Photoswitching in p-WSe2/n-WS2 Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, Nengjie; Yang, Juehan; Huang, Le; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Shu-Shen; Wei, Su-Huai; Li, Jingbo

    2015-08-21

    In Van der Waals (vdW) p–n heterojunctions consisting of various 2D layer compounds are fascinating new artificial materials that can possess novel physics and functionalities enabling the next-generation of electronics and optoelectronics devices. Here, it is reported that the WSe2/WS2 p–n heterojunctions perform novel electrical transport properties such as distinct rectifying, ambipolar, and hysteresis characteristics. Intriguingly, the novel tunable polarity transition along a route of n-“anti-bipolar”–p-ambipolar is observed in the WSe2/WS2 heterojunctions owing to the successive work of conducting channels of junctions, p-WSe2 and n-WS2 on the electrical transport of the whole systems. Moreover, the type-II band alignment we obtained from first principle calculations and built-in potential in this vdW heterojunction can also facilitate the efficient electron–hole separation, thus enabling the significant photovoltaic effect and a much enhanced self-driven photoswitching response in this system.

  17. Long-lived nanosecond spin relaxation and spin coherence of electrons in monolayer MoS2 and WS2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Luyi; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Chen, Weibing; Yuan, Jiangtan; Zhang, Jing; Lou, Jun; Crooker, Scott  A.

    2015-08-03

    The recently discovered monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provide a fertile playground to explore new coupled spin–valley physics. Although robust spin and valley degrees of freedom are inferred from polarized photoluminescence (PL) experiments PL timescales are necessarily constrained by short-lived (3–100 ps) electron–hole recombination9, 10. Direct probes of spin/valley polarization dynamics of resident carriers in electron (or hole)-doped TMDCs, which may persist long after recombination ceases, are at an early stage. Here we directly measure the coupled spin–valley dynamics in electron-doped MoS2 and WS2 monolayers using optical Kerr spectroscopy, and reveal very long electron spin lifetimes, exceeding 3 ns at 5 K (2-3 orders of magnitude longer than typical exciton recombination times). In contrast with conventional III–V or II–VI semiconductors, spin relaxation accelerates rapidly in small transverse magnetic fields. Supported by a model of coupled spin–valley dynamics, these results indicate a novel mechanism of itinerant electron spin dephasing in the rapidly fluctuating internal spin–orbit field in TMDCs, driven by fast inter-valley scattering. Additionally, a long-lived spin coherence is observed at lower energies, commensurate with localized states. These studies provide insight into the physics underpinning spin and valley dynamics of resident electrons in atomically thin TMDCs.

  18. Long-lived nanosecond spin relaxation and spin coherence of electrons in monolayer MoS2 and WS2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Luyi; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Chen, Weibing; Yuan, Jiangtan; Zhang, Jing; Lou, Jun; Crooker, Scott  A.

    2015-08-03

    The recently discovered monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provide a fertile playground to explore new coupled spin–valley physics. Although robust spin and valley degrees of freedom are inferred from polarized photoluminescence (PL) experiments PL timescales are necessarily constrained by short-lived (3–100 ps) electron–hole recombination9, 10. Direct probes of spin/valley polarization dynamics of resident carriers in electron (or hole)-doped TMDCs, which may persist long after recombination ceases, are at an early stage. Here we directly measure the coupled spin–valley dynamics in electron-doped MoS2 and WS2 monolayers using optical Kerr spectroscopy, and reveal very long electron spin lifetimes, exceeding 3 ns atmore » 5 K (2-3 orders of magnitude longer than typical exciton recombination times). In contrast with conventional III–V or II–VI semiconductors, spin relaxation accelerates rapidly in small transverse magnetic fields. Supported by a model of coupled spin–valley dynamics, these results indicate a novel mechanism of itinerant electron spin dephasing in the rapidly fluctuating internal spin–orbit field in TMDCs, driven by fast inter-valley scattering. Additionally, a long-lived spin coherence is observed at lower energies, commensurate with localized states. These studies provide insight into the physics underpinning spin and valley dynamics of resident electrons in atomically thin TMDCs.« less

  19. Characterization of fundamental catalytic properties of MoS2/WS2 nanotubes and nanoclusters for desulfurization catalysis - a surface temperature study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Burghaus

    2012-07-05

    The prior project consisted of two main project lines. First, characterization of novel nanomaterials for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) applications. Second, studying more traditional model systems for HDS such as vapor-deposited silica-supported Mo and MoSx clusters. In the first subproject, we studied WS2 and MoS2 fullerene-like nanoparticles as well as WS2 nanotubes. Thiophene (C4H4S) was used as the probe molecule. Interestingly, metallic and sulfur-like adsorption sites could be identified on the silica-supported fullerene-particles system. Similar structures are seen for the traditional system (vapor-deposited clusters). Thus, this may be a kinetics fingerprint feature of modern HDS model systems. In addition, kinetics data allowed characterization of the different adsorption sites for thiophene on and inside WS2 nanotube bundles. The latter is a unique feature of nanotubes that has not been reported before for any inorganic nanotube system; however, examples are known for carbon nanotubes, including prior work of the PI. Although HDS has been studied for decades, utilizing nanotubes as nanosized HDS reactors has never been tried before, as far as we know. This is of interest from a fundamental perspective. Unfortunately, the HDS activity of the nanocatalysts at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions was close to the detection limit of our techniques. Therefore, we propose to run experiments at ambient pressure on related nanopowder samples as part of the renewal application utilizing a now-available GC (gas chromatograph) setup. In addition, Ni and Co doped nanocatalyts are proposed for study. These dopants will boost the catalytic activity. In the second subproject of the prior grant, we studied HDS-related chemistry on more traditional supported cluster catalysts. Mo clusters supported by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on silica have been characterized. Two reaction pathways are evident when adsorbing thiophene on Mo and MoSx clusters: molecular adsorption and dissociation. PVD Mo clusters turned out to be very reactive toward thiophene bond activation. Sulfur and carbon residuals form, which poison the catalyst and sulfide the Mo clusters. Sulfided silica-supported MoSx samples are not reactive toward thiophene bond activation. In addition to S and C deposits, H2, H2S, and small organic molecules were detected in the gas phase. Catalyst reactivation procedures, including O2 and atomic hydrogen treatments, have been tested. Cluster size effects have been seen: thiophene adsorbs molecularly with larger binding energies on smaller clusters. However, larger clusters have smaller activation energy for C4H4S bond activation than smaller clusters. The latter is consistent with early catalysis studies. Kinetics and dynamics parameters have been determined quantitatively. We spent a significant amount of time on upgrades of our equipment. A 2nd-hand refurbished X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) has been integrated into the existing molecular beam scattering system and is already operational (supported by the DoE supplemental grant available in October 2009). We also added a time of flight (TOF) system to the beam scattering apparatus and improved on the accessible impact energy range (new nozzle heater and gas mixing manifold) for the beam scattering experiments. In addition, a GC-based powder atmospheric flow reactor for studies on powder samples is now operational. Furthermore, a 2nd UHV kinetics system has been upgraded as well. In summary, mostly single crystal systems have so far been considered in basic science studies about HDS. Industrial catalysts, however, can be better approximated with the supported cluster systems that we studied in this project. Furthermore, an entirely new class of HDS systems, namely fullerene-like particles and inorganic nanotubes, has been included. Studying new materials and systems has the potential to impact science and technology. The systems investigated are closely related to energy and environmental-related surface science/catalysis. This prior project, conducted at NDSU by a sma

  20. 080310_NERSC_WS.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For time harmonic (rapidly oscillating) wave fields E with frequency , Maxwell's equations reduce to the Helmholtz wave equation: Wave Solvers (AORSA) (TORIC) SIGMAD Plasma ...

  1. HEP-NUG-WS-forcray.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP/NERSC/ASCR Requirements Workshop Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics NERSC Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Workshop Held Nov 12-13, 2009, Rockville, MD October 28, 2010, NERSC OSF, Oakland, CA! NERSC Requirements Workshops * Goal: Ensure that NERSC continues to provide the world-class facilities and services needed to support DOE Office of Science Research" * Method: Hold workshops to derive and document each DOE SC Office's HPC requirements for

  2. WS-J 14 Update Worksheet(20April14).xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Modification 350, Attachment 4 HANFORD WASTE SITE ASSIGNMENT LIST Site Code Site Names Designated Area Assigned Contractor 100-B-1 100-B-1; Laydown Yard; Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area 100B WCH 100-B-10 100-B-10; 107-B Basin Leak and Warm Springs 100B WCH 100-B-11 100-B-11; 115-B Tank; 115-B/C Caisson Site; 115-B/C Caisson Valve Pit; 115-BC Drywell; 115-BC Sump 100B WCH 100-B-12 100-B-12; Filter Box Radiological Materials Area (RMA) 100B WCH 100-B-14 100-B-14; 100-B Area Process

  3. http://www.wipp.ws/TeamWorks/truteamworks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2/04 Shipments expected this week: RFETS (13), SRS (6) A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team February 12, 2004 The Big Story SEGA and MEGA exemplify science@wipp Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Tools Acronym List Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 02/12/04 at 9:24 a.m.)

  4. http://www.wipp.ws/TeamWorks/truteamworks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9/04 Shipments expected this week: SRS (6) A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team February 19, 2004 The Big Story WIPP public information meetings held Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Tools Acronym List Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 02/19/04 at 6:55 a.m.) Shipments scheduled

  5. http://www.wipp.ws/TeamWorks/truteamworks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26/04 Shipments expected for the week of 02/22/04 through 2/28/04: Hanford (2), RFETS (11), SRS (6) A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team February 26, 2004 The Big Story WIPP impacts international Waste Management Symposium Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates.

  6. http://www.wipp.ws/TeamWorks/truteamworks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5/04 | Shipments expected for the week of 03/14/04 through 3/20/04: INEEL (4), Hanford (2), RFETS (11), SR A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team March 15, 2004 Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 03/15/04 at 8:59 a.m.)

  7. http://www.wipp.ws/TeamWorks/truteamworks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8/04 | Shipments expected for the week 3/21/04 through 3/27/04: Hanford (2), INEEL (3), RFETS (11), SRS A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team March 18, 2004 The Big Story WIPP personnel overcome evacuation order Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to

  8. http://www.wipp.ws/TeamWorks/truteamworks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25/04 | Shipments expected for the week 3/28/04 through 4/3/04: INEEL (2), RFETS (11), SRS (6) A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team March 25, 2004 The Big Story AMWTP sends first shipment to WIPP Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP

  9. WS-J 14 Update Worksheet(20April14).xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    100-B-1 100-B-1; Laydown Yard; Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area 100B WCH ... Pile 100B WCH 100-B-19 100-B-19; 100BC Chemical Contaminated Surface Soil Areas; 100-BC ...

  10. Microsoft Word - ATLAS WS 2014 FS report fnl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can be investigated in detail by performing low-energy beta-decay measurements at ATLAS and CARIBU. For these efforts, experiments take advantage of specific decay properties...

  11. Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007 Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science ...

  12. Materials Data on WS2 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M.; Decker, S. .R; Bu, L. T.; Zhao, X. C.; McCabe, C.; Wohlert, J.; Bergenstrahle, M.; Brady, J. W.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F., ":The O-Glycosylated Linker from...

  14. Materials Data on W(S4Cl3)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Programmable Power Supply for MST'S Poloidal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IEEEINPSS 24th Symposium on Fusion Engineering SP3-47 Programmable Power Supply for MST'S Poloidal Field D. J. Holly, J. R. Adney, K. J. McCollam, J. C. Morin, and M. A. Thomas University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706 Abstract- We are designing a new programmable polo ida I feld power supply for the MST reversed-feld pinch. By providing fexible waveform control, the new supply will expand capabilities in oscillating feld current drive, inductive current profle control, and other inductive

  16. Wisdom and Sense

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-03

    W&S is a system that evolved to address a specific, albeit very broad, class of problems. Initial work focused on detecting clerical errors in materials accounting data. From this start, W&S was extended to identify all types of rare materials accounting transactions. Next, W&S was rebuilt and enhanced to deal with computer security audit trails. In this problem area, W&S was configured to look for evidence of computer misuse. Finally, W&S was enhanced and extendedmore » to improve its generality and better accommodate process control data and network security data. W&S can simultaneously gather data from multiple, networked sources; filter (select and transform) raw transaction data; compute data aggregations and other derived quantities; automatically detect normal behavior patterns; accept and apply expert knowledge of behavior; and find anomalies (non-conforming behavior).« less

  17. Wisdom and Sense

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-03

    W&S is a system that evolved to address a specific albeit very broad, class of problems. Initial work focused on detecting clerical errors in materials accounting data. From this start, W&S was extended to identify all types of rare materials accounting transactions. Next, W&S was rebuilt and enhanced to deal with computer security audit trails. In this problem area, W&S was configured to look for evidence of computer misuse. Finally, W&S was enchanced and extendedmore » to improve its generality and better accommodate process control data and network security data. W&S can simultaneously gather data from multiple, networked sources; filter (select and transform) raw transaction data; compute data aggregations and other derived quantities; automatically detect nornal behavior patterns; accept and apply expert knowledge of behavior; and find anomalies (non-conforming behavior).« less

  18. Nanoparticles synthesis of tungsten disulfide via AOT-based microemulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghoreishi, S.M.; Meshkat, S.S.; Department of Chemical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia 57155-419 ; Ghiaci, M.; Dadkhah, A.A.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A controlled synthesis of WS2 nanoparticles (most probably inorganic fullerene (IF)) via microemulsion was applied for the first time to prepare WS2 (712 nm) by acidification of the water cores of the AOT reverse microemulsion. Highlights: ? An innovative reverse microemulsion technique was developed for WS{sub 2} synthesis. ? WS{sub 2} nanoparticles were obtained with narrow size distribution in range of 712 nm. ? Operating cost of microemulsion was lower in contrast to quartz reactor method. ? WS{sub 2} morphology could be controlled to obtain highly active and selective catalysts. ? Lower size of WS{sub 2} in this study overcomes the shortcoming of quartz reactor method. -- Abstract: The tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) nanoparticles (most probably inorganic fullerene (IF)) with a narrow size distribution were synthesized by a reverse micelle technique for the first time. The particle size was controlled by varying water-to-surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}), aging time and reagent concentration. The synthesized WS{sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized by zetasizer, UVvisible spectrophotometers and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The WS{sub 2} nanoparticles with particle diameter size of 712 nm were obtained via 24 h aging time. The particle size was controlled by changing the aging time and molar ratio of water/surfactant. Doubling W{sub 0} increased the amount and particle size of WS{sub 2} by 22 and 26%, respectively. The effect of aging time in the range of 624 h was investigated and the complete disappearance of yellowish color at 24 h resulted in an optically clear solution, which was the indication of WS{sub 2} formation with 100% conversion of reactant ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WS{sub 4}) in the batch reactor.

  19. MHK Projects/Dandong City | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    specialists. Next steps for the Dandong City project will be to conduct engineering feasibility studies similar to those that were recently successfully concluded in the UK by WS...

  20. Final Report - SPRU Type B Accident Investigation Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Integrated Safety Management Guiding Principles ... Technician WS Waste Superintendent v Acronyms ALARA as low as reasonably ...2010 "Demo Ready Checklist" signed off in ...

  1. PyWSSecurity

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-08-01

    PyWSSecurity provides a Python implementation of the XML Digital Signature standard. It also provides an implementation of WS-Secure Convresation protocol.

  2. ARM - Instrument - sonicwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrument Categories Surface Meteorology Output Datastreams sonicwind2d : Horizontal wind speed and direction from ultrasonic wind sensor (Vaisala WS425), 2m above ground on...

  3. Onsemble | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80302 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Wind energy Product: wind energy forecasting Website: www.onsemble.ws Coordinates: 40.010492, -105.276843 Show Map Loading...

  4. Secure password-based authenticated key exchange for web services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Fang; Meder, Samuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Siebenlist, Frank

    2004-11-22

    This paper discusses an implementation of an authenticated key-exchange method rendered on message primitives defined in the WS-Trust and WS-SecureConversation specifications. This IEEE-specified cryptographic method (AuthA) is proven-secure for password-based authentication and key exchange, while the WS-Trust and WS-Secure Conversation are emerging Web Services Security specifications that extend the WS-Security specification. A prototype of the presented protocol is integrated in the WSRF-compliant Globus Toolkit V4. Further hardening of the implementation is expected to result in a version that will be shipped with future Globus Toolkit releases. This could help to address the current unavailability of decent shared-secret-based authentication options in the Web Services and Grid world. Future work will be to integrate One-Time-Password (OTP) features in the authentication protocol.

  5. Development and Implementation of an Assay System for Rapid Screening of Transuranic Waste in Highly Contaminated Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Akers; Hopi Salomon; Lyle Robal

    2010-08-01

    An overview of the Fissile Material Monitor Waste Screener (FMM-WS) System is presented. This system is a multifunctional radioactive waste assay system suitable for the rapid assay of highly contaminated transuranic wastes immediately after retrieval, prior to packaging. The FMM-WS was developed for use at the Accelerated Cleanup Project (ARP) and began initial testing and operation in April 2008. The FMM-WS is currently in use and is providing needed data on transuranic (TRU) wastes with a range of material types, volumes, and densities from the Accelerated Retrieval Project (ARP).

  6. PJnazFte

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ., .: . . . 1 I . . ' ; .2. . : .' : .. .,~ .' _. ,' ~ ,.:... :- . : Jr ~ttuntion: PJnazFte :fm of wxural the LC' ?SU~S cubic , feet dEa= ax3 (11, ., 1 ' . ,:,.. C& & and ' .. : ,. ; ws .ite " -:.., , ' . 1.. . . :

  7. MHK Projects/Swansea Bay | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The proposed project will be located one mile offshore and will measure five square kilometers in area. WS Atkins has conducted a feasibility study on the proposed project and...

  8. Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Lee, W.S. ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC, SSRL ; Johnston, S. ; Devereaux, T.P. ; Waterloo U. ; Shen, Z.X. ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC, SSRL ...

  9. Abrupt Onset of a Second Energy Gap at the Superconducting Transition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Lee, W.S. ; Vishik, I.M. ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC, SSRL ; Tanaka, K. ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC, SSRL LBNL, ALS ; Lu, D.H. ; Sasagawa, T. ; ...

  10. Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayertransition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides:MoS2,MoSe2,WS2, andWSe2 This content will become publicly available on November 17,...

  11. Dr. Dave Moody to Lead the Carlsbad Field Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (505) 234-7204 www.susan.scott@wipp.ws U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate...

  12. Salem Electric- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric offers a rebate to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate offered is $600 for the first three kilowatts (kWs) installed and $300/kW for any...

  13. Most Viewed Documents - Renewable Energy | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Roman, R.D.; et al. (1994) Metals design handbook Betts, W.S. (1988) Conduction heat transfer solutions VanSant, J.H. (1980) Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study ...

  14. EM Delivers in Deactivation, Regulatory Milestones, Shipping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portsmouth Site Director Dr. Vincent Adams, right, is flanked by Fluor-B&Ws Dennis ... Portsmouth Site Director Dr. Vincent Adams, right, is flanked by Fluor-B&W's Dennis Carr ...

  15. Printed on Recycled Paper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (800) 493-9768 http:www.wipp.ws U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate...

  16. Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Trucks and Idling-Reduction Equipment |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S. Wayne West Virginia University D. Smith U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-540-36355 December 2005 Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S.

  17. Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S. Wayne West Virginia University D. Smith U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-540-36355 December 2005 Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S.

  18. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to the interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane WS lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of WW bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.

  19. THE MASSIVE AND DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY. II. INITIAL SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF z ? 1 GALAXY CLUSTERS SELECTED FROM 10,000 deg{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-08-01

    We present optical and infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy of galaxy clusters which were identified as part of an all-sky search for high-redshift galaxy clusters, the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The initial phase of MaDCoWS combined infrared data from the all-sky data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select probable z ? 1 clusters of galaxies over an area of 10,000 deg{sup 2}. Our spectroscopy confirms 19 new clusters at 0.7 < z < 1.3, half of which are at z > 1, demonstrating the viability of using WISE to identify high-redshift galaxy clusters. The next phase of MaDCoWS will use the greater depth of the AllWISE data release to identify even higher redshift cluster candidates.

  20. BPA-2013-01256-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M1C1-Ti SSQcJTES, RC. AttojrneyN at.Law RECEIVED BY tWA FOIA OFFICE TillS DATE - 1143 DUE DATE: OF COUNS 6L 0014 5. KATES bATneonow4b. WA RuTh P HARING IL&Tri5w fri. HC'RDCZIcO Ws...

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    OH 1. NE 3. S1 4. S2 5. GF 6. OH 7. EN AL,MS MN,ND,SD IA,NE,MO,KS TX,LA,OK,AR MT,WY,ID CO,UT,NV AZ,NM 9. AM 11. C2 12. WS 13. MT 14. CU 15. ZN WV,MD,DC,DE 2. YP...

  2. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to the interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.

  3. Nonenzymatic Role for WRN in Preserving Nascent DNA Strands after Replication Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Yang, Yanyong; Mori, Eiichiro; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Kobayashi, Junya; Yannone, Steven  M.; Chen, David  J.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2014-11-20

    WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRN to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals.

  4. Monolayers of MoS{sub 2} as an oxidation protective nanocoating material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, H. Sener; Sahin, H.; Peeters, F. M.; Durgun, E.

    2014-08-28

    First-principle calculations are employed to investigate the interaction of oxygen with ideal and defective MoS{sub 2} monolayers. Our calculations show that while oxygen atoms are strongly bound on top of sulfur atoms, the oxygen molecule only weakly interacts with the surface. The penetration of oxygen atoms and molecules through a defect-free MoS{sub 2} monolayer is prevented by a very high diffusion barrier indicating that MoS{sub 2} can serve as a protective layer for oxidation. The analysis is extended to WS{sub 2} and similar coating characteristics are obtained. Our calculations indicate that ideal and continuous MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} monolayers can improve the oxidation and corrosion-resistance of the covered surface and can be considered as an efficient nanocoating material.

  5. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 - Appendix F

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Regional maps Figure F7. Coal demand regions Figure F7. Coal Demand Regions CT,MA,ME,NH,RI,VT OH 1. NE 3. S1 4. S2 5. GF 6. OH 7. EN AL,MS MN,ND,SD IA,NE,MO,KS TX,LA,OK,AR MT,WY,ID CO,UT,NV AZ,NM 9. AM 11. C2 12. WS 13. MT 14. CU 15. ZN WV,MD,DC,DE 2. YP Region Content Region Code NY,PA,NJ VA,NC,SC GA,FL IN,IL,MI,WI Region Content Region Code 14. CU 13. MT 16. PC 15. ZN 12. WS 11. C2 9. AM 5. GF 8. KT 4. S2 7. EN 6. OH 2. YP 1. NE 3. S1 10. C1 KY,TN 8. KT 16. PC AK,HI,WA,OR,CA 10. C1

  6. Integrated Engineering, Construction, and Management Solutions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Engineering, Construction, and Management Solutions Washington Group International Contact: Susan Scott Public Affairs (505) 234-7204 http://www.wipp.ws Washington TRU Solutions LLC Washington TRU Solutions LLC Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 2078 P.O. Box 2078 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 For immediate release For immediate release Firm Awarded WIPP Records Demonstration Contract CARLSBAD, N.M., February 17, 2005 - Washington

  7. PNNL: Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Check out our publications on molecular electrocatalysts 2016 Publications Anson CW, S Ghosh, S Hammes-Schiffer, and SS Stahl. 2016. "Co(Salophen)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of p-Hydroquinone: Mechanism and Implications for Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis." Journal of the American Chemical Society 138:4186-4193. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b00254 Egbert JD, LA Labios, JM Darmon, NA Piron, WS Kassel, and MT Mock. 2016. "Synthesis and Structure of Vanadium Halide Complexes

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori

    2008-11-15

    A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoemission Spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy No abstract prepared. Authors: Lee, W.S. ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL ; Johnston, S. ; Devereaux, T.P. ; /Waterloo U. ; Shen, Z.X. ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

  10. DOE Awards Grant to NMED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 19, 2012 Deb Gill 575-234-7270 deb.gill@wipp.ws DOE Awards Grant to New Mexico Environment Department for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Oversight, Monitoring Carlsbad, NM -- The Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a grant for an estimated $1.6 million to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The five-year grant funds an agreement for NMED to conduct non-regulatory environmental oversight and monitoring to evaluate activities conducted at DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  11. Environmental Assessment for Actinide Chemistry and Repository Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory questions on the Environmental Assessment for Actinide Chemistry and Repository Science Laboratory, email Harold.Johnson@wipp.ws or call (505) 234-7349. Environmental Assessment for Actinide Chemistry and Repository Science Laboratory Final - January, 2006 This document has been provided to you in PDF format. Please install Adobe Acrobat Reader before accessing these documents. Some of the Chapters containing complex graphics have been split into multiple parts to allow for more

  12. TO: FROM: SUBJECT,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    TO: FROM: SUBJECT, tlEMORANDUtl DATE --w--s CSLTERNATE . NAME: ---------------------- OWNER(S) ---v--w- Pamt a ------------------------ Current: ------------------------- Owner contacted 0 yes nno; if yes, date contacted ------------- TYPE OF OPERATION ----------------- werearch P Development 6 Production scale testing 0 Pilot Scale 0 Bench Sea10 Process 0 Theoretical Studies 0 Sample & Analysis 0 Production 0 Disposal/Storage TYPE OF CONTRC4CT ---------------- 0 Prime ubcontractor Purchase

  13. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to themore » interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.« less

  14. B'. ~. ,* o

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    PM* fi -a Wt% t. o -wS * . StItiat hit . to ti . Rj s" pwtd t to WI wi 1i94 3 ,*t * I IA mWP at 6 u h*t tSU22owiW S a t vuft 1913"a. iwi VW ty U tjsas riu a l XtgwIu t f l...

  15. Host cells and methods for producing isoprenyl alkanoates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Taek Soon; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides for a method of producing an isoprenyl alkanoate in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses an enzyme capable of catalyzing the esterification of an isoprenol and a straight-chain fatty acid, such as an alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) or lipase, under a suitable condition so that the isoprenyl alkanoate is produced.

  16. Quantum & Energy Materials Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum & Energy Materials Capabilities Synthesis Colloidal chemistry and self-assembly techniques Complex oxide film synthesis via molecular beam epitaxy (DCA R450 Custom) Glovebox system for organic photovoltaics device fabrication Physical vapor deposition (Lesker CMS 18 and PVD 250) Spin coating (Laurell WS-400) Characterization Variable-temperature (VT) scanning tunneling microscope with atomic force microscopy capabilities (Omicron VT-AFM/STM), operates in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2-A-3-OK-Real-Time Data Infrastructure for Large Scale Wind Fleets.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real Time Data Infrastructure for Large Real-Time Data Infrastructure for Large Scale Wind Fleets - Return on Investment vs Fundamental Business Requirements Value now. Value over time. © Copyright 2011, OSIsoft, LLC All Rights Reserved. vs. Fundamental Business Requirements Reliability - 4 Ws and an H * What is reliability? - Uptime, OEE, profitable wind plants? (OEE Availability % * Production % * Quality %) * (OEE = Availability % * Production % * Quality %) * Why should money be spent to

  18. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6th US WS Dresden Final Agendaadmin2016-04-18T20:58:24+00:00 Popular Downloads Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team (10514 downloads) Modeling System Losses in PVsyst (8992 downloads) Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD v2.0) for Wind Turbine Blades: User's Guide (7143 downloads) Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Proactive Intelligent Advances for Photovoltaic Systems (6205 downloads) Improved Test Method to Verify the

  19. Development of ab initio techniques critical for future science-based explosives R&D.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wixom, Ryan R.; Mattsson, Ann Elisabet

    2013-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) has emerged as an indispensable tool in materials research, since it can accurately predict properties of a wide variety of materials at both equilibrium and extreme conditions. However, for organic molecular crystal explosives, successful application of DFT has largely failed due to the inability of current exchange-correlation functionals to correctly describe intermolecular van der Waals' (vdWs) forces. Despite this, we have discovered that even with no treatment of vdWs bonding, the AM05 functional and DFT based molecular dynamics (MD) could be used to study the properties of molecular crystals under compression. We have used DFT-MD to predict the unreacted Hugoniots for PETN and HNS and validated the results by comparison with crystalline and porous experimental data. Since we are also interested in applying DFT methods to study the equilibrium volume properties of explosives, we studied the nature of the vdWs bonding in pursuit of creating a new DFT functional capable of accurately describing equilibrium bonding of molecular crystals. In this report we discuss our results for computing shock Hugoniots of molecular crystals and also what was learned about the nature of bonding in these materials.

  20. EXO project equipment successfully placed underground at WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office (505) 234-7327 Dennis.hurtt@wipp.ws http://www.wipp.energy.gov U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate Release EXO project equipment successfully placed underground at WIPP Carlsbad, NM July 24, 2007 - The first two clean room modules for the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) project have been successfully placed in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation

  1. I,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ;. i I, .;-' T, f !tWs doccmct ccnciste of J&--a, ; . No. 18 of y8 copies, Se&a,. , ! :, , ! . : TO I B. L. Kirk, Dlreotor. Production Dioision DATS: Kay Zr) 1953 FROM I F' 1NAL DETERMINATION SUBJECT: SUMiATION OF WASTE FfRSIm, A rampling program for variouo waste reaiduea looated at Mm and Ha1e.t aites (GlS, L-SO, L-50, P-78, R-10 and R-lO(Pe) wan oonduoted " between Deoember 1. 1962 and January 22, 1953. The purpose of the sampling program was to: ,l. Provide the Chemioal

  2. PHENIX Measurement of Parity-Violating Single Spin Asymmetry in W Production in p+p Collisions at 500 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pate, Stephen

    2011-07-15

    The flavor-separated polarized parton distribution functions for light quarks and anti-quarks in the proton can be studied in the production of W bosons in p+p collisions. The Ws are produced in processes like u+d-bar{yields}W{sup +} and u-bar+d{yields}W{sup -} and we observe the lepton (an electron or muon) from the decay channel W{sup {+-}}{yields}l{sup {+-}}{nu}. The electron energy spectrum from W decays measured with an integrated luminosity of approximately 10 pb{sup -1} will be shown, with a measurement of the electron single spin asymmetry in central rapidity.

  3. Inductive inference model of anomaly and misuse detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helman, P.

    1997-01-01

    Further consequences of the inductive inference model of anomaly and misuse detection are presented. The results apply to the design of both probability models for the inductive inference framework and to the design of W&S rule bases. The issues considered include: the role of misuse models M{sub A}, the selection of relevant sets of attributes and the aggregation of their values, the effect on a rule base of nonmaximal rules, and the partitioning of a set of attributes into a left hand and right hand side.

  4. Most Viewed Documents - Fission and Nuclear Technologies | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information - Fission and Nuclear Technologies Metals design handbook Betts, W.S. (1988) Estimation of gas leak rates through very small orifices and channels. [From sealed PuO/sub 2/ containers under accident conditions] Bomelburg, H.J. () Graphite design handbook Ho, F.H. (1988) Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing DeWall, K.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)]

  5. ARMY SERiWE FORCES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ' This doc~omnt consists tif-..$---..-- PaWs ?5-i3s4 " No.,J ______ d&---.copies. series.-f;;i, ' ARMY SERiWE FORCES UNITED STATES ' ENGINEER OFFICE MANHP.~AN Dwmtcr CHIWOO A\RU o,,,c* P. 0. 90x 3140 A CHICA so, ILrlNole 20 June 1945 F' '2 0 Subject: Licenae Agreement - International Pulverizing Corporation - Subcoritract #7401-37-82. To: The District~Eqinssr, U. S. Engineer Office, Manhattan District, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention: Contract Section. As llsted'below, there are

  6. I'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Fou4 ,...-, ,/' / / I' ,/* ,I ,/' 4 ft ,,/- ,/ ./ "' /, 3: :GSD : mh Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. Cantiague Z.oad, P.O. Uox 75 iiicksvill~, I.cng Island. :!.a~ York <; 1. 5,756 lbs. of Fernsld rojeot slugs. 2. 10,000 lbs. rujeoted powder metallurgy slugs. 3. 5,3!;5 lbs. uranium scrap and sludge*. *Th'Ls material, we unc?srstanct, h4S alreedy been shi$ped and this cmfims nuthor.jeatioiito do 80.. %rthar,~in ncxord with the conver&ntion with bir. IStz ws are cancelling your order

  7. U

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office (505) 234-7327 Dennis.hurtt@wipp.ws http://www.wipp.energy.gov U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate Release CBFO selects National TRU Program Director Carlsbad, N.M., April 5, 2007 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office announced today that Casey Gadbury will direct the National TRU Program (NTP). The DOE program was created in

  8. Nonenzymatic Role for WRN in Preserving Nascent DNA Strands after Replication Stress

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Yang, Yanyong; Mori, Eiichiro; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Kobayashi, Junya; Yannone, Steven  M.; Chen, David  J.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2014-11-20

    WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRNmore » to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals.« less

  9. Improved spectrophotometric analysis of barium styphnate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N E; Blasi, J A

    1983-01-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure to determine the purity of barium styphnate monohydrate based upon the absorbance of the styphnate ion at 326 and 413.3 nm has been developed. The purity is determined by comparing the absorbance of the styphnate ion in barium styphnate and in styphnic acid. Our investigation has shown that the molar absorptivity and lambda maxima of the styphnate ion are quite pH dependent; therefore, the pH is buffered to 6.8 to 7.0 with ammonium acetate. Under these conditions the molar absorptivity is 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ L/mol-cm. Analyses following the procedure in the Navy specification WS13444A using water were found to give low molar absorptivities (1.3 x 10/sup 4/ L/mol-cm) for the styphnic acid calibration resulting in erroneous values for barium styphnate purity.

  10. The state of the Java universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-08

    Speaker Bio: James Gosling received a B.Sc. in computer science from the University of Calgary, Canada in 1977. He received a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1983. The title of his thesis was The Algebraic Manipulation of Constraints. He has built satellite data acquisition systems, a multiprocessor version of UNIX®, several compilers, mail systems, and window managers. He has also built a WYSIWYG text editor, a constraint-based drawing editor, and a text editor called Emacs, for UNIX systems. At Sun his early activity was as lead engineer of the NeWS window system. He did the original design of the Java programming language and implemented its original compiler and virtual machine. He has recently been a contributor to the Real-Time Specification for Java.

  11. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; et al

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore » fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the accumulation mode and ~ 0.36 for the coarse mode, respectively. The obtained κv, ws for the accumulation mode is in good agreement with earlier data reported for remote sites in the Amazon rain forest (κv ≈ 0.15) and a Colorado boreal forest (κv ≈ 0.16). We used the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule to predict the chemical composition dependent hygroscopicity, κv, p. The obtained κv, p values overestimate the experimental FDHA-KIM-derived κv, ws by factors of 1.8 and 1.5 for the accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. This divergence can be partly explained by incomplete dissolution of the hygroscopic inorganic compounds resulting from kinetic limitations due to a sparingly soluble organic coating. The TEM and STXM-NEXAFS results indicate that aged submicron (>300 nm) and supermicron aerosol particles possess core-shell structures with an inorganic core, and are enriched in organic carbon at the mixed particle surface. The direct FDHA kinetic studies provide a bulk diffusion coefficient of water of ~ 10−12 cm2 s−1 indicating a semi-solid state of the organic-rich phase leading to kinetic limitations of water uptake and release during hydration and dehydration cycles. Overall the present ZOTTO data set, obtained in the growing season, has revealed a strong influence of organic carbon on the hygroscopic properties of the ambient aerosols. The sparingly soluble organic coating controls hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The observed kinetic limitations can strongly influence the outcome of experiments performed on multi-second time scales, such as the commonly applied HTDMA (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) and CCNC (Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter) measurements.« less

  12. W C

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    'I,\ W C -h J I Z?f;SF * j3ktalIurgiral Xaboratorp , ;, : i)i -." *' ! ;' ()qs:$& ,:+ - 5 ..-._. iJ 3 34i..!."; ::. c 0 * 9 "'t!(,; JF . t4.1. __ C.l'Ll#?~ :.-;,..< I J c-2. . fl :. I CLASJi?"ICATION CX!ICXLLL"D To: Capt. Karl I DAqJEC 8 ws -__ &me. FOP the Ai;csla Tnx-,rr' J Comisslon m "!~~.y;i> @ I&&- &,a&-SXc~tion Branch lillty that a m u m recognltl Ciri~lon for t iTeatoi' our rays in rhlc soar. 8otion has brea rpy this

  13. The state of the Java universe

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Speaker Bio: James Gosling received a B.Sc. in computer science from the University of Calgary, Canada in 1977. He received a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1983. The title of his thesis was The Algebraic Manipulation of Constraints. He has built satellite data acquisition systems, a multiprocessor version of UNIX®, several compilers, mail systems, and window managers. He has also built a WYSIWYG text editor, a constraint-based drawing editor, and a text editor called Emacs, for UNIX systems. At Sun his early activity was as lead engineer of the NeWS window system. He did the original design of the Java programming language and implemented its original compiler and virtual machine. He has recently been a contributor to the Real-Time Specification for Java.

  14. Proceedings: 1989 conference on municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 1989 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Conference on Municipal Solid Waste as a Utility Fuel. The subject areas included are: Utility cofiring experience, refuse-derived fuel production, firing 100% refuse-derived fuel, mass burn technology, fluidized bed combustion, research reports, environmental control technology, and papers on permitting, environmental risk assessment, and the impact of recycling. The conference was held on October 10--12, 1989, and was proceeded by similar conferences held 11/85 (EPRI publication CS-4900-SR, 1986); 1/82 (EPRI publication CS-2723, 1982) and 1/80 (EPRI Publication WS-79-225, 1980). Individual projects are processed separately for on the databases. (MHB)

  15. Broadband visible light source based on AllnGaN light emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Mary H.; Nelson, Jeffrey S.

    2003-12-16

    A visible light source device is described based on a light emitting diode and a nanocluster-based film. The light emitting diode utilizes a semiconductor quantum well structure between n-type and p-type semiconductor materials on the top surface a substrate such as sapphire. The nanocluster-based film is deposited on the bottom surface of the substrate and can be derived from a solution of MoS.sub.2, MoSe.sub.2, WS.sub.2, and WSe.sub.2 particles of size greater than approximately 2 nm in diameter and less than approximately 15 nm in diameter, having an absorption wavelength greater than approximately 300 nm and less than approximately 650 nm.

  16. Low Latency Messages on Distributed Memory Multiprocessors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosing, Matt; Saltz, Joel

    1995-01-01

    This article describes many of the issues in developing an efficient interface for communication on distributed memory machines. Although the hardware component of message latency is less than 1 ws on many distributed memory machines, the software latency associated with sending and receiving typed messages is on the order of 50 μs. The reason for this imbalance is that the software interface does not match the hardware. By changing the interface to match the hardware more closely, applications with fine grained communication can be put on these machines. This article describes several tests performed and many of the issues involvedmore » in supporting low latency messages on distributed memory machines.« less

  17. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Chen; Damien, West; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Prof. Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    The success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherent chargemore » oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.« less

  18. Gas reburn retrofit on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Latham, C.E.; Maringo, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, is being retrofitted with the gas reburning technology developed by Babcock & Wilcox (B & W) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the Title I, ozone nonattainment, of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit set in New York`s regulation is about 47%. Eastman Kodak and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are cosponsoring this project. B & W is the prime contractor and contract negotiations with Chevron as the gas supplier are presently being finalized. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system is scheduled for a September 1995 outage. No. 43 Boiler`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}. Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient gas residence time to use pulverized coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Based on successful completion of this gas reburn project, modifying the other three cyclone boilers with gas reburn technology is anticipated. The paper will describe B & W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B & W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn design information specific to Eastman Kodak No. 43 Boiler, and numerical modeling experiences based on the pilot-scale Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) results along with those from a full-scale commercial boiler.

  19. NO{sub x} control using natural gas reburn on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Maringo, G.J.; Beard, C.T.; Weed, G.E.; Pratapas, J.

    1996-12-31

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, has been retrofitted with the gas reburn technology developed by the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Company to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the New York State regulations adopted in conformance with the Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. At the peak load, the ozone nonattainment required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit for cyclone boilers in this regulation is 56%. Eastman Kodak Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are co-sponsoring this project. Chevron has supplied the natural gas. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system was performed in a September 1995 outage. Boiler No. 43`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow (or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}). Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient furnace residence time to use coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Contingent upon successful completion of this gas reburn project, modification of Kodak`s other cyclone boilers to include reburn technology will be consideredd. The paper will describe B and W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B and W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn system design, manufacturing, and installation information specific to Kodak`s Unit No. 43. In addition, the paper will discuss numerical modeling and the full-scale commercial boiler test results.

  20. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mainprize, James G.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge; Ebrahimi, Mehran; Jong, Roberta A.; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the subtracted images was observed. Increasing the x-ray energy from that used in conventional DM to those of typical SE CEDM spectra with mean energies above 33 keV significantly decreased {alpha} by about a factor of 19, in agreement with theory. Compared to precontrast images, in the unprocessed postcontrast images at 30 s postinjection, {alpha} was larger by about 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mm{sup 2} and {beta} was decreased by 0.2. While {alpha} did not vary significantly with the time after contrast administration, {beta} from the unprocessed image WS increased linearly, and {beta} from subtracted image WS increased with an initial quadratic relationship that plateaued by about 5 min postinjection. Conclusions: The presence of an iodinated contrast agent in the breast produced small, but significant changes in the power law parameters of unprocessed CEDM images compared to the precontrast images. Image subtraction in SE CEDM significantly reduced anatomical noise compared to conventional DM, with a reduction in both {alpha} and {beta} by about a factor of 2. The data presented here, and in Part II of this work, will be useful for modeling of CEDM backgrounds, for systems characterization and for lesion detectability experiments using models that account for anatomical noise.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.5 Residential Construction and Housing Market

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    0 Home Price Index (HPI), All-Transactions, by Census Region (1)(2) New Mid. S. E-S W-S E-N W-N United Eng. Atl. Atl. Centrl Centrl Centrl Centrl MT Pacific States 1975 63.1 71.8 68.5 68.8 56.0 63.5 62.1 56.5 46.2 61.3 1976 69.2 73.9 71.5 71.7 62.8 68.7 68.1 61.6 54.7 66.6 1977 73.1 78.0 76.0 79.8 69.0 76.8 77.0 70.8 68.4 74.3 1978 86.3 82.7 85.6 90.7 81.6 89.5 88.4 83.9 80.1 85.3 1979 97.9 94.4 94.6 99.3 95.4 99.0 98.7 96.7 93.9 96.4 1980 106.6 106.4 104.1 103.9 104.0 102.3 104.0 105.3 105.8

  2. Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    0 Home Price Index (HPI), All-Transactions, by Census Region (1)(2) New Mid. S. E-S W-S E-N W-N United Eng. Atl. Atl. Centrl Centrl Centrl Centrl MT Pacific States 1975 63.1 71.8 68.5 68.8 56.0 63.5 62.1 56.5 46.2 61.3 1976 69.2 73.9 71.5 71.7 62.8 68.7 68.1 61.6 54.7 66.6 1977 73.1 78.0 76.0 79.8 69.0 76.8 77.0 70.8 68.4 74.3 1978 86.3 82.7 85.6 90.7 81.6 89.5 88.4 83.9 80.1 85.3 1979 97.9 94.4 94.6 99.3 95.4 99.0 98.7 96.7 93.9 96.4 1980 106.6 106.4 104.1 103.9 104.0 102.3 104.0 105.3 105.8

  3. Diffractive W and Z Production at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.

    2010-07-01

    We report on a measurement of the fraction of events with a W or Z boson produced diffractively in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, using data from 0.6 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the CDF II detector equipped with a Roman-pot spectrometer that detects the {bar p} from {bar p} + p {yields} {bar p}+[X+W/Z]. We find that (0.97 {+-} 0.11)% of Ws and (0.85 {+-} 0.22)% of Zs are produced diffractively in a region of (anti)proton fractional momentum loss {zeta} of 0.03 < {zeta} < 0.10 and 4-momentum transferred squared t of -1 < t < 0 (GeV/c){sup 2}. We also report on searches for W and Z production in double Pomeron exchange, p+{bar p} {yields} p+[X+W/z]+{bar p}, and on exclusive Z production, {bar p}p {yields} {bar p}+Z+p. No signal is seen above background for these processes, and comparisons are made with expectations.

  4. WRNIP1 functions upstream of DNA polymerase ? in the UV-induced DNA damage response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Akari; Kobayashi, Yume; Tada, Shusuke; Seki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takemi

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: The UV sensitivity of POLH{sup ?/?} cells was suppressed by disruption of WRNIP1. In WRNIP1{sup ?/?/?}/POLH{sup ?/?} cells, mutation frequencies and SCE after irradiation reduced. WRNIP1 defect recovered rate of fork progression after irradiation in POLH{sup ?/?} cells. WRNIP1 functions upstream of Pol? in the translesion DNA synthesis pathway. - Abstract: WRNIP1 (WRN-interacting protein 1) was first identified as a factor that interacts with WRN, the protein that is defective in Werner syndrome (WS). WRNIP1 associates with DNA polymerase ? (Pol?), but the biological significance of this interaction remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the functional interaction between WRNIP1 and Pol? by generating knockouts of both genes in DT40 chicken cells. Disruption of WRNIP1 in Pol?-disrupted (POLH{sup ?/?}) cells suppressed the phenotypes associated with the loss of Pol?: sensitivity to ultraviolet light (UV), delayed repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), elevated frequency of mutation, elevated levels of UV-induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and reduced rate of fork progression after UV irradiation. These results suggest that WRNIP1 functions upstream of Pol? in the response to UV irradiation.

  5. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Charles D.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Toole, Jr., William R.

    1996-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump for in-ground filtering and monitoring of ws or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  6. Development of the design climatic data for the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook -- Fundamentals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colliver, D.G.; Burks, T.F.; Gates, R.S.; Zhang, H.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the process used to revise the design weather data tables in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Design conditions were determined for 509 US, 134 Canadian, 339 European, 293 Asian, and 169 other worldwide locations. Thirty-three years of hourly weather data were used for approximately half of the US and all of the Canadian locations. Twelve years of data were used for the other locations. The data went through quality checking and short-term linear interpolation filling processes. Months that had sufficient data were then used in the analysis. The data were analyzed to produce annual frequency-of-occurrence design dry-bulb (DB), wet-bulb (WB), and dew-point (DP) temperatures with mean coincident values at the design conditions. A comparison with the previous design values indicated that the new dry-bulb and wet-bulb design conditions are slightly less extreme than the values previously published. However, the new design dew-point values indicate the potential for significantly more extreme dehumidification design conditions than would be found by using the old extreme dry-bulb temperature with mean coincident wet-bulb temperature. Software was also developed so users could extract the design values, cumulative frequencies, and DB/DP, DB/WB, DB/H, and DB/WS coincident matrices for 1444 locations from a CD-ROM.

  7. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode.

    The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments.

    The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the accumulation mode and ~ 0.36 for the coarse mode, respectively. The obtained κv, ws for the accumulation mode is in good agreement with earlier data reported for remote sites in the Amazon rain forest (κv ≈ 0.15) and a Colorado boreal forest (κv ≈ 0.16).

    We used the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule to predict the chemical composition dependent hygroscopicity, κv, p. The obtained κv, p values overestimate the experimental FDHA-KIM-derived κv, ws by factors of 1.8 and 1.5 for the accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. This divergence can be partly explained by incomplete dissolution of the hygroscopic inorganic compounds resulting from kinetic limitations due to a sparingly soluble organic coating. The TEM and STXM-NEXAFS results indicate that aged submicron (>300 nm) and supermicron aerosol particles possess core-shell structures with an inorganic core, and are enriched in organic carbon at the mixed particle surface. The direct FDHA kinetic studies provide a bulk diffusion coefficient of water of ~ 10−12 cm2 s−1 indicating a semi-solid state of the organic-rich phase leading to kinetic limitations of water uptake and release during hydration and dehydration cycles. Overall the present ZOTTO data set, obtained in the growing season, has revealed a strong influence of organic carbon on the hygroscopic properties of the ambient aerosols. The sparingly soluble organic coating controls hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The observed kinetic limitations can strongly influence the outcome of experiments performed on multi-second time scales, such as the commonly applied HTDMA (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) and CCNC (Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter) measurements.

  8. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates through a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when λpump > 2.4 eV, which is just sufficient to excite exciton XB. The dynamics of trion T2 formation are found to correlate with the disappearance of the bleach of XB exciton, which indicates the involvement of holes participating in the bleach dynamics of exciton XB. Static electrical-doping photoabsorption measurements confirm the presence of an induced absorption peak similar to that of T2. Since the proposed trion formation process here involves exciton dissociation through hole-trapping by defects in the 2D crystal or substrate, this discovery highlights the strong role that defects have in defining the optical and electrical properties of 2D metal chalcogenides, which is relevant to a broad spectrum of basic science and technology applications.

  9. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates throughmore » a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when λpump > 2.4 eV, which is just sufficient to excite exciton XB. The dynamics of trion T2 formation are found to correlate with the disappearance of the bleach of XB exciton, which indicates the involvement of holes participating in the bleach dynamics of exciton XB. Static electrical-doping photoabsorption measurements confirm the presence of an induced absorption peak similar to that of T2. Since the proposed trion formation process here involves exciton dissociation through hole-trapping by defects in the 2D crystal or substrate, this discovery highlights the strong role that defects have in defining the optical and electrical properties of 2D metal chalcogenides, which is relevant to a broad spectrum of basic science and technology applications.« less

  10. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}4, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farthing, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B and W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  11. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungk, John Michael (University of Minnesota); Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M. (University of Colorado); Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W. (University of Minnesota)

    2005-10-01

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  12. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  13. Advanced dry scrubbing on Ohio coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.; Kudlac, G.A.; Smith, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} emissions while burning high-sulfur Ohio coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. Dry scrubbing involves injecting an atomized mist of sorbent-containing slurry droplets into hot flue gas. The reaction products exit the scrubber as a dry powder that can be filtered from the gas and recycled or disposed. The project consists of testing an advanced dry scrubber system on two high sulfur Ohio coals. All testing will be conducted in the 5 MBtu pilot facility at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The facility consists of a test furnace, a dry scrubber using a B and W DuraJet{trademark} two fluid atomizer, a pulse-jet baghouse, and an ash slaking system. Tests were conducted with and without recycling the solids collected from the baghouse. During recycle operation the solids were slurried with water and injected into the dry scrubber with the fresh lime slurry. Test results will be presented, including SO{sub 2} removal (70--99%), calcium to sulfur ratios (1.1--1.9), dry scrubber outlet temperatures (10--30 F), and system performance. An advanced feature of the project was the use of the B and W patented Droplet Impingement Device which removes large slurry droplets from the gas stream prior to the baghouse to prevent baghouse deposition. This allows operation at low approach temperatures.

  14. Influence of process changes on PCDD/Fs produced in an iron ore sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerriero, E.; Bianchini, M.; Gigliucci, P.F.; Guarnieri, A.; Mosca, S.; Rossetti, G.; Varde, M.; Rotatori, M.

    2009-01-15

    This study investigated the influence of different charge typologies and additives on the PCDD/Fs amount produced and on the congener profiles in an iron ore sintering plant. Many tests were carried out combining different typologies of charge (iron materials) and solid fuel ('coke breeze' or 'anthracite') with or without the use of urea. The PCDD/Fs produced ranged from 1.2 to 22.7 {mu} g I-TEQ/ton of agglomerate, whereas the PCDD/Fs released to the ambient air ranged from 0.10 to 1.92 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} because of cleaning in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a Wetfine scrubber (WS). A more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles charge appeared to produce a lower PCDD/Fs concentration due to a better combustion but this hypothesis needs further investigations on charges having different dimension particles. Only a synergitic action of urea and anthracite was able to reduce the high PCDD/Fs content due to the bad combustion of the more inhomogeneous charge with a lower amount of fine particles. The congener profile was a typical combustion process fingerprint because the PCDFs predominated, the highly chlorinated congeners (HeptaCDD and OctaCDD) prevailed in PCDDs, whereas in PCDFs the profile was more varied; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF was the main contributor to the total concentration while 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF was the main contributor to the I-TEQ concentration. Whereas all the parameters under scrutiny influenced strongly the amount of PCDD/Fs produced, they affected only slightly the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs. In all cases studied, the reduction obtained using urea, anthracite, or the more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles was slightly greater on the higher chlorinated congeners in respect to the lower ones.

  15. The First Pan-WCRP Workshop on Monsoon Climate Systems: Toward Better Prediction of the Monsoons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperber, K R; Yasunari, T

    2005-07-27

    In 2004 the Joint Scientific Committee (JSC) that provides scientific guidance to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) requested an assessment of (1) WCRP monsoon related activities and (2) the range of available observations and analyses in monsoon regions. The purpose of the assessment was to (a) define the essential elements of a pan-WCRP monsoon modeling strategy, (b) identify the procedures for producing this strategy, and (c) promote improvements in monsoon observations and analyses with a view toward their adequacy, and addressing any undue redundancy or duplication. As such, the WCRP sponsored the ''1st Pan-WCRP Workshop on Monsoon Climate Systems: Toward Better Prediction of the Monsoons'' at the University of California, Irvine, CA, USA from 15-17 June 2005. Experts from the two WCRP programs directly relevant to monsoon studies, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR) and the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), gathered to assess the current understanding of the fundamental physical processes governing monsoon variability and to highlight outstanding problems in simulating the monsoon that can be tackled through enhanced cooperation between CLIVAR and GEWEX. The agenda with links to the presentations can be found at: http://www.clivar.org/organization/aamon/WCRPmonsoonWS/agenda.htm. Scientific motivation for a joint CLIVAR-GEWEX approach to investigating monsoons includes the potential for improved medium-range to seasonal prediction through better simulation of intraseasonal (30-60 day) oscillations (ISO's). ISO's are important for the onset of monsoons, as well as the development of active and break periods of rainfall during the monsoon season. Foreknowledge of the active and break phases of the monsoon is important for crop selection, the determination of planting times and mitigation of potential flooding and short-term drought. With a few exceptions simulations of ISO are typically poor in all classes of modeling. Observational and modeling studies indicate that the diurnal cycle of radiative heating and surface fluxes over the ocean are rectified on to the intraseasonal timescale indicating that a synergistic approach to studying monsoon variability is necessary. The diurnal cycle of precipitation and clouds, which directly influence the radiative heating and surface fluxes, are also poorly represented in global models, especially. Thus, it is anticipated that improving the simulation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation and clouds in global models will contribute to an improved ability to simulate ISOs. Improved understanding and simulation of the diurnal cycle is also important since it influences low-levels jets and the associated transport of moisture as well as the rainfall over regions of complex topography.

  16. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  17. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated system that exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal of 40% (HHV) efficiency at emission levels well below the DOE suggested limits; and (5) An advanced biofueled power system whose levelized cost of electricity can be competitive with other new power system alternatives.

  18. Use of the CIM Ontology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumann, Scott; Britton, Jay; Devos, Arnold N.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2006-02-08

    There are many uses for the Common Information Model (CIM), an ontology that is being standardized through Technical Committee 57 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC TC57). The most common uses to date have included application modeling, information exchanges, information management and systems integration. As one should expect, there are many issues that become apparent when the CIM ontology is applied to any one use. Some of these issues are shortcomings within the current draft of the CIM, and others are a consequence of the different ways in which the CIM can be applied using different technologies. As the CIM ontology will and should evolve, there are several dangers that need to be recognized. One is overall consistency and impact upon applications when extending the CIM for a specific need. Another is that a tight coupling of the CIM to specific technologies could limit the value of the CIM in the longer term as an ontology, which becomes a larger issue over time as new technologies emerge. The integration of systems is one specific area of interest for application of the CIM ontology. This is an area dominated by the use of XML for the definition of messages. While this is certainly true when using Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) products, it is even more true with the movement towards the use of Web Services (WS), Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) and Enterprise Service Buses (ESB) for integration. This general IT industry trend is consistent with trends seen within the IEC TC57 scope of power system management and associated information exchange. The challenge for TC57 is how to best leverage the CIM ontology using the various XML technologies and standards for integration. This paper will provide examples of how the CIM ontology is used and describe some specific issues that should be addressed within the CIM in order to increase its usefulness as an ontology. It will also describe some of the issues and challenges that will be faced as the CIM ontology is leveraged for integration purposes by IEC TC57 standards.

  19. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cammin, Jochen E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors previous work [K. Taguchi et al., Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects, Med. Phys. 38(2), 10891102 (2011)]. The agreement between the x-ray spectra calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model and the measured spectra was evaluated for various levels of deadtime loss ratios (DLR) and incident spectral shapes, realized using different attenuators, in terms of the weighted coefficient of variation (COV{sub W}), i.e., the root mean square difference weighted by the statistical errors of the data and divided by the mean. Results: At low count rates, when DLR < 10%, the distorted spectra measured by the DXMCT-1 were in agreement with those calculated by SRE only, with COV{sub W}'s less than 4%. At higher count rates, the measured spectra were also in agreement with the ones calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model; with PMMA as attenuator, COV{sub W} was 5.6% at a DLR of 22% and as small as 6.7% for a DLR as high as 55%. Conclusions: The x-ray spectra calculated by the proposed model agreed with the measured spectra over a wide range of count rates and spectral shapes. The SRE model predicted the distorted, recorded spectra with low count rates over various types and thicknesses of attenuators. The study also validated the hypothesis that the complex spectral distortions in a PCD can be adequately modeled by cascading the count-rate independent SRE and the count-rate dependent PPE.

  20. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300°C-700°C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  1. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, hadronic top decays with the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; /Twente U. Tech., Enschede

    2009-01-16

    Of the six quarks in the standard model the top quark is by far the heaviest: 35 times more massive than its partner the bottom quark and more than 130 times heavier than the average of the other five quarks. Its correspondingly small decay width means it tends to decay before forming a bound state. Of all quarks, therefore, the top is the least affected by quark confinement, behaving almost as a free quark. Its large mass also makes the top quark a key player in the realm of the postulated Higgs boson, whose coupling strengths to particles are proportional to their masses. Precision measurements of particle masses for e.g. the top quark and the W boson can hereby provide indirect constraints on the Higgs boson mass. Since in the standard model top quarks couple almost exclusively to bottom quarks (t {yields} Wb), top quark decays provide a window on the standard model through the direct measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element V{sub tb}. In the same way any lack of top quark decays into W bosons could imply the existence of decay channels beyond the standard model, for example charged Higgs bosons as expected in two-doublet Higgs models: t {yields} H{sup +}b. Within the standard model top quark decays can be classified by the (lepton or quark) W boson decay products. Depending on the decay of each of the W bosons, t{bar t} pair decays can involve either no leptons at all, or one or two isolated leptons from direct W {yields} e{bar {nu}}{sub e} and W {yields} {mu}{bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} decays. Cascade decays like b {yields} Wc {yields} e{bar {nu}}{sub e}c can lead to additional non-isolated leptons. The fully hadronic decay channel, in which both Ws decay into a quark-antiquark pair, has the largest branching fraction of all t{bar t} decay channels and is the only kinematically complete (i.e. neutrino-less) channel. It lacks, however, the clear isolated lepton signature and is therefore hard to distinguish from the multi-jet QCD background. It is important to measure the cross section (or branching fraction) in each channel independently to fully verify the standard model. Top quark pair production proceeds through the strong interaction, placing the scene for top quark physics at hadron colliders. This adds an additional challenge: the huge background from multi-jet QCD processes. At the Tevatron, for example, t{bar t} production is completely hidden in light q{bar q} pair production. The light (i.e. not bottom or top) quark pair production cross section is six orders of magnitude larger than that for t{bar t} production. Even including the full signature of hadronic t{bar t} decays, two b-jets and four additional jets, the QCD cross section for processes with similar signature is more than five times larger than for t{bar t} production. The presence of isolated leptons in the (semi)leptonic t{bar t} decay channels provides a clear characteristic to distinguish the t{bar t} signal from QCD background but introduces a multitude of W- and Z-related backgrounds.

  2. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional anemometer cup technology. • During storms, mean Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) increases with height above water; • Sufficient wind resources exist over Lake Michigan to generate 7,684 kWh of power using a 850 kW rated turbine at elevations between 90 - 125 meters, a height lower than originally anticipated for optimum power generation; • Based on initial assessments, wind characteristics are not significantly different at distant (thirty-two mile) offshore locations as compared to near-shore (six mile) locations; • Significant cost savings can be achieved in generation wind energy at lower turbine heights and locating closer to shore. • Siting must be sufficiently distant from shore to minimize visual impact and to address public sentiment about offshore wind development; • Project results show that birds and bats do frequent the middle of Lake Michigan, bats more so than birds; • Based on the wind resource assessment and depths of Lake Michigan encountered during the project, future turbine placement will most likely need to incorporate floating or anchored technology; • The most appropriate siting of offshore wind energy locations will enable direct routing of transmission cables to existing generating and transmission facilities located along the Michigan shoreline; • Wind turbine noise propagation from a wind energy generating facility at a five mile offshore location will not be audible at the shoreline over normal background sound levels.