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1

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

2

CO? emissions limits: economic adjustments and the distribution of burdens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies under consideration within the Climate Convention would impose CO? controls on only a subset of nations. A model of economic growth and emissions, coupled to an analysis of the climate system, is used to explore ...

Jacoby, Henry D.; Eckaus, Richard S.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Reiner, David M.; Yang, Zili.

3

electricity emission factors | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emission factors emission factors Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

4

IPCC Emission Factor Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IPCC Emission Factor Database IPCC Emission Factor Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IPCC Emission Factor Database Agency/Company /Organization: World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/main.php References: IPCC-EFDB[1] About "EFDB is meant to be a recognised library, where users can find emission factors and other parameters with background documentation or technical references that can be used for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and removals. The responsibility of using this information appropriately will always remain with the users themselves." References ↑ "IPCC-EFDB" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=IPCC_Emission_Factor_Database&oldid=367213"

5

Comparing policies to combat emissions leakage: Border carbon adjustments versus rebates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We explore conditions determining which anti-leakage policies might be more effective complements to domestic greenhouse gas emissions regulation. We consider four policies that could be combined with unilateral emissions pricing to counter effects on international competitiveness: a border charge on imports, a border rebate for exports, full border adjustment, and domestic output-based rebating. Each option faces different potential legal hurdles in international trade law; each also has different economic impacts. While all can support competitiveness, none is necessarily effective at reducing global emissions. Nor is it possible to rank order the options; effectiveness depends on the relative emissions rates, elasticities of substitution, and consumption volumes. We illustrate these results with simulations for the energy-intensive sectors of three different economies, the United States, Canada and Europe. Although most controversial, full border adjustment is usually most effective, but output-based rebating for key manufacturing sectors can achieve many of the gains.

Carolyn Fischer; Alan K. Fox

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Emission Factors (EMFAC) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Emission Factors (EMFAC) Emission Factors (EMFAC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: EMFAC Agency/Company /Organization: California Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Phase: Determine Baseline Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools, Online calculator User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.arb.ca.gov/msei/onroad/latest_version.htm Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America References: http://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/onroad/latest_version.htm The EMission FACtors (EMFAC) model is used to calculate emission rates from all motor vehicles, such as passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks, operating on highways, freeways and local roads in California. EMFAC2007 is the most recent version of this model.

7

Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-emission-factors-defo Cost: Free Language: English Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation Screenshot Logo: Module:...

8

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

onward. Table A-4: Carbon Emission Factors of ElectricityAdjustment factor Carbon Emission Factor (kg C/kWh)L ABORATORY Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of

Lin, Jiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Establishing Standard Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This procedure provides source energy factors and emission factors to calculate the source (primary) energy and emissions from a building's annual site energy consumption. This report provides the energy and emission factors to calculate the source energy and emissions for electricity and fuels delivered to a facility and combustion of fuels at a facility. The factors for electricity are broken down by fuel type and presented for the continental United States, three grid interconnections, and each state. The electricity fuel and emission factors are adjusted for the electricity and the useful thermal output generated by combined heat and power (CHP) plants larger than one megawatt. The energy and emissions from extracting, processing, and transporting the fuels, also known as the precombustion effects, are included.

Deru, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

hourly emission factors | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

60 60 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278660 Varnish cache server hourly emission factors Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

11

Adjustment factors and genetic parameter estimates for yearling pelvic area in Limousin cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data on 2,704 bulls and 11,049 heifers provided by the North American Limousin Foundation were analyzed separately to determine age and age of dam adjustment factors for yearling pelvic area and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations...

Cowley, Joel Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evolving Adjustments to External (Gamma) Slope Factors for CERCLA Risk and Dose Assessments - 12290  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To model the external exposure pathway in risk and dose assessments of radioactive contamination at Superfund sites, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses slope factors (SFs), also known as risk coefficients, and dose conversion factors (DCFs). Without any adjustment these external radiation exposure pathways effectively assumes that an individual is exposed to a source geometry that is effectively an infinite slab. The concept of an 'infinite slab' means that the thickness of the contaminated zone and its aerial extent are so large that it behaves as if it were infinite in its physical dimensions. EPA has been making increasingly complex adjustments to account for the extent of the contamination and its corresponding radiation field to provide more accurate risk and dose assessment modeling when using its calculators. In most instances, the more accurate modeling results derived from these gamma adjustments are less conservative. The notable exception are for some radionuclides in rooms with contaminated walls, ceiling, and floors, and the receptor is in location of the room with the highest amount of radiation exposure, usually the corner of small rooms and the center of large conference rooms. (authors)

Walker, Stuart [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia Agency/Company /Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics GHG inventory Resource Type Publications Website http://www.lahmeyer.de/fileadm Country Russia Eastern Europe References Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia[1] References ↑ "Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Development_of_the_Electricity_Carbon_Emission_Factors_for_Russia&oldid=383164" Category: Programs What links here Related changes Special pages

14

Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United States Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. This project utilized GridViewTM, an electric grid dispatch software package, to estimate hourly emission factors for all of the eGRID subregions in the continental United States. These factors took into account electricity imports and exports

15

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4083E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Parthasarathy, Srinandini, Randy L. Maddalena, Marion L. Russell, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors were evaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using the

16

Mitigating CO2 emissions by adjusting the power generation mix in Taiwan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we employ a multi-objective programming model to estimate the power generation mix trade-off between generation costs and CO2 emissions in Taiwan. Eight policy scenarios are simulated and compared to the reference and base cases. The empirical results show that, for the electricity sector, CO2 emissions in 2010 could be set at 120% of the 1990 level, by way of promoting cogeneration and gas-fired generation capacity. The estimated per unit mitigation cost of CO2 emission would be US$358/ton. The policy implications are discussed and limitation of this study is also presented.

George J.Y. Hsu; Tser-Yieth Chen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

A PM10 emission factor for free stall dairies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximately 1840 head of milking cattle. The field sampling results were used in the EPA approved dispersion model Industrial Source Complex Short Term version 3 (ISCST-v3) to estimate emission fluxes and ultimately a seasonally corrected emission factor for a...

Goodrich, Lee Barry

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Marital Adjustment As A Mediating Factor Between Symptom Distress and Therapeutic Alliance in Couples Therapy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Previous research on symptom distress and therapeutic alliance in conjoint treatment indicates that symptom distress does not impact the formation of alliance, rather, marital adjustment (more)

STEPHENS, MELISSA

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks Title Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Environmental Science and Technology Abstract Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and COB2B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were

20

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

22

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's Respiratory Health Speaker(s): Mark Mendell Date: February 23, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Most research into the effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. A growing body of research suggests that chemical emissions from common indoor materials and finishes have adverse effects, including increased risk of asthma, allergies, and pulmonary infections. The identified risk factors include specific organic compounds such as formaldehyde, benzene, and phthalates, as well as indoor materials or finishes such as vinyl flooring, carpet, paint, and plastics. This presentation presents a brief review of studies

23

Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ukraine Ukraine Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine Agency/Company /Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.lahmeyer.de/fileadm Country Ukraine UN Region Eastern Europe References Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine[1] "The study project "Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine" was assigned by the European Bank for Development and Reconstruction (EBRD) to the consultant Lahmeyer International with Perspective as subcontractor on 16 July 2009. It is a baseline study with the overall goal to calculate reliable carbon

24

Separate determination of PM10 emission factors of road traffic for tailpipe emissions and emissions from abrasion and resuspension processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Little is known about the relevance of mechanically produced particles of road traffic from abrasion and resuspension processes in relation to the exhaust pipe particles. In this paper, emission factors of PM10 and PM1 for light and heavy-duty vehicles were derived for different representative traffic regimes from concentration differences of particles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in ambient air upwind and downwind of busy roads, or alternatively of kerbsides and nearby background sites. Hereby, PM1 was interpreted as direct exhaust emissions and PM10-PM1 as mechanically produced emissions from abrasion and resuspension processes. The results show that abrasion and resuspension processes represent a significant part of the total primary PM10 emissions of road traffic. At sites with relatively undisturbed traffic flow they are in the same range as the exhaust pipe emissions. At sites with disturbed traffic flow due to traffic lights, emissions from abrasion/resuspension are even higher than those from the exhaust pipes.

Robert Gehrig; Matz Hill; Brigitte Buchmann; David Imhof; Ernest Weingartner; Urs Baltensperger

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Cyclical adjustment, capital-labor substitution and total factor productivity convergence East Germany after unification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germany after unification Werner Smolny, University of Ulm June 22, 2011 Abstract Despite rapid economic of Ulm 89069 Ulm, GERMANY Tel.: (49) 731 50 24260, Fax: (49) 731 50 24262 e-mail: Werner.Smolny@uni-ulm.de This paper is part of the research projects "Productivity adjustment in East Germany"and "Investment in East

Pfeifer, Holger

26

Spontaneous Emission -factors in Photonic Crystal Waveguides: Towards Single-Mode LED  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We theoretically study light emission in photonic crystal waveguides and show that remarkably large spontaneous emission rates into the fundamental guided mode (beta factor >95%)...

Lecamp, Guillaume; Sauvan, Christophe; Lalanne, Philippe; Hugonin, Jean-Paul

27

Emission factor estimates of cereal waste burning in Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Every year more than 5 million ha of cereal fields are affected by fires in order to eliminate cereal waste in Spain. The characteristics of this type of fire with intense flames are similar to those of the African dry savanna heading fires. This paper surveys the atmospheric emission caused by this process by combining results of field and combustion chamber experiments. Combustion chamber experiments show that during the flaming phase 88% of the fire exposed carbon is converted into CO2 and during the smoldering phase this percentage changes to 74%. These combustion chamber experiments also show that the soluble part of the aerosols emitted during the course of fires only represent 3% of the total particulate matter (TPM) produced, being the ions K+ and CI? the predominant ones. The cereal waste fire process can be represented by an arithmetic combination that takes into account the amounts of mass burned during the two phases of the fire: 0.90 flaming +0.10 smoldering. Emission factor estimates from field burning experiment are 137g TPMkg?1(dm) and 2.80.2g NOxkg?1 (dm). Finally, we obtain average emissions of 80130Gg TPM, 1728Gg NOx, 210350Gg CO and 814Tg CO2 in Spain. These emissions represent nearly 25% of the total \\{NOx\\} and 50% of the total CO2 emissions by other pollution sources during the burning period in Spain.

I. Ortiz de Zrate; A. Ezcurra; J.P. Lacaux; Pham Van Dinh

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Global carbon dioxide emissions scenarios: Sensitivity to social and technological factors in three regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

29

Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Scenarios: Sensitivity to Social and Technological Factors in Three Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Spontaneous emission factor for semiconductor superluminescent diodes Yongsheng Zhao, Weihua Han, Junfeng Song, Xuemei Li, Yang Liu, Dingsan Gao,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spontaneous emission factor for semiconductor superluminescent diodes Yongsheng Zhao, Weihua Han emission factor is an important parameter for the characterization of semiconductor light emitting devices difference involved in each device. In this article, the spontaneous emission factor for superluminescent

Cao, Hui

31

Development of correction factors for landfill gas emission model suiting Indian condition to predict methane emission from landfills  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methane emission from landfill gas emission (LandGEM) model was validated through the results of laboratory scale biochemical methane potential assay. Results showed that LandGEM model over estimates methane (CH4) emissions; and the true CH4 potential of waste depends on the level of segregation. Based on these findings, correction factors were developed to estimate CH4 emission using LandGEM model especially where the level of segregation is negligible or does not exist. The correction factors obtained from the study were 0.94, 0.13 and 0.74 for food waste, mixed un-segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) and vegetable wastes, respectively.

Avick Sil; Sunil Kumar; Jonathan W.C. Wong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A science based emission factor for particulate matter emitted from cotton harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

practice plans detailing the actions taken by the producer to reduce fugitive PM emissions from field operations. The objective of this work was to develop accurate PM emission factors for cotton harvesting in terms of total suspended particulate (TSP), PM...

Wanjura, John David

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

"1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Emission Factors" Fuel Emission Factors" "(From Appendix H of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1" "Fuel ",,"Emission Factor ",,"Units" "Coal2" "Anthracite",,103.69,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Bituminous",,93.28,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Sub-bituminous",,97.17,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Lignite",,97.72,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Electric Power Sector",,95.52,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Industrial Coking",,93.71,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Other Industrial",,93.98,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Residential/Commercial",,95.35,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Natural Gas3"

34

Energy and Air Emissions Embodied in China?U.S. Trade: Eastbound Assessment Using Adjusted Bilateral Trade Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To do so, we use nine subcategories in energy consumed, including coal, coke, crude oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, natural gas, and electricity. ... Among the ten aggregated commodity groups, textiles, electric and electronic equipment, and other equipment, take 60?70% of the total eastbound trade. ... Schindler, J. W.; Beckett, D. H. Adjusting Chinese bilateral trade data: How big is Chinas trade surplus? ...

Ming Xu; Braden Allenby; Weiqiang Chen

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

Policy Integration as a Success Factor for Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions trading will not be able to become the ... is important to assess optimal ways of integrating emissions trading into national climate policy mixes, thus leading ... the catalyst that led to the developm...

Axel Michaelowa

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) Focus Area: Clean Transportation Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.hbefa.net/e/index.html Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/handbook-emission-factors-road-transp Language: "English,French,German" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; 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Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

37

Carbon tax based on the emission factor: a bilevel programming approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a bilevel programming approach to design an effective carbon tax scheme based on the production emission factor, used as an intensity measure, for a competitive market with multiple players. At the upper level, the government sets a target ... Keywords: Bilevel programming, Carbon tax, Emission factor, Environment, Social welfare

Hossa Almutairi, Samir Elhedhli

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors: Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs #12;2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors and to update the Guidelines to Defra's Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Conversion Factors, which represent the current

39

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Title On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Dallmann, Timothy R., Steven J. DeMartini, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Scott C. Herndon, Timothy B. Onasch, Ezra C. Wood, and Robert A. Harley Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 46 Issue 15 Pagination 8511-8518 Abstract Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks were measured at high time resolution in a highway tunnel in Oakland, CA, during July 2010. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method, in which pollutants measured in each exhaust plume were normalized to measured concentrations of carbon dioxide. Pollutants considered here include nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ethene, and black carbon (BC), as well as optical properties of emitted particles. Fleet-average emission factors for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and BC respectively decreased 30 ± 6 and 37 ± 10% relative to levels measured at the same location in 2006, whereas a 34 ± 18% increase in the average NO2 emission factor was observed. Emissions distributions for all species were skewed with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to total emissions. For example, the dirtiest 10% of trucks emitted half of total NO2 and BC emissions. Emission rates for NO2 were found to be anticorrelated with all other species considered here, likely due to the use of catalyzed diesel particle filters to help control exhaust emissions. Absorption and scattering cross-section emission factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 ± 0.03.

40

Emission factor of mercury from coal-fired power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mercury emission from coal-fired power stations, situated in Poland in the Silesian region ... mercury in the consumed coal and in combustion gas, used in this research, are described. ... the air from coal combu...

Wojciech Mniszek

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ammonia will probably result in the emission of other odorants (e. g. volatile fatty acids. volatile amines, indole, phenol, sulfur-containing compounds). Ammonia is produced from the microbial breakdown of uric acid in poultry manure. The decomposition... sulfate (Barthelmie and Pryor, 1998). Additionally, ammonia is an odorant and conditions conducive to the production of ammonia will probably result in the emission of other odorants (e. g. volatile fatty acids, volatile amines, indole, phenol, sulfur...

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall Title Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Moya Melody, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations

43

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

44

Life-cycle GHG emission Factors of Final Energy in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this manuscript, a model for the estimation of the life-cycle GHG emission factors of final energy and an empirical study of China is presented. A linear programming method is utilized to solve the problem that several forms of final energy are utilized in the life-cycle of one certain type of final energy. Nine types of final energy are considered, including raw coal, crude oil, raw natural gas, treated coal, diesel, gasoline, fuel oil, treated natural gas, and electricity. The results indicate that the life-cycle GHG emission factors of final energy in China slightly decreased in recent years.

Jiang Lixue; Ou Xunmin; Ma Linwei; Li Zheng; Ni Weidou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Shaft adjuster  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

Harry, H.H.

1988-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

46

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Title Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Journal of Aerosol Science Keywords emission, motor vehicle, particle number, size distribution, tunnel Abstract Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from ~61 000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and ~2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter Dp > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 ± 1.4) x 1014 and (3.3 ± 1.3) x 1015 # kg-1 fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < Dp < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as Dp decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting

47

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

SUPPLEMENT 1 The procedure for calculating the SOx emission factor from fuel sulphur content is given  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is given below. The units are given in parenthesis. SFOC = Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (g/kWh) SC in parenthesis. SFOC = Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (g/kWh) CC = Carbon content of fuel (mass-%) M(C) = MolarSUPPLEMENT 1 The procedure for calculating the SOx emission factor from fuel sulphur content

Meskhidze, Nicholas

49

Using Local and Regional Air Quality Modeling and Source Apportionment Tools to Evaluate Vehicles and Biogenic Emission Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and inventories of CO, NO_(x) and VOCs from on-road vehicles estimated by vehicle emission factor models and biogenic emissions of isoprene estimated by a popular biogenic emission model are evaluated using local and regional scale air quality modeling and source...

Kota, Sri H

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

50

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for U.S. Coal by Origin and Destination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-ground coal quality data, including C, S, ash, fixed carbon, and heating values, are from COALQUAL (11), IGS (12), and Keystone (13, 14). ... For example, examination of 2082 bituminous Kentucky coals led Sakulpitakphon et al. (28) to reject the notion that a single CO2 emission factor can be used as typical for any given rank of coal. ... Quick, J. C.; Tabet, D. E.; Wakefield, S.; Bon, R. L. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants: A GIS Study of Coal Chemistry, ...

Jeffrey C. Quick

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

51

The influence of different electricity-to-emissions conversion factors on the choice of insulation materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The current practice of building energy upgrade typically uses thick layers of insulation in order to comply with the energy codes. Similarly, the Norwegian national energy codes for residential buildings are moving towards very low U-values for the building envelope. New and more advanced materials, such as vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) and aerogel, have been presented as alternative solutions to commonly used insulation materials. Both aerogel and \\{VIPs\\} offer very high thermal resistance, which is a favourable characteristic in energy upgrading as the same insulation level can be achieved with thinner insulation layers. This paper presents the results of energy use and lifecycle emissions calculations for three different insulation materials (mineral wool, aerogel, and vacuum insulation panels) used to achieve three different insulation levels (0.18W/m2K, 0.15W/m2K, and 0.10W/m2K) in the energy retrofitting of an apartment building with heat pump in Oslo, Norway. As advanced insulation materials (such as VIP and aerogel) have reported higher embodied emissions per unit of mass than those of mineral wool, a comparison of performances had to be based on equivalent wall U-values rather than same insulation thicknesses. Three different electricity-to-emissions conversion factors (European average value, a model developed at the Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings ZEB, and the Norwegian inland production of electricity) are used to evaluate the influence of the lifecycle embodied emissions of each insulation alternative. If the goal is greenhouse gas abatement, the appraisal of buildings based solely on their energy use does not provide a comprehensive picture of the performance of different retrofitting solutions. Results show that the use of the conversion factor for Norwegian inland production of electricity has a strong influence on the choice of which of the three insulation alternatives gives the lowest lifecycle emissions.

Nicola Lolli; Anne Grete Hestnes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3. Emissions of phenol were also found to be slightly higher than values reported in earlier studies1,2,3. This study can assist in retrospective formaldehyde exposure assessments of THUs where estimates of the occupants indoor formaldehyde exposures are needed.

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the extra emissions that are generated from manufacturing the material used to make CNG tanks); they can amount tc more than 2% of the emissions from 32 the fuel production and...

54

Managing Commodity Risks in Highway Contracts: Quantifying Premiums, Accounting for Correlations Among Risk Factors, and Designing Optimal Price-Adjustment Contracts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fixed-price contracts. In turn, the contractors respond by adding premiums in bid prices. If the contractors overprice the risk, the price of fixed-price contract could exceed the price of the contract with adjustment clauses. Consequently, highway...

Zhou, Xue

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

56

Quantitative analysis of factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions at institutions of higher education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States, emissions from buildings comprise 40% of energy consumption and carbon emissions, not including to have 10 times more effect on emissions per square meter than space such as classroom and office, while to the institution's own greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy and water conservation, and other sustainability

Illinois at Chicago, University of

57

Metamaterial lens of specifiable frequency-dependent focus and adjustable aperture for electron cyclotron emission in the DIII-D tokamak  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) of different frequencies originates at different locations in non-uniformly magnetized plasmas. For simultaneous observation of multiple ECE frequencies from the outside edge of a toroidal plasma confinement device (e.g. a tokamak), the focal length of the collecting optics should increase with the frequency to maximize the resolution on a line of sight along the magnetic field gradient. Here we present the design and numerical study of a zoned metamaterial lens with such characteristics, for possible deployment with the 83-130 GHz ECE radiometer in the DIII-D tokamak. The lens consists of a concentric array of miniaturized element phase-shifters. These were reverse-engineered starting from the desired Gaussian beam waist locations and further optimized to account for diffraction and finite-aperture effects that tend to displace the waist. At the same time we imposed high and uniform transmittance, averaged over all phase-shifters. The focal length is shown to increase from 1...

Hammond, K C; Massidda, S D; Volpe, F A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

On-road emission factors of PM pollutants for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) based on urban street driving conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An on-road sampling campaign was conducted on two major surface streets (Wilshire and Sunset Boulevards) in Los Angeles, CA, to characterize PM components including metals, trace elements, and organic species for three PM size fractions (PM102.5, PM2.50.25, and PM0.25). Fuel-based emission factors (mass of pollutant per kg of fuel) were calculated to assess the emissions profile of a light-duty vehicle (LDV) traffic fleet characterized by stop-and-go driving conditions that are reflective of urban street driving. Emission factors for metals and trace elements were highest in PM102.5 while emission factors for \\{PAHs\\} and hopanes and steranes were highest in PM0.25. PM2.5 emission factors were also compared to previous freeway, roadway tunnel, and dynamometer studies based on an LDV fleet to determine how various environments and driving conditions may influence concentrations of PM components. The on-road sampling methodology deployed in the current study captured substantially higher levels of metals and trace elements associated with vehicular abrasion (Fe, Ca, Cu, and Ba) and crustal origins (Mg and Al) than previous LDV studies. The semi-volatile nature of \\{PAHs\\} resulted in higher levels of \\{PAHs\\} in the particulate phase for LDV tunnel studies (Phuleria etal., 2006) and lower levels of \\{PAHs\\} in the particulate phase for freeway studies (Ning etal., 2008). With the exception of a few high molecular weight PAHs, the current study's emission factors were in between the LDV tunnel and LDV freeway studies. In contrast, hopane and sterane emission factors were generally comparable between the current study, the LDV tunnel, and LDV freeway, as expected given the greater atmospheric stability of these organic compounds. Overall, the emission factors from the dynamometer studies for metals, trace elements, and organic species are lower than the current study. Lastly, n-alkanes (C19C40) were quantified and alkane carbon preference indices (CPIs) were determined to be in the range of 12, indicating substantial anthropogenic source contribution for surface streets in Los Angeles.

Winnie Kam; James W. Liacos; James J. Schauer; Ralph J. Delfino; Constantinos Sioutas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet provides practical tips on the application of adjustable speed drives in industrial pumping systems.

60

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel-and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City D. A. Thornhill, A. E. Williams, T. B be low. The second figure shows the background versus diesel factors. There may be a slight horizontal factors. In this case, even when the diesel factor's contributions are very high, the background factor

Meskhidze, Nicholas

63

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. Bromly, Reduction of Nitrogen Dioxide Emissions from Gasthan 10 ! lm), and nitrogen dioxide ( N0 2) standards areare nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N0 2); although,

Traynor, G.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Influencing factors on NOX emission level during grate conversion of three pelletized energy crops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract NOX emission behavior of three different pelletized energy crops, a herbaceous one, Brassica carinata, a short rotation coppice, Populus sp., and a blend of them, was assessed during fixed grate conversion. Measurements of NOX emissions were done at combustion conditions that yielded both thermal efficiency and CO emissions according to the European norm (EN 303-5:2012), and results compared to limits established by the Austrian deviations. Based on the experimental data, NOX results fulfilled the Austrian restrictions except during combustion of brassica, which exhibited the highest Fuel-N content. The Fuel-NOX was identified as the main formation mechanism. An opposite relation was determined between the specific NOX emissions and the Fuel-N conversion ratio obtained between the N-rich and the N-lean fuels tested here. The influence of the air supply (amount and distribution) on the NOX formation was also noticeable. In general, a higher proportion of air increased the specific NOX emissions and the Fuel-N conversion ratio. Possibilities to control the NOX emissions level by air staging were rather limited, particularly, during combustion of brassica and the blend because of their peculiarities as ash-rich fuels with high slag formation risk. For attaining an appropriate conversion of these fuels, primary air requirements substantially increased. Due to limitations found during the energy crops conversion, efforts to minimize the level of NOX emissions identified here for the troublesome fuels tested should be mainly focused on attaining both a properly designed air supply system and the grate temperature control as well as on conditioning the Fuel-N content, for instance, by blending.

Maryori Daz-Ramrez; Fernando Sebastin; Javier Royo; Adeline Rezeau

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

66

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

Glenn C. England

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

67

Self adjusting inclinometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjusted Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -7.4% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -0.1% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -0.1% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -16.8% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -3.2% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -3.2% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -9.3% Jan '99 to Jan '00: +3.5% YTD '99 to YTD '00: +3.5% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

69

Changes in carbon dioxide emissions and LMDI-based impact factor decomposition: the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region as a case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at provincial level can provide a scientific...2 reduction policies. We studied the variation of CO2 emissions of primary energy consumption and its influencing...2 emission

Li Zhang; Jun Lei; Xuan Zhou; XiaoLei Zhang; Wen Dong; Yu Yang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. land use water use CO2 emissions radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% 4,100 4,400 4,700 5,000 5,300 5,600 5,900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: 2.5% Aug '12 to Aug '13: -1.3% YTD '12 to YTD '13: 1.5% 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Residual Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: -0.8%

73

Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

June '99 to July '99: -5.4% June '99 to July '99: -5.4% July '98 to July '99: +3.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.3% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: -0.5% July '98 to July '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +0.5% July '98 to July '99: +1.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.3% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +1.5% July '98 to July '99: +10.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +7.2%

75

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +8.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.0% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +6.0% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +4.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +2.4% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +3.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +32.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +2.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.5%

76

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +1.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -1.9% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -0.1% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -1.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.7% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: +22.3% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +21.1%

77

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.4% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.1% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.6% YTD '98 to YTD '99: 0.0% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: +7.3% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +8.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +8.3%

78

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +5.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.5% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: -0.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +1.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +2.5% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +6.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.8% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +9.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +2.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.2%

79

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: +2.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.4% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -0.2% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.9% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.0% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -1.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.4% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -2.1% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -6.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.6%

80

Metric adjusted skew information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call ``metric adjusted skew information'' (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This ``skew information'' is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the ``lambda-skew information,'' parametrized by a lambda in (0,1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations. Key words: Skew information, convexity, monotone metric, Morozova-Chentsov function, lambda-skew information.

Frank Hansen

2006-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Adjustable speed drive for residential applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a demonstration of an adjustable speed drive suitable for use in residential applications such as compressors and fans in heat pumps, air conditioners, and refrigerators. The adjustable speed drive uses only a four-diode rectifier and a six-transistor six-diode inverter and does not require a source-frequency filter inductor or capacitor. Motor speed is adjusted with source-frequency phase control eliminating the switching loss and electromagnetic interference caused by the more commonly used high-frequency pulse-width modulation. Low source-current distortion and high power factor are obtained at a full-load operating point which is found using a parametric analysis.

Jungreis, A.M.; Kelley, A.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Methane emissions from rice fields: The effects of climatic and agricultural factors. Final report, March 1, 1994--April 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work reported was performed for the purpose of refining estimates of methane emissions from rice fields. Research performed included methane flux measurements, evaluation of variables affecting emissions, compilation of a data base, and continental background measurements in China. The key findings are briefly described in this report. Total methane emissions, seasonal patterns, and spatial variability were measured for a 7-year periods. Temperature was found to be the most important variable studies affecting methane emissions. The data archives for the research are included in the report. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Khalil, M.A.K. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Physics] [Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering] [Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Computer Graphics to Show Optimal Smoothing and Trend Adjustments for Exponential Forecasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When simulating various demand conditions and then determining the best factors for both smoothing and trend adjustments in an exponential smoothing model, both the optimal values and the...

David B. Hoffman; Ramachandran Bharath; Carol M. Carlson

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Adjustable Speed Drive Industrial Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric motors are significant users of electricity in the United States. Approximately 66 percent of the total electricity in the U.S. is used by electric motors. Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) can save energy, lower maintenance cost...

Poole, J. N.

85

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents CRSP Transmission 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2014 Accompanying calculation table for FY 2014 CRSP transmission rate letter Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2013 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2012 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2011 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2010 SLCA/IP 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, SLCA/IP firm power rate extension Letter announcing two-year extension to SLCA/IP firm power rate SLCA/IP Tentative Rate Adjustment Schedule

86

Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 2.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The DC motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 1.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

89

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

90

Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

91

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

92

Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

93

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

94

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

95

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

96

Heliostat-adjusting solar sight  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solar sight having a scale calibrated in terms of solar declination angle and reflector angle is provided with diffraction pattern forming means comprising a movable sighting tube which, when directed at the sun, provides a fresnel pattern on a viewing surface, which pattern indicates when said sighting tube is in proper alignment such that its axis is parallel to that of the incoming rays of the sun. The solar sight is portable and may be moved about on a heliostat so as to adjust the operation of the heliostat clock drive to agree with local sun time and to adjust the heliostat reflector tilt angle so that the sun's rays are reflected along or parallel to the polar axis. Movement of the sighting tube causes the movement of a vernier plate bearing an index which permits readout of the solar declination in degrees north or south declination. The vernier scale permits the reading of solar declination angles to 0.1/sup 0/ and the establishment of reflector angles to 0.2/sup 0/. No optical elements (lenses) are employed within the diffraction tube. Use of the solar sight herein disclosed makes practical the use of a heliostat by persons of average economic means.

Rhodes, W.A.

1982-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

97

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

99

Corporate response to emissions trading in Lithuania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article highlights the preconditions for emissions trading in Lithuania, identifies the factors that influence ... competitive advantage via participation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ET...

R?ta Bubnien?

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

An adjustable speed drive (ASD) is a device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment. Variable frequency drives (VFDs), the most common type of ASDs, efficiently meet varying process requirements by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to an AC motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor flow, liquid levels, or pressure and then transmit a signal to a controller that adjusts the frequency and speed to match process requirements.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Adjustable Robust Parameter Design with Unknown Distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 27, 2013 ... Adjustable Robust Parameter Design with Unknown Distributions. ihsan Yanikoglu(i.yanikoglu ***at*** uvt.nl) Dick den Hertog(d.denhertog...

ihsan Yanikoglu

2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

102

Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver-mini (Small Turkish) Space Heating Stove Title Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver-mini (Small Turkish) Space Heating Stove Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6319E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Melissa M. Lunden, Daniel Wilson, Cristina Ceballos, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Jonathan L. Slack, and Larry L. Dale Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Air pollution levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia's capital, are among the highest in the world. A primary source of this pollution is emissions from traditional coal-burning space heating stoves used in the Ger (tent) regions around Ulaanbaatar. Significant investment has been made to replace traditional heating stoves with improved low-emission high-efficiency stoves. Testing performed to support selection of replacement stoves or for optimizing performance may not be representative of true field performance of the improved stoves. Field observations and lab measurements indicate that performance is impacted, often adversely, by how stoves are actually being used in the field. The objective of this project is to identify factors that influence stove emissions under typical field operating conditions and to quantify the impact of these factors. A highly-instrumented stove testing facility was constructed to allow for rapid and precise adjustment of factors influencing stove performance. Tests were performed using one of the improved stove models currently available in Ulaanbaatar. Complete burn cycles were conducted with Nailakh coal from the Ulaanbaatar region

103

Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive ...

Thornhill, D. A.

104

ARM - Evaluation Product - Sonde-Adjust  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsSonde-Adjust ProductsSonde-Adjust Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Sonde-Adjust Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM NSA PYE SGP TWP General Description The sonde-adjust VAP produces data that corrects documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers - the resolution of the instrument - to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes a time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm.

105

Equity Mispricing and Leverage Adjustment Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We find that equity mispricing impacts the speed at which firms adjust to their target leverage (TL) and does so in predictable ways depending on whether the firm is over- or underlevered. For example, firms that are above ...

Warr, Richard S.; Elliott, William B.; Koeter-Kant, Johanna; Ö ztekin, Ö zde

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Futures trading and fuel adjustment clauses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite many criticisms and potential problems, wide-spread and, in many cases, long-standing use of fuel adjustment clauses (FACs) continues. This paper ... permission to allow the utility to hedge its fuel price

Donald Lien; Lihong Liu

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions index, we use conversion factors. To determine theof Energy. 11 This conversion factor includes only thebe using different conversion factors for electricity in

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions trading is a comparatively new policy instrument which ... electricity systems in Europe. The development of emissions trading thus represents an innovation in its own...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry and Physics Vehicular emission of volatile organicY. , and Huang, Y. S. : Emission factors and characteristicslight-duty vehicle emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 30,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

111

Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Energy Information Administration 1 Energy Information Administration Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production Background The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production. Normally, EIA would wait until publication of the Natural Gas Annual (NGA) before revising the 2004 data, but the adjustments for CO 2 are large enough to warrant making the changes at this time. Prior to 2005, EIA relied exclusively on the voluntary sharing of production data by state and federal government entities to develop its natural gas production estimates. In 2005, EIA began collecting production data directly from operators on the new EIA-914 production

112

metabolic adjustment | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

metabolic adjustment metabolic adjustment Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing energy use. The term net zero is the platinum standard for green buildings, meaning the building in question does not take any more energy from the utility grid than it produces using renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal installations (and sometimes these renewable energy resources actually feed energy back to the utility grid).

113

Mission Impossible !? On the Harmonization of National Allocation Plans under the EU Emissions Trading Directive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Starting in 2005, the EU will implement a CO2 emissions trading scheme. We show that the outspoken objectives ... adjustments to the current prescriptions of the EU emissions trading system in order to achieve ha...

Christoph Bhringer; Andreas Lange

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Adjusting the Thermometer of Race Relations: Physical Warmth Reduces Bias  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semin, G. R. (2009). The thermometer of social relations:Adjusting the Thermometer of Race Relations: Physical Warmth2012 Adjusting the Thermometer of Race Relations: Physical

Breines, Juliana

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Object Exploration By Purposive, Dynamic Viewpoint Adjustment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Unlike previous approaches where exploration is cast as a discrete process (i.e., asking where to look on the object surface that are occluded when the exploration process is initiated. Our goal is to designObject Exploration By Purposive, Dynamic Viewpoint Adjustment Kiriakos N. Kutulakos Charles R. Dyer

Dyer, Charles R.

116

On the Energy Conversion during Geostrophic Adjustment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is found that for a continuously stratified fluid which remains so during the geostrophic adjustment, the energy conversion ratio ? (??KE/?PE) is , in contrast to the value of ? for a two-layer fluid. Since the two-layer fluid is an ...

Hsien Wang Ou

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: An ecological study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity.

Alexander R. Zheutlin; Sara D. Adar; Sung Kyun Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fact #708: January 2, 2012 Amenities, Safety and Emissions Equipment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Equipment Make Up an Increasing Share of the Cost of a Car While the overall price of a new car has not increased greatly from 1967 to 2010 when adjusted for inflation,...

119

Intensity targets: implications for the economic uncertainties of emissions trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intensity targets that adjust to economic growth are discussed as one option to control greenhouse gas emissions without strongly affecting economic growth and with less uncertain economic cost than absolute t...

Sonja Peterson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve ... The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this ... . There are thr...

Edwin Woerdman

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter covers a series of operations which are essential for the implementation of an efficient emissions trading market on the domestic and international level. An introduction to how a national emissions trading

Dr. Michael See

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

123

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

124

P-D Project Rate Adjustment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Parker-Davis Project Rate Adjustment Data Parker-Davis Project Rate Adjustment Data FY2014 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design Preliminary PRS Final Documents Notification of Rates Final CAS Final Rate Design Final PRS FY2013 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design Preliminary PRS Supplemental Information Final Documents Notification of Rates Final CAS Final Rate Design Final PRS FY2012 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design Preliminary PRS Customer Requested Scenario Final Documents Notification of Rates Final CAS Final Rate Design Final PRS FY2011 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design

125

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Process development for a field emission structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

self-aligned process technology has been developed to fabricate field emis- sion structures using standard semiconductor fabrication procedures. Arrays of field emission diode structures incorporating silicon cathodes have been fabricated... already been fa. bricated. The aim of' this research is focused on developing a process technology to fabri- cate field emission structures incorporating a low work function cathode material. In addition, this technology must allow for adjustable anode...

Legg, James Derek

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

None

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

128

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

129

Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

130

Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

131

Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

132

California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

133

Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

134

Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

135

Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's...

136

Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

137

Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

138

Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

139

Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

140

Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's...

142

Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

143

Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

144

Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

145

Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

146

Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

147

Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's...

148

Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

149

New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

150

U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

151

West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

152

Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

153

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

154

Rigid or flexible accounting rules? : evidence from purchase price adjustments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I examine the negotiation of accounting rules in the purchase price adjustment clause of corporate acquisition agreements. Purchase price adjustments make the deal value contingent on the target's closing working capital ...

Johnson, Derek Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

HEALTH AND CLIMATE POLICY IMPACTS ON SULFUR EMISSION CONTROL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both

Russell, Lynn

159

Optimal irreversible stimulated emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000-Table 2. Carbon Emission  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Emission Factors Carbon Emission Factors (Kilograms-carbon per million Btu) Fuel Type Carbon Coefficient at Full Combustion Combustion Fraction Adjusted Emissions Factor Petroleum Motor Gasoline 19.33 0.990 19.14 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Used as Fuel 17.20 0.995 17.11 Used as Feedstock 16.87 0.200 3.37 Jet Fuel 19.33 0.990 19.14 Distillate Fuel 19.95 0.990 19.75 Residual Fuel 21.49 0.990 21.28 Asphalt and Road Oil 20.62 0.000 0.00 Lubricants 20.24 0.600 12.14 Petrochemical Feedstocks 19.37 0.200 3.87 Kerosene 19.72 0.990 19.52 Petroleum Coke 27.85 0.500 13.93 Petroleum Still Gas 17.51 0.995 17.42 Other Industrial 20.31 0.990 20.11 Coal Residential and Commercial 25.92 0.990 25.66 Metallurgical 25.55 0.990 25.29 Industrial Other 25.61 0.990 25.39 Electric Utility1 25.74 0.990 24.486 Natural Gas Used as Fuel

162

Permanent magnet multipole with adjustable strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling therebetween. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

Halbach, Klaus (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Permanent-magnet multipole with adjustable strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling there between. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

Halbach, K.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

164

Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

Jackson, Kenneth M. (Bartlesville, OK)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

Carr, R.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

166

Adjustable shear stress erosion and transport flume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for measuring the total erosion rate and downstream transport of suspended and bedload sediments using an adjustable shear stress erosion and transport (ASSET) flume with a variable-depth sediment core sample. Water is forced past a variable-depth sediment core sample in a closed channel, eroding sediments, and introducing suspended and bedload sediments into the flow stream. The core sample is continuously pushed into the flow stream, while keeping the surface level with the bottom of the channel. Eroded bedload sediments are transported downstream and then gravitationally separated from the flow stream into one or more quiescent traps. The captured bedload sediments (particles and aggregates) are weighed and compared to the total mass of sediment eroded, and also to the concentration of sediments suspended in the flow stream.

Roberts, Jesse D. (Carlsbad, NM); Jepsen, Richard A. (Carlsbad, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Scheme for rapid adjustment of network impedance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A static controlled reactance device is inserted in series with an AC electric power transmission line to adjust its transfer impedance. An inductor (reactor) is serially connected with two back-to-back connected thyristors which control the conduction period and hence the effective reactance of the inductor. Additional reactive elements are provided in parallel with the thyristor controlled reactor to filter harmonics and to obtain required range of variable reactance. Alternatively, the static controlled reactance device discussed above may be connected to the secondary winding of a series transformer having its primary winding connected in series to the transmission line. In a three phase transmission system, the controlled reactance device may be connected in delta configuration on the secondary side of the series transformer to eliminate triplen harmonics.

Vithayathil, John J. (3814 NE. 136th Pl., Portland, OR 97230)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Improvement of combustion efficiency and emission characteristics of IC diesel engine operating on ESC cycle applying Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) with vaneless turbine volute  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on experimental data, the present study investigates the influence of turbine adjustment in a turbocharger with vaneless turbine volute on diesel combustion efficiency indices and emission characteristics. ...

D. Samoilenko; H. M. Cho

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion Factors methodology as well as conversion factors used for the CO 2related emissions. Conversion Factors This study uses the

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DATA A. López (a) , R. Molina (b) (a limited due to several factors. These factors include the need of greater computational time than to the projection data to obtain two-dimensional slices or cross sections (images) of activity distribution. #12

Granada, Universidad de

171

ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping Fu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping for quantifying vehicle tailpipe emissions. In this paper we present non-linear regression models that can be used for emission data is examined using field data. The proposed models have adjusted R 2 values ranging from 0

Hellinga, Bruce

172

Color Printer Characterization Adjustment for Different  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is often implemented as a 3D look-up table that maps from a device independent color space (e.g. CIELAB by printing a number of color patches with known device control values, measuring the colors obtained-uniformity). Typically, the impact of these factors is minimized through careful design of the printing system. However

Sharma, Gaurav

173

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

174

2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

175

Flying height adjustment technologies for high-density magnetic recording  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The flying height adjustment technology becomes important to achieve the stable ultra low flying height for recording density 1 Tb/in in hard disk drive. The possible approaches towards flying height adjustment, advantages and disadvantages of different adjusting methods are discussed. Finally, the flying stability of thermal actuated slider is studied taking into account the short-range interaction forces. It is noticed that the flying height of thermal actuated slider is less sensitive to the short-range interactions than the normal slider and can sustain larger shocks. The thermal actuated flying height adjusting technology is more suitable for ultra-low flying height applications.

Mingsheng Zhang; Bo Liu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Available; W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1242014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments...

177

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

178

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjusted functional principal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Report "Recommended Detector Lifetime Adjustments" Summary: Technical Evaluation Report "Recommended Detector Lifetime Adjustments" Date: July 16, 1999... Principal...

180

Radon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-Wendy Barnaby (August 28) writes on the problem of radon emission from the tailings of uranium milling in Sweden. This problem would arise from ... that has to be treated. She describes Professor Robert O. Pohl's report that "radon can escape more easily from the broken ground of a mine than from an undisturbed ...

SVEN-ERIC BRUNNSJO

1975-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Wage adjustment, competitiveness and unemployment East Germany after unification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wage adjustment, competitiveness and unemployment ­ East Germany after unification Werner Smolny years after unification large differences of the labor market situation in East and West Germany persist adjustment in East Germany and the resulting development of competitiveness and unemployment differentials

Pfeifer, Holger

182

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee) Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee) Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee) < Back Eligibility Commercial Developer Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Generating Facility Rate-Making Industry Recruitment/Support Provider Tennessee Regulatory Authority The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas distribution company regulated by the Authority) to recover, in timely fashion, the total cost of gas purchased for delivery to its customers and to assure that the Company does not over-collect or under-collect Gas Costs from its

184

The optimal approach for parameter settings based on adjustable contracting capacity for the hospital supply chain logistics system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper establishes a simulation model for the supply chain of the hospital logistic system (SCHLS) based on the dynamic Taguchi method. The model derives optimal factor level combinations in the SCHLS setting when establishing adjustable contracting ... Keywords: Genetic algorithm (GA), Neural network (NN), Supply chain (SC), Taguchi method

Hung-Chang Liao; Hsu-Hwa Chang

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

LARYNGEAL ADJUSTMENTS IN STUTTERING: MODIFIED REACTION PARhDIGM*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LARYNGEAL ADJUSTMENTS IN STUTTERING: MODIFIED REACTION PARhDIGM* Hirohide Yoshioka+ and Anders UHqvist++ A GLOTTOGRAPHIC OBSERVATION USING A Abstract. An experimental paradigm for studying stuttering and dysfluent utterances. These findings suggest that stuttering is linked to a temporal disruption

186

Responsive feed-in tariff adjustment to dynamic technology development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper reviews the adjustments of the feed-in tariffs for new solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in Germany. As PV system prices declined rapidly since 2009, the German government implemented automatic mechanisms to adjust the remuneration level for new installations in response to deployment volumes. This paper develops an analytic model to simulate weekly installations of PV systems of up to 30kW based on project profitability and project duration. The model accurately replicates observed market developments and is used to assess different adjustment mechanisms against multiple scenarios for PV system price developments. The analysis shows that responsive feed-in tariff schemes with frequent tariff adjustments and short qualifying periods reach deployment targets most effectively.

Thilo Grau

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Annual Adjustment of the Thermocline in the Tropical Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the amplitude-phase characteristics of the annual adjustment of the thermocline in the entire tropical Pacific Ocean are described and numerical experiments with a tropical ocean model are performed to assess the roles of the major ...

Bin Wang; Renguang Wu; Roger Lukas

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Middle-Atmosphere Hadley Circulation and Equatorial Inertial Adjustment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the tropical middle atmosphere the climatological radiative equilibrium temperature is inconsistent with gradient-wind balance and the available angular momentum, especially during solstice seasons. Adjustment toward a balanced state results ...

Kirill Semeniuk; Theodore G. Shepherd

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention. 2 figs.

Peterson, E.S.; Orme, C.J.; Stone, M.L.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles powered by internal combustion engines, which include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and propane vehicles. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) particulate matter (PM) A number of factors determine the composition of emissions, including the vehicle's fuel, the engine's technology, the vehicle's exhaust aftertreatment system, and how the vehicle operates. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation during fueling or even when vehicles are

191

Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F. : Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals fromM. C. : Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated within global biomass burning emissions combustion factor.

van der Werf, G. R; Randerson, J. T; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J; Kasibhatla, P. S; Arellano, A. F

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Emissions characteristics of modern oil heating equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last 10 years there have been some very interesting developments in oil heating. These include higher static pressure burners, air atomizing nozzles, low firing rate nozzles, low heat loss combustion chambers and condensing boilers and furnaces. The current data base on the emissions characteristics of oil-fired residential heating equipment is based primarily on data taken in the 1970's. The objective of the work described in this report is to evaluate the effects of recent developments in oil-fired equipment on emissions. Detailed emissions measurements have been made on a number of currently available residential oil burners and whole systems selected to represent recent development trends. Some additional data was taken with equipment which is in the prototype stage. These units are a prevaporizing burner and a retention head burner modified with an air atomizing nozzle. Measurements include No{sub x}, smoke numbers, CO, gas phase hydrocarbon emissions and particulate mass emission rates. Emissions of smoke, CO and hydrocarbons were found to be significantly greater under cyclic operation for all burners tested. Generally, particulate emission rates were found to be 3 to 4 times greater in cyclic operation than in steady state. Air atomized burners were found to be capable of operation at much lower excess air levels than pressure atomized burners without producing significant amounts of smoke. As burner performance is improved, either through air atomization or prevaporization of the fuel, there appears to be a general trend towards producing CO at lower smoke levels as excess air is decreased. The criteria of adjusting burners for trace smoke may need to be abandoned for advanced burners and replaced with an adjustment for specific excess air levels. 17 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Coughlan, R.; Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission: June 8, 2005 Field emission studies were conducted on as-produced CoMoCAT single-walled carbon nanotube electron emitter. By adjusting the catalytic synthesis conditions, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT

Resasco, Daniel

194

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

Boyer, Edmond

196

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

197

Role of Experiment Covariance in Cross Section Adjustments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is dedicated to the memory of R. D. McKnight, which gave a seminal contribution in establishing methodology and rigorous approach in the evaluation of the covariance of reactor physics integral experiments. His original assessment of the ZPPR experiment uncertainties and correlations has made nuclear data adjustments, based on these experiments, much more robust and reliable. In the present paper it has been shown with some numerical examples the actual impact on an adjustment of accounting for or neglecting such correlations.

Giuseppe Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

199

An assessment of the progression adjustment factor using TRANSYT- 7F  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, p~, pr)dydT J JD =ff -'w(-j))[-( ? )"f'( )'J d(dr where the notation P = and Pr= . One can find that the functional also ap ap ' ay ' aT' contains a exponential term similar to the solution of a series of harmonic waves indicating that these two...

Lan, Chang-Jen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Children's resiliency, adjustment, and coping: cancer-related, family context, and within-child factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Variables Predicting BASC-2-SRP-Internalizing.................................... 124 XI Summary of Hierarchical Regresion Analyses for Variables Predicting BASC-2-SRP-School Problems................................. 124 A-3 Measures Completed... for Variables Predicting BASC-2-SRP-Internalizing.................................... 124 XI Summary of Hierarchical Regresion Analyses for Variables Predicting BASC-2-SRP-School Problems................................. 124 A-3 Measures Completed...

Newton, Katherine Michele

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Review - 2011 (so far) Tim Johnson October 4, 2011 DOE DEER Conference, Detroit JohnsonTV@Corning.com 2 Summary * California LD criteria emission regs are tightening....

202

Upgrade LCDs or TVs with improved ergonomic adjustability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highlights · Upgrade LCDs or TVs with improved ergonomic adjustability · Constant Force (CFTM comfort and productivity · 5 (130 mm) height range easily meets the ergonomic height needs of the average compliant Product Sheet Affordable desktop ergonomics Neo-FlexTM LCD Stand 870-05-067, rev. 03/08/07 www

Saskatchewan, University of

203

A robust automatic phase-adjustment method for financial forecasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we present the robust automatic phase-adjustment (RAA) method to overcome the random walk dilemma for financial time series forecasting. It consists of a hybrid model composed of a qubit multilayer perceptron (QuMLP) with a quantum-inspired ... Keywords: Financial forecasting, Hybrid models, Quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm, Qubit multilayer perceptron, Random walk dilemma

Ricardo de A. Arajo

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Developing and Executing Goal-Based, Adjustably Autonomous Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developing and Executing Goal-Based, Adjustably Autonomous Procedures David Kortenkamp, R. Peter@jsc.nasa.gov This paper describes an approach to representing, authoring and executing procedures during human spaceflight missions. The approach allows for the explicit incorporation of goals into procedures. The approach also

Kortenkamp, David

205

LM137/LM337 3-Terminal Adjustable Negative Regulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LM137/LM337 3-Terminal Adjustable Negative Regulators General Description The LM137/LM337 design has been opti- mized for excellent regulation and low thermal transients. Further, the LM137 virtually blowout-proof against overloads. The LM137/LM337 serve a wide variety of applications in- cluding

Ravikumar, B.

206

LM137/LM337 3-Terminal Adjustable Negative Regulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LM137/LM337 3-Terminal Adjustable Negative Regulators General Description The LM137/LM337. The circuit design has been opti- mized for excellent regulation and low thermal transients. Further, the LM them virtually blowout-proof against overloads. The LM137/LM337 serve a wide variety of applications in

Berns, Hans-Gerd

207

The total adjustment cost problem: Applications, models, and solution algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Resource leveling problems arise whenever it is expedient to reduce the fluctuations in resource utilization over time, while maintaining a prescribed project completion deadline. Several resource leveling objective functions may be defined, consideration ... Keywords: Minimum and maximum time lags, Mixed-integer linear programming formulations, Project scheduling, Resource adjustment

Stefan Kreter; Julia Rieck; Jrgen Zimmermann

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Saving Energy by Adjusting Transmission Power in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and communication areas. Energy-efficient communication is an important issue in WSNs because of the limited power distributed algorithms to reduce communication energy consumption in WSNs by minimizing the total transmissionSaving Energy by Adjusting Transmission Power in Wireless Sensor Networks Xiao Chen Department

Rowe, Neil C.

209

GLOBAL GLACIAL ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENT: TARGET FIELDS FOR SPACE GEODESY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL GLACIAL ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENT: TARGET FIELDS FOR SPACE GEODESY W.R. Peltier Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S-1A7 peltier) and Sabadini and Peltier (1981) whose analysis was based upon the application of a homogeneous viscoelastic

Peltier, W. Richard

210

Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are extremely efficient and valuable assets to motor systems. They allow precise process control and provide energy savings within systems that do not need to operate continuously at full output. This tip sheet discusses design considerations to take into account when considering ASDs and offers suggested actions.

211

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms \\Lambda Sue B. Moon, Jim 01003 fsbmoon,kurose,towsleyg@cs.umass.edu Abstract In packet audio applications, packets are buffered, given a trace of packet audio receptions at a receiver, we present efficient algorithms for computing

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

212

Enforcing Emissions Trading when Emissions Permits are Bankable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose enforcement strategies for emissions trading programs with bankable emissions permits that guarantee...

John K. Stranlund; Christopher Costello

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable electric drives Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

drives Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adjustable electric drives...

214

MILITARY TUITION ADJUSTMENT FORM Indicate the term for which you are requesting the Military Adjustment Form: Term Year  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ provide copy of birth certificate or adoption certificate _____My spouse listed above as the student. Attach copies of all required documentation including birth certificates, adoption certificate, marriage Adjustment Form: Term Year Attention: Certification of this form must be signed and submitted to Student

Rutledge, Steven

215

COLORADO NATIONAL GUARD TUITION ADJUSTMENT FORM Indicate the term for which you are requesting the Colorado National Guard Tuition Adjustment: Term Year  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLORADO NATIONAL GUARD TUITION ADJUSTMENT FORM Indicate the term for which you are requesting the Colorado National Guard Tuition Adjustment: Term Year Certification of this form must be signed classification for the semester without right to appeal. Colorado National Guard tuition adjustment eligibility

Rutledge, Steven

216

COLORADO NATIONAL GUARD TUITION ADJUSTMENT FORM Indicate the term for which you are requesting the Colorado National Guard Tuition Adjustment: Term Year  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLORADO NATIONAL GUARD TUITION ADJUSTMENT FORM Indicate the term for which you are requesting the Colorado National Guard Tuition Adjustment: Term Year Certification of this form must be signed to appeal. Colorado National Guard tuition adjustment eligibility expires the first term following Colorado

217

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

218

Energy and Reliability Considerations For Adjustable Speed Driven Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY AND RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVEN PUMPS Don Casada Senior Development Associate ABSTRACT Centrifugal devices such as pumps, fans, and compressors follow a general set of speed affinity laws: Q2 = QI *( N z... there is no static head, the system head, like the pump head, is proportional to the velocity, or flow rate, squared. As a result. the pump affinity laws also indicate how the pump and system will work together to define the operating point in such a system...

Casada, D.

219

Record of Decision for the Safety-Net Cost Recovery Adjustment Clause (SN CRAC) Adjustment to 2002 Wholesale Power Rates (DOE/EIS-0183) (6/30/03)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT RECORD OF DECISION for the Safety-Net Cost Recovery Adjustment Clause (SN CRAC) Adjustment to 2002 Wholesale Power Rates INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to implement its proposed Safety-Net Cost Recovery Adjustment Clause (SN CRAC) Adjustment to 2002 Wholesale Power Rates. This rate adjustment allows BPA to address potential revenue shortfalls and recover its costs through rates. This rate adjustment involves implementation of one of BPA's existing risk mitigation tools that has been previously subject to review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as described more fully below. I have reviewed this previous NEPA documentation and determined that the SN CRAC rate adjustment is adequately covered within

220

Avoided emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the United States Title Avoided emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the United States Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zhai, Pei, Peter H. Larsen, Dev Millstein, Surabi Menon, and Eric R. Masanet Journal Energy Volume 47 Start Page 443 Date Published 2012 Abstract This study evaluates avoided emissions potential of CO2, SO2 and NOx assuming a 10% penetration level of photovoltaics (PV) in ten selected U.S. states. We estimate avoided emissions using an hourly energy system simulation model, EnergyPLAN. Avoided emissions vary significantly across the country-mainly due to three state-specific factors: the existing resource mix of power plants (power grid fuel mix), the emission intensity of existing fossil fuel power plants and the PV capacity factor within each state. The avoided emissions per solar PV capacity (g/W) - for ten U.S. states -ranged from 670 to 1500 for CO2, 0.01e7.80 for SO2 and 0.25e2.40 for NOx. In general, avoided emissions are likely to be higher in locations with 1) higher share of coal plants; 2) higher emission of existing fossil fuel plants; and 3) higher PV capacity factor. To further illustrate the quantitative relationship between avoided emissions and the three state-specific factors, we conducted a sensitivity analysis. Finally, we estimated the change in avoided emissions in a coal-intensive state by varying the operational constraints of fossil-fuel power plants. At the 10% penetration level avoided emissions were not constrained by the ramp rate limitations, but the minimum capacity requirement significantly affected the avoided emission estimates.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE{sup 3} grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and input chlorine is adjusted continuously. This optimization of chlorine use results in substantially less waste because less chlorine has to be bought or produced by aluminum manufacturers. This innovation is a significant improvement over conventional aluminum treatments, in which chlorine is injected in a more costly and wasteful manner. By the year 2010, the new technology has the potential to reduce the energy it takes to create chlorine by 8.4 billion Btu per year and to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 1,377 tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country Mexico Central America References Greenhouse Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials for Buildings[1] Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report represents the first comprehensive description of the factors that determine the present and future impacts of residential and commercial

223

Allocating emissions permits in cap-and-trade programs: Theory and evidence Preliminary.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions trading program are used to analyze these relationships empirically. I ...nd robust evidence an important a factor in the widespread adoption of emissions trading programs. More recently, a third design

Fowlie, Meredith

224

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Driving your vehicle can yield both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from your vehicle's tailpipe and GHG emissions related to the production of the fuel used to power your vehicle. For example, activities associated with fuel production such as feedstock extraction, feedstock transport to a processing plant, and conversion of feedstock to motor fuel, as well as distribution of the motor fuel, can all produce GHG emissions. The Fuel Economy and Environment Label provides a Greenhouse Gas Rating, from 1 (worst) to 10 (best), based on the vehicle's tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions only, and this rating does not reflect any GHG emissions associated with fuel production.

225

Emissions from Ships  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Turbine and Diesel) Engine Exhaust Emission...of relative fuel consumption. For commercial...Marine Diesel Engine and Gas Turbine...Turbine and Diesel) Engine Exhaust Emission...of relative fuel consumption. For commercial...

James J. Corbett; Paul Fischbeck

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Introduction to Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter constitutes an introduction to emissions trading. First, we detail the latest developments ... Second, we introduce the main characteristics of emissions trading, be it in terms of spatial and...2 al...

Dr. Julien Chevallier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

Tanhua, T. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Steinfeldt, R. [University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Brown, P. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Perez, F.F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Kortzinger, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Velo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Schuster, U. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Van Heuven, S. [University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Stendardo, I. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Hoppema, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Olsen, Are [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Pierrot, D. [Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. Miami; Schirnick, C. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Evaluating a Federal agency's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile means getting a solid understanding of the organization's largest emission categories, largest emission sources, and its potential for improvement.

229

Engine control system having fuel-based adjustment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve configured to affect a fluid flow of the cylinder, an actuator configured to move the engine valve, and an in-cylinder sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a characteristic of fuel entering the cylinder. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to determine the characteristic of the fuel based on the signal and selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve based on the characteristic of the fuel.

Willi, Martin L. (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott B. (Metamora, IL); Montgomery, David T. (Edelstein, IL); Gong, Weidong (Dunlap, IL)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

U.S. Federal Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustment...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Million Barrels) U.S. Federal Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

231

U.S. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's...

232

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 ? ?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend1 ? ?)? i + ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect toSeries RegulationofGHGemissionsfromtransportation

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: MOBILE6 Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.epa.gov/oms/m6.htm Cost: Free References: http://www.epa.gov/oms/m6.htm MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for predicting gram per mile emissions of Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Particulate Matter (PM), and toxics from cars, trucks, and motorcycles under various conditions. MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for predicting gram per mile emissions of Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon

234

Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications: Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Pumping Systems Tip Sheet #11  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This two-page tip sheet provides practical tips on application of Adjustable Speed Drives in industrial settings.

Not Available

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the ?-convergence, stochastic convergence and ?-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector.

Juan Wang; Kezhong Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

State Emissions Estimates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Because energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) constitutes over 80 percent of total emissions, the state energy-related CO 2 emission levels provide a good indicator of the relative contribution of individual states to total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) emissions estimates at the state level for energy-related CO 2 are based on data contained in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). 1 The state-level emissions estimates are based on energy consumption data for the following fuel categories: three categories of coal (residential/commercial, industrial, and electric power sector); natural gas; and ten petroleum products including-- asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases

237

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

238

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth by W. G. Breiland, L. A. Bruskas, A. A. Allerman, and T. W. Hargett Motivation-Temperature is a critical factor in the growth of thin films by either chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is particularly important in compound semiconductor growth because one is often challenged to grow materials with specific chemical compositions in order to maintain stringent lattice-matching conditions or to achieve specified bandgap values. Optical pyrometry can be used to measure surface temperatures, but the thin film growth causes significant changes in the emissivity of the surface, leading to severe errors in the pyrometer measurement. To avoid these errors, emissivity changes must be measured and

239

Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

1985-04-00T23:59:59.000Z

240

3D Modelling of Enhanced Surface Emission by Surface Roughening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

3D FDTD is used to study the effect of surface roughening on the emission of a point source embedded in GaAs with a mirror behind the dipole. Enhancement factors of 10:1 are observed.

Buss, Ian J; Cryan, Martin J; Ho, Daniel; Craddock, Ian; Nash, Geoff; Haigh, Mary K; Railton, Chris; Rarity, John G

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Measurement of vehicle emissions and the associated dispersion near roadways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

halance I, echnique sufl'ers I&vo disadva&i&, ages: (1) the emission factor may &&nly l&e calcula4cd for exis&, ing roads and (2) I, he analys4 &nusI, have accuraLe air quality, I, raflic, and inel, eorological da4a to estimal, e the emission rate...

Hlavinka, M. W

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Study of Engine Operating Parameter Effects on GDI Engine Particle-Number Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Results show that fuel-injection timing is the dominant factor contributing to PN emissions from this wall-guided GDI engine.

243

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions during biomass combustion: Controlling factors andfrom smoldering combustion of biomass measured by open-pathduring the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Raman scheme for adjustable-bandwidth quantum memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a scenario of quantum memory for light based on Raman scattering. The storage medium is a vapor and the different spectral components of the input pulse are stored in different atomic velocity classes. One uses appropriate pulses to reverse the resulting Doppler phase shift and to regenerate the input pulse, without distortion, in the backward direction. The different stages of the protocol are detailed and the recovery efficiency is calculated in the semiclassical picture. Since the memory bandwidth is determined by the Raman transition Doppler width, it can be adjusted by changing the angle between the input pulse wave vector and the control beams. The optical depth also depends on the beam angle. As a consequence the available optical depth can be optimized depending on the needed bandwidth. The predicted recovery efficiency is close to 100% for large optical depth.

Le Goueet, J.-L.; Berman, P. R. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS UPR3321, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 505, Campus Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France); Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Wavelet analysis of electric adjustable speed drive waveforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three most common adjustable speed drives (ASDs) used in HVAC equipment, namely, pulse-width modulated (PWM) induction drive, brushless-dc drive, and switched-reluctance drive, generate non-periodic and nonstationary electric waveforms with sharp edges and transients. Deficiencies of Fourier transform methods in analysis of such ASD waveforms prompted an application of the wavelet transform. Results of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) analysis of PWM inverter-fed motor waveforms are presented. The best mother wavelet for analysis of the recorded waveforms is selected. Data compression properties of the selected mother wavelet are compared to those of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Multilevel feature detection of ASD waveforms using the DWT is shown.

Czarkowski, D. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Domijan, A. Jr. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Adjustable Nonlinear Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibration Energy Harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power microsystems of the future. Most of present vibration energy harvesters are based on a mass spring structure introducing a resonance phenomenon that allows to increase the output power compared to non-resonant systems, but limits the working frequency bandwidth. Therefore, they are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations' frequencies shift. To follow shifts of ambient vibration frequencies and to increase the frequency band where energy can be harvested, one solution consists in using nonlinear springs. We present in this paper a model of adjustable nonlinear springs (H-shaped springs) and their benefits to improve velocity-damped vibration energy harvesters' (VEH) output powers. A simulation on a real vibration source proves that the output power can be higher in nonlinear devices compared to linear systems (up to +48%).

S. Boisseau; G. Despesse; B. Ahmed Seddik

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

248

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

249

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

250

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

251

emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emissions emissions Dataset Summary Description The New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development publishes an annual Energy Outlook, which presents projections of New Zealand's future energy supply, demand, prices and greenhouse gas emissions. The principle aim of these projections is to inform the national energy debate. Included here are the model results for emissions. The spreadsheet provides an interactive tool for selecting which model results to view, and which scenarios to evaluate; full model results for each scenario are also included. Source New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development Date Released Unknown Date Updated December 15th, 2010 (4 years ago) Keywords emissions New Zealand projections Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2010 New Zealand emissions outlook (xls, 1.2 MiB)

252

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reducing Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions 2 0 1 0 Green TransporTaTion TechnoloGies Compared to traditional gasoline engines, diesel engines require less maintenance, generate energy more efficiently, and produce less carbon dioxide emissions. But when uncontrolled, diesel engines churn out harmful emissions like particu- late matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are currently working to develop

254

Douglas Factors  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as Douglas Factors and have been incorporated into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Personnel Management System and various FAA Labor Agreements.

255

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Tim Johnson October 16, 2012 2 Environmental Technologies Summary * Regulations - LEVIII finalized, Tier 3? RDE in Europe developing and very...

258

EMSL - emission spectra  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

emission-spectra en Structures and Stabilities of (MgO)n Nanoclusters. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsstructures-and-stabilities-mgon-nanoclusters

259

NETL: Emissions Characterization - CMU Emissions Characterization Study  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source Emissions Characterization Study Source Emissions Characterization Study The emissions characterization study is being performed in conjunction with the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study [PDF-744KB], a larger effort that includes ambient measurements and atmospheric modeling of the Pittsburgh region. The main objectives of this portion of the study are: To achieve advanced characterization of the PM in the Pittsburgh region. Measurements include the PM size, surface, volume, and mass distribution; chemical composition as a function of size and on a single particle basis; temporal and spatial variability. To obtain accurate current fingerprints of the major primary PM sources in the Pittsburgh region using traditional filter-based sampling and state-of-the-art techniques such as dilution sampling and single particle analysis using mass spectroscopy and LIBS.

260

Chapter 16 - Fuel Effects on Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary The majority of fuels consumed by internal combustion engines (ICE) are fossil fuels, mainly gasoline and diesel fuel. Through the fuels' history, their properties have kept changing because of various reasons, such as crude oil prices, progress in refinery technology, changes in vehicle technology, environmental legislation, and political considerations. The environmental legislation has become the most important factor affecting the requirements of automotive fuels, because of: additional limitations caused by changes in vehicle technology (such as the need of unleaded gasoline for catalyst-equipped vehicles); the growing importance of direct fuel effects (their weighting factor rising sharply as a result of very low emission levels mandated in ecological regulations). Numerous research works have been performed to investigate the fuel composition effects on engine exhaust emissions. The effects of different fuel variables on regulated (CO, HC, NOx, PM) and unregulated (benzene, 1,3-butadiene, aldehydes, and PAH) engine exhaust emissions were investigated in the foregoing and in many other research programs. The accumulated knowledge allows main fuel parameters to be defined affecting pollutants emission and fuel/engine/emissions relationships to be revealed with good agreement between different studies.

Yoram Zvirin; Marcel Gutman; Leonid Tartakovsky

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Relationship between Urbanization and CO2 Emissions Depends on Income Level and Policy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As urban demand for goods, services, employment, and schools increases, governments and markets may respond with improved public transportation services, roads, and other infrastructure that could reduce total emissions,(29) all potential aspects of energy-efficient urban form. ... GDP/capita, urbanization (%), agricultural land (%), energy use (kg oil equivalent per capita)all variables include population adjustments ...

Diego Ponce de Leon Barido; Julian D. Marshall

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission Controls  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for controlling NOx from lean engines are studied in great detail at FEERC. Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are two catalyst technologies of interest. Catalysts are studied from the nanoscale to full scale. On the nanoscale, catalyst powders are analyzed with chemisorptions techniques to determine the active metal surface area where catalysis occurs. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is used to observe the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during catalyst operation. Both powder and coated catalyst samples are analyzed on bench flow reactors in controlled simulated exhaust environments to better characterize the chemical

263

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Berth allocation considering fuel consumption and vessel emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a more elaborate model on berth allocation considering fuel consumption than before, and overcome the nonlinear complexity by casting it as a mixed integer second order cone programming model. Furthermore, we conduct the vessel emission (in sailing periods) calculation with the widely-used emission factors. Besides, vessel emissions in mooring periods are also analyzed through a post-optimization phase on waiting time. Experimental results demonstrate that the new berth allocation strategy, reflected by the proposed model, is competent to significantly reduce fuel consumption and vessel emissions, while simultaneously retaining the service level of the terminal.

Yuquan Du; Qiushuang Chen; Xiongwen Quan; Lei Long; Richard Y.K. Fung

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Title Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Jeong, Seongeun, Chuanfeng Zhao, Arlyn E. Andrews, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Colm Sweeney, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Geophysical Research Letters Volume 39 Issue 16 Keywords atmospheric transport, inverse modeling, nitrous oxide Abstract We estimate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Central California for the period of December 2007 through November 2009 by comparing N2O mixing ratios measured at a tall tower (Walnut Grove, WGC) with transport model predictions based on two global a priori N2O emission models (EDGAR32 and EDGAR42). Atmospheric particle trajectories and surface footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. Regression analyses show that the slopes of predicted on measured N2O from both emission models are low, suggesting that actual N2O emissions are significantly higher than the EDGAR inventories for all seasons. Bayesian inverse analyses of regional N2O emissions show that posterior annual N2O emissions are larger than both EDGAR inventories by factors of 2.0 ± 0.4 (EDGAR32) and 2.1 ± 0.4 (EDGAR42) with seasonal variation ranging from 1.6 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 for an influence region of Central California within approximately 150 km of the tower. These results suggest that if the spatial distribution of N2O emissions in California follows the EDGAR emission models, then actual emissions are 2.7 ± 0.5 times greater than the current California emission inventory, and total N2O emissions account for 8.1 ± 1.4% of total greenhouse gas emissions from California.

266

Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An Analysis of its Potential Economic Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chinas Twelfth Five-Year Plan (20112015) aims to achieve a national carbon intensity reduction of 17% through differentiated targets at the provincial level. Allocating the national target among Chinas provinces is ...

Springmann, M.

267

The Measurement of Trace Emissions and Combustion Characteristics for a Mass Fire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

32 The Measurement of Trace Emissions and Combustion Characteristics for a Mass Fire Ronald A of emissions from biomass burning on global climate. While the burning of biomass constitutes a large fraction of world emis- sions, there are insufficient data on the combustion efficiency, emission factors, and trace

268

Material Limits Adjusted by a Modified Airborne Release Fraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper will discuss the methods used at a depleted uranium facility to develop a hazard categorization and a limiting condition for operation (LCO) for the inventory based on increased Category 2 threshold quantity values (TV) from DOE Standard 1027-92. A revision to the safety analysis report (SAR) for a Category 3 depleted uranium facility was required to meet current methodologies and isotope content. The previous SAR first approved in 1992, allowed an inventory of depleted uranium that exceeded the Category 2 threshold quantity values in the material storage warehouses using an accident analysis methodology for final hazard categorization. New information regarding the isotopic content of the depleted uranium required an updated hazard categorization evaluation. The DOE Standard 1027-92 requires the evaluation to be based on inventory (Reference 1, 3.1, page 5), therefore, the previous method of performing a hazard consequence and probability analysis could not be used. The standard (1027) requires a facility to be designated as a Category 3 Nuclear facility when the inventory levels in the facility, or facility segments, are greater than Category 3 thresholds and below Category 2 thresholds. A Category 2 Nuclear Facility requires a more in depth hazard and accident analysis. Our categorization was based on an inventory, adjusted by a form and containerization analysis.

Sandvig, Michael Dennis

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Adjustable Shock Test Sled for Haversine Pulses at 250 fps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New test requirements were developed by Sandia National Laboratory to simulate a regime of shock testing not previously performed at the Kansas City Plant operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. These environments were unique in that they involved amplitude of shock >1000g with relatively long pulse durations (greater 5 ms but less than 10 ms) and involved velocity changes up to 235 ft/sec. Ten months were available to develop, design, manufacture and prove-in this new capability. We designed a new shock sled to deliver this new family of shock environments in a laboratory test. The performance range of the new sled includes five specific shocks (1000 g 8 ms, 1300 - 6 ms, 1500 g 5.4 ms, 1950 g 6 ms, 2250 g 5.4 ms; all haversine shaped), and it also incorporates adjustability to accommodate new shocks within this range. These shock environments result in velocity changes ranging from 160 fps to 250 fps. The test sled accommodates test articles weighing up to 20 lbs and measuring up to 10 along any axis.

Troy Hartwig; Brent Hower; Aaron Seaholm

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

270

Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

Mihalka, Alex M. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

273

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Abstract: Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is a versatile...

274

Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Spontaneous Emission in a Semiconductor nanoLED, emission rate enhancement using the Fluorescent Emission by Lattice Resonances in

Kumar, Nikhil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable adaptive compact Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering 9 www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Summary: housing. This study suggests adjustable...

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable strabismus surgery Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

strabismus surgery Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adjustable strabismus surgery Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 SCIENTIFIC REPORT...

277

GIS Applications in Easter Island: Geodetic Adjustments and Survey Maps Accuracy .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This paper discusses the variables and methodology involved in the geodetic transformations required for the adjustment of the Easter Island Archaeological Survey's cartography until (more)

Vargas Casanova, Patricia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

CLIENT ATTACHMENT, SYMPTOM DISTRESS, MARITAL ADJUSTMENT, AND THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE IN COUPLE'S THERAPY.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this thesis was to examine the relationship between client anxiety, avoidance, symptom distress, marital adjustment and the therapeutic alliance in couples therapy. (more)

NISHIDA, JACOB

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Emission Abatement System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Performance and emissions of a Euro5 small diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes the effects of using neat biodiesel on a modern small displacement passenger car diesel engine, highlighting the need for a specific adjusted electronic control unit (ECU) calibration for biodiesel. Engine performance were evaluated at full load with a standard ECU calibration as well as with an ECU calibration specifically adjusted for biodiesel; Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and exhaust emissions was then evaluated at seven part load operating conditions, representative of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Tests showed that through recalibration it is possible to obtain the same performance measured under diesel operation, with benefits in terms of engine-out emissions, especially as far as smoke emissions are concerned. Moreover, particle number and size distribution at engine outlet were also evaluated at part load operating conditions, showing a significant reduction of particle number and mass with biodiesel.

Federico Millo; Davide Simone Vezza; Theodoros Vlachos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

EPA Emissions | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EPA Emissions ORNL research informs new EPA emissions standards July 11, 2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a streamlined method for determining vehicle...

283

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

284

Hazard recognition and adjustment in northern Appalachia: examples of coal-mine subsidence in small communities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mine subsidence is a pervasive hazard in the northern Appalachian coal fields and is associated with both active and abandoned mines. Causative factors include the method of mining, geological and hydrologic conditions, and surface activities. Its economic costs include surface property damages and depreciations plus costs of mitigation. Environmental impacts include derangement of surface drainage and loss of aquifer. These topics are reviewed here, and on subsidence cognition and the research findings are discussed. One bituminous and three anthracite area boroughs in Pennsylvania served as case studies. Local officials and planners were informally interviewed and surveys of residents conducted. The present study differs from most in the traditional hazard-perception genus in several ways. It addresses the salience of hazard amid other pressing community concerns. Salience, rather than perceived seriousness, provides greater insights into residents' coping responses. Consideration is given to institutional and other contextual influences on individuals' adjustment strategies. Finally, coal mine subsidence is a technological hazard, albeit one which is geological in character.

Barnes, K.B.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Engines - Emissions Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are attractive options for increasing vehicle fuel economy and reducing emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases. Two automobile manufacturers have already introduced HEVs, and other manufacturers are planning to introduce their own models. One available HEV combines mass reduction (also applicable to conventional vehicles) with idle-stop, regenerative braking, and electric-drive assist to achieve a fuel economy more than 2.5 times the current Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard. The second HEV combines idle-stop, regenerative braking, electric assist acceleration, and continuously variable transmission (CVT) to achieve a fuel economy of more than twice the current CAFÉ standard, qualifying as a super ultra-low emissions vehicle (SULEV).

286

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

Frederick, J. D.

287

Photon enhanced thermionic emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

288

Fuel Consumption and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculating fuel consumption and emissions is a typical offline analysis ... simulations or real trajectory data) and the engine speed (as obtained from gear-shift schemes ... as input and is parameterized by veh...

Martin Treiber; Arne Kesting

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Intelligent field emission arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission arrays (FEAs) have been studied extensively as potential electron sources for a number of vacuum microelectronic device applications. For most applications, temporal current stability and spatial current ...

Hong, Ching-yin, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a national level involves substantial investment efforts, though part of these may be regained soon.1 On a global level, the costs of the available options are likely to ...

Catrinus J. Jepma; Che Wah Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Nitric oxide emissions from the high-temperature viscous boundary layers of hypersonic aircraft within the stratosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors study the nitric oxide emission characteristics of supersonic aircraft resulting from heating of viscous boundary layers along the skin of the aircraft. Previous study has concentrated on nitric oxide emissions coming from combustion products from the scramjet engines. This work shows that above mach 8, emissions from viscous heating become a significant factor in total emission of nitric oxide. Above mach 16 it becomes the dominant source of emission.

Brooks, S.B.; Lewis, M.J.; Dickerson, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

Field emission electron source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Ergonomics Self-Evaluation: Computer Workstation Step 1: Adjust the Chair  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ergonomics Self-Evaluation: Computer Workstation Step 1: Adjust the Chair a. Seat height ­ Adjust medical condition or ergonomic concern, contact the UT at Austin Occupational Health Program at 512.471.4OHP(4647). http://www.utexas.edu/hr/current/services/ohp.html Ergonomic evaluation services

Johnston, Daniel

294

Consumption asymmetry and the stock market: New evidence through a threshold adjustment model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consumption asymmetry and the stock market: New evidence through a threshold adjustment model whether stock market wealth affects real consumption asymmetrically through a threshold adjustment model. The empirical findings for the US show that wealth produces an asymmetric effect on real consumption

Ahmad, Sajjad

295

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal transition from coal to gas and renewable power under capacity constraints and adjustment existing coal power plants to gas and renewable power under a carbon budget. It solves a model of polluting, exhaustible resources with capacity constraints and adjustment costs (to build coal, gas, and renewable power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

Precise Timing Adjustment for the ATLAS Level1 Endcap Muon Trigger System , O. Sasakia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precise Timing Adjustment for the ATLAS Level1 Endcap Muon Trigger System Y. Suzukia , O. Sasakia by Yu Suzuki yu.suzuki@cern.ch Abstract The ATLAS level-1 endcap muon trigger system consists of about alignment of individual channels with the timing adjust- ment facility embedded in the TGC electronics

Fukunaga, Chikara

297

Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine) Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine) Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Public Utilities Commission This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports required to be filed with

298

Dispersion modeling for prediction of emission factors for cattle feedyards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. , 45 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS PROPOSED FUTURE RESEARCH . 47 . 49 REFERENCES APPENDICES APPENDIX A PREDICTED AVERAGE YEARLY CONCENTRATIONS OF PMio UTILIZING AMARILLO WEATHER DATA 51 54 . . 55 APPENDIX B PREDICTED AVERAGE YEARLY... CONCENTRATIONS OF PM)0 UTILIZING LUBBOCK WEATHER DATA 59 VII TABLE OF CONTENTS (Coutinued) Page APPENDIX C PREDICTED AVERAGE YEARLY CONCENTRATIONS OF PM|0 UTILIZING SAN ANGELO WEATHER DATA . . 63 APPENDIX D PREDICTED AVERAGE YEARLY CONCENTRATIONS OF PM|0...

Parnell, Sarah Elizabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

299

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [d] Excludes carbon sequestered in nonfuel fossil products. [e] CO2 emissions from the plastics portion of municipal solid waste (11 MMTCO2) combusted for electricity generation and very small amounts (0.4 MMTCO2) of geothermal-related emissions.

300

GHG emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHG emissions GHG emissions Dataset Summary Description These datasets include GHG and CO2 emissions statistics for the European Union (EU). The statistics are available from the European Commission. Source European Commission Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Biofuels CO2 emissions EU GHG emissions Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Total GHG and CO2 Emissions for EU (xls, 853.5 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions by Sector, all member countries (xls, 2 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions from Transport, all member countries (xls, 1.3 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by sector, all member countries (xls, 2.1 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by transport, all member countries (xls, 1.5 MiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Biofuels and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Green or Red?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biofuels and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Green or Red? ... Although it is widely recognized that cellulosic feedstocks have a much lower environmental footprint, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently adjusted the congressionally mandated 2010 100 million gallon yr?1 cellulosic biofuel mandate to 6.5 million gallons, a ?95% reduction, based on the lack of progress in bringing cellulosic biofuels to the marketplace. ... Converting rain forest, peatland, savanna, or grassland to produce food crop-based biofuels in Brazil, southeast Asia, and the US creates a biofuel C debt by releasing 17-420 times more CO2 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) redns. ...

Mark O. Barnett

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

303

PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Department of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pe'er, Asaf [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mizuta, Akira [KEK Theory Center, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Harikae, Seiji, E-mail: hito@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Quants Research Department, Financial Engineering Division, Mitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities Co., Ltd., Mejirodai Bldg., 3-29-20 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8688 (Japan)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Practical guide: Tools and methodologies for an oil and gas industry emission inventory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the preparation of Title V Permit applications, the quantification and speciation of emission sources from oil and gas facilities were reevaluated to determine the {open_quotes}potential-to-emit.{close_quotes} The existing emissions were primarily based on EPA emission factors such as AP-42, for tanks, combustion sources, and fugitive emissions from component leaks. Emissions from insignificant activities and routine operations that are associated with maintenance, startups and shutdowns, and releases to control devices also required quantification. To reconcile EPA emission factors with test data, process knowledge, and manufacturer`s data, a careful review of other estimation options was performed. This paper represents the results of this analysis of emission sources at oil and gas facilities, including exploration and production, compressor stations and gas plants.

Thompson, C.C. [C-K Associates, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Killian, T.L. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Risk factors for injury accidents among moped and motorcycle riders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risk factors for injury accidents among moped and motorcycle riders Aurélie Moskal a , Jean on the vehicle. Moped and motorcycle riders are analyzed separately, adjusting for the main characteristics of the accident. Results: for both moped and motorcycle riders, being male, not wearing a helmet, exceeding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A1. Notes and Sources A1. Notes and Sources Tables Chapter 1: Greenhouse gas emissions overview Table 1. U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008, DOE/EIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December 2009). Global warming potentials: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Errata (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008), website http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Errata_2008-12-01.pdf. Table 2. U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the

307

Controlled spontaneous emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

308

Generalized Emission Functions for Photon Emission from Quark-Gluon Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effects on photon emission from the quark gluon plasma have been studied as a function of photon mass, at a fixed temperature of the plasma. The integral equations for the transverse vector function (${\\bf \\tilde{f}(\\tilde{p}_\\perp)}$) and the longitudinal function ($\\tilde{g}({\\bf \\tilde{p}_\\perp})$) consisting of multiple scattering effects are solved by the self consistent iterations method and also by the variational method for the variable set \\{$p_0,q_0,Q^2$\\}, considering the bremsstrahlung and the $\\bf aws$ processes. We define four new dynamical scaling variables, $x^b_T$,$x^a_T$,$x^b_L$,$x^a_L$ for bremsstrahlung and {\\bf aws} processes and analyse the transverse and longitudinal components as a function of \\{$p_0,q_0,Q^2$\\}. We generalize the concept of photon emission function and we define four new emission functions for massive photon emission represented by $g^b_T$, $g^a_T$, $g^b_L$, $g^a_L$. These have been constructed using the exact numerical solutions of the integral equations. These four emission functions have been parameterized by suitable simple empirical fits. In terms of these empirical emission functions, the virtual photon emission from quark gluon plasma reduces to one dimensional integrals that involve folding over the empirical $g^{b,a}_{T,L}$ functions with appropriate quark distribution functions and the kinematic factors. Using this empirical emission functions, we calculated the imaginary part of the photon polarization tensor as a function of photon mass and energy.

S. V. Suryanarayana

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

309

Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Similarly, some authors have used the Kaya identity,(20) which decomposes the change in global or regional emissions into four factors: population, GDP per capita, energy intensity, and carbon intensity of energy. ... That is, more people and more consumption per person have pushed the demand for final goods and services upward affecting production and global GHG emissions. ... Further reductions in GHG emissions through technological change seem possible, especially in terms of energy efficiency and a shift to cleaner energies,(35) and in particular industries such as power generation and in transport. ...

Iaki Arto; Erik Dietzenbacher

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

310

Investigation of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuel Containing Butanol under the Conditions of Diesel Engine Operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(17) However, emissions of engines fueled with multicomponent fuels containing fossil diesel, butanol, and rapeseed oil butyl/methyl esters have not been tested. ... Break specific fuel consumption when engine is fuelled with fossil diesel fuel (n = 1500 min?1). ... For all cases, engine torque was retained the same by adjusting fueling rate. ...

Sergejus Lebedevas; Galina Lebedeva; Egle Sendzikiene; Violeta Makareviciene

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

311

,"Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12soh_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12soh_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:34 PM"

312

,"Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sal_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sal_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:30 PM"

313

,"Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sco_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sco_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:31 PM"

314

,"Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12smi_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12smi_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:32 PM"

315

,"Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12swy_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12swy_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:36 PM"

316

,"Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sla_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sla_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:32 PM"

317

,"Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sms_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sms_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:33 PM"

318

,"Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12smt_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12smt_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:33 PM"

319

,"Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12spa_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12spa_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:35 PM"

320

,"California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sca_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sca_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:30 PM"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12stx_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12stx_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:35 PM"

322

,"Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sfl_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sfl_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:31 PM"

323

,"Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sut_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sut_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:36 PM"

324

,"Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sks_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sks_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:31 PM"

325

,"Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sar_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sar_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:30 PM"

326

,"Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","8/1/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","8/1/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","rngr12sok_1a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngr12sok_1a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 6:09:35 PM"

327

Secondary emission gas chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

329

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

Shyamasundar, R.K.

330

The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from smoldering combustion of biomass measured by open-pathand the global budget: Biomass, combustion effi- ciency, andorganic species from biomass combustion, J. Geophys. Res. ,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - age-adjusted cancer mortality Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cancer mortality Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: age-adjusted cancer mortality Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 aallll IIrreell aanndd...

332

Productivity measurement using capital asset valuation to adjust for variations in utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although a great deal of empirical research on productivity measurement has taken place in the last decade, one issue remaining particularly controversial and decisive is the manner by which one adjusts the productivity ...

Berndt, Ernst R.

333

The Dynamic Character Curve Adjusting Model of Electric Load Based on Data Mining Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are a number of dirty data in the load database produced by SCADA system. Consequently, the data must be adjusted carefully and reasonably before being used for electric load forecasting or power system ana...

Xiaoxing Zhang; Haijun Ren; Yuming Liu

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Adjustment and Sensitivity Analyses of a Beta Global Rangeland Model Randall B. Boone1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Adjustment and Sensitivity Analyses of a Beta Global Rangeland Model Randall B. Boone1 , Richard Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya Contact R.B. Boone at: Randall.Boone@ColoState.edu August 31

Boone, Randall B.

335

Impact of energy structure adjustment on air quality: a case study in Beijing, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy consumption is a major cause of air ... in Beijing, and the adjustment of the energy structure is of strategic importance to the ... of carbon intensity and the improvement of air quality. In this paper, w...

Bin Zhao; Jiayu Xu; Jiming Hao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustment testing trait Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

testing trait Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adjustment testing trait Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 cell trait? Know your sickle...

337

A uniform price auction with locational price adjustments for competitive electricity markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Competitive electricity markets; Poolco Alternatively, the Market Coordinator could ask the private generatingA uniform price auction with locational price adjustments for competitive electricity markets b School of Electrical Engineering, Phillips Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA c

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable red-green-blue led Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adjustable red-green-blue led Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovationinnovati...

339

Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology with kriging constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverse modeling of emissions for local photo-oxidant pollution : Testing a new methodology. Abstract For chemistry-transport models operating at regional scales, surface emissions are the input data a methodology to optimize surface emissions at local scale i.e. to compute correction factors for the available

Menut, Laurent

340

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yr?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

342

Downstream Emissions Trading for Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter addresses the issue of downstream emission trading within the transport sector. It is argued that emission trading may be relevant in this sector, and ... regarding international transport, it is arg...

Charles Raux

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Monte Carlo estimation of the dose and heating of cobalt adjuster rods irradiated in the CANDU 6 reactor core  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......cobalt adjuster rods irradiated in the CANDU 6 reactor core Daniela Gugiu Ion Dumitrache...adjuster rods with cobalt assemblies in the CANDU 6 reactor core. The 60Co produced by 59Co...the cobalt adjusters. INTRODUCTION In CANDU reactors, one has the facility to replace......

Daniela Gugiu; Ion Dumitrache

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

344

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

470E-201 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

GHG Emissions GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions EERE Presentation of Greenhouse Gas EmissionsResource Potential gbtlworkshopghgemissions.pdf More Documents & Publications GBTL...

346

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

CORONAL EMISSION LINES AS THERMOMETERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coronal emission-line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G., E-mail: judge@ucar.ed [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research , P.O. Box 3000, Boulder CO 80307-3000 (United States)

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

350

Coronal emission lines as thermometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coronal emission line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

P. Danielewicz

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

352

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

Danielewicz, P

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Induced and Spontaneous Emission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of induced and spontaneous emission is investigated for an atomic two?level system with incident beams of radiation which are either in a coherent state or in a stationary state (contain a definite number of photons). The treatment is fully quantum?mechanical and is confined to the case where the frequency spectrum of the incident beam is narrow compared to the natural linewidth of the system. It is shown that under such conditions the spontaneous emission for frequencies within the narrow band of the incident radiation is sharply reduced compared to the prediction of the natural lineshape. It is shown that a hole is burned in the natural lineshape within the narrow frequency band thus effectively quenching the spontaneous emission at some frequency within the band. This effect is shown to occur both for the coherent and stationary beams. Quantities proportional to the induced and spontaneous probability amplitudes and the lifetimes are computed for times comparable to and long compared to the free lifetime of the state. An expression is found for the spectrum of the emergent radiation in terms of these quantities. Its physical meaning is briefly discussed. The density operator of the field for all times is given.

Saul M. Bergmann

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

An analysis of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in the Chinese iron and steel industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With China's increasing pressures on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, Chinese iron and steel industry (ISI) is facing a great challenge. In this paper, we address the energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features, and driving forces in Chinese ISI for 20012010. First, energy related GHG inventory for ISI is made for both scope 1 (direct emissions) and scope 2 (including imported electricity emission). Then, the driving forces for such emission changes are explored by utilizing the method of logarithmic mean Divisa index (LMDI) decomposition analysis. Results indicate that Chinese ISI experienced a rapid growth of energy related GHG emission at average annual growth rate of 70milliontons CO2e. Production scale effect is the main driving factor for energy related GHG emission increase in Chinese ISI, while energy intensity effect and emission factor change effect offset the total increase and energy structure has marginal effect. Construction, manufacture of general purpose and special purpose machinery and manufacture of transport equipment sectors are main sectors for embodied emissions, amounting for more than 75% of the total embodied emissions from Chinese ISI. Such research findings propose that a detailed consideration can help make appropriate polices for mitigating ISI's energy-related GHG emission.

Yihui Tian; Qinghua Zhu; Yong Geng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A knife-edge array field emission cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

Lee, B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

EIA - AEO2010 - Emissions projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions Projections Emissions Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Emissions Projections Figure 93. Carbon dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2008 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 94. Sulfur dioxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 95. Nitrogen oxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Growth of carbon dioxide emissions slows in the projections Federal and State energy policies recently enacted will stimulate increased use of renewable technologies and efficiency improvements in the future, slowing the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions through 2035. In the Reference case, emissions do not exceed pre-recession 2007 levels until 2025. In 2035, energy-related CO2 emissions total 6,320 million metric tons, about 6 percent higher than in 2007 and 9 percent higher than in 2008 (Figure 93). On average, emissions in the Reference case grow by 0.3 percent per year from 2008 to 2035, compared with 0.7 percent per year from 1980 to 2008.

357

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Michael G. Apte Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 43 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5626-5632 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THUVOC and aldehyde emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehydeconcentrations ranged from 378 µg m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 µg m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 µg m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 µg m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and materialspecific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was theonly one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 µg m-2 h-1 in the morning and 257 to 347 µg m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 µg/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 µg/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (materialsurface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde

358

Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................ 18 Calculation of Biomass, Biogas or Landfill Net Emissions ..................................... 19

359

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

California at Davis, University of

360

2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting: Methodology Paper for Emission Factors October 2009 www.defra.gov.uk #12;2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors and Rural Affairs #12;2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors: Methodology Paper

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets ... The varying proportions of CO2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio (?13C), with a range of about 2 . ... The large range of carbon emissions within the bituminous rank class suggests that rank-specific carbon emission factors are provincial rather than global. ...

Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

362

Dilepton emission at temperature dependent baryonic quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fireball of QGP is evoluted at temperature dependent chemical potential by a statistical model in the pionic medium. We study the dilepton emission rate at temperature dependent chemical potential (TDCP) from such a fireball of QGP. In this model, we take the dynamical quark mass as a finite value dependence on temparature and parametrization factor of the QGP evolution. The temperature and factor in quark mass enhance in the growth of the droplets as well as in the dilepton emission rates. The emission rate from the plasma shows dilepton spectrum in the intermediate mass region (IMR) of (1.0-4.0) GeV and its rate is observed to be a strong increasing function of the temperature dependent chemical potential for quark and antiquark annihilation.

S. Somorendro Singh; Yogesh Kumar

2012-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

363

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Title Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6062E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., Chelsea Preble, Odelle L. Hadley, and Ashok J. Gadgil Keywords aethalometer, Berkeley Darfur Stove, black carbon, carbon monoxide, climate change, DustTrak, global warming, improved cookstoves, indoor air quality, LBNL Stove Testing Facility, particulate matter, photoacoustic absorption spectrometer, pollutant emission factor, three-stone fire Abstract Traditional methods of cooking in developing regions of the world emit pollutants that

364

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

365

Numerical experiments of adjusted Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura systems for controlling constraint violations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present our numerical comparisons between the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation widely used in numerical relativity today and its adjusted versions using constraints. We performed three test beds: gauge-wave, linear wave, and Gowdy-wave tests, proposed by the Mexico workshop on the formulation problem of the Einstein equations. We tried three kinds of adjustments, which were previously proposed from the analysis of the constraint propagation equations, and investigated how they improve the accuracy and stability of evolutions. We observed that the signature of the proposed Lagrange multipliers are always right and the adjustments improve the convergence and stability of the simulations. When the original BSSN system already shows satisfactory good evolutions (e.g., linear wave test), the adjusted versions also coincide with those evolutions, while in some cases (e.g., gauge-wave or Gowdy-wave tests) the simulations using the adjusted systems last 10 times as long as those using the original BSSN equations. Our demonstrations imply a potential to construct a robust evolution system against constraint violations even in highly dynamical situations.

Kiuchi, Kenta [Department of Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Shinkai, Hisa-aki [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, 1-79-1 Kitayama, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0196 (Japan)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Improve emissions monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marathon`s Texas City refinery was subject to five separate EPA regulations in addition to a state program for monitoring and repairing fugitive leaks. In this case history, the refinery sought an organizational solution that reduced monitoring costs and kept the facility fully compliant with current state and federal regulations. Equally important, the new monitoring program incorporated flexibility for future emission-reduction requirements. The paper describes the solution, regulatory background, the previous system, leak-threshold consolidation, operator ownership, and projects benefits.

Vining, S.K. [Marathon Oil Co., Texas City, TX (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Emission control technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental protection is indispensable for preserving the earth for later generations. Indeed, industrial development has made our life rich; however, it also accelerates environmental pollution. Above all, such global problems as acid rain caused by SOx and NOx emissions and air pollution caused by particulates have become serious in recent years. Countermeasures currently in service or under development for these problems include: upgrading of fuel-burning systems; conversion of energy sources to clean fuels; pretreatment of fuels; and flue gas treatment. This chapter focuses on technologies that treat flue gases including the circumstances of the development of the technologies.

Yamaguchi, Fumihiko

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

Welch, M. J.

1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

369

Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines.

370

Comparison of Aermod and ISCST3 Models for Particulate Emissions from Ground Level Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the dispersion models ISCST3 and AERMOD, to determine the emission fluxes from cotton harvesting. The goal of this research was to document differences in emission factors as a consequence of the models used. The PM10 EFs developed for two-row and six-row pickers...

Botlaguduru, Venkata Sai V.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

371

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Current Oil Sands Technologies: Surface Mining and In Situ Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Current Oil Sands Technologies: Surface Mining and In Situ Applications ... efficiency - gas turbine ?GT ... The studied uncertainties include, (1) uncertainty in emissions factors for petroleum substitutes, (2) uncertainties resulting from poor knowledge of the amt. of remaining conventional petroleum, and (3) uncertainties about the amt. of prodn. of petroleum substitutes from natural gas and coal feedstocks. ...

Joule A. Bergerson; Oyeshola Kofoworola; Alex D. Charpentier; Sylvia Sleep; Heather L. MacLean

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

372

The use of satellite-measured aerosol optical depth to constrain biomass burning emissions source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, effective fuel load, and species emission factors as alternative inputs and daily versions, Fire Radiative Power (FRP)-based Quick Fire Emission Data set QFED, and 11 calculated, Earth Science Directorate, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 613, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA

Chin, Mian

373

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a small increase of 7 MMTCO2e (0.9 percent) in methane (CH4) emissions, and an increase of 8 MMTCO2e (4.9 percent), based on partial data, in emissions of man-made gases with high global warming potentials (high-GWP gases). (Draft estimates for emissions of HFC and PFC

374

Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Surface Tension Adjustment in a Pseudo-Potential Lattice Boltzmann Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann models have been widely applied in many multiphase simulations. However, most of these models still suffer from some drawbacks such as spurious velocities and untunable surface tension. In this paper, we aim to discuss the surface tension of a popular pseudo-potential model proposed by Kupershtokh et al., which has attracted much attention due to its simplicity and stability. The influence of a parameter on the surface tension in the model is analyzed. Based on the analysis, we proposed a method to adjust surface tension by changing the parameter in the model. However, the density distribution and the stability of the model also depend on the parameter. To adjust the surface tension independently, the pressure tensor modifying method is introduced and numerically tested. The simulation results show that, by applying the pressure tensor modifying method, the surface tension can be adjusted with little influence on the stability and density distributions.

Hu, Anjie; Uddin, Rizwan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Elastic emission polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Identifying Iron Foundries as a New Source of Unintentional Polychlorinated Naphthalenes and Characterizing Their Emission Profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emission factors of ?28PCNs to air in two case plants were 267 and 1472 ?g t1. ... It is widely recognized that the scale, raw materials, process technique, and air pollution control system (APCS) are important factors influencing the formation and emission of unintentional POPs during industrial thermal processes. ... Environmental Pollution (1998), 101 (1), 77-90 CODEN: ENPOEK; ISSN:0269-7491. ...

Guorui Liu; Pu Lv; Xiaoxu Jiang; Zhiqiang Nie; Minghui Zheng

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

379

Some Economic Effects of Adjusting to a Changing Water Supply, Texas High Plains.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. the following categories. Shifting from butane (L. P. gas) to natural gas Areas not particularly affected by water-lev4 for pump engine fuel is another significant eco- decline include about 194,000 acres, or 5.4 percr:!:: nomic adjustment... the decline in water level and decI:rs- from butane to natural gas for pumping fuel. induced adjustments have seriously depietd ::x Elimination or of transmission losses water supply, sharply increased the investms:: :r pcrrticulcrrly has had a effect...

Hughes, William F.; Magee, A. C.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Operation of a planar-electrode ion trap array with adjustable RF electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One path to scaling-up trapped atomic ions for large-scale quantum computing and simulation is to create a two-dimensional array of ion traps in close proximity to each other. A method to control the interactions between nearest neighboring ions is demonstrated and characterized here, using an adjustable radio-frequency (RF) electrode between trapping sites. A printed circuit board planar-electrode ion trap is demonstrated, trapping laser-cooled $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. RF shuttling and secular-frequency adjustment are shown as a function of the power applied to the addressed RF electrode. The trapped ion's heating rate is measured via a fluorescence recooling method.

Muir Kumph; Philip Holz; Kirsten Langer; Michael Niedermayr; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Just the Basics: Vehicle Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Are Exhaust Are Exhaust Emissions? In most heavily settled areas of the U.S., the personal automobile is the single greatest producer of harmful vehicle exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are generated by the fuel-air mixture burning in internal combus- tion engines, both gasoline-powered and diesel-powered. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation within the vehicle when it is stopped, and again during fueling. The constituents of car (gasoline and diesel) and truck (diesel) emissions vary depending on fuel type and indi- vidual vehicle operating characteris- tics. The bulk of vehicular emissions are composed of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen (in unconsumed air). There are other pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel, and

382

Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of {eta}{sub e} {le} 130 and {eta}{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 4} respectively, with 1 MeV K{sup +} incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as {eta}{sub e} {proportional_to} 1/cos({theta}), where {theta} is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90{sup o}) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62{sup o}. Gas desorption varies more slowly with {theta} (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of {approx}2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K{sup +} ions backscatter when incident at 88-89{sup o} from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within {approx}10{sup o} of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90{sup o}. Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams.

Molvik, A

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

383

Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small difference in the plastic viscosity. This difference is probably due to the different Na concentrations of the slurries. (3) The yield stress for the SB2 sample at 17.5 wt. % insoluble solids loading is four times higher than the ''washed'' SB3 sample at 16.5 wt. % insoluble solids. There also appears to be small difference in the plastic viscosity. The differences for the yield stress and consistency can be explained by the differences in the Fe and Na concentrations of the sludge slurry and the anion concentrations of the resulting supernates. (4) The rheological properties (i.e. yield stress and plastic viscosity), as the insoluble solids are adjusted, for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples are different. The plastic viscosity curve for the ''as received'' SB3 sample was higher than the plastic viscosity curve for SB3 ''washed'' sample. The yield stress curve for the ''washed'' SB3 sample is slightly lower than the ''as received'' SB3 sample up until {approx}19 wt. % insoluble solids. The ''washed'' SB3 sample then exceeds the yield stress curve for the ''as received'' SB3 sample. This rheological behavior is probably due to the difference in the Na concentration of the supernate for the samples. (5) No unusual behavior, such as air entrainment, was noted for the ''as received'' SB3 sample. (6) The observed physical properties of the SB3 sample changed after washing. The ''washed'' SB3 sample entrained air readily at higher insoluble solids loadings (i.e. 14.1, 16.5, 19.5 wt. %) as it did for SB2. The air entrainment appeared to dissipate for the SB3 sample at the lower insoluble solids loadings (i.e. 9.7 and 11.7 wt. %). (7) The physical behavior of SB3 can be influenced by controlling the Na concentration in the supernate and the wt. % insoluble solids. The cause for the air entrainment in the ''washed'' SB3 sample could be due to a change in the particle size during the washing step. (8) The SB3 simulants prepared for the Simulant Development Program were approximately a factor of 1.6 to 4 times higher for yield stress and 2.6 to 4 times higher

Fellinger, T. L.

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

384

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

385

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

386

Emissions trading under market imperfections.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the (more)

Lappi, Pauli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

field emission electron microprobe | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field emission electron microprobe Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

388

EMSL - field emission electron microprobe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field-emission-electron-microprobe en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

389

Acoustic emission during polymer crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... .G.; part support to L.K.) Acoustic Emission, Special Technical Publication 505, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1971; Grabec, I. & Peterlin, A. J. Polymer Sci. ...

A. Galeski; L. Koenczoel; E. Piorkowska; E. Baer

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Source Emissions and Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electron micrograph image, Lara Gundel with instrumentation electron micrograph image, Lara Gundel with instrumentation Source Emissions and Transport Investigators conduct research here to characterize and better understand the sources of airborne volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic pollutants in the indoor environment. This research includes studies of the physical and chemical processes that govern indoor air pollutant concentrations and exposures. The motivation is to contribute to the reduction of potential human health effects. Contacts Randy Maddalena RLMaddalena@lbl.gov (510) 486-4924 Mark Mendell MJMendell@lbl.gov (510) 486-5762 Links Pollutant Sources, Dynamics and Chemistry Group Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Electricity Grid Energy Analysis Energy Technologies Environmental Impacts

392

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation The power factor (PF) is defined as the ratio between the active power and the apparent power of a system. If the current and voltage are periodic with period , and [ ), then the active power is defined by ( ) ( ) (their inner product

Knobloch,Jürgen

395

Adjusting for selection bias in Web surveys using propensity scores: the case of the Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adjusting for selection bias in Web surveys using propensity scores: the case of the Health at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Toronto, August 2004. Abstract Many web surveys allow respondents to self as supplementary information about which subset of HRS respondents also responded to an additional web survey (web

Schonlau, Matt

396

ADAPTIVE TRANSFER ADJUSTMENT IN EFFICIENT BULK DATA TRANSFER MANAGEMENT FOR CLIMATE DATASET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADAPTIVE TRANSFER ADJUSTMENT IN EFFICIENT BULK DATA TRANSFER MANAGEMENT FOR CLIMATE DATASET Alex,mbalman,ashoshani,vnatarajan}@lbl.gov, williams13@llnl.gov ABSTRACT Many scientific applications and experiments, such as high energy and nuclear is the limited network capacity for moving large datasets. A tool that addresses this challenge is the Bulk Data

397

LM117/LM317A/LM317 3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LM117/LM317A/LM317 3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator General Description The LM117 series, the LM117 is packaged in standard transistor packages which are easily mounted and handled. In addition to higher performance than fixed regulators, the LM117 series offers full overload protection available only

Jain, Amit

398

A Bias-Adjusted LM Test of Error Cross Section Independence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The exact mean and variance of the Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistic are provided for the purpose of the bias-adjustments, and it is shown that the proposed tests have a standard normal distribution for the fixed time series dimension (T) as the cross...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Ullah, Aman; Yamagata, Takashi

399

Experimental evidence that migrants adjust usage at a stopover site to trade off  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental evidence that migrants adjust usage at a stopover site to trade off food and danger experimentally manipulated danger by adding obstruc- tive cover and measured sandpiper usage along this gradient. We compared sandpiper usage along a transect extending 100 m on either side of the obstruction

400

Applications of adjustable speed drives. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning types and applications of adjustable speed drives (ASD). Uses in heat pumps, fans, compressors, electric motors, boiler feed systems, and power transmission are described. Coverage includes AC-DC motors, induction motors, and brushless electric motors. Energy cost savings are also examined. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers Using Adjustable Saturable Absorption in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers Using Adjustable Saturable Absorption in Vertically Aligned Carbon, carbon nanotube Passively mode-locked fiber lasers have been used in many applications in various fields or the cleaved fiber end.5) In these studies, we used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) whose axial

Maruyama, Shigeo

402

Contrasted sediment processes and morphological adjustments in three successive cutoff meanders of the Danube delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrasted sediment processes and morphological adjustments in three successive cutoff meanders impacts on the local distribution of river flow velocities, discharge, and sediment fluxes between and sediment and its impact on the hydrosedimentary processes in each channelized reach and adjacent former

403

Z .Global and Planetary Change 20 1999 93123 Global sea level rise and glacial isostatic adjustment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adjustment W.R. Peltier ) Department of Physics, Uni?ersity of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto-mail: peltier@atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca Z .rather recently Peltier and Tushingham, 1989 , it was not clearly;( )W.R. PeltierrGlobal and Planetary Change 20 1999 93­12394 Z .existed at that time e.g., Peltier

Peltier, W. Richard

404

SAR image localization and target recognition research based on the azimuth circle adjustment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to the work mechanism of space synthetic aperture radar (SAR), this text introduced the localization algorithms of SAR image and the method of system error adjustment. On the basis of the concept of the azimuth circle and the combination of ... Keywords: ITIL, ITSM, UML, framework, process model

Guang Yang; Xiaojuan Wang; Dejun Li; Bai Zhang; Kun Gao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Faraday cup with nanosecond response and adjustable impedance for fast electron beam characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A movable Faraday cup design with simple structure and adjustable impedance is described in this work. This Faraday cup has external adjustable shunt resistance for self-biased measurement setup and 50 {Omega} characteristic impedance to match with 50 {Omega} standard BNC coaxial cable and vacuum feedthroughs for nanosecond-level pulse signal measurements. Adjustable shunt resistance allows self-biased measurements to be quickly acquired to determine the electron energy distribution function. The performance of the Faraday cup is validated by tests of response time and amplitude of output signal. When compared with a reference source, the percent difference of the Faraday cup signal fall time is less than 10% for fall times greater than 10 ns. The percent difference of the Faraday cup signal pulse width is below 6.7% for pulse widths greater than 10 ns. A pseudospark-generated electron beam is used to compare the amplitude of the Faraday cup signal with a calibrated F-70 commercial current transformer. The error of the Faraday cup output amplitude is below 10% for the 4-14 kV tested pseudospark voltages. The main benefit of this Faraday cup is demonstrated by adjusting the external shunt resistance and performing the self-biased method for obtaining the electron energy distribution function. Results from a 4 kV pseudospark discharge indicate a ''double-humped'' energy distribution.

Hu Jing; Rovey, Joshua L. [Missouri University of Science and Technology (Formerly University of Missouri-Rolla), Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Fall 2010 Wind Tunnel Automated Bicycle Adjustment System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PENN STATE Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Fall 2010 Wind Tunnel Automated Bicycle with the development of Aerofit's prototype portable wind tunnel used in the aerodynamic testing of bicycles was to automate this adjustment of the bicycle seat and aerobars in order to decrease the time for fitting each

Demirel, Melik C.

407

Unified description of kaon electroweak form factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A calculation of the semileptonic decays of the kaon (K{sub l3}) is presented. The results are direct predictions of a covariant model of the pion and kaon introduced earlier by Ito, Buck, Gross. The weak form factors for K{sub l3} are predicted with absolutely no parameter adjustments of the model. The authors obtained for the form factor parameters: f{sub {minus}}(q{sup 2}=m{sub l}{sup 2})/f{sub +}(q{sup 2}=m{sub l}{sup 2})={minus}0.28 and {lambda}{sub +}= 0.028, both within experimental error bars. Connections of this approach to heavy quark symmetry will also be discussed.

A. Afanasev; W. Buck

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to better understand sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, this study utilized a logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to study emission changes from a sectoral perspective. Based on the decomposition results, recently implemented policies and measures for emissions mitigation in China were evaluated. The results show that for the economic sectors, economic growth was the dominant factor in increasing emissions from 1996 to 2011, whereas the decline in energy intensity was primarily responsible for the emission decrease. As a result of the expansion of industrial development, economic structure change also contributed to growth in emissions. For the residential sector, increased emissions were primarily driven by an increase in per-capita energy use, which is partially confirmed by population migration. For all sectors, the shift in energy mix and variation in emission coefficient only contributed marginally to the emissions changes. The decomposition results imply that energy efficiency policy in China has been successful during the past decade, i.e., Top 1000 Priorities, Ten-Key Projects programs, the establishment of fuel consumption limits and vehicle emission standards, and encouragement of efficient appliances. Moreover, the results also indicate that readjusting economic structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is urgently required in order to further mitigate emissions in China.

Xianshuo Xu; Tao Zhao; Nan Liu; Jidong Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program (TAACCCT) Energy and Manufacturing Awards and Topics List  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

View a list of all current Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program awards containing Energy and/or Manufacturing topics. This spreadsheet includes...

410

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

Cohen, David

411

Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

412

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

413

Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We experimentally demonstrate the control of the spontaneous emission rate and the radiation pattern of colloidal quantum dots deterministically positioned in a plasmonic patch antenna. The antenna consists of a thin gold microdisk 30 nm above a thick gold layer. The emitters are shown to radiate through the entire patch antenna in a highly directional and vertical radiation pattern. Strong acceleration of spontaneous emission is observed, depending of the antenna size. Considering the double dipole structure of the emitters, this corresponds to a Purcell factor up to 80 for dipoles perpendicular to the disk.

C. Belacel; B. Habert; F. Bigourdan; F. Marquier; J. -P. Hugonin; S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos; X. Lafosse; L. Coolen; C. Schwob; C. Javaux; B. Dubertret; J. -J. Greffet; P. Senellart; A. Maitre

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Indoor Solid Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(17) The relatively high OPAH emissions from indoor burning can be explained by the different amount of oxygen supply resulting in lower combustion efficiencies and relatively high temperature in the enclosed residential stoves due to low heat loss. ... hydrocarbon (PAH) emission source in developing countries; however, PAH emission factor (EF) data for indoor crop residue combustion, particularly field-measured data, are scarce, leading to large uncertainties in emission inventories. ... Shen, G.; Wang, W.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Min, Y.; Xue, M.; Ding, J.; Li, W.; Wang, B.; Shen, H.; Wang, R.; Wang, X.; Tao, S.Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China Atmos. ...

Guofeng Shen; Shu Tao; Wei Wang; Yifeng Yang; Junnan Ding; Miao Xue; Yujia Min; Chen Zhu; Huizhong Shen; Wei Li; Bin Wang; Rong Wang; Wentao Wang; Xilong Wang; Armistead G. Russell

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

415

NETL: Health Effects - Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants Given that mercury emissions from coal power plants will almost certainly be limited by some form of national regulation or legislation, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is performing an assessment of the reduction in human health risk that may be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of mercury. The primary pathway for mercury exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to mercury exposure is the fetus. Therefore, the risk assessment focuses on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Preliminary Risk Assessment A preliminary risk assessment was conducted using a simplified approach based on three major topics: Hg emissions and deposition (emphasizing coal plants), Hg consumption through fish, and dose-response functions for Hg. Using information available from recent literature, dose response factors (DRFs) were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions.

416

QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Requirements Recognizing the impact of carbon-emitting fuels on climate change and to

418

Update on CO2 emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

Friedingstein, P. [University of Exeter, Devon, England; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hackler, J. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Raupach, Mike [GCP, Canberra, Australia; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Le Quere, Corrine [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Aviation emission inventory development and analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An up to date and accurate aviation emission inventory is a prerequisite for any detailed analysis of aviation emission impact on greenhouse gases and local air quality around airports. In this paper we present an aviation emission inventory using real ... Keywords: Air traffic, Aviation emission, Emission inventory, Environmental modelling

Viet Van Pham; Jiangjun Tang; Sameer Alam; Chris Lokan; Hussein A. Abbass

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electricity generation in China mainly depends on coal and its products, which has led to the increase in CO2 emissions. This paper intends to analyze the current status of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in China during the period 19912009, and apply the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) technique to find the nature of the factors influencing the changes in CO2 emissions. The main results as follows: (1) CO2 emission from electricity generation has increased from 530.96Mt in 1991 to 2393.02Mt in 2009, following an annual growth rate of 8.72%. Coal products is the main fuel type for thermal power generation, which accounts for more than 90% CO2 emissions from electricity generation. (2) This paper also presents CO2 emissions factor of electricity consumption, which help calculate CO2 emission from final electricity consumption. (3) In China, the economic activity effect is the most important contributor to increase CO2 emissions from electricity generation, but the electricity generation efficiency effect plays the dominant role in decreasing CO2 emissions.

Ming Zhang; Xiao Liu; Wenwen Wang; Min Zhou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On reductions in GHG, and b) use analytical tools/methods to assess the emissions reductions possible through and prioritized based on factors such as cost effectiveness, potential for emission reductions, and applicability

422

Emissions of PCDD/Fs from municipal solid waste incinerators in China Yuwen Ni, Haijun Zhang, Su Fan, Xueping Zhang, Qing Zhang, Jiping Chen *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of PCDD/Fs from municipal solid waste incinerators in China Yuwen Ni, Haijun Zhang, Su February 2009 Available online 21 March 2009 Keywords: MSWIs PCDD/Fs Congener patterns Emission factor a b s t r a c t Gas emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD

Columbia University

423

Generalized local emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

Katsevich, Alexander J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

The implications of using hydrocarbon fuels to generate electricity for hydrogen fuel powered automobiles on electrical capital, hydrocarbon consumption, and anthropogenic emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper considers some of the impacts of adopting hydrogen fuel cell powered electric automobiles in the US. The change will need significant adjustments to the electrical generation industry including additional capital and hydrocarbon fuel consumption as well as impacting anthropogenic greenhouse emissions. Examining the use of three fuels to generate hydrogen fuels, using three production methods, distributed in three geographic scenarios, we determine that while the change reduces anthropogenic greenhouse emissions with minimal additional electrical generation capital expenditures, it accelerates the use of natural gas. Electrolysis provides a sustainable, longer-term solution, but requires more capital investment in electrical generation and yields an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse emissions.

Derek Tittle; Jingwen Qu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

427

Nonthermal emission from clusters of galaxies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that the spectral and radial distribution of the nonthermal emission of massive, M1014.5M?, galaxy clusters may be approximately described by simple analytic expressions, which depend on the cluster thermal X-ray properties and on two model parameter, ?core and ?e. ?core is the ratio of the cosmic-ray (CR) energy density (within a logarithmic CR energy interval) and the thermal energy density at the cluster core, and ?e(p) is the fraction of the thermal energy generated in strong collisionless shocks, which is deposited in CR electrons (protons). Using a simple analytic model for the evolution of intra-cluster medium CRs, which are produced by accretion shocks, we find that ?core ?p/200, nearly independent of cluster mass and with a scatter ?ln ?core 1 between clusters of given mass. We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) and ?-ray luminosities produced by inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in accretion shocks (primary electrons) exceed the luminosities produced by secondary particles (generated in hadronic interactions within the cluster) by factors 500(?e/?p)(T/10keV)?1/2 and 150(?e/?p)(T/10keV)?1/2 respectively, where T is the cluster temperature. Secondary particle emission may dominate at the radio and very high energy (1TeV) ?-ray bands. Our model predicts, in contrast with some earlier work, that the HXR and ?-ray emission from clusters of galaxies are extended, since the emission is dominated at these energies by primary (rather than by secondary) electrons. Our predictions are consistent with the observed nonthermal emission of the Coma cluster for ?p ~ ?e ~ 0.1. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) ?-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed. In particular, we identify the clusters which are the best candidates for detection in ?-rays. Finally, we show that our model's results agree with results of detailed numerical calculations, and that discrepancies between the results of various numerical simulations (and between such results and our model) are due to inaccuracies in the numerical calculations.

Doron Kushnir; Eli Waxman

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Nonthermal emission from clusters of galaxies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the spectral and radial distribution of the nonthermal emission of massive, M ?> 10{sup 14.5}M{sub ?}, galaxy clusters may be approximately described by simple analytic expressions, which depend on the cluster thermal X-ray properties and on two model parameter, ?{sub core} and ?{sub e}. ?{sub core} is the ratio of the cosmic-ray (CR) energy density (within a logarithmic CR energy interval) and the thermal energy density at the cluster core, and ?{sub e(p)} is the fraction of the thermal energy generated in strong collisionless shocks, which is deposited in CR electrons (protons). Using a simple analytic model for the evolution of intra-cluster medium CRs, which are produced by accretion shocks, we find that ?{sub core} ? ?{sub p}/200, nearly independent of cluster mass and with a scatter ?ln ?{sub core} ? 1 between clusters of given mass. We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) and ?-ray luminosities produced by inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in accretion shocks (primary electrons) exceed the luminosities produced by secondary particles (generated in hadronic interactions within the cluster) by factors ? 500(?{sub e}/?{sub p})(T/10 keV){sup ?1/2} and ? 150(?{sub e}/?{sub p})(T/10 keV){sup ?1/2} respectively, where T is the cluster temperature. Secondary particle emission may dominate at the radio and very high energy (?> 1 TeV) ?-ray bands. Our model predicts, in contrast with some earlier work, that the HXR and ?-ray emission from clusters of galaxies are extended, since the emission is dominated at these energies by primary (rather than by secondary) electrons. Our predictions are consistent with the observed nonthermal emission of the Coma cluster for ?{sub p} ? ?{sub e} ? 0.1. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) ?-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed. In particular, we identify the clusters which are the best candidates for detection in ?-rays. Finally, we show that our model's results agree with results of detailed numerical calculations, and that discrepancies between the results of various numerical simulations (and between such results and our model) are due to inaccuracies in the numerical calculations.

Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli, E-mail: doron.kushnir@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot (Israel)

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Reading for Thursday Emissions scenario summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, for year 2000 #12;USA ­ CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion (2005) US EPA #12 of global rise in sea level red: reconstructed blue: tide gauges black: satellite #12;Other changes GHG emissions #12;

Schweik, Charles M.

430

NETL: Emissions Characterization - Adv. Low-NOx Burner Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive, high-quality database characterizing PM2.5 emissions from utility plants firing high sulfur coals. The specific objectives are to: 1) develop and test an ultra low-NOx pulverized coal burner for plug-in retrofit applications without boiler wall tube modifications, 2) assess the impact of low-NOx PC burner operation on NOx and PM2.5 emissions, and 3) provide high-quality data to ensure that future PM2.5 regulations are based on good scientific information. The work will be performed in the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF), a 100 million Btu/hr near-full-scale facility located at the Alliance Research Center. Related Papers and Publications:

431

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: µg/m2 /day) 2. Land

Meskhidze, Nicholas

432

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

433

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

2 2 2010 Commercial Buildings Energy End-Use Carbon Dioxide Emissions Splits, by Fuel Type (Million Metric Tons) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity (3) Total Percent Lighting 211.9 211.9 20.4% Space Heating 87.4 10.2 6.7 0.3 17.3 5.6 50.5 160.7 15.5% Space Cooling 2.3 149.1 151.3 14.6% Ventilation 95.2 95.2 9.2% Refrigeration 69.1 69.1 6.7% Electronics 46.4 46.4 4.5% Water Heating 23.2 2.0 2.0 16.2 41.4 4.0% Computers 37.7 37.7 3.6% Cooking 9.5 4.1 13.6 1.3% Other (4) 15.8 0.9 9.0 3.8 13.7 122.0 151.5 14.6% Adjust to SEDS (5) 36.2 18.4 18.4 2.8 57.3 5.5% Total 174.4 31.5 6.7 9.0 4.1 51.3 5.6 100% Note(s): Source(s): 805.0 1,036.3 1) Emissions assume complete combustion from energy consumption, excluding gas flaring, coal mining, and cement production. Emissions exclude wood since it is assumed that the carbon released from combustion is reabsorbed in a future carbon cycle. Carbon emissions

434

SmartNode: Achieving 802.11 MAC Interoperability in Power-efficient Ad Hoc Networks with Dynamic Range Adjustments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, energy conservation may be achieved by dynamically adjusting transmission ranges on the fly at each node Range Adjustments Edmond Poon, Baochun Li£ Abstract The standard CSMA/CA based IEEE 802.11 protocol as conservation and higher system throughput through better spatial reuse of spectrum. In this work, we propose

Li, Baochun

435

890 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULY 2006 A Self-Adjusting Sinusoidal Power Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mordechai Peretz Abstract--A new self-adjusting current-fed push­pull parallel inverter (SA the amplitude, waveform and efficiency of the power driver. The current-fed push­pull resonant inverter (CFPPRI890 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULY 2006 A Self-Adjusting Sinusoidal

436

Combined economic and emission dispatch solution using gravitational search algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, the Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) has been proposed to find the optimal solution for Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch (CEED) problems. It is aimed, in the CEED problem, that scheduling of generators should operate with both minimum fuel costs and emission levels, simultaneously, while satisfying the load demand and operational constraints. In this paper, the CEED problem is formulated as a multi-objective problem by considering the fuel cost and emission objectives of generating units. The bi-objective optimization problem is converted into a single objective function using a price penalty factor in order to solve it with GSA. The proposed algorithm has been implemented on four different test cases, having a valve point effect with transmission loss and having no valve point effect without transmission loss. In order to see the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, it has been compared with other algorithms in the literature. Results show that the GSA is more powerful than other algorithms.

U. Gven; Y. Snmez; S. Duman; N. Yrkeren

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Carbon dioxide emissions, impact on Malaysia's manufacturing productivity growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methods used to measure productivity growth generally ignore the pollutants that are produced by the industrial processes. For example, pollutant emissions generated as undesirable output, apart from the main output of Malaysia's manufacturing sector, are excluded from the productivity accounting framework. This study aims at an extended productivity measure that takes pollutants into account by internalisation of Carbon dioxide (CO2) as a measure of air pollutant emissions into the production function, as an unpriced input. The results show that there was a slowdown in the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) growth in general, and a negative impact of CO2 emissions produced by the sector in particular, compared to other productivity indicators of the sector when CO2 is internalised in the models.

Elsadig Musa Ahmed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Cyclostrophic adjustment in swirling gas flows and the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis of cyclostrophic adjustment is presented; i.e., adjustment to balance between pressure gradient and centrifugal force in axisymmetric flow of an inviscid gas is examined. The solution to the problem is represented as the sum of a time-independent (balanced) and time-dependent (wave) components. It is shown that the wave component of the flow in an unbounded domain decays with time, and the corresponding solution reduces to the balanced component. In a bounded domain, the balanced flow component exists against the background of undamped acoustic waves. It is found that the balanced flow is thermally stratified at Mach numbers close to unity, with a substantial decrease in gas temperature (to between -50 and -100 deg. C) in the axial region. This finding, combined with the results of special experiments, is used to explain the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect.

Kalashnik, M. V., E-mail: lingel@obninsk.com; Visheratin, K. N. [SPA Typhoon (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kvisher@typhoon.obninsk.ru

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting: Methodology Paper for Emission Factors October 2010 www.defra.gov.uk #12;2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECCs GHG Conversion Factors by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs #12;2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECCs GHG Conversion

440

Forecasting GHG emissions using an optimized artificial neural network model based on correlation and principal component analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The prediction of GHG emissions is very important due to their negative impacts on climate and global warming. The aim of this study was to develop a model for GHG forecasting emissions at the national level using a new approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and broadly available sustainability, economical and industrial indicators acting as inputs. The ANN model architecture and training parameters were optimized, with inputs being selected using correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The developed ANN models were compared with the corresponding multiple linear regression (MLR) model, while an ANN model created using transformed inputs (principal components) was compared with a principal component regression (PCR) model. Since the best results were obtained with the ANN model based on correlation analysis, that particular model was selected for the actual 2011 GHG emissions forecasting. The relative errors of the 2010 GHG emissions predictions were used to adjust the ANN model predictions for 2011, which subsequently resulted in the adjusted 2011 predictions having a MAPE value of only 3.60%. Sensitivity analysis showed that gross inland energy consumption had the highest sensitivity to GHG emissions.

Davor Z. Antanasijevi?; Mirjana ?. Risti?; Aleksandra A. Peri?-Gruji?; Viktor V. Pocajt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

Andersen, J.K., E-mail: jka@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Emission reduction of NOx and CO by optimization of the automatic control system in a coal-fired stoker boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To date research on NO, and CO emission reduction in stoker-fired boilers has been devoted to combustion modification to the overfire air, diverting air to a selected set of burners, using modified low-NOx, burners, using flue gas recirculation or flue gas treatment with specially controlled catalyst and additives. This study introduces a concept that focuses on the dynamics of the boiler and the automatic control system. The objective of this study was to reduce the NO and CO emissions by restructuring the automatic control system and then tuning the control system with parameters that have been optimized with emission reduction as the objective. Dynamic data were obtained from a step-input test of either the underfire air or the overfire air. These data were used to model the boiler with a transfer function describing the emissions. The analyzer dynamic response was included in the overall model. The control parameters were determined from this overall emissions transfer function by mathematical optimization. These control parameters constituted the initial values in the automatic control system used for the final tests in the boiler. Additional adjustments to reduce the emissions were carried out during boiler operation. A low controller gain and a fast reset time were found to be the most suitable setting for the control system. The NO emissions controlled by the overfire air and CO emissions controlled by the underfire air produced the best results.

Schnelle, K.B.; Laungphairojana, A.; Debelak, K.A. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Intertemporally non?separable monetary?asset risk adjustment and aggregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of monetary assets, and originated the Divisia monetary aggregates to track the theorys quantity and price aggregator functions nonparametrically. The monetary aggregation theory was extended to risk by Barnett (1995) and Barnett, Hinich, and Yue (2000...). In producing the Divisia index approximations to the theorys aggregator functions under risk, Barnett, Liu, and Jensen (1997) and Barnett and Liu (2000) showed that a risk adjustment term should be added to the certainty-equivalent user cost in a...

Barnett, William A.; Wu, Shu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder Adaptor Adjustment Features  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder Adaptor Adjustment Features Dorsal/Ventral dial.352.3139 Toll Free: 1.877.352.3275 ^^ci&ion Q)e&i^n^^^r ^esea/H^/i Model 923-B Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder 923B-1/07 #12;MODEL 923-B MOUSE GAS ANESTHESIA HEAD HOLDER The KOPF Mouse Gas Anesthesia Head Holder

Kleinfeld, David

445

Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Emissions Annual Reports for DOE Sites, memo tooffices providing guidance for report preparation (March 22,470E-2012 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by

Wahl, Linnea

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

447

Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the...

448

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL EMSL produced this video for the annual congressional science expo organized by the National User...

449

Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowEmissionsAsianDevel...

450

School Bus Emissions Study | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

School Bus Emissions Study School Bus Emissions Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: international Truck and Engine Corporation deer2003slodowske.pdf More Documents &...

451

Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

452

Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

453

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011 | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters deer11johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Diesel Emission...

454

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Combustion Idle Reduction Emissions Waste Heat Recovery Lightweighting Parasitic Loss Reduction Lubricants...

455

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Efficiency and Emissions |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Combustion Idle Reduction Emissions Waste Heat Recovery Lightweighting Parasitic Loss Reduction Lubricants...

456

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced...

457

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

458

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

459

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion, and Emission Modeling Using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Sibendu Som, Douglas E. Longman Engine and Emissions Group (Energy Systems Division)...

460

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960...2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in...

Ekaterini Panopoulou; Theologos Pantelidis

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Theoretical study on a novel ammoniawater cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel ammoniawater cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios is proposed and investigated. In the combined system, a modified Kalina subcycle and an ammonia absorption cooling subcycle are interconnected by mixers, splitters, absorbers and heat exchangers. The proposed system can adjust its cooling to power ratios from the separate mode without splitting/mixing processes in the two subcycles to the combined operation modes which can produce different ratios of cooling and power. Simulation analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of operation parameter on system performance. The results indicate that the combined system efficiency can reach the maximum values of 37.79% as SR1 (split ratio 1) is equal to 1. Compared with the separate system, the combined efficiency and COP values of the proposed system can increase by 6.6% and 100% with the same heat input, respectively. In addition, the cooling to power ratios of the proposed system can be adjusted in the range of 1.83.6 under the given operating conditions.

Zeting Yu; Jitian Han; Hai Liu; Hongxia Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Refining Industry Petroleum Refining Industry Carbon Emissions in the Petroleum Refining Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 2911) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 79.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.5% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 16.5 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 6,263 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 28.9% Nonfuel Use of Energy Sources: 3,110 trillion Btu (49.7%) -- Naphthas and Other Oils: 1,328 trillion Btu -- Asphalt and Road Oil: 1,224 trillion Btu -- Lubricants: 416 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 12.75 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey", "Monthly Refinery Report" for 1994, and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998.

463

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2001, Nevada enacted legislation requiring the states electric utilities to provide details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation to their customers. Utilities must...

464

Exoelectron Emission from Synthetic Corundums  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Exoelectron Emission from Synthetic Corundums M. Yousif Charif R. Gout J. Barthe M. Petel Corundums (Alpha Al2O3) have been synthesised by the thermal dehydration of hydrargilite (Al2O3, H2O......

M. Yousif Charif; R. Gout; J. Barthe; M. Petel

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Anomalous Emission from HII regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

C. Dickinson

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

466

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Iowa adopted regulations in 2003 that generally require rate-regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers the fuel mix and estimated emissions, in pounds per megawatt-hour (MWh), of...

467

Greenhouse Gases and Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have grown rapidly since the beginning of this century. Unless emissions are controlled, the world could face rapid climate changes, incl...

Alice LeBlanc; Daniel J. Dudek

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

1770 emissions trading system [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

envir. pol. (As permitted by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, the sale of unused quotas of carbon dioxide [CO2] emissions to other countries, which can then use them as credits for their own accounts. The...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

470

Application of Taguchi's orthogonal array in reducing the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this investigation is to reduce the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine with less sacrifice on smoke intensity and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Fuel injection timing, percentage of EGR and fuel injection pressure are chosen as factors influencing the objective. Three levels were chosen in each factor and design of experiments method was employed to design the experiments. Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Test results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and ANOVA table was formed for each response variable. From the ANOVA table the most influencing factor and also the significance of each factor affecting the NOx emission, smoke intensity and BTE was found out. Response graph was drawn for each response variable to determine the optimum combination of the factor levels. This optimum combination was confirmed experimentally. [Received: November 14, 2010; Accepted: March 17, 2011

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; R. Ramanujam; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Time dependent particle emission from fission products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decay heating following nuclear fission is an important factor in the design of nuclear facilities; impacting a variety of aspects ranging from cooling requirements to shielding design. Calculations of decay heat, often assumed to be a simple product of activity and average decay product energy, are complicated by the so called 'pandemonium effect'. Elucidated in the 1970's this complication arises from beta-decays feeding high-energy nuclear levels; redistributing the available energy between betas and gammas. Increased interest in improving the theoretical predictions of decay probabilities has been, in part, motivated by the recent experimental effort utilizing the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) to determine individual beta-decay transition probabilities to individual nuclear levels. Accurate predictions of decay heating require a detailed understanding of these transition probabilities, accurate representation of particle decays as well as reliable predictions of temporal inventories from fissioning systems. We will discuss a recent LANL effort to provide a time dependent study of particle emission from fission products through a combination of Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) predictions of beta-decay probabilities, statistical Hauser-Feshbach techniques to obtain particle and gamma-ray emissions in statistical Hauser-Feshbach and the nuclear inventory code, CINDER.

Holloway, Shannon T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Credits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Credits Any state mobile emissions reduction credits program must allow credits for emissions reductions achieved by converting a vehicle to operate on an

473

2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA;2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Introduction Last updated: Aug-11 emissions conversion factors. What are Greenhouse Gas Conversion Factors? These conversion factors allow

474

Excimer emission from pulsed microhollow cathode discharges in xenon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is an intense source for excimer radiation in vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 172 nm in a high pressure xenon (Xe) gas. The concentration of precursors for the excimer formation, i.e., excited and ionized gas atoms, increases significantly by applying high voltage pulse onto the dc MHCD over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. The intensity of the excimer emission for the voltage pulse of 20 ns duration exceeds that of the emission intensity obtained from the same MHCD operated only in the dc mode, by one order of magnitude. In addition, the emission intensity increases by one order of magnitude over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. It can be assumed that the emission intensity of the MHCD source increases as long as the duration of the high voltage pulse is shorter than the electron relaxation time. For the high voltage pulse of 100 ns duration, the emission intensity has been found to be further enhanced by a factor of three when the gas pressure is increased from 200 to 800 mbar.

Lee, B.-J.; Nam, S. H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Rahaman, H. [CSIRCEERI Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)] [CSIRCEERI Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Iberler, M.; Jacoby, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frank, K. [Physics Department 1, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Physics Department 1, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

SCATTERED EMISSION FROM z {approx} 1 GALACTIC OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mapping Mg II resonance emission scattered by galactic winds offers a means to determine the spatial extent and density of the warm outflow. Using Keck/LRIS spectroscopy, we have resolved scattered Mg II emission to the east of 32016857, a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.9392 with an outflow. The Mg II emission from this galaxy exhibits a P-Cygni profile, extends further than both the continuum and [O II] emission along the eastern side of the slit, and has a constant Doppler shift along the slit which does not follow the velocity gradient of the nebular [O II] emission. Using the Sobolev approximation, we derive the density of Mg{sup +} ions at a radius of 12-18 kpc in the outflow. We model the ionization correction and find that much of the outflowing Mg is in Mg{sup ++}. We estimate that the total mass flux could be as large as 330-500 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, with the largest uncertainties coming from the depletion of Mg onto grains and the clumpiness of the warm outflow. We show that confining the warm clouds with a hot wind reduces the estimated mass flux of the warm outflow and indicates a mass-loading factor near unity in the warm phase alone. Based on the high blue luminosities that distinguish 32016857 and TKRS 4389, described by Rubin et al., from other galaxies with P-Cygni emission, we suggest that, as sensitivity to diffuse emission improves, scattering halos may prove to be a generic property of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

Martin, Crystal L.; Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Shapley, Alice E.; Kornei, Katherine A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Murray, Norman, E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

476

Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or frequencies. P for trend, Kruskal-Wallis and chi2 tests were used to examine differences in participant characteristics across categories of sleep duration. We examined associations between sleep duration categories (Kruskal-Wallis and chi2 tests, as appropriate. IQR = interquartile range. PAEE = physical activity energy expenditure. Table 2. Adjusted means (95% CIs) for cardiovascular risk factors...

Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Soren; Prevost, A. Toby; Griffin, Simon J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO2 emissions. To date, most...

Anita C. Risch; Sven Wirthner; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Comparison of Real World Emissions of Backhoes, Front-End Loaders, and Motor Graders for B20  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiesel vs. Petroleum Diesel and for Selected Engine Tiers H. Christopher Frey, Ph.D. Professor,500Words #12;2 Abstract Field data for in-use fuel consumption and emission rates were collected for 15. Fuel-based emission factors were mainly sensitive to differences between idle and non-idle engine

Frey, H. Christopher

480

An adaptive agent-based modeling approach for analyzing the influence of transaction costs on emissions trading markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transaction costs are considered an essential factor that can adversely affect the performance of emissions trading markets. However, most studies are based on a static analyzing framework, making it difficult to simulate real economic situations, in ... Keywords: Agent-based model, Emissions trading, Market efficiency, Transaction costs

Bing Zhang; Yongliang Zhang; Jun Bi

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adjusted emissions factor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Coordination of engine and powertrain supervisory control strategies to minimize cold start emissions

482

7, 68436902, 2007 An Asian emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

483

Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions CarmenM. Benkovitz, Hajime inventories of emissions of the trace species included in the study at the appropriate sectoral, spatial on emissions is also required at high resolution for the design of policies aimed at reducing emissions

484

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Vehicle Ethanol Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Laws & Incentives Ethanol Vehicle Emissions When blended with gasoline for use as a vehicle fuel, ethanol can offer some emissions benefits over gasoline, depending on vehicle type, engine

485

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emissions Control Emissions Control Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Control Requirement Heavy-duty diesel vehicles used to perform federally funded state public works contracts must be powered by engines with Level 3 emissions control

486

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Vehicle Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Emissions Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions When used as a vehicle fuel, biodiesel offers some tailpipe and considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits over conventional

487

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

488

Advanced Emission Control Development Program.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

489

Power Factor Improvement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power factor control is a necessary ingredient in any successful Energy Management Program. Many companies are operating with power factors of 70% or less and are being penalized through the electrical utility bill. This paper starts by describing...

Viljoen, T. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the dynamic causal relationships between energy consumption, energy price and economic activity in Saudi Arabia based on a demand side approach. We use a Johansen multivariate cointegration approach and incorporate CO2 emissions as a control variable. The results indicate that there exists at least a long-run relationship between energy consumption, energy price, carbon dioxide emissions, and economic growth. Furthermore, a long-run unidirectional causality stands from energy consumption to economic growth and CO2 emissions, bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth, and a long-run unidirectional causality runs from energy price to economic growth and CO2 emissions. In the short-run, there is unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to energy consumption and economic output and from energy price to CO2 emissions. Even though, the energy-led growth hypothesis is valid, the share of energy consumption in explaining economic growth is minimal. Energy price is the most important factor in explaining economic growth. Hence, policies aimed at reducing energy consumption and controlling for CO2 emissions may not reduce significantly Saudi?s economic growth. Investing in the use of renewable energy sources like solar and wind power is an urgent necessity to control for fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

Atef Saad Alshehry; Mounir Belloumi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

The road from Kyoto: The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in IEA countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Building on earlier analysis of energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions in 13 member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the authors quantify energy use and carbon emissions for nearly three dozen activities and economic branches from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. They show how lifestyles, economic structure, and overall economic growth affect the structure and rate of CO{sub 2} emissions. Similarly they show how energy intensities, final fuel mixes, and utility fuel mixes shape emissions. Using Laspeyres indices, they calculate the relative importance of each of these factors in affecting sectoral and total emissions over time. They focus on consumer sectors, homes and personal travel, but extend the analysis to all sectors of the economies studied. The authors find that emissions reductions in all sectors after 1990 have been slower than in the previous fifteen years, a period that saw emissions reductions in spite of economic growth. Manufacturing and households led the reductions in most cases, but progress has slowed markedly. In almost all cases, emissions from the transportation sector showed the least reduction and indeed some increases. Findings do not give an optimistic view of the recently concluded accords at the Third Conference of Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto, Japan. The authors conclude that the current rate of energy saving and fuel switching must be greatly accelerated if the IEA countries studied here are to affect reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions to meet their Kyoto targets.

Schipper, L.; Unander, F.; Marie, C.; Gorham, R.; Justus, D.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Krackeler, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

Kurniawan, Jermanto S., E-mail: Jermanto.kurniawan@inrets.fr; Khardi, S., E-mail: Salah.khardi@inrets.f

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

36 36 UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA Stacy C. Davis November 2000 Prepared for the Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6073 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 Updating the FTSAM: 1997 VIUS Data iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OBJECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 VIUS DATA PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Table 1. Share of Trucks by Fuel Type and Truck Size -

494

Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

495

Denial of Service attacks: path reconstruction for IP traceback using Adjusted Probabilistic Packet Marking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Ramamohanarao [18] propose a marking scheme wherein routers mark the packets with a adjusted probability. The packet marking probability is inversely proportional to the number of hops of the router from the source of the packet. The marking probability..., Peng, Leckie and Ramamohanarao [18] propose a mark- ing probability, pd = 1/d, where d is the distance (number of hops) of the router from the source of the packet. Assume an attack path of length k. By this we mean that there are k routers...

Dube, Raghav

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

496

,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use",8,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","11/15/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","10/31/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_821rsda_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_821rsda_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

497

Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, S.K.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

499

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

S. K. Zohner

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On-Road Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Road Emissions Estimates of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons for School and Transit Buses Report No. FHWY/NC/97Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Mobile Source Emissions 2 1.2 Emission Regulations 2 1.3 Emissions Contributions of "Non

Frey, H. Christopher