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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

adipic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 11 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

2

adip process: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ton emitted per metric ton of ADA produced for adipic acid synthesis: oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in water micromelusions using Benzalkonium Chloride.15151542-6580.2955...

3

A preliminary study of zinc-catalyzed polycarbonate production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Company. Adipic acid was pruchased fron MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc. 12 2. Synthesized Reagents a. Zinc Adipate from Zinc metal lb. 4 g (0. 251 mol) of zinc filings were dissolved in 50 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid, generating a solution... Figure 12. Two identical catalytic runs using the same batch of Strem catalyst A comparison between the zinc glutarate and zinc adipate catalyst was then made by comparing the rates of production of the polymer and the cyclic carbonate. The rates...

Griffith, Amy Elizabeth

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Succinic acid production by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, succinic acid has been produced commercially by chemical processes. Recently, however, fermentative of bacteria produce succinic acid as a fermentation end product,4 7 few species can produce it as the major 10 Previous studies showed that A. succiniciproducens produces succinic acid and acetic acid

5

Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

6

Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Metabolic Flux Analysis for Succinic Acid Production by Recombinant Escherichia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Samuelov et al., 1991). Escherichia coli produces several metabolic products by fermentation: acetic acid the final succinic acid concentration obtained was 9.5 g/L and the ratio of succinic acid to acetic acid being expended on the production of succinic acid by microbial fermentation using renewable feedstocks

8

acid inhibits production: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Animals excrete three main nitrogen products, ammonia, urea and uric acid (Fig. 1), as well as some and amino acids. The term ammonia...

9

Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the Fermentation; accepted 13 July 2000 Abstract: Succinic acid was produced by fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum-product acetic acid. The gram ratio of suc- cinic acid to acetic acid was 25.8:1, which is 6.5 times higher than

10

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

12

Naphthenic acid corrosion in synthetic fuels production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Serious corrosion damage to carbon steel piping in a fractionation unit associated with synthetic fuels production has been ascribed to the presence of naphthenic acids. Investigation of the problem revealed total acids numbers (TAN) ranging from 8--12mg KOH/g in the feed to the unit. Damage typically occurred in the temperature range 180--240 C and manifested as localized pitting, preferential weld corrosion, general wall thinning and end-grain attack. Filming amine corrosion inhibitors designed for refinery overhead systems have been proven ineffective and high temperature phosphate-based inhibitors could not be used due to potential catalyst poisoning in downstream refinery units. Coupon exposures indicated corrosion rates in the order of 2 mm/y on carbon steel in a reboiler line as well as pitting to austenitic stainless steel type UNS S30403. Line replacement in austenitic stainless steel UNS S31603 has been proven effective. The performance of this alloy is mainly ascribed to its molybdenum content. The absence of sulfur in the feed to the unit is also contributing to the alloy performance despite the extremely high total acid numbers.

Bruyn, H.I. de [Mossgas Ltd., Mossel Bay (South Africa)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

acid production plant: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: . - ,, ,,, , -,, . 12;Volatile fatty acids (VIA), produced mainly from fermentation of carbohydrates in the ration of carbohydrates and the production of VFA have not...

14

amino acid production: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of energy requirements for milk production. The protein deficiency was alleviated by infusion Bequette, Brian J. 2 METHODS TO DETERMINE AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITY IN CiteSeer...

15

Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80 lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002

16

Improvement of D-glucaric acid production in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D-glucaric acid is a naturally occurring compound which has been explored for a plethora of potential uses, including biopolymer production, cancer and diabetes treatment, cholesterol reduction, and as a replacement for ...

Shiue, Eric Chun-Jen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides derivatives of Escherichia coli constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B; Moore, Jonathan C

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

18

Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides derivatives of ethanologenic Escherichia coli K011 constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

Zhou, Shengde (Sycamore, IL); Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL); Yomano, Lorraine (Gainesville, FL); Grabar, Tammy B. (Gainesville, FL); Moore, Jonathan C. (Gainesville, FL)

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

19

Surfactant Screening to Alter the Wettability and Aid in Acidizing Carbonate Formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, known as high temperature organic acids (HTO acids), have been found to be useful in acidizing subterranean formations at temperatures up to 400oF. Some of these acids are oxalic acid, malonic acid, pimelic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic... acid and their mixtures. In addition to creating wormholes in carbonate formations, HTO acids can remove carbonate scale at high temperatures and cause very low corrosion to the tubing and casing. 6 1.2 Role of Surfactants in Acidizing 1...

Yadhalli Shivaprasad, Arun Kumar

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

20

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A New Phase-Equilibrium Model for Simulating Industrial Nylon-6 Production Trains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

types of nylon: (1) nylon-6,6 made commercially by the condensation polymerization of adipic acid, which is recovered and recycled. In conventional processes, the polymer is then pel- letized and leached

Liu, Y. A.

22

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production Xiuping Accepted 7 March 2013 Available online 15 March 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Reverse electrodialysis Bioenergy A new type of bioelectrochemical system, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical

24

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetic acid production Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in methyl chloride production is reported. Acetic acid was produced from... of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 11. Nowadays more than 60% of the industrial production of...

25

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE CCUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE C�CUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION Y. RAYSSIGUIER RELATIONS ENTRE L'ABSORPTION C,4ECALE DE MAGNESIUM CHEZ LE RAT ET LA PRODUCTION D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS du caecum, pH, acides gras volatils, activité microbienne. Introduction The mode of magnesium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Limestone/adipic acid FGD and stack opacity reduction pilot plant tests at Big Rivers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Big Rivers Electric Corporation (BREC) contracted Peabody Process Systems, Inc. (PPSI) to install a flue gas cleaning (FGC) pilot plant at the BREC R.D. Green Station Unit No. 2 located at Sebree, KY. A six month test program was completed demonstrating technology for: alternatives to using lime as an alkali; methods for improving cake dewatering; identification of the causes of high stack opacity; and methods for the reduction of high stack opacity. This paper presents highlights extracted from the reports submitted by PPSI to BREC on this test program. BREC was primarily interested in reduction of operating costs, if possible, by using an alkali less expensive than lime, and by improving the poor dewatering characteristic inherent in a dolomitic lime system. BREC was also within compliance for particulate emissions and opacity in the duct after the dry electrostatic precipitator, but not in compliance with the stack opacity regulation, and therefore wanted to investigate methods for stack opacity reduction.

Laslo, D.; Bakke, E.; Chisholm, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Biological Hydrogen Production Using Synthetic Wastewater Biotin and glutamic acid are not required for biological hydrogen production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biological Hydrogen Production Using Synthetic Wastewater Conclusion ·Biotin and glutamic acid are not required for biological hydrogen production. ·MgSO4 .7H2O is a required nutrient, but hydrogen production work should focus on minimizing the lag time in biological hydrogen production, by varying nutrient

Barthelat, Francois

28

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid fermentative production Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SUPPLY Summary: , (12) PC for process monitoring. 2.4 Shake flask fermentations acid Biogas Step 1 Wet oxidation Step 2... ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES USING...

29

Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

30

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen, 2009. Published May 19, 2009. The hybrid sulfur process is being investigated as an efficient way

Weidner, John W.

31

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

32

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

acid degradation products: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP CiteSeer Summary: This study describes the effect of intraruminal infusion of different proportions of palmitic (saturated fatty acid) and linolenic...

35

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

Hanson, Richard S. (Wayzata, MN); Flickinger, Michael C. (St. Paul, MN); Schendel, Frederick J. (Falcon Heights, MN); Guettler, Michael V. (Waconia, MN)

2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

38

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

39

Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

Donnelly, Mark I. (Warrenville, IL); Sanville-Millard, Cynthia (Plainfield, IL); Chatterjee, Ranjini (Park Ridge, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

acid production induced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pot Experiments... Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach) 1909-01-01 275 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

42

acid production units: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A guide to selected non-timber forest products of the Hayfork Adaptive Management for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is increasing, and growing numbers of people are enhancing...

43

A study of the manufacturing and product possibilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study of the manufacturing and product capabilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound was conducted. Fine granulated cork, 1mm in diameter, was compounded with Natureworks' IngeoTM3051D PLA and extruded into pellets. ...

Reed, Sarah BR

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - abscisic acid production Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acid, CEPA) is a commercial product used as an abscission agent for vari- ous plants. After... 20: 1635-1642 Apte PV, Laloraya MM (1982) Inhibitory action of phenolic...

45

Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

Jessen, Holly Jean (Chanhassen, MN); Liao, Hans H. (Eden Prairie, MN); Gort, Steven John (Apple Valley, MN); Selifonova, Olga V. (Plymouth, MN)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

46

Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

50

acid natural products: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Escherichia coli with Amplified 23 Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites Engineering Websites Summary: Measurements of Methane Emissions at...

51

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

Prebiotic Metabolism: Production by Mineral Photoelectrochemistry of a-Ketocarboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid (rTCA) cycle could have fixed carbon dioxide as biochemically useful energy- storage molecules- tions in the past (Fig. 3). Ultraviolet light penetrates into the water, interacting with carbon dioxide energies of formation that disfavor their production. We report herein the production of pyruvate from

53

Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry Summary: There are increasing numbers of poultry production buildings, with large, densely housed flocks to allow producers to meet the increasing demand for poultry products and, yet, reduce the environmental

Mukhtar, Saqib

54

Continuous Isosorbide Production From Sorbitol Using Solid Acid Catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a final report for a project funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board was the principal contracting entity for the grant. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with General Electric, Pacific Northwest National Lab and New Jersey Institute of Technology to conduct research in this project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and General Electric provided cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate both the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project has led to additional collaborations among other polymer companies. The goals of the project were to develop a renewable route to isosorbide for commercialization that is economically competitive with all existing production technologies and to develop new applications for isosorbide in various products such as polymers and materials. Under this program a novel process for the production of isosorbide was developed and evaluated. The novel process converts corn based sorbitol into isosorbide using a solid catalyst with integrated water removal and product recovery. In addition the work under this program has identified several novel products based on isosorbide chemistries. These market applications include: epoxy resins, UV stabilizers, plasticizers and polyesters. These market applications have commercial interest within the current polymer industry. This report contains an overview summary of the accomplishments. Six inventions and four patent applications have been written as a result of this project. Additional data will be published in the patent applications. The data developed at New Jersey Institute of Technology was presented at two technical conferences held in June of 2006. Several companies have made inquiries about using this material in their products.

Williamson, R.; Holladay,J.; Jaffe, M.; Brunelle, D.

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

55

Production of furfural from cottonseed hulls by acid hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'. a offsets of various salts on the hfdrol-ei af xyloae uain; ?hydrochloric cc!. d. ':he ciction of acids on f", rfi". ral resclts in this for, ". ion of huaina an', huaic aci '. lf furf'. ral ia ref la@cd for tao hours in 99 1P. . Q pez cant h... fielded Q&gd per erat furfural. r 1 QjP lTHH AQ 0P, 00 L DXfPJ q 'mM AQ'X3. ', 'R E i IFr F, -g i =, : -I- ?', - ? --4 r WLI ? + -t 1 r r T 1 r ?1 Ij a T ? ~F L 4P E1 L- 1 ' I r t, E ' r & So. ja '0 ? 80-' 10 I=I I ah...

Lee, D. Ralph

1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Essential Amino Acid Content of Cottonseed, Peanut and Soybean Products.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATlON R. D. LEWIS, Director College Station, Texaa BULLETIN NO. 692 SEPTEMBER 1947 The Essential Amino Acid Content of Cottonseed, Peanut and Soybean Products CARL M. LYMAN, KENNETH KUIKEN and FRED HALE... With the technical assistance of Shirley Dieterich, Marjory Bradford and Mary Trant AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRIST, President - [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Preface . - - -- - . meals seed, Ili5tid hmino acids...

Hale, Fred; Kuiken, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Alfred); Lyman, Carl M. (Carl Morris)

1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

The effects of glutathione on the production of free fatty acids in Cheddar cheese slurries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF GLUTATHIONE ON THE PRUDUCTIUN OF FREE FATTY ACIDS IN CHEDDAR CHEESE SLURRIFS A Thesis by JANE MARGUERITE BROUSSARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subuect: Food Science and Technology THE EFFECTS UF GLUTATHIONE ON THE PRODUCTION OF FREE FATTY ACIDS IN CHEDDAR CHEESE SLURRIES A Thesis by JANE MARGUERITE HROUSSARD Approved as to style and content...

Broussard, Jane Marguerite

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Some aspects of this invention relate to methods useful for the conversion of a carbon source to a biofuel or biofuel precursor using engineered microbes. Some aspects of this invention relate to the discovery of a key regulator of lipid metabolism in microbes. Some aspects of this invention relate to engineered microbes for biofuel or biofuel precursor production.

Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Abidi, Syed Hussain Imam

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Reactivity of tributyl phosphate degradation products with nitric acid: Relevance to the Tomsk-7 accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction of a degraded tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent with nitric acid is thought to have caused the chemical explosion at the Tomsk-7 reprocessing plant at Tomsk, Russia in 1993. The estimated temperature of the organic layer was not high eneough to cause significant reaction of nitric acid with TBP or hydrocarbon diluent compounds. A more reactive organic compound was likely present in the organic layer that reacted with sufficient heat generation to raise the temperature to the point where an autocatalytic oxidation of the organic solvent was initiated. Two of the most likely reactive compounds that are present in degraded TBP solvents are n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate. The reactions of these compounds with nitric acid are the subject of this study. The objective of laboratory-scale tests was to identify chemical reactions that occur when n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate contact heated nitric acid solutions. Reaction products were identified and quantitified, the temperatures at which these reactions occur and heats of reaction were measured, and reaction variables (temperature, nitric acid concentration, organic concentration, and reaction time) were evaluated. Data showed that n-butyl nitrate is less reactive than n-butanol. An essentially complete oxidation reaction of n-butanol at 110-120 C produced four major reaction products. Mass spectrometry identified the major inorganic oxidation products for both n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate as nitric oxide and carbon dioxide. Calculated heats of reaction for n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate to form propionic acid, a major reaction product, are -1860 cal/g n-butanol and -953 cal/g n-butyl nitrate. These heats of reaction are significant and could have raised the temperature of the organic layer in the Tomsk-7 tank to the point where autocatalytic oxidation of other organic compounds present resulted in an explosion.

Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

E-Print Network 3.0 - adipate ester contents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(DOA) and myristic acid (MA) in submicron... ), -acyloxyalkyl hydroperoxides (AAHP-type compounds as -C(O)OC(OOH)-, i.e., ... Source: Martin, Scot T.- School of Engineering...

66

Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in metallurgical products with carminic acid and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to the authors, there is an increasing demand for sensitive, selective, and rapid methods of determining low levels of vanadium in metallurgical products, and solvent-extraction methods do not meet the requirements. The authors used an anthraquinone dye carminic acid (CA) as a chromophoric organic reagent: 1, 3, 4, 6-tetrahydroxy-2-R-5carboxy-8-methylanthra-9, 10-quinone. The CSA was cetyltrimethylammonium chloride CTA. The three-component system was examined in order to devise a reasonably sensitive and rapid method of determining vanadium in metallurgical products. A study is made of the complexing in the system formed by vanadium (IV) with CA and the CSA. The optimum conditions for the formation of the complex have been established together with the spectrophotometric characteristics. A spectrophotometric method has been devised for determining from 0.05 to 5% of vanadium in metallurgical products with a relative standard deviation of not more than 0.04.

Babenko, N.L.; Blokh, M. Sh.; Guseva, T.D.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Investigation of Solid Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel Elliot James Nash University of British Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel By Elliot James Nash Thesis CHBE 493/494 4 April 2013 The Faculty;ii Abstract The adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is gaining momentum despite its large

69

To link to this article : DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.041 URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.041  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resins, and plasticizers, and to give some imitation food products a tangy flavor [2]. The rising demand for engineering plastics necessitates an increasing production for this product [3]. Adipic acid production

Boyer, Edmond

70

Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

Majkova, Zuzana [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Layne, Joseph [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Chemistry of natural fuel: Use of wastes of synthetic fatty acid production for obtaining water-bitumen emulsions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of producing water-emulsion waterproofing mastic and waterproofing coating based on bitumen, rubber crumb, and bottoms from production of synthetic fatty acids was studied. The physicochemical properties (softening point, ductility, sorptive properties, and friability) of the waterproofing coating based on a water-emulsion mastic were measured.

Syroezhko, A.M.; Antipova, E.I.; Paukku, A.N. [St. Petersburg Technological Inst. (Russian Federation)

1995-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

72

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

73

Functional screening and in vitro analysis reveals thioesterases with enhanced substrate specificity profiles that improve short-chain fatty acid production in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) biosynthesis is pertinent to production of biofuels, industrial compounds, and pharmaceuticals from renewable resources. To expand on Escherichia coli SCFA products, we previously implemented ...

Prather, Kristala L. Jones

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects acid production Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 67 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio Summary:...

75

Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

Production of volatile fatty acids as a result of bacterial interactions in the cecum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the C. butyricum strain fermented lactose and D-lactic acid to butyric and acetic acids, whereas L-lactic acid was not fermented. The V. alcalescens strain did not ferment lactose and fermented L better than D of lactose (up to 20 %) to the diet increases bacterial fermentation in the large intestine and cecum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

PRODUCTION D'ACIDES GRAS A COURTE CHAINE AU COURS DE LA DIGESTION CHEZ LE PORC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fermentation) ; this #12;is also the case for acetic acid in the caecum and colon 3 hours after the meal, when jusqu'ŕ 9 h aprčs la consommation (pH et microflore favorables ŕ ce type de fermentation) ; il en va de acids) ; acetic acid, present in great quantities overall in the digestive tract, becomes predominating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Monitoring of Total Type II Pyrethroid Pesticides in Citrus Oils and Water by Converting to a Common Product 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monitoring of Total Type II Pyrethroid Pesticides in Citrus Oils and Water by Converting to a Common Product 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Mark R. McCoy, Zheng Yang, Xun Fu,§ Ki Chang Ahn, Shirley J. Gee an alternative method that converts the type II pyrethroids to a common chemical product, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid

Hammock, Bruce D.

80

Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Pulse Radiolysis Investigation of the Reactions of Tributyl Phosphate with the Radical Products of Aqueous Nitric Acid Irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is the most common organic compound used in liquid-liquid separations for the recovery of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium from acidic nuclear fuel dissolutions. The goal of these processes is to extract the actinides while leaving fission products in the acidic, aqueous, phase. However, the radiolytic degradation of TBP has been shown to reduce the separation factors for fission products, and to impede the back-extraction of the actinides during stripping. As most previous investigations of the radiation chemistry of TBP have focused on steady state radiolysis and stable product identification, with dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) invariably being the major product, here we have determined room temperature rate constants for the reactions TBP and HDBP with the hydroxyl radical ((5.00 +/- 0.02) x 109, (4.40 +/- 0.10) x 109), hydrogen atom ((1.8 +/- 0.2) x 108, (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 108), nitrate radical ((4.3 +/- 0.7) x 106, (2.9 +/- 0.2) x 106) and nitrite radical (< 2 x 105, < 2 x 105) M-1 s-1 with TBP and HDBP, respectively. These data are used to discuss the mechanism of TBP radical-induced degradation.

Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen R. Mezyk; Leigh R. Martin

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

83

Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty Acid Composition in South Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the herbicides evaluated. Fatty acid composition, specifically stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic to linolenic acid ratio, was affected by herbicide treatments. This research found that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPG oxidase) inhibitor...

Cogdill, Todd Joseph

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Chromatographic extraction with di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid for production and purification of promethium-147  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing and purifying promethium-147 including the steps of: irradiating a target material including neodymium-146 with neutrons to produce promethium-147 within the irradiated target material; dissolving the irradiated target material to form an acidic solution; loading the acidic solution onto a chromatographic separation apparatus containing HDEHP; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the promethium-147 from the neodymium-146.

Boll, Rose A [Knoxville, TN

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

85

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production. The products were detected in both the pellet andproduction, 1 mL of culture was centrifuged, 30 s, 20,000 x g and the supernatant was separated from the pellet.

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid oxidation products Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of oxidized, S-rich mafic magmas for giant Cu mineralization: Evidence from Pinatubo, Bingham Canyon and El Teniente Summary: eruption products show that mafic magma was...

88

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid products adsorbed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biodiesel@uidaho.edu 208-885-7626 Using Adsorbents to Lower... part of the biodiesel production process. Lower- cost feedstocks, such as animal fat or used...

89

Photochemistry of Matrix-Isolated and Thin Film Acid Chlorides: Quantum Yields and Product Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the differences between gas- and condensed-phase photochemistry strengthens our understanding of many, and well-known gas-phase reaction mechanisms are often modified in the condensed phase or completely the photoreaction of condensed acid chloride samples by comparison of reaction quantum yields for acetyl (CH3COCl

Ellison, Barney

90

Analysis of acidity production during enhanced reductive dechlorination using a simplified reactive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: crobinson@eng.uwo.ca, jgerhard@eng.uwo.ca Accepted for Publication in Advances in Water Resources 7 April acidification in a contaminated site were examined, and the extent to which the remediation efficiency and subsequent microbial inhibition. The accumulation of organic acids produced from the fermentation

91

Engineering of thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans for production of D(-)-lactic acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Genetically modified microorganisms having the ability to produce D(-)-lactic acid at temperatures between 30.degree. C. and 55.degree. C. are provided. In various embodiments, the microorganisms may have the chromosomal lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene and/or the chromosomal acetolactate synthase (alsS) gene inactivated. Exemplary microorganisms for use in the disclosed methods are Bacillus spp., such as Bacillus coagulans.

Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

92

Lactic acid production in exercising horses fed N,N-dimethylglycine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly [P&. 05) lower than period 1 at 20 minutes of exercise and at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 60 minutes of recovery. At 30 minutes of exercise period 2 was lower (P&. 06) showing a 32$ decrease from period 1 to period 2. Period 3 mean lactic acid levels... minutes of exercise, and at 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes of recovery. Heart rates were obtained for the entire 90 minutes of the SET using an electronic digital heart rate monitor attached to the horse. The electrodes were placed on the anterior...

Moffitt, Patricia Ghagan

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Effect of Water Transport on the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be developed that provides efficient production of clean hydrogen. The methods existing today for large-scale produc- tion of hydrogen typically involve hydrocarbon reforming of natural gas or coal gasification% , the overall efficiency is 40%.7 Two issues remain, however, that make the future of this technology un

Weidner, John W.

94

ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

95

Production of hydrobromic acid from bromine, methane and steam for hydrogen production. 1997 annual report, December 15, 1996--January 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar-driven reaction between bromine and steam was studied. The goal was to make hydrobromic acid for hydrogen production and energy storage use via a reversible, high efficiency hydrogen/bromine fuel cell. While the reaction was technically successful and was demonstrated at NREL, it was determined to be uneconomical in today`s economy due to present high capital costs of the solar hardware. In an effort to provide for an interim process that can be utilized to produce hydrogen and store energy until the cost of solar hardware decreases, SRT`s process was modified to include the addition of methane. The new concept entails (i) reaction of bromine with methane and steam to produce hydrogen bromide and carbon dioxide and (ii) electrolysis of the stored hydrogen bromide for production of H{sub 2(g)} and recovery of Br{sub 2(1)}. Electrolyzers are available today for the electrolysis of HBr. In addition, a vendor for a reversible H{sub 2}-Br{sub 2} fuel has been identified. Most components of the envisioned system are commercially available. At present, the reactor needs the most development. In the SRT process, the electrical power required to split water is reduced effectively in half by the production of hydrogen bromide. The SRT concept is very attractive from an economic viewpoint as well. A reversible electrolytic fuel cell employed in the SRT process is capitalized via its use in load leveling by the utility. Thus, the price of SRT-produced hydrogen reflects only the cost of methane, reactor system capital costs and off-peak electrical power.

NONE

1998-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).

Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.

2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

THE USE OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1994 a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of using CCBs for the in situ treatment of acidic mine water. Actual injection of alkaline material was performed in 1997 with initial positive results; however, the amount of alkalinity added to the system was limited and resulted in short duration treatment. In 1999, a CBRC grant was awarded to further investigate the effectiveness of alkaline injection technology (AIT). Funds were released in fall 2001. In December 2001, 2500 tons of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash were injected into the wells used in the 1997 injection project. Post injection monitoring continued for 24 months. During this period the mine chemistry had gone through a series of chemical changes that manifested as stages or ''treatment phases.'' The mine system appeared to be in the midst of reestablishing equilibrium with the partial pressure of mine headspace. Alkalinity and pH appeared to be gradually increasing during this transition. As of December 2003, the pH and alkalinity were roughly 7.3 and 65 ppm, respectively. Metal concentrations were significantly lower than pre-injection levels, but iron and manganese concentrations appeared to be gradually increasing (roughly 30 ppm and 1.25 ppm, respectively). Aluminum, nickel, and zinc were less than pre-injection concentrations and did not appear to be increasing (roughly

Geoffrey A. Canty; Jess W. Everett

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

98

Influence de l'quilibre en acides amins de trois protines infuses dans l'intestin grle, sur la production laitire de la vache  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Gilles, 35590L'Hermitage, France. Summary. The affect of postruminal infusion of urea, gelatin, isolated soy increased with the amount of essential amino acids infused. Chez des vaches laitières d'un bon niveau de production, la sécrétion des protéines du lait est accrue par l'infusion post-ruminale de caséinates (Clark

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate/n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In liquid–liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness, and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores the feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to high-dose external ?-irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus, demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

Tatiana G. Levitskaia; James M. Peterson; Emily L. Campbell; Amanda J. Casella; Dean R. Peterman; Samuel A. Bryan

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate /n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In liquid-liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to the high dose external gamma irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Campbell, Emily L.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterman, Dean; Bryan, Samuel A.

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

102

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

104

Capillary electrophoretic study of dibasic acids of different structures: Relation to separation of oxidative intermediates in remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dicarboxylic acids are important in environmental chemistry because they are intermediates in oxidative processes involved in natural remediation and waste management processes such as oxidative detoxification and advanced oxidation. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), a promising technique for separating and analyzing these intermediates, has been used to examine a series of dibasic acids of different structures and conformations. This series includes malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, phthalic acid, and trans, trans-muconic acid. The CE parameters as well as structural variations (molecular structure and molecular isomers, buffer composition, pH, applied voltage, injection mode, current, temperature, and detection wavelength) that affect the separations and analytical results have been examined in this study. Those factors that affect the separation have been delineated. Among these parameters, the pH has been found to be the most important, which affects the double-layer of the capillary wall, the electro-osmotic flow and analyte mobility. The optimum pH for separating these dibasic acids, as well as the other parameters are discussed in detail and related to the development of methods for analyzing oxidation intermediates in oxidative waste management procedures.

Yu, Z.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-acid reductoisomerase Biofuels a b s t r a c t 2-methylpropan-1-ol (isobutanol) is a leading candidate biofuel a critical obstacle to next- generation biofuel commercialization. & 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Recent advances in biotechnology have made it possible to convert sugars into a wide

Snow, Christopher

106

Amino acid modified Ni catalyst exhibits reversible H2 oxidation/production over a broad pH range at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenases interconvert H2 and protons at high rates and with high energy efficiencies, providing inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. Studies designed to determine how the protein scaffold can influence a catalytically active site has led to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives, [Ni(PCy2NAmino acid2)2]2+ (CyAA), of [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes. It is shown that these CyAA derivatives can catalyze fully reversible H2 production/oxidation, a feature reminiscent of enzymes. The reversibility is achieved in acidic aqueous solutions, 0.25% H2/Ar, and elevated temperatures (tested up to 348 K) for the glycine (CyGly), arginine (CyArg), and arginine methyl ester (CyArgOMe) derivatives. As expected for a reversible process, the activity is dependent upon H2 and proton concentration. CyArg is significantly faster in both directions than the other two derivatives (~300 s-1 H2 production and 20 s-1 H2 oxidation; pH=1, 348 K). The significantly slower rates for CyArgOMe (35 s-1 production and 7 s-1 oxidation) compared to CyArg suggests an important role for the COOH group during catalysis. That CyArg is faster than CyGly (3 s-1 production and 4 s-1 oxidation under the same conditions) suggests that the additional structural features imparted by the guanidinium groups facilitate fast and reversible H2 addition/release. These observations demonstrate that appended, outer coordination sphere amino acids work in synergy with the active site and can play an equally important role for synthetic molecular electrocatalysts as the protein scaffold does for redox active enzymes. This work was funded by the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US DOE, BES (AD, WJS), and the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, BES (DLD, JASR). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

Dutta, Arnab; DuBois, Daniel L.; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

107

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production of citric acid by fermentation, recovery of theof Citric Acid from Aqueous Fermentation Solutions byof citric acid was 1.1.1 Lactic Acid Currently, fermentation

Poole, L.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Process for the production of aqueous hydrochloric acid having a concentration of at least 35. 5% by weight  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for continuously producing aqueous hydrochloric acid having a concentration of at least 3.5% by weight comprising: continuously introducing water to the top of an absorption unit, continuously introducing a gas stream containing anhydrous hydrogen chloride to the bottom of said absorption unit, removing an overhead gaseous stream from said unit, said gaseous stream containing no more than 3% by weight, and preferably no more than 1% by weight hydrogen chloride, and removing a bottom liquid stream from said unit, said bottom stream containing at least 35.5% by weight hydrogen chloride, and returning a portion of said bottom stream to said unit.

Parigi, J.V.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

109

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

None

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

111

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Digestibility of amino acids and energy in three soybean products measured at the end of the small intestine and over the entire track of growing-finishing swine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and feces by the method of Kimura and Miller (1957) and lanthanides by the method of Conner (1977). Amino acids were measured by ion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis using a modified Beckman 120C amino acid auto- analyzer (Spackman st al...

Rudolph, Bryan Charles

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

[Ni(PPh2NBn2)2(CH3CN)]2+ as an Electrocatalyst for H2 Production: Dependence on Acid Strength and Isomer Distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

[Ni(PPh2NBz2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2, Ni(PPh2NBz2)22+ (where PPh2NBz2 is 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) has been studied as an electrocatalyst for the production of hydrogen in acetonitrile. Using strong acids, such as p cyanoanilinium, Ni(PPh2NBz2)22+ has been shown to be protonated under catalytic conditions prior to reduction, with an effective pKa of 6.7±0.4. Through multinuclear NMR spectroscopy studies, the nickel(II) complex was found to be doubly protonated without any observed singly protonated species. In the doubly protonated complex, both protons are positioned exo with respect to the metal center and are stabilized by an N-H-N hydrogen bond. The formation of exo protonated isomers is proposed to limit the rate of hydrogen production because the protons are unable to gain suitable proximity to the reduced metal center to generate dihydrogen. Pre-protonation of Ni(PPh2NBz2)22+ has been found to shift the catalytic operating potential to more positive potentials by up to 440 mV, depending upon the conditions. The catalytic rate was found to increase by an order of magnitude by increasing the solution pH or through the addition of water. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Appel, Aaron M.; Pool, Douglas H.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Yang, Jenny Y.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

118

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

friendly since catalyst and surfactant are recycled and pure adipic acid is produced in high yield (70 of carpet fibers, upholstery, tire reinforcements, auto parts, and many other products (Castellan et al materials like nitrous oxide (N2O) in large amounts (0.3 metric ton emitted per metric ton of ADA produced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

Products and Mechanisms of the Reaction of Oleic Acid with Ozone and Nitrate Radical Hui-Ming Hung, Yasmine Katrib, and Scot T. Martin*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the addition of ozone to the double bond of oleic acid, which yields a primary ozonide (molozonide).21 The high-energy chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) are used, and -NO2 are observed in the infrared spectra, and high molecular weight molecules are formed

120

Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentationand fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic and other acids.

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A new membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was fabricated and installed in the single cell electrolyzer (60 cm{sup 2} active cell area). Shakedown testing was conducted, and several modifications were made to the test facility equipment. Seven different MEAs were used during testing. Beginning on May 20, 2013, SRNL was able to test the SDE continuously for 1200 hours, including 1000 hours under power to generate hydrogen at an average rate of 10.8 liters per hour. The SDE was not removed or repaired during the 50-day test and was successfully restarted after each shutdown. The test was intentionally stopped after 1200 hours (1000 hours of hydrogen production) due to funding constraints. Post-test examination of the MEA using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDAX) showed no elemental sulfur deposits or sulfur layer inside the cell, thus successfully achieving the test goals. The results demonstrated that the SDE could be operated for extended periods without major performance degradation or the buildup of sulfur inside the MEA. Air Products conducted an assessment of the economic viability of the SDE based on the “as tested” design. The results indicated that the SDE faces significant economic obstacles in its current state. Further development and scale-up are necessary before the SDE is ready for commercialization.

Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L.; Zahn, Steffen

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

123

Bridging the Gap: Studying Sequence to Product Correlation among Fungal Polyketide Synthases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Citric and gluconic acid production from fig by Aspergillus niger using solid-state fermentation."industrial fermentation for the production of citric acid,

Zabala, Angelica Obusan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - acrylic acid synthesized Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

peracetic acid in an overnight... % trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution in methylene chloride, allowing for high conversion to the final vinyl product Source: Harth, Eva M. -...

126

Jellylike atmospheric particles resist chemical aging Findings will affect scientific models of cloud formation and light absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sulfuric acid, helping prevent acid rain, but its nitrogen component can also fertilize open bodies of pinene SOM and adipic acid, have shown that a drop in humidity can send these common aerosols, pinene and adipic acid, are common in the Earth's atmosphere; pinene is essentially a scent released

127

An Improved Model for Sandstone Acidizing and Study of the Effect of Mineralogy and Temperature on Sandstone Acidizing Treatments and Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sandstone acidizing is a complex operation because the acidizing fluid reacts with a variety of minerals present in the formation that results in a wide range of reaction products. The hydrofluoric acid (HF) reaction rate differs widely from mineral...

Agarwal, Amit Kumar

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

[Ni(PPh2NC6H4X2)2]2+ Complexes as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production: Effect of Substituents, Acids, and Water on Catalytic Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of mononuclear nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) complexes [Ni(PPh2NPhX2)2](BF4)2 (PPh2NPhX2 = 1,5-di(para¬-X-phenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; X = OMe, Me, CH2P(O)(OEt)2, Br, and CF3) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that [Ni(PPh2NPhMe2)2](BF4)2 and [Ni(PPh2NPhOMe2)2](BF4)2 are tetracoordinate with distorted square planar geometries. The Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) redox couples of each complex are electrochemically reversible in acetonitrile (0.2 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate) with potentials that are increasingly cathodic as the electron-donating character of X is increased. All of these complexes are efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen production, with rates generally increasing as the electron-donating character of X is decreased. Catalytic studies using 2,6-dichloroanilinium triflate (2,6-Cl2AnH+OTf , pKaMeCN = 5.0) 4-cyanoanilinium tetrafluoroborate (4-CNAnH+OTf , pKaMeCN = 7.0) and protonated dimethylformamide ([(DMF)H]+OTf , pKaMeCN = 6.1) reveal that turnover frequencies do not correlate with substrate acid pKa values, but are highly dependent on the acid structure, with this effect being related to substrate size. Addition of water is shown to dramatically increase catalytic rates for all catalysts. With [Ni(PPh2NPhCH2P(O)(OEt)22)2](BF4)2 using [(DMF)H]+OTf as acid and with added water, a turnover frequency of 1850 s-1 was obtained. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Kilgore, Uriah J.; Roberts, John A.; Pool, Douglas H.; Appel, Aaron M.; Stewart, Michael P.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development and testing of an advanced acid fracture conductivity apparatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wells. Acid fracturing is a standard practice to increase the production rate and to improve ultimate recovery in carbonate reservoirs. There have been successful cases in most carbonate reservoirs around the world. However acid fracture performance...

Zou, ChunLei

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

130

The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore pressure and fracture...

Keys, Ryan S.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

131

ALKALI – CATALYSED PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FUEL FROM NIGERIAN CITRUS SEEDS OIL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biodiesel production was investigated. Fatty acid alkyl esters were produced from orange seed oil, grape

unknown authors

132

Reaction of Calcite and Dolomite with In-Situ Gelled Acids, Organic Acids, and Environmentally Friendly Chelating Agent (GLDA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Well stimulation is the treatment remedy when oil/gas productivity decreases to unacceptable economical limits. Well stimulation can be carried out through either "Matrix Acidizing" or fracturing with both "Hydraulic Fracturing" and "Acid Fracturing...

Rabie, Ahmed 1978-

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

Ruyan, M.K.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

amino acid limitation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of energy requirements for milk production. The protein deficiency was alleviated by infusion Bequette, Brian J. 3 Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino...

136

acidic soil isolates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soil pH indicates its alkalinity or acidity. This property influences soil chemistry and crop production. A low maintenance ROSS Ultra Triodeguarantees accurate measurement of...

137

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

offering a continuous algal production-secretion system thatalgal lipids [124]. As such, there are many research groups interested in engineering fatty acid production and secretion

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid tar sludges Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of diethylphosphorodithioic acid in the production of phorate. K040 Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of phorate... of facilities within the iron and steel...

139

Production of levulinic acid in urban biorefineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy security of the United States depends, most experts agree, on the development of substitute sources of energy for the transportation sector, which accounts for over 93% of the nation's petroleum consumption. ...

Sheldon-Coulson, Garth Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic andand acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentation

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

147

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to NFDC to promote acceptance of this technology by the fertilizer production industry. The PCR uses the heat of reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid to replace fossil fuel heat used...

Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio#  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of high acidity are observed in production of petroleum reserves. Naphthenic acids, which are generally experimental results on naphthenic acid/ naphthenate stabilized emulsions utilizing several model compounds

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

150

Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

Cook, Ronald Lee (Lakewood, CO); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Golden, CO); Myers, Andrew William (Arvada, CO); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Boulder, CO); Elliott, Brian John (Superior, CO); Kreutzer, Cory (Brighton, CO); Wilson, Carolina (Arvada, CO); Meiser, Manfred (Aurora, CO)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

151

Some Suggested Pest Control Products Appropriate for an IPM Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some Suggested Pest Control Products Appropriate for an IPM Program I P M (professional use products) Cockroaches Product Formulation Active Ingredient Maxforce bait stations Hydramethylnon Station (IGR) Hydroprene Dusts Silica aerogel or boric acid Compressed air flushing agent air Carpenter

Virginia Tech

152

Inhibition of Biohydrogen Production by Undissociated Acetic and Butyric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of Biohydrogen Production by Undissociated Acetic and Butyric Acids S T E V E N V A N G Sackett Building, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 Glucose fermentation to hydrogen results in the production of acetic and butyric acids. The inhibitory effect of these acids

153

Abstract A novel succinic acid-producing bacterium was isolated from bovine rumen. The bacterium is a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

succinic acid, acetic acid and formic acid at a constant ratio of 2:1:1. When M. succiniciproducens MBEL55E of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also as one of the fermentation products of anaerobic metabo- lism (Gottschalk 1986; Zeikus 1980). Fermentative pro- duction of succinic acid from renewable biomass has re

154

Production of levulinic acid, furfural, and gamma valerolactone from C.sub.5 and C.sub.6 carbohydrates in mono- and biphasic systems using gamma-valerolactone as a solvent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to make levulinic acid (LA), furfural, or gamma-valerolactone (GVL). React cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates) or xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates) or combinations thereof in a monophasic reaction medium comprising GVL and an acid; or (ii) a biphasic reaction system comprising an organic layer comprising GVL, and a substantially immiscible aqueous layer. At least a portion of the cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates), if present, is converted to LA and at least a portion of the xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates), if present, is converted into furfural.

Dumesic, James A.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif I.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

155

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

156

The Metabolism of Aluminum Citrate and Biosynthesis of Oxalic Acid in Pseudomonas fluorescens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bioavailability of aluminum triggered by in- dustrialization and acid rain [20]. The presence of organic acidsThe Metabolism of Aluminum Citrate and Biosynthesis of Oxalic Acid in Pseudomonas fluorescens Vasu-citrate) was metabolized intracellularly and that oxalic acid was an important product in the Al-stressed cells

Appanna, Vasu

157

acid reduce post-coronary: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

has been effective in removing the ammonia and the resulting product can be used for fertilizer. However, sulfuric acid costs moreTitle: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce...

158

In vivo unnatural amino acid expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided.

Young, Travis [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

159

A Comparative Study of Dolomite Dissolution in Simple Organic Acids and Chelating Agents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acid treatments have predominantly been conducted using HCl for its availability, high rock dissolving power and soluble reaction products. At high temperatures, rapid spending of the acid with carbonates prevents deeper penetration distance...

Adenuga, Olusegun O

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

160

Three-dimensional Modeling of Acid Transport and Etching in a Fracture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acid fracture stimulation generates higher well production but requires engineering design for treatment optimization. To quantify the cost and benefit of a particular acid fracture treatment an engineer must predict the resulting fracture...

Oeth, Cassandra V

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of Bioreactor Mode of Operation on Mixed-Acid Fermentations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facultative anaerobic community existing in a biofilm. Compared to countercurrent trains, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivity and acid distribution, but lower yield, conversion, productivity, and acid concentration. One- to six...

Golub, Kristina

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

Docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate synergistically modulate intracellular calcium compartmentalization to induce colonocyte apoptosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) from fish oil, and butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid fiber-fermentation product, protect against colon tumorigenesis in part by coordinately inducing apoptosis. We have demonstrated that the combination...

Kolar, Satya Sree N.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

164

Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

165

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

escalating In price due to the Imbalance In market demand. Chlorine and caustic are produced together by the electrolysis 01 sodium chloride brine solutions. Every ECU (electrochemical unit) 01 chlorine resu~s In the production 01 one ECU 01 caustic soda... cell also produces an acid product that is contaminated with unreacted sullate. The voltage 01 a three compartment is higher, however, and the process system Is more complex. Process System Current density and efficiency determines the amount 01...

Niksa, M. J.

168

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

169

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

170

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

171

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

172

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE ACIDS CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for ACIDS CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS Location(s): ___________________________________________________ Chemical(s): Hypophosphorous acid, methylphosphonic acid, phosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, phosphorous

Pawlowski, Wojtek

177

Design, set up, and testing of a matrix acidizing apparatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Well stimulation techniques are applied on a regular basis to enhance productivity and maximize recovery in oil and gas wells. Among these techniques, matrix acidizing is probably the most widely performed job because of its relative low cost...

Nevito Gomez, Javier

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

179

Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - adenosine triphosphoric acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

34559. 7... a series of breakdown products to, ultimately, uric acid. The degradation of ATP and adenosine is extremely... receptors for extracellular ... Source: Burnstock,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o Summary: production of antioxidants. In plants, antioxidants a-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid...

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic oligotrophic fen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

beyond the nutrient-productivity paradigm. For example, acid precipitation, heavy metal and toxic... of their trophic status. Lakes with low nutrients and low organic...

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetylsalicylic acid supplementation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 84 Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants -Conception of a database and first results Summary: acid (detected...

184

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic wastes synthesis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

food waste: Current status, problems and an alternative product Summary: alternative to biogas generation. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced from food waste in a...

185

Evaluation of Acid Fracturing Using the Method of Distributed Volumetric Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid volume versus cumulative production with optimum fracture half length............................................................................................40 4.1 For Well SA-2, IPR and VLP curves shows production rates... at the beginning of production....................................................................................47 4.2 For Well SA-2, IPR & VLP curves shows production rates at the end of production history; the absolute open flow (AOF) of IPR is much less...

Lee, Jaehun

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

186

Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

187

Preparation and recovery of methacrylic acid and its esters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the vapor phase catalytic oxydehydrogenation of isobutyric acid or its esters to form methacrylic acid or its esters wherein the gaseous product is condensed and purified. The improvement described here consists of adding to the gaseous product at or about the point of its condensation from 1 to 6000 ppm of a surfactant material selected from the group consisting of an anionic a cationic and non-ionic surfactant.

Frank, P.J.; Hite, J.R.

1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

189

Well Productivity Enhancement of High Temperature Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acidizing is one of the most popular techniques for well productivity enhancement during oil and gas production. However, the treatment method is not very effective when the wellbore penetrates through multiple layers of heterogeneous reservoirs...

Wang, Guanqun

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

190

Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

191

Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

192

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

EMSL - Nuclei acid structure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet...

194

Nuclei acid structure | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet...

195

Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/mol (50­99% of the theoretical maxi- mum) at applied voltages of 0.2 to 0.8 V using acetic acid, a typical dead-end product of glucose or cellulose fermentation. At an applied voltage of 0.6 V, the overall of combustion of acetic acid was included in the energy balance, at a gas production rate of 1.1 m3 of H2 per

197

Non-phosphate degradation products of tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tributyl phosphate(TBP) was compulsively degraded with nitric acid and/or uranium nitrate at elevated temperature around 105{degrees}C. Experimental results indicates major non-phosphate degradation products are butyl nitrate (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NO{sub 3}), propionic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}COOH), acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH), butyric acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COOH) and butyl alcohol (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH) in ascending order of quantity. Degrading rate in uranium free system is less than that in uranium coexisting system. Carboxylic acids were not produced in uranium free system, and only acetic acid was identified in case of without supplying nitric acid from aqueous phase. Moreover, from the experimental study on the reactivity of each non-phosphate product with nitric acid, carboxylic acids were identified as byproducts of butyl alcohol and butyl nitrate, and each carboxylic acid was stable in these degrading conditions. Finally, butyl alcohol is considered as one of intermediate products to butyl nitrate and carboxylic acids. From this study, the non-phosphate degradation products of TBP is identified and the degrading reaction pass is proposed. Extraction behavior of each non-phosphate product and reactivity of degraded TBP are also elucidated.

Tashiro, Y.; Kodama, R.; Sugai, H. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

199

Naphthenic acids as antiwear additives for jet fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the ways in which the antiwear properties of jet fuels can be improved is the use of lubricity agents, otherwise known as antiwear additives. Among the various compounds that have antiwear properties in these fuels, naphthenic, acids merit special attention. These are alicyclic carboxylic acids, in most cases monobasic, with five- and six-membered carbon rings; they have the general formula R(CH{sub 2}){sub n}COOH, where R is a naphthene radical. Natural naphthenic acids consist mainly of acids of the cyclopentane series, beginning with the simplest, in particular cyclopentylacetic acid. The lower naphthenic acids are monocyclic; the higher acids, beginning with C{sub 13}, are bicyclic and polycyclic. Naphthenic acids of the cyclohexane series are encountered less frequently; they may be found, for example, in Baku, California, and Sakhalin crudes. The most widely used method for obtaining naphthenic acids is the treatment of light distillates, lube distillates, and diesel fuels. The standard GOST 13302-77 establishes several grades of naphthenic acids, depending on the raw material and the production technology. This work was aimed at the utilization of wastes containing naphthenic acids, with subsequent use as jet fuel additives.

Deineko, P.S.; Vasil`eva, E.N.; Popova, O.V.; Bashkatova, S.T.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Controlling acid rain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ECOS Inquiries Series -University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 ECOS Inquiries Series - University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of Soil Microbes OF ACID RAIN ON THE ABILITY OF SOIL MICROBES TO DECOMPOSE ORGANIC NITROGEN 3. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: a ecosystems. One well known example of this is the production of acid rain due to certain air pollutants

Brewer, Carol

202

QUALIT DES ENSILAGES DE MAS GRAIN HUMIDE PRSERVS PAR L'ACIDE PROPIONIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product) and acetic (0,1-0,3 per cent) acids are produced by carbohydrate fermentation. The silage p maďs grain humide, la fermentation des glucides entraîne une pro- duction notable d'acides lactique (0 degradative change is practically inhi- bited after 3 to 8 months : in our assays, lactic and acetic acids

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

Firmness and cell wall characteristics of pasteurized jalapeno pepper rings affected by acetic acid, calcium chloride and preheating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pasteurization and storage, especially when high acid brines are used. Development of treatments to retard softening may result in a higher quality product. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of calcium chloride (CaCI2), acetic acid...

Burma, Prashanthi V

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

204

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids syn-anti-1-amino-3-2-iodoethenyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(entry 1... production of unnatural -substituted R-amino acids using R-phthalylglycyl chloride (77% yield, 98:2 syn... Development of a New Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Claisen...

205

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a wood pulp processing system of the type producing both pulp and a stream of lactic acid-containing black liquor solution, the processor for production of peracid bleaching agents from hydroxy acid contained in the black liquor solution, comprising: adjusting the pH of the black liquor solution to the range of about 8-9 by exposing the solution to CO/sub 2/ carbon dioxide to form an alkaline precipitate; separating solids from the black liquor solution to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, xyloisosaccharinic acid, and glucoisosaccharinic acid; decarboxylating the lower aliphatic hydroxy acids to corresponding gaseous aliphatic aldehydes by admixing a powdered semiconductor with the residual solution to form a slurry; removing the gaseous aldehydes from the residual solution by sweeping gas flow as soon as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids; reacting the gaseous aldehydes with oxygen to form corresponding peracids; and applying the peracids as bleaching agents to the pulp produced in the pulp processing system.

Chum, H.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Palasz, P.D.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contacting method (all nutrients fed to F1), the near- optimal feeding strategies improved exit yield, culture yield, process yield, exit acetate- equivalent yield, conversion, and total acid productivity by approximately 31%, 39%, 46%, 31%, 100%, and 19... NOMENCLATURE A mass of carboxylic acid, g [A] total carboxylic acid concentration, g/Lliq. aceq acetic acid equivalents concentration, g/Lliq. ATP adenosine triphosphate Bi Fermentor i bottle plus centrifuge cake, g C conversion, g NAVS consumed/g NAVS...

Smith, Aaron Douglas

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

207

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

209

Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008... Major Subject: Animal Science FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Turk, Stacey N.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

210

The utilization of tricarboxylic acid cycle acids and the uptake of succinic acid by Neurospora crassa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UTILIZATION OF TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE ACIDS AND THE UPTAKE OF SUCCINIC ACID BY NEUROSPORA CRASSA A Thesis by PATTI LYNN GILLILAND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Ma) or Subject: Microbiology THE UTILIZATION OF TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE ACIDS AND THE UPTAKE OF SUCCINIC ACID BY NEUROSPORA CRASSA A Thesis by PATTI LYNN GILLILAND Approved as to style and content by...

Gilliland, Patti Lynn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

211

Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid (HF characterized by weight loss, brittle bones, anemia, and general ill health. Safe use If possible, avoid working to exposures. #12;Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Programs Office

Wilcock, William

212

Nonphosphate Degradation Products of Tributyl Phosphate and Their Reactivities in Purex Media Under Extreme Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical degradation of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in liquid systems, where TBP was in contact with aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and/or uranyl nitrate, was studied experimentally to clarify the mechanisms of the formation and successive reactions of nonphosphate products under atmospheric pressure. Butyl nitrate, propionic acid, acetic acid, butric acid, and butyl alcohol were formed as the nonphosphate butyl products derived from the butyl-groups of TBP in an open system. The total amount of these products almost equals the amount of the major intermediate phosphate products reduced, i.e., di- and monobutyl phosphates and phosphoric acid. Butyl alcohol was found to be the precursor of the other nonphosphate products.Even when the extremely degraded solvent was further contacted with 10 M nitric acid at 90 deg. C, no significant heat evolution was observed at atmospheric pressure. Only butyl alcohol changed into carboxylic acids by exothermic oxidative reactions.

Tashiro, Yoshikazu [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Kodama, Ryuji [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Sugai, Hiroshi [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Suzuki, Katsuhiko [Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (Japan); Matsuoka, Shingo [Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (Japan)

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Product Demonstrations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Consortium will pursue a number of demonstrations following the general procedure used by DOE's GATEWAY demonstration program. Specific products to be featured in a demonstration may be...

215

Effects of humic acid on forage digestibility in ruminants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Minson, 1988; Okine- Mathison, 1991; Luginbuhl et al. , 1994). The clearance of these residues through the reticulo-omasal orifice is generally considered dependent upon physical reduction in particle size by mastication and rumination. However, Lllyatt et... by increasing microbial enzymatic activity, and (2) boosting intake by increasing particle breakdown and passage rate from the reticulo-rumen. Humic Acid Humic acid is the amorphic end product of microbial degradation of organic matter. Humic substances...

Faulkenbery, James Marcus

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

217

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

218

Method for the continuous production of hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

Getty, John Paul (Knoxville, TN); Orr, Mark T. (Kingsport, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

Yang, Fei

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

acid docosahexaenoic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 38 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

222

acid aspartic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 20 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

223

acid caffeic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 11 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

224

acid succinic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

simulated the laser heating of the succinic acid (this data is still simulation is that infrared heating generates about 10-15 more succinic acid molecules bound to the analyte...

225

acid benzoic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 24 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

226

acid propanoic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 9 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

227

acid oleic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 31 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

228

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

229

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

Sasongko, Hari

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

230

Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

232

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

233

Production Of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids In Genetically Modified Plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An annular wire harness for use in drill pipe comprising two rings interconnected by one or more insulated conductors. The rings are positioned within annular grooves located within the tool joints and the conductors are fixed within grooves along the bore wall of the pipe. The rings may be recessed within annular grooves in order to permit refacing of the tool joint. The rings are provided with means for coupling a power and data signal from an adjacent pipe to the conductors in such a fashion that the signal may be transmitted along the drill pipe and along an entire drill string.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

234

Novel Biosynthetic Pathway for Production of Fatty Acid Derived Molecules -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNationalNewportBig Eddyof H-2 andNot519hep-ph/0511180-Energy

235

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageEmerging FuelsRelated4Roguebuttons

236

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

237

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

238

Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Investigating acid rain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A report is given of an address by Kathleen Bennett, Assistant Administrator of Air, Noise and Radiation, Environmental Protection Agency which was presented to the US Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works. Bennet explained that in view of the many unknowns about acid rain, and the possible substantial cost burden of additional controls, EPA is proceeding with its program to investigate this environmental malady over a 10-year period. The three major areas of the research program are (1) transport, transformation, and deposition processes, (2) effects of acid deposition, and (3) assessments and policy studies. Other issues discussed were global transboundary air pollution and Senate amendments addressing long-range transport. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nucleic acid isolation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Engineering metabolic systems for production of advanced fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

keto acid pathways for bio- fuel production. The productionmaking bio- gasoline, bio-jet fuel, and biodiesel, as welldevelopment of bio-ethanol as an alternative fuel have led

Yan, Yajun; Liao, James C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

246

Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

247

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

Stephens, Frances Helen (Santa Fe, NM); Baker, Ralph Thomas (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Communication no. 14 Fatty acid metabolism in liver slices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in perchloric acid soluble products, ASP), and of oleate secretion as part of lipids in VLDL particles (purified by the hepatocytes in both species. After 7 h of labelling, rats secreted 7.22 ± 2.35 nmol of oleate into the lipids calves receive a milk replacer rich in lipids which are largely utilised as energy substrates for growth

Boyer, Edmond

249

Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

250

Acid-Catalyzed Dehydrogenation of Amine-Boranes  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate hydrogen for power generation sources such as fuel cells....

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid lack sustained Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

me to "Sustainability", guiding me at every step and helping me... on the hard hat and boots and move around the Mosaic facility for acids and fertilizers production complex. I...

252

The Influence of Equilibrium Reactions on the Kinetics of Calcite Dissolution in Lactic Acid Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid and calcite will allow for optimized treatment design. The kinetic model was also used to isolate the contributions of the transport of reactants, the surface reaction, and the transport of products to the overall resistance of the reaction...

Shedd, Daniel C

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormal fatty acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2C involved... that include Ca2+ uxes, the production of free fatty acids from membrane lipids, as well as the activation... of the MAPK pathway by wound-induced Ca2+ and fatty...

254

Tracer Fluid Flow through Porous Media: Theory Applied to Acid Stimulation Treatments in Carbonate Rocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most carbonate rocks are heterogeneous at multiple length scales. These heterogeneities strongly influence the outcome of the acid stimulation treatments which are routinely performed to improve well productivity. At the pore scale, carbonate rocks...

Zakaria Mohamed Reda, Ahmed

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

255

Evaluation of various sulphur amino acid compounds in the diet of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement of diet formulations to enhance the efficiency of red drum production continues to be pursued. Based on previous studies, the sulfur amino acid (SAA) requirement of red drum for methionine plus cystine appears to be most limiting, which...

Goff, Jonathan B

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the fermentation conversion. In this case, fermentation broth contains ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, propionate, butyrate, pentanoate). Therefore, the downstream processing steps (including extraction, purification, esterification, and product... separation) must be compatible with the ammonium carboxylate salts formed in the fermentation. This research focuses on converting fermentation broth carboxylate salts into their corresponding acids via “acid springing.” Reactive extraction and thermal...

Xu, Xin

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

257

Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of commercially important materials like vinyl acetate monomer (VAM), cellulose acetate, and acetate esters. MoreAcetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts Yafang Fan Ă? that makes use of the latest advance in methyl chloride production is reported. Acetic acid was produced from

Bao, Xinhe

258

Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation indicator for quantifying wet scavenging. Specifically, nitric acid (HNO3), produced as a by-product of combustion, is highly soluble and removed efficiently from clouds by rain. Regional carbon monoxide (CO

Palmer, Paul

259

Modeling of Water-rock interaction in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sulfuric and carbonic acids E. Beaulieu, Y. Godd´eris, D. Labat, C. Roelandt, D. Calmels, J. Gail- lardet of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids. E. Beaulieu1 , Y. Goddéris1 , D. Labat1

260

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Biphasic kinetics of growth and bacteriocin production with Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as organic acids (lactate, acetate), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins (De Vuyst & Vandamme, 1994. For example, during sausage fermentations, bacteria are stressed by the lactic acid produced by the starter the production of lactic and acetic acid. During food processing, microbial survival depends on sensing

Gent, Universiteit

262

acid acetic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of asphaltene deposition that occurs during acid treatments of oil reservoirs. Asphaltenes are present to some degree in most hydrocarbons. Due to the molecular weight of the...

263

Formic Acid Mechanical,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). What's Food and Bioprocess Engineering (FBE)? It's the application of engineering principles to biological materials to make useful products. FBE is a specialization within the Agricultural Engineering. An FBE will understand the biological material and bioprocessing used to make ethanol. By 2008, we

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

264

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

265

RMOTC - Production  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome to theNewsCenter forQuality AssuranceProduction RMOTC

266

Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Nulljob product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on the authors' Central VAX Cluster led them to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

NULLJOB product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on our Central VAX Cluster led us to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

An integrated computational and experimental study for overproducing fatty acids in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the catalytic production of industrial chemicals and diesel- like biofuels. However, bio-production of fatty., 2010) as gasoline bio-alternatives and fatty acids as promising intermediates for diesel bio, such as bio- ethanol (Fortman et al., 2008) produced from corn has relatively low energy density and water

Maranas, Costas

273

Some characteristics of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in the liver of the neonatal pig : preliminary results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

body uti- lization but to a low rate of hepatic ketone body production (PĂ©gorier et al., 1983). The low rate of ketone body production also results from a limited capacity for fatty acid oxidation associated to Mersmann et al. (1972). The mitochondrial pellet was suspended in sucrose-Tris buffer to give

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A. (San Carlos, CA); Kim, Steve (San Francisco, CA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

275

Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Distribution of 1-butanol between organic solvent and acidic solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1-butanol, a major TBP-degraded product, is known to react explosively with concentrated nitric acid under non-heated conditions. However, no quantitative data is available on the distribution behavior in the Purex solution. The distribution of 1-butanol between tributyl phosphate(TBP) diluted with n-dodecane and aqueous solution of nitric acid and uranyl nitrate was investigated under various conditions, by changing the concentration of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, the composition of the organic mixture, the organic to aqueous phase volume ratio, and temperature. 1-butanol was found to distribute more in solvent phase, but the distribution ratio is not large, less than four under typical Purex solution conditions. The ratio was found to be correlated with the molar concentration of free TBP and 1-butanol. Effects of these characteristics on safety in radiochemical plants will be discussed from the local accumulation of 1-butanol.

Asakura, T.; Nemoto, H.; Uchiyama, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Solvent extraction of inorganic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the solution by a sim?. le process that is economically =ttrsctlve is of con- sider. ble interest~ Dilute "olution; of hydrochloric, nitric and sul- furic acid d; occur in many processes either alone or toga- th: r . 'he use of li. , uid-li~uid extraction...~~ram for hexyl c~rbitol- water-nitric acid 17 ~ Distribution die, r m for hoxl'' ca:-bitol- watcr-sulfur'c acid Table 1. . 'xperimental d ta of amyl alcohol-water-!!Cl Pa, e 33 2. Experimental data of isoamyl alcohol-water- HC1 34 3 ~ Cxperimental data...

Ysrael, Miguel Curie

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Naphthenic acid corrosion literature survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Naphthenic acid corrosion is a growing concern for refineries processing crudes containing high levels of naphthenic acid. Due to this concern initiatives in place to better understand the mechanism of corrosion for mitigating the corrosion. During the 1996 Fall Corrosion Group, organized existing literature relevant to the literature search. Committee Week, NACE International many refineries have and evaluate methods T-8 Refining Industry a task group, T-8-22, to perform a review and compilation of naphthenic acid corrosion. This paper provides a summary of the literature research.

Babaian-Kibala, E. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals, Sugar Land, TX (United States); Nugent, M.J. [Tosco Refining Co., Linden, NJ (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

acetic acid solutions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

280

arachidonic acid activation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

acid inertness studies: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

282

acid activated montmorillonite: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

283

acid amide hydrolase: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been studied....

284

acid chelation phototherapeutic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

285

acid phosphatase activity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

286

acetic acid solution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

287

acetic acid operational: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

288

acid phosphatase activities: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

289

acid sphingomyelinase activity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

290

acids decreases fibrinolysis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

291

arachidonic acid activates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

292

acid decarboxylase activity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

293

acid activates nrf2: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

294

acid processing activity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

295

ascorbic acid enhances: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

296

acid cupric chloride: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

297

In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

298

Carbonic Acid Shows Promise in Geology, Biology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23,...

299

Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry. Abstract: The role of Fe(III)...

300

Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids' being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids` being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work addresses the problem of asphaltene deposition that occurs during acid treatments of oil reservoirs. Asphaltenes are present to some degree in most hydrocarbons. Due to the molecular weight of the components these asphaltenes are more...

Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

304

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

306

Language Production General Points about Speech Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Language Production #12;General Points about Speech Production 15 speech sounds per second => 2, shall I say `t' or `d'' (Levelt) Production side has gotten less attention in Psycholinguistics than the comprehension side. Evidence for speech production behaviour has until recently relied heavily on speech errors

Coulson, Seana

307

Factors controlling naphthenic acid corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory study was conducted to elucidate the influence of chemical and physical parameters on corrosion of type 1018 carbon steel (CS, UNS G10180) and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel in oils containing naphthenic acids (NAs) for application to crude oil refinery systems. Effects of test duration, temperature, and acid concentration were assessed for a range of single acids of varying carbon numbers and for NA mixtures in mineral oil (MO) and in heavy vacuum gas oil (HGVO). In addition, a limited study of the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) addition to the acid-oil mixture was conducted. Use of the total acid number (TAN) as a measure of corrosiveness of a crude oil was discredited further. For the same TAN value, molecular size and structure of the acid were shown to have an important influence. Tests conducted in HGVO showed lower corrosion rates than in MO, suggesting inhibition caused by S species in the oil or the steric hindrance of naphtheno-aromatic acids. In oil containing the mixture of NAs, the corrosion rate of type 1018 CS was lower than that for 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel. The 0.1% H{sub 2}S that passed through the acid-oil mixtures had an inhibiting effect on corrosion. Predicting corrosiveness of a crude oil from the measurement of TAN, distribution of NA composition, and S content and form was particularly challenging. The simple tests used were informative, but further work will be required to establish a standard test method that can provide an adequate ranking of crudes.

Turnbull, A. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom); Slavcheva, E. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Shone, B. [Ty Isa, Nr Mold (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

310

We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates by negative-ion electrospray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates and naphthenic acids in petroleum without derivatization or preconcentration of the sample, and with minimal. The sodium and calcium naphthenate deposits were collected from production separators and were used

311

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The Fermentation Stress Response Protein Aaf1p/ Yml081Wp Regulates Acetate Production in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Fermentation Stress Response Protein Aaf1p/ Yml081Wp Regulates Acetate Production The production of acetic acid during wine fermentation is a critical issue for wineries since the sensory quality (2012) The Fermentation Stress Response Protein Aaf1p/Yml081Wp Regulates Acetate Production

Farrell, Anthony P.

313

Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

314

Production of Polyethylene Terephthalate using a Nonmetallic Catalyst Dr. Marsha Winston1, Jared Langson2, Angus Ferguson2, Dr. Robert Posey2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production of Polyethylene Terephthalate using a Nonmetallic Catalyst Dr. Marsha Winston1, Jared Department of Chemistry Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a condensation polymer of terephthalic acid (HOOC

315

Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

317

Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

319

New syntheses of aminoalkylphosphonic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEW SYNTHESES OF AMINOALKYLPHOSPHON1C ACIDS A Thesis by John Frederick DeBardeleben, Jr. Su'bmitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 196$ Major Subject: Chemistry NEW SYNTHESES OF AMINOALKYLPHOSPHONIC ACIDS A Thesis BY John Frederick DeBardeleben, Jr. Approved as to style and content hy: (Chairman of Committee) iJ C wc+'. A-c-~-' & (Head of Department...

DeBardeleben, John Frederick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Optimum Requirements for the Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Fatty Acid Distillates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optimum requirements of temperature, retention time, mole ratio of reactants and catalyst for the direct synthesis of biodiesel from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid as catalyst was studied. The following parameters were used for the efficient and economic production of biodiesel: eight (8) moles of methanol per mole of fatty acid, 0.06 mole of tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid per mole of fatty acid, a retention time of sixty (60) minutes and reaction temperature of 65 OC. And this gave a maximum percentage yield of 98.4. Other parameters obtained include: an acid value of 0.1683 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 15.3549, flash point of 209 OC, viscosity of 3.7957 mm2s-1, density of 0.8776 g cm-3, water content of 400.05 mg kg-1, soap content of 2.30 mg/kg, and ester content of 98.804 %. From the obtained parameters, the biodiesel produced from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil reaches prescribed international standards for biodiesel production.

Akunna E. Ejele

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products Air Products Foundation Alaric Compliance Services, LLC Alvin H. Butz & Herger, Inc. Sodexo Campus Services Sodexo Inc. and Affiliates Stupp Bros., Inc. Sugarbush Products, Inc

Napier, Terrence

322

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a variety of rubber and plastic products, thermal incineration of waste tires for production of electricity rubber in asphalt mixes, (ii) thermal incineration of worn-out tires for the production of electricity

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

323

A Chemical and Microbiological Study of Lufkin Fine Sandy Loam in Relation to Productiveness.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and significantly correlated with the yields of cotton and corn. The nitrifying capacity of the soil was a better index of the crop-producing power of the soil than the total nitrogen, the total phosphoric acid, or the active phos- phoric acid of the soil.... The addition of nitrogenous materials, cottonseed meal and manure, and of phosphoric acid, as superphosphate and ground rock phosphate, stimulated the nitrifying power of the soil and increased the production of nitrates in field soil. Under conditions...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalyst for organic synthesis". That is the starting sentence of this book by Yamamoto and Ishihara, which follows their earlier book "Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis (2000)", and covers the new developments book that should be available in every well-equipped chemistry library. It will certainly be helpful

Snyder, Scott A.

325

HYDROFLUORIC ACID FIRST AID INSTRUCTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with large amounts of cool running water. Immediately washing off the acid is of primary importance. 2.Remove Immediately flush eyes for at least 15 minutes with copious cool flowing water. 2 If only one eye is affected by a glass of milk or milk of magnesia. 3 Call 911 for immediate medical assistance. REMEMBER, ALL PERSONNEL

Jalali. Bahram

326

Application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator for design of acid-fracturing treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field experience during 1989--90 shows that application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator increases success of acid-fracturing well treatments. Fracture extension can be limited to the oil-bearing pay, maximum lateral extension can be realized within the height constraint, and acid/rock contact time can be increased by a factor of between 3 and 30. Oil-production response can be improved over other stimulation designs while water-production response can be limited. These methods have been applied in mature waterfloods of the Permian Basin and Cedar Creek anticline.

Morgenthaler, L.N. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

from Isotope Production Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility April 13, 2012 Isotope Production Facility produces cancer-fighting actinium 2:32 Isotope cancer treatment...

328

RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has shown that the recovery of several valuable lactic acid products is both technically feasible and economically viable. One of the original objectives of this project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification have resulted in the production of lactic acid esters. These esters could by hydrolyzed to lactic acid, but only with unacceptable product losses that would be economically prohibitive. The developed process is projected to produce approximately 200,000 lb per day of lactate esters from wastewater at a single factory at costs that compete with conventional solvents. The lactate esters are good solvents for polymers and resins and could replace acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, MIBK, and other polar solvents used in the polymer industry. Because of their low volatility and viscosity-lowering properties, they will be especially useful for inks for jet printers, alkyl resins, and high-solid paints. Owing to their efficiency in dissolving salts and flux as well as oils and sealants, lactate esters can be used in cleaning circuit boards and machine and engine parts. Unlike conventional solvents, lactate esters exhibit low toxicity, are biodegradable, and are not hazardous air pollutants. Another application for lactate esters is in the production of plasticizers. Severe health problems have been attributed to widely used phthalate ester plasticizers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that replacement of these with inexpensive lactate esters is feasible, owing to their superior polymer compatibility properties. A very large market is projected for polymers prepared from lactic acid. These are called polylactides and are a type of polyester. Thermoplastics of this type have a variety of uses, including moldings, fibers, films, and packaging of both manufactured goods and food products. Polylactides form tough, orientable, self-supporting thin films and have, therefore, been used for adhesives, safety glass, and finishes. If the bacterial culture produces the L-lactic acid enanatiomer form exclusively, the L-lactide prepared from this form can be used for making polymers with good fiber-forming properties. We have not currently achieved the exclusive production of L-lactate in our efforts. However, markets in films and structural shapes are available for polymers and copolymers prepared from the mixed D,L-lactide forms that result from processing the D,L-lactic acid obtained from fermentation such as that occurring naturally in sugar beet wastewater. These materials are slowly biodegraded to harmless compounds in the environment, and they burn with a clean blue flame when incinerated. These materials represent excellent opportunities for utilization of the D,L-lactic mixture produced from natural fermentation of the ACS flume water. Esters can be converted into a lactide, and the alcohol released from the ester can be recycled with no net consumption of the alcohol. Lactide intermediates could be produced locally and shipped to polymer producers elsewhere. The polymer and copolymer markets are extremely large, and the role of lactides in these markets is continuously expanding. The overall process can be readily integrated into existing factory wastewater operations. There are several environmental benefits that would be realized at the factories with incorporation of the lactate recovery process. The process reduces the organic loading to the existing wastewater treatment system that should result in enhanced operability with respect to both solids handling and treated-water quality. A higher-quality treated water will also help reduce odor levels from holding ponds. Several water reuse opportunities are probable, depending on the quality of treated water from the FT process.

Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

329

Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of production and beneficial effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that they are fermented by colonic flora so as to give a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propi- onate in the intestinal prebiotic fermentation process are also discussed. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris prebiotic agents / oligosaccharides / production / physiological effects / colon fermentation / short-chain fatty acids

Boyer, Edmond

330

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid acetylsalicylic acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid methoxyacetic acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic alpha-amino acids Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

333

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid sorbic acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid dichloroacetic acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid n-glycolylneuraminic acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acids are kept in storage cabinets under the fume hood... in the plastic box. 3. Place filters in hood, add 50% (approximate concentration) HCl acid (Fisher, certified ACS......

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids organic acids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the decomposition of organic material, is the primary source of acidity in unpolluted rainwater. NOTE: Parts per... A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson ATOC 3500 Thursday, April ......

337

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid propionic acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acid propionic acid Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 9: 463473, 1998. 1998 Kluwer Academic...

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid linoleic acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FAs (linolenic, linoleic) - - monounsaturated FAs (oleic acid) - olive, canola - hydrogenation... Biol 458 Lecture 6 & 7 Fatty Acids 1 A. Introduction to acyl lipids...

339

Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

MBI International

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

Methane production from ozonated pulp mill effluent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was made of the production of methane from desugared spent sulfite liquor (SSL) reacted with ozone. The ozonated SSL was fed continuously to three anaerobic fermenters for three months as the sole source of carbon and energy. The fermenters were inoculated with anaerobic bacteria obtained from sewage sludge and acclimated for 1 month in ozonated SSL prior to continuous fermentation. Chemical and biological parameters such as COD, BOD, total sulfur content, redox potential, pH, fatty acid composition, and methane bacteria populations were monitored to determine changes in the SSL during fermentation. Methane production from ozone-treated SSL averaged 1.7 liters/ liter or 17 ml of CH/sub 4/ produced/gram of volatile solids fed. Fatty acis analysis of fermenter effluent indicated a net production of 58 mM/ liter of acetate during ozonated SSL fermentation. This acetic acid production shows future potential for further fermentation by protein-producing yeast. Although the rate of conversion of volatile solids to CH/sub 4/ in this process was not competitive with domestic or agricultural waste digesters, this study did indicate the potential benefits of ozonating organic wastes for increased methane fermentation yields.

Bremmon, C.E.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Modeling of Acid Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The acid fracturing process is a thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and geochemical (THMG)-coupled phenomena in which the behavior of these variables are interrelated. To model the flow behavior of an acid into a fracture, mass and momentum balance...

Al Jawad, Murtada s

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

342

acidization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 7 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

343

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

344

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

Greenhalgh, W.O.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

345

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Meats & Products Agricultural Inputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meats & Products Agricultural Inputs Processing Idaho B20 C C B Meats and Livestock Products Index to agriculture? Legend Overall weighted grade Weighted rank Northwest Midwest Southwest East Meats & ProductsProcessingessing Maine B11 B A A Meats & Products Agricultural Inputs Processing New York F49 F F F soductsoducts

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

347

Lighting Up Enzymes for Solar Hydrogen Production (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have combined quantum dots, which are spherical nanoparticles that possess unique size-tunable photophysical properties, with the high substrate selectivity and fast turnover of hydrogenase enzymes to achieve light-driven hydrogen (H2) production. They found that quantum dots of cadmium telluride coated in carboxylic acids easily formed highly stable complexes with the hydrogenase and that these hybrid assemblies functioned to catalyze H2 production using the energy of sunlight.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

amino acid intake: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

protein intake (PDI) and net portal appearance rate of amino acids by continuous infusion of para-aminohippuric acid via the mesenteric catheter. The amino-acid appearance...

349

Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and...

350

acid synthase impacts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acid utilization and glucose oxidation. Glucose... Adhikari, Sean 2006-10-30 246 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

351

Novel Cyclotron-Based Radiometal Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal production; (2) Testing of prototype target for production of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 production from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved heat transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started.

DeGrado, Timothy R. [Mayo Clinic] [Mayo Clinic (United States)

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Chemistry of tributyl phosphate and nitric acid at constant volume  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the reaction of tributyl phosphate (TBP) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The reaction pressure of TBP/HNO{sub 3} mixtures as a function of time was measured under constant volume. A simplified model, which parametrically includes autocatalysis, was used to plot the total gas production of the reaction as a function of time. Comparison of the functions shows a rough equivalence in the induction time, reaction time, and total gas production. Predictions of the amounts of reaction products as a function of time were made based on assumptions regarding autocatalysis and using rate constants from experimental data. The derived reaction mechanisms and experimental results have several implications. Tests with a large amount of venting and high surface to volume ratio will show very different behavior than tests with increasing confinement and low surface to volume ratios. The amount alkyl nitrate, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen that reacts within the organic phase is limited by their solubilities and volatilities. The overall yield of both heat and gas per mol of nitric acid or TBP will vary significantly depending on the amount of solution, free volume, and vessel vent capacity.

Agnew, S.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Morris, J.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (Bethesda, MD); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

355

Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

356

Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

Moens, L.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

357

Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

ARM - Lesson Plans: Acid Rain  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid Rain Outreach Home Room News

359

Role of Dibromomalonic Acid in the Photosensitivity of the Ru(bpy)3 2+-Catalyzed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the BZ reaction (i.e., without malonic acid (MA)), the main effect of light is the production of BrO2 production of bromide15,16 through reactions R1, R2, and R6, R7, where BrMA· and MA· are bromomalonyl radical from a 45 W tungsten lamp (L1) passes through a set of lenses, an interference filter (IF) with maximum

Epstein, Irving R.

360

Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CHAPTER 13. ACID RAIN Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by Robert Angus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

247 CHAPTER 13. ACID RAIN Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by Robert Angus Smith, a pharmacist from Manchester (England), who measured high levels of acidity in rain falling over industrial decline of fish populations in the lakes of southern Norway and traced the problem to acid rain. Similar

Jacob, Daniel J.

362

Fate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problems. E#11;ects of Acid Rain 1. Vegetation: SO 2 is toxic to plants #15; Leaves damaged below pH 3 rain { Athens and Rome cathedrals and statues: pollution leads to acid rain #15; SteelFate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized NH 3 (g

Schofield, Jeremy

363

Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi Heng (East Lansing, MI); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Danzig, Morris (Northbrook, IL); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

364

Bacteriorhodopsin production by cell recycle culture of Halobacterium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complex carbon/nitrogen sources and amino acids for the growth of H. halobium R1 (Um et al., 1997a). Yeast extract as the carbon and nitrogen source supported best cell growth and bacteriorhodopsin production in the fermenter and 0.1 l in the recycling loop. Cell broth was circulated at 1.2 l/min by diaphragm pump

365

Low temperature pyrolysis of black liquor and polymerization of products in alkali aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure pyrolysis for the production of liquids and gases from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate have been carried out in a little stainless steel tube. Yields, sum of liquid and gas products, from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate were 44.7%, 52.0% and 59.1% of dry basis respectively. The precipitates obtained from black liquor by acidifying with hydrochloric acid and passing carbon dioxide have been polymerized in aqueous acetone containing formaldehyde and ammonia, and converted a polymeric resin.

Demirbas, A. (Dept. of Chemical Education, Karadeniz Teknik Univ., Trabzon (TR)); Ucan, H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Selcuk Univ., Konya (TR))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

367

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass used in this study . . . 1-2 Approxitnate annual production and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1 Concentration... fermentation broth derived trom various wastes. Table 1-4 describes the studies performed for each fermentation broth, as well as reagent-grade chemicals. Table 1-3. Names used for biomass feedstocks. Sample Name MSW1 MSW2 MSW3 MSW4 MSWS PF/Biol PF...

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

PRODUCT REPRESENTATION IN LIGHTWEIGHT FORMATS FOR PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRODUCT REPRESENTATION IN LIGHTWEIGHT FORMATS FOR PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM) Lian Ding environments and the entire product lifecycle. There are new requirements for product representations, including: platform/application independence, support for the product lifecycle, rapidly sharing information

Rzepa, Henry S.

369

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Wade, Leslie E. (Corpus Christi, TX); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

372

Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

373

acid bacteria isolates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acids are solids not liquids. They sublime under vacuum to compare the strengths of solid acids with liquid acids therefore led us to obtain a measure of acidity in dilute...

374

acid bacteria isolated: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acids are solids not liquids. They sublime under vacuum to compare the strengths of solid acids with liquid acids therefore led us to obtain a measure of acidity in dilute...

375

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% ethanol conversion) were much higher than in previous re- ports. The presence of TiO2 during syn- thesisDOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed Mo, easily separated from organic reactants and products, and gas-phase process- es that avoid solid

Iglesia, Enrique

376

Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA b Institute for Energy and the EnvironmentVolatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas Joyanto production of VOAs by microorganisms in mudstones, and net consumption of VOAs by SO4 reducing bacteria (SRB

Grossman, Ethan L.

377

ENERGY MODELING OF A LEAD-ACID BATTERY WITHIN HYBRID WIND / PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY MODELING OF A LEAD-ACID BATTERY WITHIN HYBRID WIND / PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS O. GERGAUD, G Abstract: Within the scope of full-scale energy modeling of a hybrid wind / photovoltaic system coupled-power hybrid wind/photovoltaic production system (20 ASE modules for a 2- kW polycrystalline silicon peak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Evidence for a Plasma Core during Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Sulfuric Acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g., SOx, trace amounts of H2S, and elemental sulfur)7 are either highly soluble or solids. Prior MBSL to be problematic. These volatile products can have limited solubility in the liquid and therefore accumulate for the generation of higher temperatures during cavitation. Sulfuric acid is one such liquid because it has a very

Suslick, Kenneth S.

379

PHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTION AND RARE EARTH RECOVERY FROM APATITES OF THE BRAZILIAN PHOSPHATIC ORES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

so as to precipitate the rare earth elements as a phosphate concentrate. The application, fertilizer industry, rare earth elements recovery, phosphate rock, hydrochloric acid route. 1. Introduction: impossibility to recover high commercial value by-products such as the rare earth elements, existence of severe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

Control of nitric acid plant stack opacity during start-up and shutdown  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a process for the production of nitric acid wherein air and ammonia are mixed and combusted in an ammonia burner to produce an effluent containing nitrogen oxides. The effluent is cooled, condensed and separated into a liquid weak acid stream and gas stream. The liquid weak acid and vapor streams are fed into an absorber tower wherein they are countercurrently contacted with water to produce a nitric acid stream and an overhead with a reduced nitrogen oxides content. The overhead is combusted with a fuel in the presence of a catalyst in a catalytic combustor to produce a combustor exhaust, work expanded in an expander to recover energy and vented to the atmosphere as stack exhaust. The improvement involves controlling the opacity of the stack opacity during shutdown of the process.

Adams, J.B.; Gasper, J.A.; Stash, P.J.

1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

382

Effets sur la digestion et le mtabolisme des vaches laitires d'infusions d'acides gras volatils dans le rumen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effets sur la digestion et le métabolisme des vaches laitières d'infusions d'acides gras volatils.N.R.A. Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Summary. Effects of ruminal infusion of volatile fatty acids and duodenal infusion of casei- nate on digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow. l. - Production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization DRAFT REPORT CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS-MILWAUKEE #12;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS Progress Report by Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Technologies

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

385

Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts of impurities such as formic and diglycolic acid that were then carried over in the SME products. Oxalic acid present in the simulated tank farm waste was also detected. Finally, numerous other compounds, at low concentrations, were observed present in etheric extracts of aqueous supernate solutions of the SME samples and are thought to be breakdown products of antifoam 747. The data collectively suggest that although addition of glycolic acid and antifoam 747 will introduce a number of impurities and breakdown products into the melter feed, the concentrations of these organics is expected to remain low and may not significantly impact REDOX or off-gas flammability predictions. In the SME products examined presently, which contained variant amounts of glycolic acid and antifoam 747, no unexpected organic degradation product was found at concentrations above 500 mg/kg, a reasonable threshold concentration for an organic compound to be taken into account in the REDOX modeling. This statement does not include oxalic or formic acid that were sometimes observed above 500 mg/kg and acetic acid that has an analytical detection limit of 1250 mg/kg due to high glycolate concentration in the SME products tested. Once a finalized REDOX equation has been developed and implemented, REDOX properties of known organic species will be determined and their impact assessed. Although no immediate concerns arose during the study in terms of a negative impact of organics present in SME products of the glycolic flowsheet, evidence of antifoam degradation suggest that an alternative antifoam to antifoam 747 is worth considering. The determination and implementation of an antifoam that is more hydrolysis resistant would have benefits such as increasing its effectiveness over time and reducing the generation of degradation products.

White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Double stranded nucleic acid biochips  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

387

Brnsted Acid Catalyzed Addition of Phenols, Carboxylic Acids, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and often toxic metal catalysts, including pal- ladium,2 rhodium,3 ruthenium,4 lanthanides,5 main group-scale applications of these reactions and often generates heavy metal impurities in the product. Direct use of simple addition methods and is an alternative to metal-catalyzed reactions. Nucleophilic addition of phenols

He, Chuan

388

Productivity & Energy Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Productivity & Energy Flow Ecosystem approach, focuses: on flow of energy, water, and nutrients (capture) of energy by autotrophs Gross (total) Net (total ­ costs) Secondary productivity- capture of energy by herbivores http://sciencebitz.com/?page_id=204 What Controls the Primary Productivity

Mitchell, Randall J.

389

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion by-products #12;3 generated by using both conventional and clean-coal technologies. A clean-coal that obtained from clean-coal technology, are not utilized in cast-concrete masonry products (bricks, blocksCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

390

Hydrogen Production CODES & STANDARDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS for 2010 · Reduce the cost of distributed production of hydrogen from natural gas and/or liquid fuels to $1 SYSTEMS INTEGRATION / ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy Pete Devlin #12;Hydrogen

391

Strangeness Production at COSY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper gives an overview of strangeness-production experiments at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. Results on kaon-pair and phi meson production in pp, pd and dd collisions, hyperon-production experiments and Lambda p final-state interaction studies are presented.

Frank Hinterberger; Hartmut Machner; Regina Siudak

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

392

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH combustion by-products (such as clean-coal ash) from power plants. Maximum recycling of such by- products

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

393

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLYASHAND CLEAN-COAL ASHBLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: TarunR.Naik, Director, Center,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research Associate, UWM Center forBy-Products Utilization Shiw S

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

394

Product Designation Process  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The process for designating products was developed to maximize energy savings within Federal agencies, which are required by law to purchase products designated by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) or qualified by ENERGY STAR. Products that meet FEMP-designated efficiency requirements are in the upper 25% of their class in energy efficiency.

395

Covered Product Categories  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies are required by law to purchase products that are designated by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP-designated) or qualified by ENERGY STAR. Choose a product category for information about purchasing, installing, and using energy-efficient products.

396

MECO Production Target Developments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be reoptimized Tungsten target Simulations of design parameters with GEANT3 indicate that both production targetMECO Production Target Developments James L. Popp University of California, Irvine NuFact'03 Columbia, June, 2003 #12;June, 2003J.L.Popp, UCI MECO Production Target 2 MECO Collaboration Institute

McDonald, Kirk

397

Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

The Northeast Forest Bio-products Puzzle David T. Damery and Jeff Benjamin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to manufacture Levulinic Acid (LA). LA can then be used as a "building block" for bio-diesel, polymers, plasticsThe Northeast Forest Bio-products Puzzle David T. Damery and Jeff Benjamin Forest products industry, landowners, universities, equipment manufacturers and governments share an interest in the emerging bio

Schweik, Charles M.

399

Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Testing of organic acids in engine coolants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

Weir, T.W. [ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

403

Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. +6CT /36 CHEMICAL SECTION, FEBRUARY, 191 1 I TECHNICAL BULLETIN Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist POSTOFFICE College Station, Brazos County, 'Texas. ,\\ustin... . ................................................ introduction 5 .............................. hmmonia-Soluble Phosphoric Acid 5 ................ Solubility of Phosphates in Ammonia 6 I Fixation of Phosphoric Acid from Ammonia .......... 7 Effect of Ratio of Soil to Solvent in Extraction of Phos- I I...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Acid rain information book. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

None

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0.degree. and 80.degree. C. in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Dickson, Todd Jay (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Pilot-plant production of ammonium polyphosphate sulfate suspension fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TVA is developing a process for production of ammonium polyphosphate sulfate (APPS) suspension fertilizer from merchant-grade wet-process phosphoric acid, 93% sulfuric acid, and anhydrous ammonia. The two acids are simultaneously ammoniated in an ''enlarged'' pipecross reactor; the molten APPS is dissolved in water; and the fluid then is cooled to room temperature in an evaporative cooler. Attapulgite clay is mixed into the APPS fluid to prevent solids from settling during shipment, storage, and use. The process is energy efficient in that the hot APPS fluid provides all the heat required to preheat the phosphoric acid and vaporize the ammonia. Satisfactory suspension grades up to 11-30-0-3S can be made with 50% of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ present as polyphosphate. The sulfur present in the product should be useful either to reduce sulfur deficiencies in the soil or to provide maintenance dosages of sulfur. The APPS fluid fertilizer can be either applied directly to the soil or used in preparation of mixed suspension products of various ratios. 9 figs., 1 tab.

Mann, H.C.; McGill, K.E.; Holt, M.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

409

Electricity Production from Steam-Exploded Corn Stover Biomass Yi Zuo, Pin-Ching Maness, and Bruce E. Logan*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,5 but most of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) remains as fermentation end products consisting primarily of acetic and butyric acids.6 Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a new method for energy

410

Product analysis of the ethanol oxidation reaction on palladium-based catalysts in an anion-exchange membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxidation to acetate prevails over complete oxidation to CO2 in the range of testing conditions fuel that can be produced in great quantity through the fermentation of agricultural products and acetic acid: Unlike the complete oxidation o

Zhao, Tianshou

411

Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

412

Product development practices that matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Product Development consists of activities to transforms a market opportunity and technological innovation into successful products. Several waves of improvements in technological innovation and product development have ...

Gupta, Nisheeth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Wood Products 201213 Student Handbook  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Products 201213 Student Handbook Ecosystem Science and Management College ........................................................................................................................... 2 Wood Products Undergraduate Program ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 Careers for Wood Products Majors

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

414

Flavor development in peanut protein cheese-like products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was made basi c with NaOH, distilled, and the ammonia was trapped in 41! boric acid. The ammonia was titrated directly with standardized HC1. The calculations were as follows: mg sample where S = ml HC1 for sample titration, B = ml HCl for blank titra... of experimental cheese-like products made from an aqueous processed peanut protein isolate and a commercial peanut flour. Parameters of flavor develop- ment monitored were acid development, degree of proteolysis and lipolysis, diagnostic microbial count...

Bath, Sheila Clare

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

416

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid eicosapentaenoic acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: acid eicosapentaenoic acid Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Fish or Fish Oil in the Diet and Heart Attacks MAURICE E. STANSBY Summary: . Further...

417

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids eicosapentaenoic acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: acids eicosapentaenoic acid Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Fish or Fish Oil in the Diet and Heart Attacks MAURICE E. STANSBY Summary: . Further...

418

2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with Frozen-in Free Volume for use in High Temperature Fuel Cells 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic...

419

2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Poly(p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with Frozen-in Free Volume for use in High Temperature Fuel Cells Morton Litt and Peter Pintauro Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio...

420

acid-dependent ribonucleic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by USDA and U of I researchers Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of 40 Controlling acid rain MIT - DSpace Summary: High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

422

Relaxations for Production Planning Problems with Increasing By-products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relaxations for Production Planning Problems with Increasing By-products Srikrishna Sridhar, Jeff, James Leudtke SILO Seminars: Feb 1, 2012 #12;One slide summary Problem Description Production process involves desirable & undesirable products. Srikrishna Sridhar, Jeff Linderoth, James Leudtke SILO Seminars

Sheridan, Jennifer

423

Multi-Period Production Capacity Planning for Integrated Product and Production System Design*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-Period Production Capacity Planning for Integrated Product and Production System Design* Emre.ac.uk kazu@umich.edu .Abstract ­ This paper presents a simulation-based method to aid multi-period production capacity planning by quantifying the trade-off between product quality and production cost. The product

Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

424

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

425

BNL Citric Acid Technology: Pilot Scale Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to remove toxic metals such as lead and cadmium from incinerator ash using the Citric Acid Process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this process toxic metals in bottom ash from the incineration of municipal solid waste were first extracted with citric acid followed by biodegradation of the citric acid-metal extract by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens for metals recovery. The ash contained the following metals: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, and Zn. Optimization of the Citric Acid Process parameters which included citric acid molarity, contact time, the impact of mixing aggressiveness during extraction and pretreatment showed lead and cadmium removal from incinerator ash of >90%. Seeding the treated ash with P. fluorescens resulted in the removal of residual citric acid and biostabilization of any leachable lead, thus allowing it to pass EPA?s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Biodegradation of the citric acid extract removed >99% of the lead from the extract as well as other metals such as Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ti, and Zn. Speciation of the bioprecipitated lead by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure at the National Synchrotron Light Source showed that the lead is predominantly associated with the phosphate and carboxyl functional groups in a stable form. Citric acid was completely recovered (>99%) from the extract by sulfide precipitation technique and the extraction efficiency of recovered citric acid is similar to that of the fresh citric acid. Recycling of the citric acid should result in considerable savings in the overall treatment cost. We have shown the potential application of this technology to remove and recover the metal contaminants from incinerator ash as well as from other heavy metal bearing wastes (i.e., electric arc furnace dust from steel industry) or soils. Information developed from this project is being applied to demonstrate the remediation of lead paint contaminated soils on Long Island.

FRANCIS, A J; DODGE,; J, C; GILLOW, J B; FORRESTER, K E

1999-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

426

Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

Nguyen, Quang A

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Further Investigation of Fluoboric Acid in Sandstone Acidizing Using ^(11)B and ^(19)F NMR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although fluoboric acid (HBF_(4)) has long been known as one of the low-damaging acid treatments for clayey sandstone formations, little is known of its chemistry which could explain the mixed results of fluoboric acid in actual field application. A...

Pituckchon, Arpajit

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Product development of FGD recovered magnesium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ThioClear FGD processes developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) produce a high brightness gypsum and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) by-product. Both originate as white precipitates from a solution of magnesium sulfate. The use of magnesium-enhanced lime avoids the mineral impurities from direct neutralization when using pulverized limestone rock. White, pure FGD synthetic gypsum can be used to produce higher value products such as mineral fillers and industrial plasters. This paper focuses on the product development of the Mg(OH){sub 2} by-product. Commercial Mg(OH){sub 2} sells at over $200/Ton for a variety of uses, most of which is wastewater treatment and a feedstock to make magnesium chemicals and refractories. Beneficial uses in the power plant are pH control of acidic coal pile stormwater runoff and bottom ash quench water. A future use being explored is injection into coal fired boilers to neutralize sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) to prevent stack gas opacity related emission problems and minimize air preheater corrosion and fouling. The objective of this project is to improve the purity and solids content of the by-product after it is separated from the gypsum. Several options were investigated to convert it into a more marketable or usable form. Test results and economic evaluations are reported during the different process steps needed to improve the product quality: (1) dissolving or washing out the gypsum impurity; (2) thickening the washed solids and using the overflow for makeup water within the FGD water balance; (3) finding the best means to dewater the washed, thickened slurry; and (4) repulp the dewatered cake into a stabilized slurry or dry it to powder. Flash drying the dewatered cake is compared to spray drying the thickened slurry. FGD Mg(OH){sub 2} is shown to have equal reactivity as an acid neutralization reagent on a Mg(OH){sub 2} molar basis to commercial Mg(OH){sub 2} products and other alkaline reagents. Its use for pH control in wastewater treatment is shown to produce a much smaller sludge volume than lime or sodium hydroxide.

Beeghly, J.H.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Value of Coproduction of Ethanol and Furfural from Acid Hydrolysis Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the acid hydrolysis of a cellulosic feedstock (wood, wood wastes, or crop residues), up to 3.65 lb of furfural may be coproduced with each gallon of ethanol for only the cost of recovering and purifying it. Each plant producing 50 x 106 gal/yr of ethanol would produce an amount of by-product furfural equal to the total current domestic production. Thus, the need arises for investigation into potentially suitable processes for deriving profitable end products from furfural and thus expanding the market. The objectives of this study were to determine the economic potential of five selected, large volume derivatives of furfural that could displace hydrocarbon-based chemicals, and the consequent value of furfural as a by-product to the cellulose hydrolysis process of ethanol production.

Parker, S.; Calnon, M.; Feinberg, D.; Power, A.; Weiss, L.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS April 1, 2011 Mr. Daniel Cohen U.S. Department of Energy Assistant General Council for Legislation, Regulation and Energy Efficiency Office of the General...

431

Furfuryl alcohol cellular product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

1982-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

432

Sustainable hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Microsystem product development.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Biogas Production Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biogas Production Technologies Ruihong Zhang, Professor Biological and Agricultural Engineering University of California, Davis Email: rhzhang@ucdavis.edu Biogas and Fuel Cell...

435

Unit II-1 Inner products 1 Inner product and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unit II-1 Inner products 1 Unit II-1 Inner product and orthogonality Unit II-1 Inner products 2 Real inner product · V is a real vector space · for u,vV define a scalar satisfying: linear: symmetric: positive definite: · is called an inner product of u and v · V with an inner product defined is called

Birkett, Stephen

436

Acid-producing potential of the various lithic units associated with the mining of coal. Technical completion report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A collection of the seven different potentially toxic lithotypes encountered in the mining of coal were collected for five coals in 18 mines over a 5 county area in northern West Virginia for a total of 89 samples. Each sample was subjected to total sulfur analysis and to the soxhlet extraction/oven reoxidation procedure devised by the authors for the evaluation of an acid-production rate constant, alpha. The data show that the samples with the lowest sulfur contents have the highest acid production rate constants.

Renton, J.J.; Stiller, A.H.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

Barrera Godinez, J.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. With government support, U.S. ethanol production increased about 25% from 3.9 billion gallons in 2005 (Form EIA-819, 2005) to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006 (Form EIA- 819, 2006). Meanwhile, the Renewable Fuels Association reported that the number of ethanol plants... operating in the United States increased from 95 in January of 2006 to 110 in January 2007, with 76 plants under construction or expansion (RFA website, 2008). In 2006, ethanol only accounted for about 4% of U.S. finished motor gasoline (EIA, 2007...

Dong, Jipeng

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

440

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, SUCCiOlC acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Success Story Production of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

renewable farm crops at a significantly lower cost than conventional petroleum-based methods. For more source of the chemicals used to make polymers, clothing fibers, solvents, paints, inks, food additives Derived Succinic Acid) process, it uses a novel microorganism in fermentation and new catalytic technology

442

PV production Accumulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Profile COMPARISON BETWEEN LEAD-ACID AND LI-ION ACCUMULATORS IN STAND-ALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM USING-ion accumulators more and more envisioned in such applications. In this paper, sizing optimisations of SAPV systems have been lead for each accumulator technology considered. The photovoltaic system has been simulated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

444

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attach glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. Progress to date is discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. 7 refs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When nitrates and prussic acid accumulate in forage, the feed may not be safe for livestock consumption. Learn the symptoms of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning and which plants are most likely to pose a risk to livestock. Also learn sampling...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

447

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

448

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

451

Naphthenic acid corrosion by Venezuelan crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Venezuelan crudes can contain levels of naphthenic acids that cause corrosion in distillation units designed for sweet crudes. This naphthenic acid corrosion can be mitigated in several ways, the most common of which is selective alloying. This paper will provide information from field experience on how various refineries worldwide have upgraded materials to run Venezuelan crudes in a cost effective way.

Hopkinson, B.E.; Penuela, L.E. [Lagoven, S.A., Judibana (Venezuela). Amuay Refinery

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Naphthenic acid corrosion in crude distillation units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes corrosion experience in crude distillation units processing highly naphthenic California crude oils. Correlations have been developed relating corrosion rates to temperature and total acid number. There is a threshold acid number in the range of 1.5 to 2 mg KOH/g below which corrosion is minimal. High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide may raise this threshold value.

Piehl, R.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Understanding and Improving Software Productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding and Improving Software Productivity Walt Scacchi Institute for Software Research;2 Introduction · What affects software productivity? ­ Software productivity has been one of the most studied aspects of software engineering ­ Goal: review sample of empirical studies of software productivity

Scacchi, Walt

454

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION FOR DWPF NITRIC-GLYCOLIC ACID - LITERATURE REVIEW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction. ? For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 ?C. ? For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 ?C). ? For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available. ? For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive species and to verify the performance of materials in the key process vessels as well as downstream vessels and processes such as the evaporator where heating is occurring. The following testing would provide data for establishing the viability of these components. ? Electrochemical testing - evaluate the corrosion rate and susceptibility to localized corrosion within the SRAT, SME, OGCT, Quencher and Evaporator. Testing would be conducted at operational temperatures in simulants with ranges of glycolic acid, iron, chloride, sulfate, mercury, and antifoaming agents. ? Hot-wall testing – evaluate the corrosion under heat transfer conditions to simulate those for heating coils and evaporator coil surfaces. Testing would be at nominal chemistries with concentration of glycolic acid, chloride, sulfate and mercury at high expected concentrations. Some tests would be performed with antifoaming agents. ? Melter coupon testing – evaluate the performance of alloy 690 in melter feeds containing glycolic acid. This testing would be conducted as part of the melter flammability testing. ? Polymer testing – evaluate changes in polymer properties in immersion testing with DWPF simulants to provide product-specific data for service life evaluation and analyze the Hansen solubility parameters for relevant polymers in glycolic vs. formic acid. During this literature review process, the difficulties associated with measuring the liquid level in formic acid tanks were revealed. A test is recommended to resolve this issue prior to the introduction of glycolic acid into the DWPF. This testing would evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonic inspection techniques to determine liquid level and other desirable attributes of glycolic acid in DWPF storage tanks and related equipment.

Mickalonis, J.; Skidmore, E.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

457

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-first Century, Hyderabad, India, February 1999. Department of Civil EngineeringandMechanics College) of foundry by-products, including foundry sand and slag. Most of these by-products are landfilled, primarily due to non-availability of economically attractive use options. Landfilling is not a desirable option

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

458

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

include workability, water requirement, bleeding, segregation, air content, time of set, and temperature with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI for power production. Its combustion in electric power plants produces large amounts of fly ash and bottom

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

459

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-strength materials (CLSM); and, future research needs. The fresh concrete properties discussed are workability, water with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI for power production. Its combustion in electric power plants produces large amounts of fly ash and bottom

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

460

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clean coal technology, are not extensively utilized in the cast concrete masonry products (bricks both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SO2Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ash or CFAs. Based on these properties, a number of constructive use options such as #12;pollution by saw mills, pulp mills, and the wood-products industry, by burning a combination of wood products control [3], land application [9,10,11], construction materials [13,14], have been reported. However, most

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

462

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

Standiford, Richard B.

463

& CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION In the United States hydropower supplies 12% of the nation's electricity. Hydropower produces more than 90,000 megawatts of electricity, which is enough to meet the needs of 28.3 million consumers. Hydropower accounts for over 90% of all electricity

464

Phenomenology of ``Onium'' Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenology of heavy quarkonia production in hadron collisions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared to data. Commonly used production models are shown to fail in explaining all the experimental findings. The shortcomings of these models are analysed and possible improvements are discussed.

Matteo Cacciari

1995-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

465

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Shiw S. Singh, Lori- Lynn C. Pennock, and Bruce Ramme Report No. CBU-2001 with numerous projects on the use of by-product materials including utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash;2 INTRODUCTION Wood FA is generated due to combustion of wood for energy production at pulp and paper mills, saw

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

466

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

467

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

468

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS-fueled plants, particularly use of eastern coals, has lead to the use of clean coal and using advanced sulfur dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the concept

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

469

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201 d Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute * Director UWM products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much products that utilize clean coal ash. With increasing federal regulations on power plant emissions, finding

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

470

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Yoon-moon Chun Report No. CBU-2004 of Limestone Quarry By-Products for Developing Economical Self-Compacting Concrete Principle Investigator Name. For this proposed project, self-compacting concrete mixtures will be developed for prototype production that utilize

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

471

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Rakesh Kumar Report No. CBU-2003-15 REP-509 April 2003 CONCRETE April 2003 REP-509 #12;ii Use of Limestone Quarry By-Products for Developing Economical Self-Compacting in the production of economical self-compacting concrete. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this project

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

472

Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL WITH MATRIX SIMULANTS AND SUPERNATE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current DWPF flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the CPC since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

474

GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

475

Difunctional carboxylic acid anions in oilfield waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent models of porosity enhancement during sandstone diagenesis have called upon the metal complexing ability of difunctional carboxylic acid anions in subsurface waters to explain aluminosilicate dissolution. Although carboxylic acid anions have been known to exist in oilfield waters since the turn of the century, until now the existence of significant concentrations of difunctional carboxylic acid anions has not been documented. Data from this study show that difunctional carboxylic acid anions can exist in concentrations up to 2640 ppm, and can account for nearly 100% of the organic acid anions in some oilfield waters. Formation water samples with exceptionally high concentrations of difunctional carboxylic acid anions are found in reservoirs which are at maximum levels of thermal exposure, and which are presently in the 80-100/sup 0/C thermal window. Plagioclase dissolution experiments performed with natural oilfield waters and artificial solutions indicate that waters with high difunctional acid anion concentrations are capable, by organo-metallic complexation, of being apparently oversaturated with respect to total aluminum concentrations compared to the inorganic solubility of kaolinite by several orders of magnitude. Dissolution experiments simulating a specific geologic environment (Stevens Sandstone, southern San Joaquin Basin, California; using natural oilfield waters and Stevens Sandstone core samples), produced plagioclase and calcite dissolution textures similar to those noted in well cores from the Stevens Sandstone, as well as raising total aluminum concentrations in these experimental solutions several orders of magnitude over the solubility of kaolinite.

MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acid fracture conductivity and the effect of key variables in the etching process during acid fracturing can be assessed at the laboratory scale. This is accomplished by using an experimental apparatus that simulates acid injection fluxes comparable...

Nino Penaloza, Andrea

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Experimental High Velocity Acid Jetting in Limestone Carbonates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acid jetting is a well stimulation technique that is used in carbonate reservoirs. It typically involves injecting acid down hole at high flow rates through small orifices which cause high velocities of acid to strike the borehole wall...

Holland, Christopher

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

478

acid-base imbalance: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acid generates a material (PE-C02H Deutch, John 59 Acid-Based Synthesis of Monodisperse Rare-Earth-Doped Colloidal SiO2 Spheres Materials Science Websites Summary: Acid-Based...

479

aqueous tartaric acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with limited success.2,3 During the last decade, attention to sulfuric acid anodizing and boric-sulfuric acid Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 255 Si isotope systematics of acidic...

480

Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

Rhee, Mun Su [University of Florida, Gainesville; Moritz, Brelan E. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Patel, Milind [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ou, Mark [University of Florida, Gainesville; Harbrucker, Roberta [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ingram, Lonnie O. [University of Florida; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T. [University of Florida

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Naphthenic acid corrosion in refinery settings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Naphthenic acid corrosion has been a problem in the refining industry for many years. Recently interest in this problem has grown because crudes that contain naphthenic acid are being recovered from areas which were not known to produce this type of crude, such as china, India, and Africa. New techniques for identifying naphthenic acid corrosion and chemical treatments for preventing this attack are presented. Refinery case studies include stream analysis, failure analysis, and inhibitor use. Laboratory tests to show the effect of hydrogen sulfide and phosphorus-based inhibitors are discussed.

Babaian-Kibala, E. (Nalco Chemical Co., Sugar Land, TX (United States)); Craig, H.L. Jr. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Rusk, G.L. (Mobil Oil Co., Torrance, CA (United States)); Blanchard, K.V.; Rose, T.J.; Uehlein, B.L. (Nalco Chemical Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Quinter, R.C. (Sun Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)); Summers, M.A. (Sun Co., Marcus Hook, PA (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain compliance Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produces salt and water. 2. Acid rain... is rain that is slightly acidic due to pollution in the air. Acid rain greatly affects the ecosystems... is acid ... Source:...

485

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic potassium permanganate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

State University General Guidelines Summary: acid Aminoalkanoic acids with 6 or fewer carbon atoms and the ammonium, sodium and potassium salts... of these acids. Amino acids...

486

Indecomposable Fusion Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyse the fusion products of certain representations of the Virasoro algebra for c=-2 and c=-7 which are not completely reducible. We introduce a new algorithm which allows us to study the fusion product level by level, and we use this algorithm to analyse the indecomposable components of these fusion products. They form novel representations of the Virasoro algebra which we describe in detail. We also show that a suitably extended set of representations closes under fusion, and indicate how our results generalise to all (1,q) models.

Matthias R. Gaberdiel; Horst G. Kausch

1996-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

487

Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co-Products Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co-Products Market This report identifies the bio-fuels and co & Earth Science & Technology ­ University of Hawai`i at Manoa #12;Biomass-Derived Energy Products and Co agency thereof. #12;Biomass Derived Energy Products and Co- Products Market and Off-take Study Hawaii

488

Experimental Investigation for the Effects of the Core Geometry on the Optimum Acid Flux in Carbonate Acidizing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous matrix acidizing experimental research showed that there exists an optimum acid interstitial velocity (Vi-opt) that results in the minimum volume of acid used while providing the best stimulation results. There are already several...

Jin, Xiao

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

489

Acid Initiation of Ammonia-Borane Dehydrogenation for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acid Initiation of Ammonia-Borane Dehydrogenation for Hydrogen Storage. Acid Initiation of Ammonia-Borane Dehydrogenation for Hydrogen Storage. Abstract: An abstract for this...

490

Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported...

491

Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic Framework in Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic...

492

amino acid pattern: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acid Sequence Analysis Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids feature space. It is designed using an amino...

493

amino acid selective: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acid Sequence Analysis Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids feature space. It is designed using an amino...

494

amino acid selection: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acid Sequence Analysis Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids feature space. It is designed using an amino...

495

amino acid mutations: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acid Sequence Analysis Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids feature space. It is designed using an amino...

496

amino acid recognition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acid Sequence Analysis Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids feature space. It is designed using an amino...

497

amino acid insertion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

their distribution in known structures with experimental data such as amino acid transfer free energy scales (water to membrane center and water Senes, Alessandro 2 Amino Acid...

498

Selective Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic Streams and Dialysate. Selective Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic Streams and Dialysate. Abstract: The...

499

adenylic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

preservation A Rauramaa A Tommila J Ltd, Espoo Reseach Centre, PO Box 44, 02271 Espoo, Finland Formic acid is known to improve silage hygienic quality. Formic acid based...

500

acid rain program: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

preservation A Rauramaa A Tommila J Ltd, Espoo Reseach Centre, PO Box 44, 02271 Espoo, Finland Formic acid is known to improve silage hygienic quality. Formic acid based...