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1

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

2

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Available Technologies: Enhancing Fatty Acid Production by ...  

Synthetic biology has opened the door to fatty acid production from simple carbon sources through engineering microbes such as E. coil or yeast.

4

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

5

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

Nghiem, Nhuan Phu (Knoxville, TN); Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

8

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass Final Report Work Performed Under: Contract No.: DE-F-G02-00ER86106 For: U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown, WV By David Ramey Environmental Energy Inc. 1253 N. Waggoner Road P.O. Box 15 Blacklick, Ohio 43004 And Shang-Tian Yang Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19 th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 - 2004 - Table of Contents Page Proposal Face Page ..........................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................2 Executive Summary

11

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

12

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

Holladay, Jonathan E. (Kennewick, WA)

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

14

Green Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 13 CLA Production by Photoisomerization of Linoleic Acid in Linoleic Acid Rich Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 13 CLA Production by Photoisomerization of Linoleic Acid in Linoleic Acid Rich Oils Processing eChapters Processing 3A8AC1E4581BC1F55CC42D200EF43697 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf ...

15

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

18

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

Novel Biosynthetic Pathway for Production of Fatty Acid ...  

Jay Keasling and Eric Steen of Berkeley Lab have invented what may be the most efficient metabolic pathway for producing fatty acids, and their ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

22

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

23

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Esterification of Naphthenic Acids for Methyl Ester Production .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The remediation of tailings water, a by-product of bitumen extraction, is of utmost importance to the Athabasca oil sands industry due to its toxicity to… (more)

Dastjerdi, Zahra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30--December 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicate that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ were observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate. Work is continuing to improve the yield of acetic acid from marine algae. Marine algae have been found to be rather low in carbon, but the carbon appears to be readily available for fermentation. It, therefore, lends itself to the production of higher value chemicals in relatively expensive equipment, where the rapid conversion rate is particularly cost effective. Fixed packed bed fermenters appear to be desirable for the production of liquid products which are inhibitory to the fermentation from coarse substrates. The inhibitory products may be removed from the fermentation by extraction during recirculation. This technique lends itself to either conventional processing or low capital processing of substrates which require long retention times.

Not Available

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

29

A study of the manufacturing and product possibilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the manufacturing and product capabilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound was conducted. Fine granulated cork, 1mm in diameter, was compounded with Natureworks' IngeoTM3051D PLA and extruded into pellets. ...

Reed, Sarah BR

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

31

An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Development and demonstration efforts have shown that extremely low cell voltages can be achieved. The second system uses a similar sulfuric acid electrolyte technology in water electrolysis cells. The comparative technoeconomics of hydrogen produced by the hybrid Sulfur Cycle and by water electrolysis using a sulfuric acid electrolyte were determined by assessing the performance and economics of 380 million SCFD plants, each energized by a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The evaluation concluded that the overall efficiencies of hydrogen production, for operating parameters that appear reasonable for both systems, are approximately 41% for the sulfuric acid electrolysis and 47% for the hybrid Sulfur Cycle. The economic evaluation of hydrogen production, based on a 1976 cost basis and assuming a developed technology for both hydrogen production systems and the VHTRs, indicated that the hybrid Sulfur Cycle could generate hydrogen for a total cost approximately 6 to 7% less than the cost from the sulfuric acid electrolysis plant.

Farbman, G.H.; Krasicki, B.R.; Hardman, C.C.; Lin, S.S.; Parker, G.H.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUMMARY PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF « GNOTOXENIC » MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria of holoxenic animals, were implanted in the digestive tract of axenic mice. The in vivo production of VFA

Recanati, Catherine

34

Succinic Acid-A Model Building Block for Chemical Production from Renewable Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the major considerations for the development of new technologies that can be utilized in a corn wet mill for the production of new chemical products is the concept of platform building blocks. This concept is based on the fact that a single building block has the potential to create a significant number of final products. Succinic acid represents a building block that can be used as a starting material for producing a large number of commodity and specialty chemicals.

Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, John G.; Holladay, John E.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Production of Protocatechuic Acid in Bacillus Thuringiensis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679 growth and the production of catechol(s). The gene product responsible for protocatechuic acid (asbF) and its receptor (fatB) were expressed during stationary phase growth. Gene expression varied with growth temperature, with optimum levels occurring well below the Bacillus anthracis virulence temperature of 37 °C. Regulation of protocatechuic acid suggests a possible role for this compound during soil growth cycles.

Kimtrele M. Williams; William E. Martin; Justin Smith; Baraka S. Williams; Bianca L. Garner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)  

SciTech Connect

A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Acid-sludge characterization and remediation improve well productivity and save costs in the Permian Basin  

SciTech Connect

Many oil wells in the Permian Basin have reported sludging problems associated with acid stimulations. The acid sludge is similar among wells and was identified as a viscous emulsion stabilized by asphaltene-rich organic solids. The sludging tendency of the oil increased with the concentrations of asphaltenes and resins, base number of the oil, and ferric ion content in the acid. Only three out of nine commercial acid systems tested were effective in preventing acid-sludge formation; they all use the same novel iron control technology, i.e., catalytic reduction of ferric ions. Several commercial and generic solvent systems were effective in dissolving acid sludge, including mixtures of an aromatic solvent (e.g., xylene) with either isopropyl alcohol (2:1 volume ratio), or ethylene glycol-monobutylether (EGMBE) (2:1 to 3:1 volume ratios). Selection of acid formulations and solvent systems was based on cost effectiveness and operation safety. Field implementation proved successful. If the results of this study had been implemented earlier in the lives of some of the Permian Basin properties, the recovery of 574 BOPD of lost or deferred production from 99 wells could have been realized. This would have resulted in an estimated increased revenue of over US $3 million in 1 year.

Wong, T.C. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Hwang, R.J.; Beaty, D.W. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Dolan, J.D.; McCarty, R.A.; Franzen, A.L. [Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Midland, TX (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Photoperiod Sensitvie Sorghum for Ethanol Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoperiod sensitive (PS) sorghum, with high soluble sugar content, high mass yield and high drought tolerance in dryland environments, has great potential for bioethanol production. The effect of diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Hydrolysis efficiency increased from 78.9 to 94.4% as the acid concentration increased from 0.5 to 1.5%. However, the highest total glucose yield (80.3%) occurred at the 1.0% acid condition because of the significant cellulose degradation at the 1.5% concentration. Synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study changes of the degree of crystallinity. With comparison of cellulosic crystallinity and adjusted cellulosic crystallinity, the crystalline cellulose decreased after low acidic concentration (0.5%) applied, but did not change significantly, as the acid concentration increased. Scanning electron microscopy was also employed to understand how the morphological structure of PS sorghum changed after pretreatment. Under current processing conditions, the total ethanol yield is 74.5% (about 0.2 g ethanol from 1 g PS sorghum). A detail mass balance was also provided.

F Xu; Y Shi; X Wu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Appendix E-6 Ancillary StudiesE-6.1 Appendix E -6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include measures to affect vehicle miles traveled (such as mass transit improvements), technological, and natural gas vehicles). In the industrial sector, nitrous oxide emissions are a by-product in the production of adipic and nitric acid. Ninety percent of all adipic acid manufactured in the U.S. is used

43

High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids. [For use in tumor and pancreatic imaging  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period.

Washburn, L.C.; Sun, T.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Butler, T.A.; Callahan, A.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

acid  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south of the former waste treatment plant. The plant was situated on a mesa that forms the south rim of Acid Canyon. Acid Canyon is a small tributary near the head

45

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 11 CLA in Functional Food: Enrichment of Animal Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 11 CLA in Functional Food: Enrichment of Animal Products Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Downloadable pdf of Cha

46

Male Fertility and Lipid MetabolismChapter 9 Regulation of Avian and Mammalian Sperm Production by Dietary Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male Fertility and Lipid Metabolism Chapter 9 Regulation of Avian and Mammalian Sperm Production by Dietary Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

47

New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

Russell, Richard C.

2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

48

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Site Description and History The Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south

50

Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

Majkova, Zuzana [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Layne, Joseph [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 2 Detection of Partial ß-Oxidation Products of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers and Their Metabolites in Animals andHumans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 2 Detection of Partial ß-Oxidation Products of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers and Their Metabolites in Animals andHumans Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - N

52

Method for the production of electrodes for lead--acid storage batteries. [drying by inert gas at high temperature  

SciTech Connect

A method for the production of lead--acid storage batteries having a grid of lead alloy filled with active materials consisting of lead oxides, lead powder, sulfuric acid, and water is described. The electrodes are subjected to a jet of an inert gas at a high temperature and velocity for several seconds to dry the surface of the electrodes while leaving the interior thereof moist.

Nikolaou, P.

1978-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

53

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

54

Analysis of Lipid OxidationChapter 11 Analysis of Interaction Products of Oxidized Lipids with Amino Acids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of Lipid Oxidation Chapter 11 Analysis of Interaction Products of Oxidized Lipids with Amino Acids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books 84DC9CA8678DDD7511E2D38554DB222B AOCS Pre

55

Solar fuels and chemicals system design study (ammonia/nitric acid production process). Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the Solar Central Receiver Fuels and Chemicals Program, Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation (FWSDC), under contract to Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore (SNLL), developed a conceptual design of a facility to produce ammonia and nitric acid using solar energy as the principal external source of process heat. In the selected process, ammonia is produced in an endothermic reaction within a steam methane (natural gas) reformer. The heat of reaction is provided by molten carbonate salt heated by both a solar central receiver and an exothermic ammonia-fired heater. After absorption by water, the product of the latter reaction is nitric acid.

Not Available

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

57

Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Chromatographic extraction with di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid for production and purification of promethium-147  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing and purifying promethium-147 including the steps of: irradiating a target material including neodymium-146 with neutrons to produce promethium-147 within the irradiated target material; dissolving the irradiated target material to form an acidic solution; loading the acidic solution onto a chromatographic separation apparatus containing HDEHP; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the promethium-147 from the neodymium-146.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F (Oak Ridge, TN); Boll, Rose A (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

59

Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 1, July 1--September 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in research designed to develop an economically competitive process for producing acetic acid from biomass for the purpose of sparing petroleum for other uses, to evaluate marine algae as a potential source of biomass, and to document the feasibility of running fermentations in fixed packed bed fermenters. It was demonstrated that marine algae can be fermented to acetic acid. Initial rates of up to 168 meq/1 day were observed. These rates are substantially in excess of the 47 meq/1 day used in the economic projections. Also, when using marine algae as a substrate, acid levels were generated equivalent to the highest reported with other substrates. It was also demonstrated that a 4-foot fixed packet bed fermenter may be operated with marine algae as a substrate at 20 percent solids or 200 meq/1.

Sanderson, J.E.; Augenstein, D.C.; Wise, D.L.

1977-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

60

Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty Acid Composition in South Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canola is a cool-season, oilseed crop grown throughout Europe, Canada, and the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. The expansion of canola production into new growing regions, such as the Southern Plains region, has resulted in new production challenges. The Southern Plains region cultivates canola as a winter annual compared to a spring annual for the Northern Great Plains and Canada. Given the difference in climate and weed spectrum, region-specific weed management systems need to be developed. Agronomic practices can affect seed oil content, protein content, and fatty acid composition, however the effect of herbicides on these and other characteristic of canola are unknown. Therefore, experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate a broad spectrum of herbicides for potential use in South Texas canola production with respect to crop injury, effects on canola seed oil content, fatty acid composition, weed control, biomass yield, and forage quality. Visual crop injury at 42 DAE was unacceptable for saflufenacil at both 0.12 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1 and ethalfluralin at 1.05 kg ai ha-1. Trifluralin at 1.12 and 0.56 kg ai ha-1, S-metolachlor at 2.14 and 1.07 kg ai ha-1, pyroxasulfone at 0.24 and 0.12 kg ai ha-1, and pendimethalin at 0.8 kg ai ha-1 had lowest visual injury of all treatments. Fluroxypyr applied EPOST caused severe injury at both 0.21 and 0.11 kg ae ha-1. All other EPOST treatments did not cause any visible injury. Seed oil content was not affected by the herbicides evaluated. Fatty acid composition, specifically stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic to linolenic acid ratio, was affected by herbicide treatments. This research found that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPG oxidase) inhibitor herbicides, such as carfentrazone-ethyl and saflufenacil, negatively affect canola oil quality. Biomass yield was improved for all herbicide treatments except pendimethalin PRE when compared to the untreated plots. Crude protein content of canola forage was not affected by herbicide treatment. Digestible dry matter appeared to be reduced by treatments that included an EPOST application of sethoxydim. The research shows that pendimethalin and S-metolachlor may be suitable for canola production in South Texas based on low crop injury and effective weed control. Neither pendimethalin nor S-metolachlor is currently labeled for use in canola. The herbicides trifluralin, ethalfluralin, quizalofop P-ethyl, ethametsulfuron-methyl, sethoxydim, glyphosate, clethodim, and clopyralid are currently labeled for use in canola and were confirmed suitable for canola production in South Texas. Carfentrazone-ethyl is currently labeled for use in canola but the effects on oil quality should be considered.

Cogdill, Todd Joseph

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and UtilizationChapter 15 Food Uses for Soybean Oil and Alternatives to Trans Fatty Acids in Foods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization Chapter 15 Food Uses for Soybean Oil and Alternatives to Trans Fatty Acids in Foods Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing Soybeans eChapters Food Science &

63

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 8 Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Using Heterotrophically Grown Microalgae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 8 Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Using Heterotrophically Grown Microalgae Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Press D

64

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 3 Metabolic Engineering of an Oleaginous Yeast for the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 3 Metabolic Engineering of an Oleaginous Yeast for the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters D

65

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 5 Arachidonic Acid: Fermentative Production by Mortierella Fungiroduction by Mortierella Fungi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 5 Arachidonic Acid: Fermentative Production by Mortierella Fungi roduction by Mortierella Fungi Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters Press

66

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 4 Development of a Docosahexaenoic Acid Production Technology Using Schizochytrium: Historical Perspective and Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 4 Development of a Docosahexaenoic Acid Production Technology Using Schizochytrium: Historical Perspective and Update Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioprodu

67

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 7 Alternative Carbon Sources for Heterotrophic Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid by the Marine Alga Crypthecodinium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 7 Alternative Carbon Sources for Heterotrophic Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid by the Marine Alga Crypthecodinium Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproduc

68

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 6 Dairy Products: Role in the Diet and Effects on Cardiovascular Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 6 Dairy Products: Role in the Diet and Effects on Cardiovascular Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downlo

69

The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid soils limit the growth of aluminum-(Al) sensitive crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Management of acid subsoils can be difficult due to physical and economic constraints. Field experiments were conducted at two locations to evaluate the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted that used 0, 5, and 10 Mg ha-1 of gypsum only. Field studies were concluded 41 and 45 months after treatment application at the two locations. No effect of material on alfalfa yield or tissue mineral concentration was observed. Also, rate did not affect yield. However, there were differences in plant tissue mineral concentration in several harvests that were related to rate. Soil was sampled periodically to 120 cm and indicated movement of Ca and S into the soil profile to depths of 60 and 120 cm, respectively. Subsoil pHH2O and pHCaCl2 were not affected by treatment. Extractable and exchangeable Al were not reduced by movement of Ca and S into the soil. In the glasshouse study, alfalfa yields and root growth were not affected by gypsum rate. As gypsum rate increased, plant tissue S increased, but K and Mg decreased. Alfalfa roots did not grow below 60 cm, even though there was indication of material movement to 90 cm in the soil. Although sulfur moved to 75 cm, no effect on soil Al was observed. Leachate collected from the bottoms of columns indicated that soil cations were leached as a result of gypsum application. Gypsum and the flue gas desulfurization by-product did not significantly affect the acid soils used in these studies or improve alfalfa growth.

Chessman, Dennis John

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Zeolite deactivation during hydrocarbon reactions: characterisation of coke precursors and acidity, product distribution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons over zeolites has been applied in large scale petroleum-refining processes. However, there is always formation and retention of heavy by-products,… (more)

Wang, B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Methods and materials for the production of L-lactic acid in yeast  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Recombinant yeast are provided having, in one aspect, multiple exogenous LDH genes integrated into the genome, while leaving native PDC genes intact. In a second aspect, recombinant yeast are provided having an exogenous LDH gene integrated into its genome at the locus of a native PDC gene, with deletion of the native PDC gene. The recombinant yeast are useful in fermentation process for producing lactic acid.

Hause, Ben (Jordan, MN); Rajgarhia, Vineet (Minnetonka, MN); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

72

ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.  

SciTech Connect

A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation for fermentation-derived organic acids production.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lactate esters produced from carbohydrate have potential markets as nontoxic replacements for halogenated and toxic solvents and as feedstocks for large-volume chemicals and polymers. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel process for the production of high-purity lactate esters from carbohydrate. The process uses advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation technologies to overcome major technical barriers in product separation; more specifically, the process involves cation elimination without the generation of salt waste and efficient esterification for final purification. This patented process requires little energy input, is highly efficient and selective, eliminates the large volumes of salt waste produced by conventional processes, and significantly reduces manufacturing costs. The enabling membrane separation technologies make it technically and commercially feasible for lactate esters to penetrate the potential markets.

Tsai, S. P.

1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

74

Production of hydrobromic acid from bromine, methane and steam for hydrogen production. 1997 annual report, December 15, 1996--January 31, 1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar-driven reaction between bromine and steam was studied. The goal was to make hydrobromic acid for hydrogen production and energy storage use via a reversible, high efficiency hydrogen/bromine fuel cell. While the reaction was technically successful and was demonstrated at NREL, it was determined to be uneconomical in today`s economy due to present high capital costs of the solar hardware. In an effort to provide for an interim process that can be utilized to produce hydrogen and store energy until the cost of solar hardware decreases, SRT`s process was modified to include the addition of methane. The new concept entails (i) reaction of bromine with methane and steam to produce hydrogen bromide and carbon dioxide and (ii) electrolysis of the stored hydrogen bromide for production of H{sub 2(g)} and recovery of Br{sub 2(1)}. Electrolyzers are available today for the electrolysis of HBr. In addition, a vendor for a reversible H{sub 2}-Br{sub 2} fuel has been identified. Most components of the envisioned system are commercially available. At present, the reactor needs the most development. In the SRT process, the electrical power required to split water is reduced effectively in half by the production of hydrogen bromide. The SRT concept is very attractive from an economic viewpoint as well. A reversible electrolytic fuel cell employed in the SRT process is capitalized via its use in load leveling by the utility. Thus, the price of SRT-produced hydrogen reflects only the cost of methane, reactor system capital costs and off-peak electrical power.

NONE

1998-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Uranium control in phosphogypsum. [In wet-process phosphoric acid production  

SciTech Connect

In wet-process phosphoric acid plants, both previous and recent test results show that uranium dissolution from phosphate rock is significantly higher when the rock is acidulated under oxidizing conditions than under reducing conditions. Excess sulfate and excess fluoride further enhance the distribution of uranium to the cake. Apparently the U(IV) present in the crystal lattice of the apatite plus that formed by reduction of U(IV) by FE(II) during acidulation is trapped or carried into the crystal lattice of the calcium sulfate crystals as they form and grow. The amount of uranium that distributes to hemihydrate filter cake is up to seven times higher than the amount that distributes to the dihydrate cake. About 60% of the uranium in hemihydrate cakes can be readily leached after hydration of the cake, but the residual uranium (20 to 30%) is very difficult to remove economically. Much additional research is needed to develop methods for minimizing uranium losses to calcium filter cakes.

Hurst, F.J.; Arnold, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge  

SciTech Connect

This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).

Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.

2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

77

ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

78

Localization of the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and its conversion to ethylene during the rhythmic production of the gas in Sorghum bicolor seedlings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies were conducted to determine where in the plant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is made and converted to ethylene in Sorghum bicolor seedlings producing the gas in circadian rhythms. For the first time, a natural enzyme was used to convert ACC to ethylene for assay by gas chromatography. Parameters like Km and Vmax of ACC oxidase in the standard assay were well complemented in more rigorous Eddie Hofstee and Lineweaver-Burk plots. A conversion formula was derived allowing use of constants and variable product to calculate the unknown ACC concentration. The new method proved far simpler and efficient than the NaOCl and Hg?² method by eliminating slow purification steps and interference. Measuring rates of ethylene production, free and conjugated ACC contents from detached as well as intact plant organs tested the role of roots in rhythmic ethylene synthesis. Variation in ethylene synthesis in the phytochrome B mutant and its wild-type cultivar under different light regimes suggested that phytochrome regulates ethylene synthesis. Occurrence of rhythmic phenomena in detached shoots made it clear that regulation of ethylene synthesis takes place in shoots. Pulses of ethylene may be signaling the plant as the "hands" of the biological clock and may have some role in the phenotype of the mutant cultivar. Detachment did not create a significant difference in ACC levels between intact and detached shoots of either cultivar. Especially, ACC levels did not decrease in detached shoots as would be expected if their ACC originated to a major degree in roots. Similar results were found in roots, suggesting that adequate amounts of ACC to convert into ethylene are present in detached shoots. Ethylene rhythms may be controlled by a self-inhibitory mechanism taking place at the time of ACC synthesis. Conjugation of ACC (MACC) may be indirectly regulating ethylene synthesis by preventing excessive accumulation of ACC in roots and shoots. Probing of mRNA isolated during a time course with be353050 transcript gave two putative ACC synthase genes, tentatively named sbACS2 and sbACS3. Flooding and injury treatments did not induce statement of either of the transcripts. sbACS3 is expressed constitutively whereas sbACS2 is diurnally expressed. The combined effect of both the transcripts may have resulted in diurnal but weak rhythms of ACC in shoots.

Gohil, Hemantkumar Laxmansinh

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are serious concerns about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy and nutrient and water use efficiency of large-scale, first generation bio-energy feedstocks currently in use. A major question is whether biofuels obtained from these feedstocks are effective in combating climate change and what impact they will have on soil and water resources. Another fundamental issue relates to the magnitude and nature of their impact on food prices and ultimately on the livelihoods of the poor. A possible solution to overcome the current potentially large negative effects of large-scale biofuel production is developing second and third generation conversion techniques from agricultural residues and wastes and step up the scientific research efforts to achieve sustainable biofuel production practices. Until such sustainable techniques are available governments should scale back their support for and promotion of biofuels. Multipurpose feedstocks should be investigated making use of the bio-refinery concept (bio-based economy). At the same time, the further development of non-commercial, small scale

Science Council Secretariat

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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81

Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of sugar, starch, and cellulose, but are expected to perform poorly with respect to climate stabilization about crops yields [34] and conversion efficiencies [35], we estimate that these scenarios would potential bioethanol production from wasted crops and crop residues. Biomass Bioenerg 26: 361­375. 36

Arnold, Frances H.

82

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

83

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

NON-RACEMIC AMINO ACID PRODUCTION BY ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION OF ACHIRAL INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS WITH CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The delivery of organic matter to the primitive Earth via comets and meteorites has long been hypothesized to be an important source for prebiotic compounds such as amino acids or their chemical precursors that contributed to the development of prebiotic chemistry leading, on Earth, to the emergence of life. Photochemistry of inter/circumstellar ices around protostellar objects is a potential process leading to complex organic species, although difficult to establish from limited infrared observations only. Here we report the first abiotic cosmic ice simulation experiments that produce species with enantiomeric excesses (e.e.'s). Circularly polarized ultraviolet light (UV-CPL) from a synchrotron source induces asymmetric photochemistry on initially achiral inter/circumstellar ice analogs. Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography measurements show significant e.e.'s of up to 1.34% for ({sup 13}C)-alanine, for which the signs and absolute values are related to the helicity and number of CPL photons per deposited molecule. This result, directly comparable with some L excesses measured in meteorites, supports a scenario in which exogenous delivery of organics displaying a slight L excess, produced in an extraterrestrial environment by an asymmetric astrophysical process, is at the origin of biomolecular asymmetry on Earth. As a consequence, a fraction of the meteoritic organic material consisting of non-racemic compounds may well have been formed outside the solar system. Finally, following this hypothesis, we support the idea that the protosolar nebula has indeed been formed in a region of massive star formation, regions where UV-CPL of the same helicity is actually observed over large spatial areas.

De Marcellus, Pierre; Nuevo, Michel; Danger, Gregoire; Deboffle, Dominique; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis [Univ Paris-Sud, 'Astrochimie et Origines', Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Molecules Bioactives et des Aromes, UMR 6001, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

86

Biorenewable Process to Acrylic Acid - PNNL: Available ...  

Acrylic acid is commonly used in the production of consumer products. Highly notable is its use in producing super absorbent polymers, the component ...

87

Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Kato, N. (2002) Wax ester production from n-alkanes bycoli engineered for fuel production. Microbiology 152: 2529-Increased fatty acid production in potato by engineering of

Lykidis, Athanasios

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for isobutanol production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K (eds) The microbial production of amino acids. Halsted,K (eds) The microbial production of amino acids. Halsted,with valine and lysine production titers reaching ?100 g/L (

Smith, Kevin Michael; Cho, Kwang-Myung; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Relative Importance of Oxidation Pathways and Clouds to Atmospheric Ambient Sulfate Production as Predicted by the Regional Acid Deposition Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and use of a version of the Regional Acid Deposition Model/Engineering Model (RADM/FM) called the Comprehensive Sulfate Tracking Model (COMSTM) is reported. The COMSTM is used to diagnose the relative contributions of each sulfate ...

John N. McHenry; Robin L. Dennis

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Progress in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory program to develop thermochemical processes for hydrogen production. [Oxide-sulfate cycles; sulfuric acid cycles; bromide-sulfate cycles; sulfuric acid-sulfur cycles; hybrid cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Program to develop thermochemical processes for hydrogen production is based on attempts to develop criteria required of an ideal process and to search for types of thermochemical cycles that approximate these criteria. The advantages of reactions with large entropy changes have been demonstrated. The necessity for experimental verification of conceptual cycles has become apparent from the program. This necessity has been stressed in the paper. It should be emphasized that any comparison of conceptual cycles or of engineering or cost analyses must eventually be based on real, rather than assumed, data. (auth)

Bowman, M.G.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

92

NITRIC ACID RECOVERY FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

Wheeler, M. Clayton

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

94

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides ...  

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products United States Patent Application

95

FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Other products include carbon dioxide and organic acids.acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In its absence formiclactic and succinic acids, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Both

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Ozonization of humic acids in brown coal oxidized in situ  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the ozonization of humic acids in chloroform and glacial acetic acid media on the yield and component composition of the resulting products was studied. The high efficiency of ozonization in acetic acid was found. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight substances were predominant among the ozonization products.

S.A. Semenova; Yu.F. Patrakov; M.V. Batina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russia). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Production of levulinic acid in urban biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy security of the United States depends, most experts agree, on the development of substitute sources of energy for the transportation sector, which accounts for over 93% of the nation's petroleum consumption. ...

Sheldon-Coulson, Garth Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides ...  

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products United States Patent. Patent Number: 7,049,446: Issued: May 23, 2006:

102

Chloride Leaching of Spent Lead-Acid Battery Paste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In this study leaching of spent lead acid-battery paste in sodium ... Cost, Energy, Emissions, and Resource Assessment of the Production of ...

103

A Study on Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion with the Distiller's Grains via Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methane production of the distiller’s grains via lactic acid fermentation (shorter for the fermentation residue) was investigated, and the variable trend of pH values, alkali concentration and volatile fatty acids were examined. The results ... Keywords: the residue of distillers' grains via lactic acid fermentation, biomass wastes, anaerobic digestion, volatile fatty acids, biogas production

Li-Hong Wang; Wang Qunhui; Sun Xiaohong; Xin Zhao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Glass Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

40, pp. 162 - 186. Glass Production, Shortland, UEE 2009AINES Short Citation: Shortland 2009, Glass Production. UEE.Andrew, 2009, Glass Production. In Willeke Wendrich (ed. ),

Shortland, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Production Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hall (2005), “Prices, Production, and Inventories over theProduction Targets ? Guillermo Caruana CEMFI caruana@cem?.esthe theory using monthly production targets of the Big Three

Caruana, Guillermo; Einav, Liran

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Pottery Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paul T. Nicholson. ) Pottery Production, Nicholson, UEE 2009Short Citation: Nicholson 2009, Pottery Production. UEE.Paul T. , 2009, Pottery Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Nicholson, Paul T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Cordage Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

294: fig. 15-3). Cordage Production, Veldmeijer, UEE 2009Short Citation: Veldmeijer, 2009, Cordage Production. UEE.André J. , 2009, Cordage Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Veldmeijer, André J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy...

109

Reaction products of chlorine dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concern over the presence of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinedisinfected drinking water has led to extensive investigations of treatment options for controlling these by-products. Among these treatment options is the use of an alternative disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide. Although chlorine dioxide does not react to produce trihalomethanes, considerable evidence does exist that chlorine dioxide, like chlorine, will produce other organic by-products. The literature describes chlorinated and nonchlorinated derivatives including acids, epoxides, quinones, aldehydes, disulfides, and sulfonic acids that are products of reactions carried out under conditions that are vastly different from those experienced during drinking water treatment. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that some by-products in these categories may be produced. Certain specific volatile aldehydes and halogenated derivatives as determined by the total organic halogen parameter are among those by-products that have been measured.

Alan A. Stevens

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing provider for Marine Products and Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile to test Fatty Acid Composition with AOCS methods Ce 1b-89 or Ce 1i-07. Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Prog

111

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

113

Production of levulinic acid, furfural, and gamma valerolactone from C.sub.5 and C.sub.6 carbohydrates in mono- and biphasic systems using gamma-valerolactone as a solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to make levulinic acid (LA), furfural, or gamma-valerolactone (GVL). React cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates) or xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates) or combinations thereof in a monophasic reaction medium comprising GVL and an acid; or (ii) a biphasic reaction system comprising an organic layer comprising GVL, and a substantially immiscible aqueous layer. At least a portion of the cellulose (and/or other C.sub.6 carbohydrates), if present, is converted to LA and at least a portion of the xylose (and/or other C.sub.5 carbohydrates), if present, is converted into furfural.

Dumesic, James A.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif I.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

114

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

117

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 109 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan ABSTRACT A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided production in the tropics. In Pakistan, temperature remains well beyond the higher side of thermoneutral zone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

119

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

120

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

RMOTC - Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production RMOTC Pumpjack in action During the process of the sale of NPR-3, RMOTC will focus on maximizing the value of the NPR-3 site and will continue with its Production Optimization Projects. NPR-3 includes 9,481 acres with more than 400 oil-producing wells. Current oil production is at approximately 240 barrels of oil per day. In July 2013, RMOTC began working on a number of Production Optimization Projects within the NPR-3 field, with the goal to optimize and improve flow and efficiency. Production Optimization Projects include repairing and replacing existing infrastructure with new infrastructure in order to optimize current wells and bring additional wells online. These Production Optimization Projects will continue throughout 2013 and are focused on improving current production and creating revenue for the America tax payer.

122

Antihydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

Antihydrogen production in ATHENA is analyzed more carefully. The most important peculiarities of the different experimental situations are discussed. The protonium production via the first matter-antimatter chemical reaction is commented too.

Rizzini, Evandro Lodi; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l'Ingegneria e per i Materiali, Universita di Brescia, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Brescia, 25133 Brescia (Italy)

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

123

Tin Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...descending order, Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Bolivia, and Australia. These countries supply more than 85% of total world production....

124

Marine Products and Marine Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for Marine Products and Marine Oil samples to test Anisidine Value, Free Fatty Acid, Iodine Value, Insoluble Impurities, Moisture, Peroxide Value. Marine Products and Marine Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Labo

125

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. June 25, 2013 Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate hydrogen for power generation sources such as fuel cells. U.S. Patent No.: 7,645,902 (DOE S-104,909) Patent Application Filing Date: June 22, 2006

127

Acrylic Acid from 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid - Energy Innovation ...  

Technology Marketing Summary. 3-hydroxypropionic acid is readily converted to acrylic acid by conversion to the acid salt followed by treatment with a solid oxide ...

128

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

129

METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

Davies, T.H.

1961-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

130

Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Production of chemical feedstocks from biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glucose and xylose, produced from biomass by hydrolysis with mineral acids can be fermented to produce a variety of chemical feedstocks including ethanol, organic acids, butanol and acetone. Acid rather than enzyme hydrolysis is preferred. In acid hydrolysis reaction temperature and acid concentration were found to be the major variables affecting sugar yield and kinetics. Low reaction temperatures and high acid concentrations are preferred to maximise sugar yields and minimise degradation product formation. Using corn stover residue nearly complete conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose to sugars was obtained. Prehydrolysis of corn stover was found to be faster than paper and peat, and the hydrolysis reaction somewhat slower than prehydrolysis. Acid hydrolyzates using the University of Arkansas process can be fermented to ethanol without pretreatment. Yeast extract is necessary for this process.

Shah, R.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Topic: Productivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... General Information: 301-975-5020 mfg@nist ... competitive in the global market, companies need to ... become more efficient in energy, production and ...

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

133

Silicon Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... An Investigation into the Electrochemical Production of Si by the FFC Cambridge Process: Emre Ergül1; ?shak Karakaya2; Metehan Erdo?an2; ...

134

OIL PRODUCTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OIL PRODUCTION Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a term applied to methods used for recovering oil from a petroleum reservoir beyond that recoverable by primary and secondary methods....

135

Hydrogen Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org Increase your H2IQ More information Making...

136

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

137

Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

138

Reaction of Calcite and Dolomite with In-Situ Gelled Acids, Organic Acids, and Environmentally Friendly Chelating Agent (GLDA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well stimulation is the treatment remedy when oil/gas productivity decreases to unacceptable economical limits. Well stimulation can be carried out through either "Matrix Acidizing" or fracturing with both "Hydraulic Fracturing" and "Acid Fracturing" techniques. "Matrix Acidizing" and "Acid Fracturing" applications involve injecting an acid to react with the formation and dissolve some of the minerals present and recover or increase the permeability. The permeability enhancement is achieved by creating conductive channels "wormholes" in case of "Matrix Acidizing" or creating uneven etching pattern in case of "Acid Fracturing" treatments. In both cases, and to design a treatment successfully, it is necessary to determine the distance that the live acid will be able to penetrate inside the formation, which in turn, determines the volume of the acid needed to carry out the treatment. This distance can be obtained through lab experiments, if formation cores are available, or estimated by modeling the treatment. The successful model will depend on several chemical and physical processes that take place including: the acid transport to the surface of the rock, the speed of the reaction of the acid with the rock, which is often referred to as "Reaction Rate", and the acid leak-off. The parameters describing these processes such as acid diffusion coefficient and reaction kinetics have to be determined experimentally to ensure accurate and reliable modeling. Hydrochloric acid and simple organic acids such as acetic and citric acids have been used extensively for stimulation treatments. The diffusion and reaction kinetics of these acids, in a straight form, were investigated thoroughly in literature. However, solely these acids are used in a simple form in the field. Acid systems such as gelled, crosslinked gelled, surfactant-based, foam-based, or emulsified acids are used to either retard the reaction rate or to enhance acid diversion. Literature review shows that additional work is needed to understand the reaction and report the diffusion and kinetics of these systems with carbonate. In addition, a new chelating agent (GLDA) was recently introduced as a stand-alone stimulating fluid. The kinetics and the mass transfer properties of this acid were not studied before. Therefore, the objective of this work is to study the reaction of different acid systems with calcite and dolomite and report the mass transport and kinetic data experimentally. Lactic acid, a chelating agent (GLDA), and in-situ gelled HCl-formic acids were investigated in this study. In some cases, rheology measurements and core flood experiments were conducted. The data were combined with the reaction study to understand the behavior of these acids and examine their efficiency if injected in the formation.

Rabie, Ahmed 1978-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

Weaver, P.F.

1989-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

140

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS  

SciTech Connect

In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

142

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

146

Specific features of sulfuric acid leaching-out of lanthanides from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In addition, wet products washed with water to re- move phosphoric acid in a hermetically sealed vessel for 1 month were mixed either with phosphogypsum.

147

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

148

D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)  

SciTech Connect

The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

Loewus, F.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

151

Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

152

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

153

Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Controlling acid rain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

156

RAW MATERIALS USED FOR THE PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA -NEW RADIOMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nature of phosphate fertilizer produced by sulfuric acid attack and the nature of phosphogypsum samples used in the production of phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum are given in Table 1. Table 1. Radio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

Lofthouse, E.

1954-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen by reacting an ash containing material with water and at least one halogen selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine and iodine to form reaction products including carbon dioxide and a corresponding hydrogen halide is claimed. The hydrogen halide is decomposed to separately release the hydrogen and the halogen. The halogen is recovered for reaction with additional carbonaceous materials and water, and the hydrogen is recovered as a salable product. In a preferred embodiment the carbonaceous material, water and halogen are reacted at an elevated temperature. In accordance with another embodiment, a continuous method for the production of hydrogen is provided wherein the carbonaceous material, water and at least one selected halogen are reacted in one zone, and the hydrogen halide produced from the reaction is decomposed in a second zone, preferably by electrolytic decomposition, to release the hydrogen for recovery and the halogen for recycle to the first zone. There also is provided a method for recovering any halogen which reacts with or is retained in the ash constituents of the carbonaceous material.

Darnell, A.J.; Parkins, W.E.

1978-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

159

Product Forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1 Wrought alloy products and tempers...or cold-finished Rivets Forgings and forging stock Foil Fin stock Drawn Extruded Rod Bar Wire 1050 . . . . . . . . . H112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060 O, H12, H14, H16, H18 O, H12, H14, H112 O, H12, H14, H18, H113 O, H112 . . . .

160

Oxidative degradation of bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid in nitric acid studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Samples of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex-301) were analyzed using direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Positive ion spectra of standard and stereo-pure acids displayed ions typical of the unmodified compound, cationized monomeric and dimeric cluster ion species. In addition, a significant ions 2 u less than the dimeric clusters were seen, that correspond to an oxidatively coupled species designated Cyx2 that is observed as H- or Na-cationized species in the electrospray analyses. Based on uncorrected ion intensities, Cyx2 is estimated to account for about 20% of the total in the standard materials. When samples that were contacted with 3 M HNO3 were analyzed, the positive ion spectrum consisted nearly entirely of ions derived from the oxidatively coupled product, indicating that the acid promotes coupling. The negative ion spectra of the standard acids consisted nearly entirely of the conjugate base that is formed by deprotonation of the acids, and cluster ions containing multiple acid molecules. The negative spectra of the HNO3-contacted samples also contained the conjugate base of the unmodified acid, but also two other species that correspond to the dioxo- and perthio- derivatives. It is concluded that HNO3 contact causes significant oxidation, forming at least three major products, Cyx2, the perthio-acid, and the dioxo-acid.

G. S. Groenewold; D. R. Peterman

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Method for the continuous production of hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

Getty, John Paul (Knoxville, TN); Orr, Mark T. (Kingsport, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid ...  

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a ...

163

Recovery of Phosphoric Acid in Waste Acid Mixtures Discharged ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... In order to separate impurity acids from the phosphoric acid, trioctyl phosphate ( TOP) is used as an extractant. TOP can extract acetic and nitric ...

164

Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial by-product slags (Slag2PCC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a commercial carbonate product by mineral carbonation could allow for higher process costs than what the CO2 a commercial calcium carbonate product should contain as little impurities as possible. Solution temperatureC Carbonation at 30 ºC (XCa = 68 %) Thickener Condenser Acetic acid 5.2 kg Gel residue 1.1 kg NaOH, 2.6 kg

Zevenhoven, Ron

165

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

Grinstead, R.R.

1962-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Nucleic Acid Softwars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Software Nucleic Acid Software FR3D, a software for finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. Sarver, M., Zirbel, C.L., Stombaugh, J., Mokdad, A. and Leontis, N.B. (2008) FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. J Math Biol, 56, 215-252. RNAView, a program for quickly generating a display of RNA/DNA secondary structures with tertiary interactions. Yang, H., Jossinet, F., Leontis, N., Chen, L., Westbrook, J., Berman, H.M. and Westhof, E. (2003) Tools for the automatic identification and classification of RNA base pairs. Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 3450-3460. RNAMLview, a program to display and/or edit RNAView 2-dimensional diagrams. 3DNA, a software package for the analysis, rebuilding and visualization of three-dimensional nucleic acid structures.

167

Reactivity of Acid Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Low-Energy Electrons Atsuro Nakano, Takahiro Kozawa, Seiichi Tagawa, Tomasz Szreder, James F. Wishart, Toshiyuki Kai and Tsutomu Shimokawa Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, L197-L200 (2006). [Find paper at the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics] Abstract: In chemically amplified resists for ionizing radiations such as electron beams and extreme ultraviolet (EUV), low-energy electrons play an important role in the pattern formation processes. The reactivity of acid generators with low-energy electrons was evaluated using solvated electrons in tetrahydrofuran, which were generated by a pulsed electron beam. The rate constants of acid generators with the solvated electrons ranged from 0.6 to 1.9 x 1011 M-1s-1

168

Chlorophyll and acid rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chlorophyll and acid rain Chlorophyll and acid rain Name: beachbum Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: A while ago I read an article that stated that after a plant received acid rain, there seemed to be less of chlorophyll a and b in the plant. I was wondering where does the chlorophyll go and what is the actual process (cell structure affected?). Replies: I think that less chlorophyll being present would be more likely a result of less being produced. Plant cell constantly turn over cell material, it will also constantly produce more. So if one compares a plant not exposed to acid rain (presumably producing a normal amount of chlorophyll and the exposed plant then one sees that the exposed plant has less chlorophyll than the unexposed plant. I do not think I can answer the rest of your question.

169

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

170

Sandstone Acidizing Using Chelating Agents and their Interaction with Clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sandstone acidizing has been carried out with mud acid which combines hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid at various ratios. The application of mud acid in sandstone formations has presented quite a large number of difficulties like corrosion, precipitation of reaction products, matrix deconsolidation, decomposition of clays by HCl, and fast spending of the acids. There has been a recent trend to use chelating agents for stimulation in place of mud acid which are used in oil industry widely for iron control operations. In this study, two chelates, L-glutamic-N, N-diacetic acid (GLDA) and hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) have been studied as an alternative to mud acid for acidizing. In order to analyze their performance in the application of acidizing, coreflood tests were performed on Berea and Bandera sandstone cores. Another disadvantage of mud acid has been the fast spending at clay mineral surfaces leading to depletion of acid strength, migration of fines, and formation of colloidal silica gel residue. Hence, compatibility of chelates with clay minerals was investigated through the static solubility tests. GLDA and HEDTA were analyzed for their permeability enhancement properties in Berea and Bandera cores. In the coreflood experiments conducted, it was found out that chelating agents can successfully stimulate sandstone formations. The final permeability of the Berea and Bandera cores were enhanced significantly. GLDA performed better than HEDTA in all applications. The substitution of seawater in place of deionized water for mixing purposes also led to an increased conductivity of the core implying GLDA is compatible with seawater. In the static solubility tests, chelates were mixed with HF acid at various concentrations. GLDA fluids kept more amounts of minerals in the solution when compared with HEDTA fluids. Sodium-based chelates when mixed with HF acid showed inhibited performance due to the formation of sodium fluorosilicates precipitates which are insoluble damage creating compounds. The application of ammonium-based chelate with HF acid was able to bring a large amount of aluminosilciates into the solution. The study recommends the use of ammonium-based GLDA in acidizing operations involving HF acid and sodium-based GLDA in the absence of the acid.

George, Noble Thekkemelathethil 1987-

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Production Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Figure 1 shows the sequence of shapes in the production of a hollow handle for a table knife formed and coined in a 410 kg (900 lb) pneumatic drop hammer. The work metal was 0.81 mm (0.032 in.) thick copper alloy C75700 (nickel silver, 65â??12) annealed to a hardness of 35 to 45 HRB; blank size was 25 by...

174

The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore pressure and fracture pressure. A hydrochloric acid solution is used in carbonate reservoirs, which actually dissolves the calcite rock matrix in the form of conductive channels called wormholes. These wormholes propagate from the wellbore out into the reservoir, bypassing the damaged zone. In matrix acidizing of carbonates, there are four parameters that affect performance: the concentration of calcite present, injection rate of the acid, reaction type, and heterogeneity. Of these parameters, this paper will focus on how rock heterogeneity affects performance. To do this, a coreflood and acidizing apparatus was used to acidize heterogeneous limestone core samples. Rock characterizations and volumetric measurements were considered with the results from these experiments, which made it possible to correlate and quantify the results with rock and volume parameters. It was found that the core samples with more and larger heterogeneities generally required less acid (measured in pore volumes) to achieve breakthrough, that is, a wormhole created axially from one end of the core to the other. This value for pore volumes to breakthrough was one to two orders of magnitude less than more homogeneous samples. The general procedure and best practices for acidizing the core samples is also detailed in this thesis. This procedure was followed for preparation, coreflooding, and acidizing for all core samples.

Keys, Ryan S.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Biofuel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Hiroshi Sakuragi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Large amounts of fossil fuels are consumed every day in spite of increasing environmental problems. To preserve the environment and construct a sustainable society, the use of biofuels derived from different kinds of biomass is being practiced worldwide. Although bioethanol has been largely produced, it commonly requires food crops such as corn and sugar cane as substrates. To develop a sustainable energy supply, cellulosic biomass should be used for bioethanol production instead of grain biomass. For this purpose, cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this method has many limitations such as low productivity and low solvent tolerance of microorganisms. Despite these problems, biofuels such as bioethanol, biobutanol, and biodiesel are potential energy sources that can help establish a sustainable society. 1.

Hiroshi Sakuragi; Kouichi Kuroda; Mitsuyoshi Ueda

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

1959-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

178

FISSION PRODUCT REMOVAL FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The decontamination of organic solvents from fission products and in particular the treatment of solvents that were used for the extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from aqueous acid solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium are treated. The process broadly comprises heating manganese carbonate in air to a temperature of between 300 and 500 deg C whereby manganese dioxide is formed; mixing the manganese dioxide with the fission product-containing organic solvent to be treated whereby the fission products are precipitated on the manganese dioxide; and separating the fission product-containing manganese dioxide from the solvent.

Moore, R.H.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

Production Of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids In Genetically Modified Plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An annular wire harness for use in drill pipe comprising two rings interconnected by one or more insulated conductors. The rings are positioned within annular grooves located within the tool joints and the conductors are fixed within grooves along the bore wall of the pipe. The rings may be recessed within annular grooves in order to permit refacing of the tool joint. The rings are provided with means for coupling a power and data signal from an adjacent pipe to the conductors in such a fashion that the signal may be transmitted along the drill pipe and along an entire drill string.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

180

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially ...  

Patent Number: 6,660,506: Issued: December 9, 2003: Official Filing: View the Complete Patent at the US Patent & Trademark Office: Lab: National Renewable Energy ...

182

Effective and low-cost treatment of acid mine drainage using chitin as a fractional amendment to compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work presents the suitability of a mixture of two abundant, sustainable waste products of industry to support the remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD),… (more)

Newcombe, Caroline

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief primer on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat, and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. References for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper.

Singh, S.P.N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief review on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. Because the subject is vast and the space is limited, references for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper. 24 references.

Singh, S.P.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

187

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

188

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Sugar Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sugar Production Sugar Production Name: Lauren Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: This is the experiment I did: our class took 6 sugars, placed them in test tubes and put three drops of yeast in each test tube. we then placed them in the incubator for one day and the next day looked at our results. the purpose was to find out with sugar would produce the most carbon dioxide. two of the sugars that we tested were LACTOSE and STARCH. my question is, why are lactose and starch the only sugars who didn't produce any, or very very little, carbon dioxide? and how is this process related to glycolysis? Replies: Bacteria and yeast are very efficient with their enzyme systems. They don't make enzymes they can't use. Yeast don't have the enzymes necessary to metabolize lactose. Starch is a complex sugar and yeast needs certain enzymes to break starch down into sugar. Every chemical reaction needs its own enzyme.

190

Nucleic Acid Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Tools Nucleic Acid Tools RNA 3D Motif Atlas, a representative collection of RNA 3D internal and hairpin loop motifs. Petrov, A.I., Zirbel, C.L., Leontis, N.B. (2013) Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D motif atlas. RNA. Non-redundant List of RNA-containing 3D structures. Leontis, N.B., & Zirbel, C.L. (2012) In Leontis, N. B., Westhof. E. (ed.), RNA 3D structure analysis and prediction. Springer Berlin Heidelberg Vol. 27, pp. 281-298. RNA Base Triple Atlas, a collection of motifs consisting of two RNA basepairs. Abu Almakarem, A.S., Petrov, A.I., Stombaugh, J., Zirbel, C.L. and Leontis, N.B. (2012) Comprehensive survey and geometric classification of base triples in RNA structures. Nucleic Acids Res, 40, 1407-1423. R3D Align, an application for detailed nucleotide to nucleotide

191

Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Comparing the biodiesel and biogasoil production from different natural triglycerides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regarding the sustainable mobility, product quality and environmental aspects fatty acids methyl esters and biogasoils were compared. They were produced by the transesterification and special hydrocracking (including the isomerization, as well) of triglycerides, ... Keywords: biodiesel, biogasoil, feedstock supply, quality comparison

Jenö Hancsók; Zoltán Varga; Sándor Kovács; Tamás Kasza

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Production Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Welcome Welcome The Production Services site contains links to each of the division's groups with descriptions of their services. Our goal is to update this website frequently to reflect ongoing service upgrades which, by planning and design, are added so that we can continue to meet your needs in a constantly changing work environment. Note: The Graphic Design Studio has been relocated to the second floor in the north wing of the Research Support Building 400. The telephone number remains the same, X7288. If you have any questions, please call supervisor, Rick Backofen, X6183. Photography Photography services are available at no charge to BNL and Guest users. See a list of the complete range of photography services available. Video Video services are available at no charge to BNL and Guest users. See a list of the complete range of video services available.

194

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

Processing nitric-phosphoric acid solutions to nitroammophoska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technology for comprehensive processing of apatite with recovery of all valuable components in the starting material is based on its nitric acid decomposition with crystallization of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate. The results of operation on a pilot installation for complex processing of apatite with production of strontium carbonate, calcium fluoride, a rare earth phosphate concentrate, calcium carbonate and a nitric-phosphoric acid solution (NPAS) are given below. The article presents the data of the operation of the experimental unit for production of complex fertilizers of the nitroammophoska type from the NPAS.

Gol'dinov, A.L.; Abramov, O.B.; Afanasenko, B.P.; Baibakov, P.Y.; Kiselevich, P.V.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Radiolytic hydrogen production from process vessels in HB line - production rates compared to evolution rates and discussion of LASL reviews  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen production from radiolysis of aqueous solutions can create a safety hazard since hydrogen is flammable. At times this production can be significant, especially in HB line where nitric acid solutions containing high concentrations of Pu-238, an intense alpha emitter, are processed. The hydrogen production rates from these solutions are necessary for safety analyses of these process systems. The methods and conclusions of hydrogen production rate tests are provided in this report.

Bibler, N.E.

1992-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

197

Thermochemical production of hydrogen: reality, not myth  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis of the hybrid sulfuric acid cycle shows that a specific thermochemical process for hydrogen production from water can compete successfully with conventional and advanced electrolytic processes. A generalization to the contrary, based on computer-generated thermochemical cycles, is misleading and erroneous.

Cox, K.E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

199

Stone Tool Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the author. ) Stone Tool Production, Hikade, UEE 2010Short Citation: Hikade 2010, Stone Tool Production. UEE.Thomas, 2010, Stone Tool Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Hikade, Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe is withdrawn from the well. The jetting action helps to remove the drilling fluid filter cake and promote the acid to penetrate into the formation and form wormholes to stimulate the well. However, with very long sections of wellbore open to flow, the acid placement and subsequent wormhole distribution and penetration depths are uncertain. This study has modeled the acid jetting process using a comprehensive model of acid placement and wormhole propagation in a horizontal well. It is presumed that the acid jetting tool removes the drilling mud filter cake, so that no filter cake exists between the end of the drill pipe and the toe of the well. Correspondingly, the model also assumes that there is an intact, low-permeability filter cake on the borehole wall between the end of the drill pipe and the heel of the well. The drill pipe is modeled as being withdrawn from the well during the acid jetting treatment, as is done in practice. The acidizing simulator predicts the distribution of acid and the depths of wormholes formed as functions of time and position during the acid jetting treatment. The model shows that the acid jetting process as typically applied in these wells preferentially stimulates the toe region of the horizontal well. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with published data for acid jetting treatments in such wells showed good general agreement. Based on the simulation study, this study presents recommendations for improved acid jetting treatment procedures to improve the distribution of acid injected into the formation.

Sasongko, Hari

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, manure, and worm compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humic acids extracted from sewage sludges, manure, and worm compost have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Meaningful differences in the composition were revealed by FTIR, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR, and visible spectroscopies. These differences allow a differentiation among the products depending on the source from which they were obtained. Humic acid extracted from sewage sludges contains the highest percentage of aliphatic carbon, associated with polysaccharides and proteinaceous structures, and has characteristics close to those of aquatic humic acids. On the other hand, humic acids from manure and worm compost are similar to the humic acids originating from soil.

Deiana, S.; Gessa, C.; Manunza, B.; Seeber, R. (Universita di Sassari (Italy)); Rausa, R. (Eniricerche S.p.A., Milanese (Italy))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

A model for matrix acidizing of long horizontal well in carbonate reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal wells are drilled to achieve improved reservoir coverage, high production rates, and to overcome water coning problems, etc. Many of these wells often produce at rates much below the expected production rates. Low productivity of horizontal wells is attributed to various factors such as drilling induced formation damage, high completion skins, and variable formation properties along the length of the wellbore as in the case of heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Matrix acidizing is used to overcome the formation damage by injecting the acid into the carbonate rock to improve well performance. Designing the matrix acidizing treatments for horizontal wells is a challenging task because of the complex process. The estimation of acid distribution along wellbore is required to analyze that the zones needing stimulation are receiving enough acid. It is even more important in cases where the reservoir properties are varying along the length of the wellbore. A model is developed in this study to simulate the placement of injected acid in a long horizontal well and to predict the subsequent effect of the acid in creating wormholes, overcoming damage effects, and stimulating productivity. The model tracks the interface between the acid and the completion fluid in the wellbore, models transient flow in the reservoir during acid injection, considers frictional effects in the tubulars, and predicts the depth of penetration of acid as a function of the acid volume and injection rate at all locations along the completion. A computer program is developed implementing the developed model. The program is used to simulate hypothetical examples of acid placement in a long horizontal section. A real field example of using the model to history match actual treatment data from a North Sea chalk well is demonstrated. The model will help to optimize acid stimulation in horizontal wells.

Mishra, Varun

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Lubrication with boric acid additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Petroleum - Exploration & Production - EIA  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity. ... Oil Production Capacity Expansion Costs for the Persian Gulf.

206

Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Products and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...lead consumed in the United States is used for battery applications. A lead-acid battery consists of a

208

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

209

Topsoe`s Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process: An alternative technology for recovering refinery sulfur  

SciTech Connect

The Topsoe Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process is a catalytic process which produces concentrated sulfuric acid from refinery streams containing sulfur compounds such as H{sub 2}S (Claus plant feed), Claus plant tail gas, SO{sub 2} (FCC off-gas, power plants), and spent sulfuric acid (alkylation acid). The WSA process recovers up to 99.97% of the sulfur value in the stream as concentrated sulfuric acid (93--98.5 wt%). No solid waste products or waste water is produced and no chemicals are consumed in the process. The simple process layout provides low capital cost and attractive operating economy. Twenty four commercial WSA plants have been licensed. The WSA process is explained in detail and comparisons with alternative sulfur management technology are presented. Environmental regulations applying to SO{sub x} abatement and sulfuric acid production plants are explained in the context of WSA plant operation.

Ward, J.W. [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

211

Omega-3 fatty acids: $13 billion global market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Awareness of omega-3 fatty acids as being among the most important nutrients for physical and mental health has reached critical mass, according to a new report on “Omega-3: Global Product Trends and Opportunities” from Packaged Facts, a division of Market

212

Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant is patented. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

1985-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

213

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

Stephens, Frances Helen (Santa Fe, NM); Baker, Ralph Thomas (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

214

The Basic Chemistry of Gas Recombination in Lead-Acid Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... commercially viable recombinant lead-acid products came on the market in the .... has taken place in the cell, electrical energy will have been converted to heat. ..... For more information, contact Robert Nelson, Recombination Technologies ...

215

Compositions and methods for improved protein production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the identification of novel nucleic acid sequences, designated herein as 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, in a host cell which effect protein production. The present invention also provides host cells having a mutation or deletion of part or all of the gene encoding 7p, 8k, 7E, 9G, 8Q and 203, which are presented in FIG. 1, and are SEQ ID NOS.: 1-6, respectively. The present invention also provides host cells further comprising a nucleic acid encoding a desired heterologous protein such as an enzyme.

Bodie, Elizabeth A. (San Carlos, CA); Kim, Steve (San Francisco, CA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

216

Non-Lead/Acid Battery Recyclers:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in H2O solution such as Citric Acid, Acetic Acid, Acetates or ... MnO2 is soluble in sulfuric acid only at ... cells were treated by alkali followed by acids. ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

217

Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An energy efficient fertilizer production device called the Pipe Cross Reactor (PCR) was developed by the National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The Office of Industrial Programs (OIPI of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to NFDC to promote acceptance of this technology by the fertilizer production industry. The PCR uses the heat of reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid to replace fossil fuel heat used in granulating and drying fertilizer. The device has been installed in about 30 fertilizer plants across the U.S.A. resulting in current annual energy savings equivalent to approximately 11 million gallons of fuel oil. In six years of cooperation with the TVA, the DOE spent about one million dollars on the PCR technology transfer effort. This TVA project is a notable success based upon demonstrated energy savings and industry acceptance of the technology. The technology is applicable to producing NPKS, DAP and MAP types of fertilizer. This paper discusses the technology with emphasis on the technology transfer work conducted by TVA and supported by DOE-DIP.

Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

@Title = Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms (Revised January 2010) Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an

219

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions Total, 1980-2009 By Source, 2009 Energy Sources by Type, 1980-2009 Agricultural Sources by Major Type, 1980-2009 312 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Adipic acid production (primarily for the manufacture of nylon fibers and plastics) and nitric acid production (primarily for fertilizers). 2 Emissions from passenger cars and trucks; air, rail, and marine transportation; and farm and construction equipment. 3 Consumption of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and wood for heat or electricity. Source: Table 11.4. 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 Million Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0 50 100 150 200 Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide 540 143 36 18 Agricultural Energy Industrial Waste 0 200

220

Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

222

Formic acid oxidation in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: A real-time mass-spectrometry study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electro-oxidation of formic acid was studied in a direct-oxidation polymer-electrolyte fuel cell at 170 C using real-time mass spectrometry. The results are compared with those obtained for methanol oxidation under the same conditions. Formic acid was electrochemically more active than methanol on both Pt-black and Pt-Ru catalysts. The polarization potential of formic acid oxidation was ca. 90 to 100 mV lower than that of methanol. The oxidation of formic acid was dependent on the water/formic acid mole ratio. The best anode performance was obtained using a water/formic acid mole ratio of {approximately}2. In addition, Pt/Ru catalyst was more active than Pt-black for formic acid oxidation. The mass spectrometric results showed that CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product of formic acid oxidation. The results are discussed in terms of possible formic acid oxidation mechanisms.

Weber, M.; Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Composition of the ozonolytic degradation products of the organic matter of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal  

SciTech Connect

The ozonization of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal in chloroform and the composition of ozonolytic degradation products were studied. Water-insoluble high-molecular-weight products were predominant among the ozonization products. A half of water-soluble substances consisted of aliphatic C{sub 5}-C{sub 12} dicarboxylic acids and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Sapromyxite has been suggested as a substitute for crude petroleum in the manufacture of motor fuels.

S.A. Semenova; Y.F.Patrakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

WEB RESOURCES: Magnesium Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... Mg Production(Australia).pdf 49.21 KB MgProduction_Australia.mht 81.47 KB Mg Production(Brazil Israel Congo Malaysia).pdf 50.48 KB

225

Fatty Acid Methods and Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... mixtures are analyzed by either gas chromatography with ... for fatty acids, including various oils and biodiesel ... Material 3276 Carrot Extract in Oil," Anal ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

226

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

227

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

Pretreatment and Fermentation of Sugarcane Trash to Carboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rising price of oil is hurting consumers all over the world. There is growing interest in producing biofuels from non-food crops, such as sugarcane trash. Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane trash) is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resource. The patented MixAlco process is a cost-effective solution, which does not require sterility or the addition of expensive enzymes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. In this study, the MixAlco process was used to convert sugarcane trash to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions. Lime-treated sugarcane trash (80%) and chicken manure (20%) was used as the feedstock in rotary 1-L fermentors. Ammonium bicarbonate buffer was used to mitigate the effects of product (carboxylic acid) inhibition. Marine inoculum was used because of the high adaptability of the mixed culture of microorganisms present. Iodoform solution was added to inhibit methanogenesis. Preliminary batch studies over a 20-day period produced 19.7 g/L of carboxylic acids. Sugarcane trash had the highest average yield (0.31 g total acid/g VS fed) and highest average conversion (0.70 g VS digested/g VS fed) among the three substrates compared. Countercurrent fermentations were performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). The highest acid productivity of 1.40 g/(L?d) was at a total acid concentration of 29.9 g/L. The highest conversion and yield were 0.64 g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.36 g total acid/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to predict acid concentration at various VSLR and LRT. The average error in between the predicted and experimental acid concentration and conversion were 4.62% and 1.42%, respectively. The effectiveness of several pretreatment methods was evaluated using the CPDM method. The best-performing method was short-term, no-wash, oxidative lime pretreatment with ball milling. At an industrial-scale solids loading of 300 g VS/L liquid, the CPDM ?map? predicts a total acid concentration of 64.0 g/L at LRT of 30 days, VSLR of 7 g/(L?d), and conversion of 57%. Also high conversion of 76% and high acid concentration of 52 g/L are achieved at a VSLR of 4 g/(L?d) and LRT of 30 days.

Nachiappan, Balasubraman

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Volatility of Aqueous Acetic Acid, Formic Acid, and Sodium Acetate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This report examines the volatility of some of the principal cycle organic corrodents: acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium acetate.

2000-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

231

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORNL DAAC MODIS Land Product Subsets MODIS Collection 5 Global Subsetting and Visualization Tool Create subset for user selected site, area, product, and time period. Data for...

232

Production Project Accounts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Project Accounts Production Project Accounts Overview Most NERSC login accounts are associated with specific individuals and must not be shared. Sometimes it is...

233

from Isotope Production Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility April 13, 2012 Isotope Production Facility produces cancer-fighting actinium - 2 - 2:32 Isotope cancer...

234

Century Model Product Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Century Model Available The ORNL DAAC announces the availability of a new model product. The model product "CENTURY: Modeling Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change, Version 4...

235

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Nuclear > Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report Data for: 2005 Release Date: May 15, 2006 Next Release: May 15, 2007

236

Comparison of Productive Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Appendix B Comparison of Productive Capacity Comparisons of base case productive capacities for this and all previous studies were made (Figure B1).

237

2. Gas Productive Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2. Gas Productive Capacity Gas Capacity to Meet Lower 48 States Requirements The United States has sufficient dry gas productive capacity at the wellhead to meet ...

238

Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

239

Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants;Gas Natural Sources Concentration Carbon dioxide CO2 Decomposition 355 ppm Nitric oxide NO Electric, 2010 #12;Gas Non-Natural Sources Concentration Nitric oxide NO Internal Combustion (cars) 0.2 ppm

Toohey, Darin W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Synthesis and Metabolism of Carbonyl-C14 Pyruvic andHydroxypyruvic Acids in Algae  

SciTech Connect

1. Pyruvic and hydroxypyruvic acids a r e metabolized by Scenedesmus. 2. The products of metabolism of pyruvic -2 -C{sup 14} and hydroxypyruvic-2 -C{sup 14} acids a r e essentially identical to those of C{sup 14}-O fixations. 3. Lipids a r e rapidly formed i n the light from both substrates. In the dark the major products a r e intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. 4. Zt does not appear likely that f r e e hydroxypyruvic acid is a photosynthetic intermediate, 5 . Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates a r e formed from exogenous pyruvate a s fast in the light a s in the dark.

Milhaud, Gerhard; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, M.

1955-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Illinois coal production pushes Illinois Basin production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal production in the Illinois Basin during the first half of 2012 (64.4 million short tons) was 13% higher than the same period in 2011. This ...

243

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid J. E. Roberts, J. F. Wishart, L. Martinez, C. F. Chignell Photochem.Photobiol. 72, 467-471 (2000) Abstract: The tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid has been isolated from aged human cataractous lenses. The photophysical properties of xanthurenic acid were examined to determine if it is a potential chromophore for age-related cataractogenesis. We found that xanthurenic acid produces singlet oxygen (F*= 0.17; CD3OD) with the same efficiency as the lenticular chromophore N-formyl kynurenine and quenches singlet oxygen at a rate similar to other tryptophan metabolites (2.1 x 107 M-1 s-1; CD3OD) found in the eye. As the mechanisms of induction of cataracts may also involve redox reactions, the interactions of hydrated electrons (e-aq), the azide radical

244

Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as sodium bicarbonate, soda ash, trona, or nahcalite (ICF Northwest, 1988). By-products generated

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

246

Antineoplastic unsaturated fatty acids from Fijian macroalgae Ren-Wang Jiang a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

including vegetable oils, meat, milk, and soy products (Jacobsen, 2004), fulfilling important physiological formation of 5-HETE, a 5-lipoxygenase product important to prostate cancer cells (Ghosh and Myers, 1998 metastases of cancers to lung tissue (Cesano et al., 1998). These fatty acids were also reported to block

Hay, Mark

247

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

Bruce, F.R.

1962-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems  

SciTech Connect

Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron catalyst, is used for an in-situ chemical oxidation of organic contaminants. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to create an acidic condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton's reaction often involves pressure buildup and precipitation of reaction products, which can cause safety hazards and diminish efficiency. We selected citric acid, a food-grade substance, as an acidifying agent to evaluate its efficiencies for organic contaminant removal in Fenton's reaction, and examined the impacts of using citric acid on the unwanted reaction products. A series of batch and column experiments were performed with varying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to decompose selected chlorinated ethylenes. Either dissolved iron from soil or iron sulfate salt was added to provide the iron catalyst in the batch tests. Batch experiments revealed that both citric and sulfuric acid systems achieved over 90% contaminant removal rates, and the presence of iron catalyst was essential for effective decontamination. Batch tests with citric acid showed no signs of pressure accumulation and solid precipitations, however the results suggested that an excessive usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} relative to iron catalysts (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < 1/330) would result in lowering the efficiency of contaminant removal by iron chelations in the citric acid system. Column tests confirmed that citric acid could provide suitable acidic conditions to achieve higher than 55% contaminant removal rates.

Seol, Yongkoo; Javandel, Iraj

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen gas has tremendous potential as an environmentally acceptable energy carrier for vehicles, but most hydrogen is generated from nonrenewable fossil fuels such as natural gas. Here, the authors show that efficient and sustainable hydrogen production is possible from any type of biodegradable organic matter by electrohydrogenesis. In this process, protons and electrons released by exoelectrogenic bateria in specially designed reactors (based on modifying microbial fuel cells) are catalyzed to form hydrogen gas through the addition of a small voltage to the circuit. By improving the materials and reactor architecture, hydrogen gas was produced at yields of 2.01-3.95 mol/mol (50-99% of the theoretical maximum) at applied voltages of 0.2 to 0.8 V using acetic acid, a typical dead-end product of glucose or cellulose fermentation. At an applied voltage of 0.6 V, the overall energy efficiency of the process was 288% based solely on electricity applied, and 82% when the heat of combusion of acetic acid was included in the energy balance, at a gas production rate of 1.1 m{sup 3} of H{sub 2} per cubic meter of reactor per day. Direct high-yield hydrogen gas production was further demonstrated by using glucose, several volatile acids (acetic, butyric, lactic, propionic, and valeric), and cellulose at maximum stoichiometric yields of 54-91% and overall energy efficiencies of 64-82%. This electrohydrogenic process thus provides a highly efficient route for producting hydrogen gas from renewable and carbon-neutral biomass resources.

Cheng, S.; Logan, B.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

Effect of leavening acids on wheat flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactivities of four leavening adds were evaluated during processing of wheat flour tortillas. These were: sodium aluminum phosphate (SAlP), sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP-28). Each leavening acid was first evaluated in combination with sodium bicarbonate at different levels, controlling dough temperature at 38'C. Individual leavening acids did not yield optimum dough properties and had pH higher than 6.0, except for MCP treatments. Higher amounts of MCP and SAPP-28 were required to produce opaque tortillas compared to those treatments containing SAIP and SAS. Ionic interactions apparently affected elastic and viscous behaviours of doughs. The second study inculded fumaric acid along with each leavening acid at 380C. Fumaric acid effectively reduced resting times and pH of tortillas, except for doughs containing MCP. Addition of fumaric tortillas over time. To evaluate the effect of temperature 34 and 38'C were selected . At 38'C additional leavening was required, except for doughs containing SAS. At 380C dough properties tended to improve. Increasing temperature increased pH for SAIP and MCP treatments. SAIP and SAS treatments produced opaque tortillas. Increased dough temperature improved storage stability of tortillas for SALP and SAS treatments; no significant effect was observed for MCP and SAPP-28 treatments. Combination of MCP:SAIP (1:5) produced target dough and tortilla properties. Combination of MCP:SAS (1:2) produced acceptable dough properties and tortillas with diameters smaller than 17.0 cm. MCP, a fast reacting leavening acid, improved nucleation during mixing, giving the final product a better texture. Hence, to produce tortillas with desirable characteristics, leavening acids that dissolve and react during mixing and baking are required.

Cepeda, Minerva

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Synergistic Hydrogen Production in a Biorefinery via Bioelectrochemical Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial electrolysis cells are devices that use biocatalysis and electrolysis for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Biorefinery process streams contain fermentation by products and inhibitors which accumulate in the process stream if the water is recycled. These molecules also affect biomass to biofuel yields if not removed from the recycle water. The presence of sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furfural, vanillic acid and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde has been shown to reduce fermentation yields. In this work, we calculate the potential for hydrogen production using microbial electrolysis cells from these molecules as substrates. Conversion of these substrates to electricity is demonstrated in microbial fuel cells and will also be presented.

Borole, A. P.; Hamilton, C. Y.; Schell, D. J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Glutamic Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technology to convert biomass to chemical building blocks provides an opportunity to displace fossil fuels and increase the economic viability of bio-refineries. Coupling fermentation capability with aqueous phase catalysis provides novel routes to monomers and chemicals, including those not accessible from petrochemical routes. Glutamic acid provides a platform to numerous compounds through thermochemical approaches including, hydrogentation, cyclyization, decarboxylation and deamination. Hydrogenation of amino acids also provides access into chiral compounds with high enantio-purity. This paper details aqueous phase hydrogenation reactions we have developed that lead to valuable chemical intermediates from glutamic acid.

Holladay, John E.; Werpy, Todd A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in studies on the production of reducing sugars and other products by Clostridium thermocellum on cellulosic biomass is reported. The rate of reducing sugar production using corn residue was found to be equal if not greater than on solka floc. Current work is being devoted towards elucidating discrepancies between reducing sugar analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography sugar analysis in order to permit accurate material balances to be completed. Studies are reported in further characterizing the plasmics of C. thermocellum and in the development of protoplasts of the same microorganism. A process and economic analysis for the production of 200 x 10/sup 6/ pounds (90 x 10/sup 6/ kilograms) per year of soluble reducing sugars from corn stover cellulose, using enzymes derived from Clostridium thermocellum was designed. Acrylic acid was produced in resting cell preparation of Clostridium propionicum from both ..beta..-alanine and from propionic acid. Results from the conversion of corn stover hydrolyzates to lactic acid, a precursor to acrylic acid, show that up to 70% of the sugars produced are converted to lactic acid. Efforts are proceeding to improve the conversion yield and carry out the overall conversion of corn stover to acrylic acid in the same fermentor. Results on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum demonstrated the capability of the strain to produce mixed solvents in concentration and conversion similar to that achieved in industrial processes. Various studies on the production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum are also reported.

Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Specialty Cellular Glass Products and Their Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cellular glass products are composed of hermetically-sealed cells containing gases which exhibit no extracellular diffusion. As such, these products are impermeable to liquids and gases. FOAMGLAS® blocks have long been used as fireproof thermal insulation, especially in low temperature applications where condensation and subsequent ice formation in insulation can cause significant reduction in insulating value. Recently, specialty compositions have been developed in the borosilicate and boroaluminosilicate fields which exhibit a high degree of resistance to corrosion by aggressive chemicals as well. One product, sold as PENNGUARDTM block by Pennwalt Corporation, is used as a liner for chimneys where acid corrosion had previously caused substantial maintenance problems. The product is also used as an insulative, acid-resistant liner in numerous chemical processes. A more refractory foam called FOAMSID®12 insulation has been developed for use in extremely corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. One such field of application, the Alcoa Smelting Process, involves the use of molten salts which tend to impregnate materials which are porous to either salt vapors or to the liquid phase. Such impregnation of ordinary insulating materials causes a significant increase in heat transfer rates. FOAMSID®-12 blocks, with their unique properties of light weight, high strength, impermeability, and low thermal conductivity offer an opportunity for industrial energy conservation which did not previously exist.

Rostoker, D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

REACTIVITY OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN WITH NITRIC ACID  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis have been used to evaluate the reactivity of resorcinol formaldehyde resin with nitric acid and characterize the solid product. Two distinct reactions were identified within the temperature range 25-55 C. The first reaction is primarily associated with resin nitration, while the second involves bulk oxidation and degradation of the polymer network leading to dissolution and off-gassing. Reaction was confirmed with nitric acid concentrations as low as 3 M at 25 C applied temperature and 0.625 M at 66 C. Although a nitrated resin product can be isolated under appropriate experimental conditions, calorimetry testing indicates no significant hazard associated with handling the dry material.

King, W; Fernando Fondeur, F; Bill Wilmarth, B; Myra Pettis, M; Shirley Mccollum, S

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

258

Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells Speaker(s): Dave Sopchak Date: May 1, 2013 - 3:00pm - 4:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Max Wei The PBI...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal  

Technology Marketing Summary In this invention we report the synthesis of a copolymer of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl zirconium phosphorous (VZP) acid has ...

263

Ultra-Deep Strong Acidizing and Sour Gas Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two acidizing environments that were studied included 10% acetic acid and a mixture of 10% acetic acid and 10% hydrochloric acid with 15 psia hydrogen ...

264

Well development with acid wool  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a unique method to prevent the lost circulation of drilling fluids in fractured bedrock aquifers. The method utilizes acid wool to bridge fractures and prevent the migration of these fluids in to the reservoir. This wool material collects the mud on its surface and allows it to be removed during development. The wool is produced from melted silic-carbonate rock and is dissolved using hydrochloric acid. The timing and methodology of installation is provided.

Hanna, T.M. (Hydrologic Consultants Inc., Lakewood, CO (USA)); Rothauge, F. (Quality Drilling Fluids Engineering Inc., Longmont, CO (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical Challenges * Mixture of H 2 and O 2 ; H 2 separation and storage * CO 2 addition and overall reactor design Overcoming Low Efficiency: Improving ET * Eliminate or down-regulate pathways competing for ele * Production of organic acids * Formation of NADPH/carbon fixation

266

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MODIS ASCII Subset Products - FTP Access MODIS ASCII Subset Products - FTP Access All of the MODIS ASCII Subsets are available from the ORNL DAAC's ftp site. The directory structure of the ftp site is based on the abbreviated names for the MODIS Products. Terra MODIS products are abbreviated "MOD", Aqua MODIS products are abbreviated "MYD" and combined Terra and Aqua MODIS products are abbreviated "MCD". The abbreviated names also include the version number (also known as collection). For specific products, please refer to the following table: Product Acronym Spatial Resolution Temporal Frequency Terra V005 SIN Aqua V005 SIN Terra/Aqua Combined V005 SIN Surface Reflectance SREF 500 m 8 day composites MOD09A1 MYD09A1 ---------- Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity TEMP 1 km 8 day composites MOD11A2 MYD11A2 ----------

267

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

268

Industrial Oil Products Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A forum for professionals involved in research, development, engineering, marketing, and testing of industrial products and co-products from fats and oils, including fuels, lubricants, coatings, polymers, paints, inks, cosmetics, dielectric fluids, and ad

269

The Product Creation Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Product Creation Process is described in its context. A phased model is shown, as many organisations use such a model as blueprint. The operational organisation of the product creation process is discussed, especially the role of the operational leader.

Gerrit Muller

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Casthouse Productivity and Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... Cast Shop for Aluminum Production: Casthouse Productivity and ... performance indicator called Specific Energy Consumption [SEC] ... Improved Monolithic Materials for Lining Aluminum Holding and Melting Furnaces: Andy ...

271

Bio-Based Products  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often...

272

MODIS Land Product Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation > MODIS Land Subsets Validation > MODIS Land Subsets MODIS Land Product Subsets Overview Earth, Western Hemisphere The goal of the MODIS Land Product Subsets project is to provide summaries of selected MODIS Land Products for the community to use for validation of models and remote-sensing products and to characterize field sites. Output files contain pixel values of MODIS land products in text format and in GeoTIFF format. In addition, data visualizations (time series plots and grids showing single composite periods) are available. MODIS Land Product Subsets Resources The following MODIS Land Product Subsets resources are maintained by the ORNL DAAC: MODIS Land Products Offered Background Citation Policy Methods and formats MODIS Sinusoidal Grid - Google Earth KMZ Classroom Exercises

273

Topic: Product Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topic: Product Data. Event. Model-Based Enterprise Summit. TDP Standards Development Summit. Group. Life Cycle Engineering Group. ...

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

CERTIFIED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% Sawnwood 13% Panels 9% RW & primary 5% Windows & doors 5% Pulp & paper 5% DIY products 6% Trade & retailers

275

Soy Protein Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book will provide an overview of the key benefits of soy protein products in an easily understood format. ...

276

Table 3. Product Applications  

of all hazardous metals, low -level radioactive waste, fission products and transuranics • Macroencapsulation of contaminated debris, metal and ...

277

MSID Products, Tools, & Services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SID Products, Tools, & Services. XML Testbed - collection of XML-Related Tools; Express Engine - STEP (ISO 10303) development ...

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

278

IEEE 1588 Products & Implementations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Facsimile. 100 Bureau Drive, M/S 8220 Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8220. IEEE 1588 Products & Implementations. This page ...

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

279

Seamless Steel Tubular Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...). The tank also contained the search units.Fig. 6 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubular products were

280

CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerable to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.

SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Strangeness Production at COSY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper gives an overview of strangeness-production experiments at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. Results on kaon-pair and phi meson production in pp, pd and dd collisions, hyperon-production experiments and Lambda p final-state interaction studies are presented.

Frank Hinterberger; Hartmut Machner; Regina Siudak

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

283

Coal production 1989  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

284

Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

Different Protonation Equilibria of 4-Methylimidazole and Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dynamic protonation equilibria in water of one 4-methylimidazole molecule as well as for pairs and groups consisting of 4- methylimidazole, acetic acid and bridging water molecules are studied using Q-HOP molecular dynamics simulation. We find a qualitatively different protonation behavior of 4-methylimidazole compared to that of acetic acid. On one hand, deprotonated, neutral 4-methylimidazole cannot as easily attract a freely diffusing extra proton from solution. Once the proton is bound, however, it remains tightly bound on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. In a linear chain composed of acetic acid, a separating water molecule and 4-methylimidazole, an excess proton is equally shared between 4-methylimidazole and water. When a water molecule is linearly placed between two acetic acid molecules, the excess proton is always found on the central water. On the other hand, an excess proton in a 4-methylimidazole-water- 4-methylimidazole chain is always localized on one of the two 4- methylimidazoles. These findings are of interest to the discussion of proton transfer along chains of amino acids and water molecules in biomolecules.

Gu, Wei; Helms, Volkhard H.

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

286

Ni-Si Alloys for the S-I Reactor-Hydrogen Production Process Interface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project was to develop Ni-Si alloys for use in vessels to contain hot, pressurized sulfuric acid. The application was to be in the decomposition loop of the thermochemical cycle for production of hydrogen.

Joseph W. Newkirk; Richard K. Brow

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas

Song-bai Qiu; Wei-wei Huang; Yong Xu; Lu Liu; Quan-xin Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Lighting Up Enzymes for Solar Hydrogen Production (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have combined quantum dots, which are spherical nanoparticles that possess unique size-tunable photophysical properties, with the high substrate selectivity and fast turnover of hydrogenase enzymes to achieve light-driven hydrogen (H2) production. They found that quantum dots of cadmium telluride coated in carboxylic acids easily formed highly stable complexes with the hydrogenase and that these hybrid assemblies functioned to catalyze H2 production using the energy of sunlight.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis V. Paper Chromatography and Radioautography of the Products  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Detailed procedure and results for the separation and identification of labeled carboxylic acids and phosphate esters, formed during photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2}; the first observed product of CO{sub 2} assimilation during photosynthesis was isolated and shown to be phosphoglyceric acid; tracer use of P{sup 32} and C{sup 14}.

Benson, A. A.; Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, M.; Goodale, T. C.; Haas, V. A.; Stepka, W.

1949-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

290

Preparation of oxygen-containing organic products from bed-oxidized brown coal by ozonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of modifying the functional composition of humic acids by gas-phase ozonation of bed-oxidized brown coal was examined. About 90% of the organic matter of brown coal was converted to low-molecular weight soluble oxygen-containing products by stepwise liquid-phase ozonation (in chloroform and acetic acid).

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.; Batina, M.V. [National Academy of Science Belarus, Minsk (Byelarus)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Bioethanol Production Based on Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Wheat Straw  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of wheat straw as raw materials for ethanol production was investigated. Ethanol cooking at 190 ? for 60 min was adopted as pretreatment method for dilute sulfuric acid impregnated wheat straw. The pretreated wheat straw was used ... Keywords: dilute sulfuric acid catalysis, ethanol cooking pretreatment, wheat straw, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, ethanol

Peng Luo; Zhong Liu

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Misc. Products - Fuel Use Misc. Products - Nonfuel...

294

An Improved Model for Sandstone Acidizing and Study of the Effect of Mineralogy and Temperature on Sandstone Acidizing Treatments and Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sandstone acidizing is a complex operation because the acidizing fluid reacts with a variety of minerals present in the formation that results in a wide range of reaction products. The hydrofluoric acid (HF) reaction rate differs widely from mineral to mineral because of the variation in the reaction rate and the area of contact with the injected fluid. The series of reactions occurring in sandstone makes it all the more difficult to find the exact individual reaction rate constants. An improved model that provides better estimates of the outcome of a sandstone acidizing treatment is developed following a review of previous sandstone acidizing models. The model follows the lumped mineral methodology and is based mainly on the kinetic approach. The use of accurate reaction-rate laws allows the model to effectively predict the consumption of acidizing fluid during the stimulation treatment. The consideration of a proper equation for the silica gel filming factor accounts for the fact that some clay becomes inaccessible to the acid when silica gel precipitates on their surface. The proposed model is shown here to be valid in extrapolating laboratory coreflood data and predicting the effluent acid concentration at various flow rates. The damage during sandstone acidizing can be minimized when stimulation treatments are designed according to the percentage of carbonate in the formation, type and amount of clay in the formation and the reservoir bottomhole temperature. Most of the available software for design and evaluation of acidizing treatments do not consider the temperature and mineralogy effects extensively. We studied one such software and developed recommendations to improve the design and evaluation of sandstone acidizing treatments by taking into account the multifaceted effects of temperature and mineralogy in increasingly deep and hot sandstone environments. These recommendations will be of great use in the times to come as most of the wells will have to be drilled at greater depths in search for new reserves.

Agarwal, Amit Kumar

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

296

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

297

Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product - Crude  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Gasoline inventories indicate how tight the gasoline product market is in any one region. When the gasoline market is tight, it affects the portion of gasoline price is the spread between spot product price and crude oil price. Note that in late 1998-and early 1999 spreads were very small when inventories were quite high. Contrast summers of 1998 or 1999 with summer 2000. Last summer's tight markets, resulting low stocks and transition to Phase 2 RFG added price pressure over and above the already high crude price pressure on gasoline -- particularly in the Midwest. As we ended last winter, gasoline inventories were low, and the spread between spot prices and crude oil were higher than typical as a result. Inventories stayed well below average and the spread during the

298

Remediation of Abandoned Mines Using Coal Combustion By-Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remediation of Abandoned Mines Using Coal Combustion By-Products Sowmya Bulusu1 ; Ahmet H. Aydilek that occurs when pyrite that is present in abandoned coal mines comes in contact with oxygen and water, which subject headings: Remedial action; Acid mine water; Mines; Coals; Recycling; Maryland; Fly ash

Aydilek, Ahmet

299

Acidization of a Direct Heat Hydrothermal Well and its Potential in Developing Additional Direct Heat Projects  

SciTech Connect

A matrix acid treatment on a limestone formation in a low temperature hydrothermal production well in South Dakota has resulted in a 40% increase in heat (BTU) available for use in space heating a hospital. The results of this experimental treatment on the Madison Limestone suggest a significant potential may exist for similar applications, particularly throughout the western United States. This paper presents the results of the acid treatment, suggests other possible areas for similar application, and analyzes the economics for successful treatments.

Dolenc, M.R.; Strawn, J. A.; Prestwich, S.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

NETL: Gasification Systems - Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low-Rank Coals Project Number: DE-FE0007759 Refinery offgas PSA at Air Products' facility in Baytown, TX Refinery offgas PSA at Air Products' facility in Baytown, TX. Air Products, in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), is testing its Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (Sour PSA) process that separates syngas into an hydrogen-rich stream and second stream comprising of sulfur compounds(primarily hydrogen sulfide)carbon dioxide (CO2), and other impurities. The adsorbent technology testing that has been performed to date utilized syngas streams derived from higher rank coals and petcoke. Using data from experiments based on petcoke-derived syngas, replacing the

302

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report"...

303

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shaaf, and the FLUXNET validation communities to choose sites and to identify the land products needed for validation. We also worked with MODAPS on subsetting the Land...

304

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Citation When using subsets of MODIS Land Products from the ORNL DAAC, please use the citation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC). 2011....

305

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction Introduction The goal of the MODIS Land Product Subsets project is to provide summaries of selected MODIS Land Products for the community to use for validation of models and remote-sensing products, and to characterize field sites. The MODIS Land Product Subsets are derived from MODIS products that were generated with Collection 4 or later algorithms. Please be advised that these products are subject to continual review and revision. The MODIS land product subsets are provided in ASCII and GeoTIFF format. The subsets are stored as individual text(ASCII) files, each file represents one field site and one MODIS product.The ASCII data covers 7x7 km of the field site. These ASCII files contain comma-delimited rows of parameter values (image bands) for each pixel in the selected area. Each row in the file will contain data from one 8-day, 16-day, or annual period (depending on the temporal frequency of the data product represented).

306

Coal Combustion Products: Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products: Challenges and Opportunities American Coal Ash Association Conference St. Petersburg, FL January 27-30, 2003 Carl O. Bauer National Energy Technology Laboratory...

307

CONSOLIDATED CERAMIC PRODUCTS, INC.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For 40 years, Consolidated Ceramic Products, Inc. has been of service to the aluminum industries worldwide. An innovative manufacturer and marketer of ...

308

Hydrology Group - Technologies & Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies & Products Systems & Sensors Water Fluxmeter Software & Models Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS ) FRAMES 1.x ReActive Flow and Transport of Groundwater...

309

LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and venting products for the specialty retail, residential new construction and industrial markets. LHP, based in Nashville, TN, is a business unit of Lennox...

310

Organic dairy production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis was to gain further knowledge about the performance of cows in organic dairy production and their ability to adapt to… (more)

Ahlman, Therese

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Coalbed Methane Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2006 2007 2008 2009...

312

PRODUCTION AND DECAY OF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

experimental observa- tion of CP violation, we briefly update the results on b quark production and lifetimes. Since this edition features separate reviews on the determination of...

313

Electromagnetic Higgs production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross section for central diffractive Higgs production is calculated, for the LHC range of energies. The graphs for the possible mechanisms for Higgs production, through pomeron fusion and photon fusions are calculated for all possibilities allowed by the standard model. The cross section for central diffractive Higgs production through pomeron fusion, must be multiplied by a factor for the survival probability, to isolate the Higgs signal and reduce the background. Due to the small value of the survival probability $\\Lb 4 \\times 10^{-3}\\Rb $, the cross sections for central diffractive Higgs production, in the two cases for pomeron fusion and photon fusion, are competitive.

J. S. Miller

2007-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

314

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By:...

315

Weekly Blender Net Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes...

316

Microsystem Product Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

Polosky, M -A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Home > Petroleum > Petroleum Survey Forms> Petroleum Survey Forms Tutorial Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player....

318

Sustainable hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Natural Gas Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Production. Measured By. Disseminated Through. Survey of Producing States and Mineral Management Service “Evolving Estimate” in Natural Gas Monthly.

320

Products, Services: Not Procurable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products, Services: Not Procurable As a premier national research and development laboratory, LANL seeks to do business with qualified companies that offer value and high...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Venezuela Gasoline Production & Demand  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Change and Uncertainty Today’s gasoline imports essential to meet ... Refinery-based MTBE production and some merchant MTBE facilities will be ...

322

Furfuryl alcohol cellular product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

1982-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

323

MESA PRODUCTS, INC. PROFILE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... services and products are energy related companies ... programs including the annual Appalachian Underground ... term and short-term outlook of the ...

2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

Net Primary Productivity Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

some scientists still tend to confuse productivity with standing biomass or standing crop. NPP is a fundamental ecological variable, not only because it measures the energy...

325

Production Methodologies and Uncertainties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from the calcination process for clinker production direct emissions from fossil fuel combustion and indirect emissions from electricity consumption This paper examines in...

326

The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

2000-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Characterization of Small Scale Heterogeneity for Prediction of Acid Fracture Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently developed models of the acid fracturing process have shown that the differential etching necessary to create lasting fracture conductivity is caused by the heterogeneous distributions of permeability and mineralogy along the fracture faces. To predict the conductivity that can be created by acid in a particular formation, the models require information about these formation properties. This research aims to quantify correlation lengths using a geostatistical description of small scale heterogeneity to ascertain the distribution of permeability and mineralogy in a carbonate formation. The correlation length parameters are a first step in being able to couple acid transport and rock dissolution models at reservoir scale with a model of fracture conductivity based on channels and roughness features caused by small scale heterogeneity. Geostatistical parameters of small scale heterogeneity affecting wells in the Hugoton Field are developed. Data leading to their derivation are obtained from a combination of well logs and cores. The permeability of slabbed core is measured to yield vertical correlation length. Well logs are used to estimate permeability via an empirical relationship between core plug permeability and well log data for calculation of horizontal correlation length. A fracture simulator computes the acid etched fracture width for known treatment conditions. The resulting geostatistical parameters and acid etched width are used to predict acid fracture performance for a well in the Hugoton Field. Application of new model conductivity correlations results in a unique prediction for the acid fracture case study that differs from the industry standard. Improvements in low cost stimulation treatments such as acid fracturing are the key to revitalizing production in mature carbonate reservoirs like the Hugoton Field. Planning and development of new wells in any carbonate formation necessarily must consider acid fracturing as a production stimulation technique. Reliable models that accurately predict acid fracture conductivity can be used to make an informed investment decision.

Beatty, Cassandra Vonne

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator for design of acid-fracturing treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field experience during 1989--90 shows that application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator increases success of acid-fracturing well treatments. Fracture extension can be limited to the oil-bearing pay, maximum lateral extension can be realized within the height constraint, and acid/rock contact time can be increased by a factor of between 3 and 30. Oil-production response can be improved over other stimulation designs while water-production response can be limited. These methods have been applied in mature waterfloods of the Permian Basin and Cedar Creek anticline.

Morgenthaler, L.N. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

State Energy Production Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

State Energy Data System State Energy Data System Production Estimates Technical Notes For 1960-2011 Estimates Table of Contents Section 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 Section 2. Coal ............................................................................................................................... 5 Section 3. Crude Oil ....................................................................................................................... 7 Section 4. Natural Gas (Marketed Production) .............................................................................. 9 Section 5. Renewable Energy and Nuclear Energy ..................................................................... 13

330

Production reactor characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Reactors for the production of special nuclear materials share many similarities with commercial nuclear power plants. Each relies on nuclear fission, uses uranium fuel, and produces large quantities of thermal power. However, there are some important differences in production reactor characteristics that may best be discussed in terms of mission, role, and technology.

Thiessen, C.W.; Hootman, H.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

MTEACH: Didactic Multimedia Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multimedia production is generally considered to be an expensive task. This is true when dealing with complex graphics, animation, artistic effects, music and high quality video editing, but didactic applications do not require such advanced features. ... Keywords: Didactic, language-based multimedia production, automatic links generation, microneurosurgery

Pier Luca Montessoro; Stefano Caschi

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Jet production at HERA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent results from jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering to investigate parton dynamics at low x are reviewed. The results on jet production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction used to test perturbative QCD are discussed and the values of alphas(Mz) extracted from a QCD analysis of the data are presented

C. Glasman

2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: Tarun R. Naik, Director investigation. Two additional ash samples were prepared by blending these selected conventional and clean coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

334

Tools and Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A look at new products on the market, including the BOXX Technologies' Apexx 4 Super-Workstation and renderBOXX Classic 7500, Dimension 3D Printers from Tekpro Group, Micronas' VCT-Premium single-chip flat panel TV processors, Cyberware Head and Face ... Keywords: graphics tools, graphics products

Carl Machover; David J. Kasik

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Production of Recycled Lead  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...production of lead from recycled and mined (primary) sources for 1980 to 1988. At present, just under half of the total world lead production of 4.3 million metric tons (4.7 million tons) comes from recycling of scrap materials. As indicated in Table 4, there has been very little change in recent...

336

Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods  

SciTech Connect

An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized.

Garrison, W. M.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

PRODUCTION OF THORIUM FLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for producing anhydrous thorium fluoride comprising the step of contacting a saturated aqueous solution of thorium nitrate with an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid having a concentration of about 45 to 50% by weight at a temperature above 70 deg C whereby anhydrous thorium fluoride precipitates.

Zachariasen, W.H.

1959-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

338

Gulf Coast Distillate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 of 15 4 of 15 Notes: PADD 3 is a major source of supply for the East Coast. This graph shows how during the winter of 1997-1998 when distillate stocks were very high, production fell back. In contrast, we entered the winter of 1996-1997 with very low stocks, and refineries reached record production levels as they tried to build stocks late in the season. Notice that production is normally reduced in January as distillate stocks are used to meet demand and as refineries begin maintenance and turnovers, which continue into February. This January is no different. There is room for some production increases in January and February, if refineries postpone maintenance. But postponing maintenance and turnarounds can create problems when the gasoline production season begins in March and April.

339

Charm Production at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The latest results for open charm and $J/\\psi$ production in p-p, d-Au and Au-Au from the PHENIX and STAR experiments at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV at RHIC are presented. The preliminary data show open charm production follows binary scaling in d-Au and Au-Au collisions at RHIC. In d-Au collisions, a suppression in $J/\\psi$ production has been observed at the forward rapidity (d direction), at the backward rapidity (Au direction), $J/\\psi$ production seems strongly dependent on collisions centrality. The implications of heavy flavor production in cold (d-Au) and hot (Au-Au) nuclear media at RHIC are discussed.

Ming Xiong Liu

2004-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

340

Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

MBI International

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lead Acid Battery Consortium Lead Acid Battery Consortium Jump to: navigation, search Name Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium Place Durham, North Carolina Zip 27713 Sector Vehicles Product The ALABC is a research consortium of more than 50 battery-related companies that was originally formed in 1992 to advance the capabilities of the valve-regulated lead acid battery to help electric vehicles become a reality. Coordinates 45.396265°, -122.755099° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.396265,"lon":-122.755099,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

342

Impacts of EV battery production and recycling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

Gaines, L.; Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Axion Battery Products Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Axion Battery Products Inc Place Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada Zip L4L 5Y9 Product Subsidiary of Axion Power International, which is to run three lead acid battery fabrication lines. Coordinates 38.660595°, -77.247875° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.660595,"lon":-77.247875,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

344

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 3 Syntheses of Conjugated Linoleic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 3 Syntheses of Conjugated Linoleic Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   Downloadable pdf...

345

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 9 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Hypertension  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 9 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Hypertension Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   Downloadable pdf...

346

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Synthesis Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   Downloadable pdf...

347

FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production R&D Hydrogen Production R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts

348

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operators, especially those managing production from deepwater reservoirs, are striving to produce hydrocarbons at higher and higher rates without exposing the wells to completion failure risk. To avoid screen failures, recent studies have favored gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does not stop formation fines migration, and, over time, fines accumulation in the GP will lead to increasing completion skin. Although, and not always, the skin can be removed by acidizing, it is not practical to perform repeated acid treatments on deepwater wells, particularly those with subsea wellheads, and the alternative has been to subject the completion to increasingly high drawdown, accepting a high skin effect. A far better solution is to use a HPF completion. Of course the execution of a successful HPF is not a trivial exercise, and frequently, there is a steep learning curve for such a practice. This work explains the importance to HPF completions of the well trajectory through the interval to be hydraulically fractured, for production, not execution, reasons. A new model quantifies the effect of the well inclination on the connectivity between the fracture and the well via perforations. Guidelines based on the maximum target production rate, including forecasts of multiphase flow, are provided to size the HPF completion to avoid common completion failures that may result from high fluid rate and/or fines movement. Skin model will be developed for both vertical and deviated wells. Once the HPF is properly designed and executed, the operators should end up with a long term low skin good completion quality well. The well will be safely produced at the maximum flow rates, with no need for well surveillance and monitoring.

Tosic, Slavko

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Production of Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production of Hydrogen from Coal Production of Hydrogen from Coal Project Summary Full Title: Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Domestic Coal: Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies Project ID: 265 Principal Investigator: Kristin Gerdes Brief Description: This report assesses the improvements in cost and performance of hydrogen production from domestic coal when employing emerging technologies funded by DOE. Keywords: Hydrogen production; Coal Purpose This analysis specifically evaluates replacing conventional acid gas removal (AGR) and hydrogen purification with warm gas cleanup (WGCU) and a high-temperature hydrogen membrane (HTHM) that meets DOE's 2010 and 2015 performance and cost research and development (R&D) targets. Performer Principal Investigator: Kristin Gerdes

350

Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

351

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher total solids content and may be effective at acid stoichiometries below 100%, although no testing was performed below 100% acid stoichiometry. There are several issues related to the development of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. First, the measurement of anions using the new glycolate anion procedure likely needs to be optimized to improve the accuracy of the anions important to DWPF processing and REDOX prediction. Second, the existing REDOX equation with an added term for glycolate did not accurately predict the glass REDOX for the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Improvement of the anion measurement or modification of the REDOX methodology or equation may be necessary to improve the REDOX prediction. Last, the glycolic-formic flowsheet dissolves a number of metals, including iron. This leads to a thinner slurries but also dissolves up a portion of the iron, which is currently used for criticality control. It is recommended that DWPF continue to support development of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. This flowsheet meets or outperforms the baseline flowsheet in off-gas generation, mercury removal, product rheology and general ease of processing. Additional testing is in progress to demonstrate the effectiveness of the nitric-glycolic-formic flowsheet in processing a wide sludge processing window using the matrix sludge simulants.

Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

352

Integrated process for preparing a carboxylic acid from an alkane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an integrated process for producing unsaturated carboxylic acids from the corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane. The process begins with performance of thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions which convert a C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane to its corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkene, and which involve exothermically converting a portion of an alkane to its corresponding alkene by oxidative dehydrogenation in an exothermic reaction zone, in the presence of oxygen and a suitable catalyst, and then feeding the products of the exothermic reaction zone to an endothermic reaction zone wherein at least a portion of the remaining unconverted alkane is endothermically dehydrogenated to form an additional quantity of the same corresponding alkene, in the presence of carbon dioxide and an other suitable catalyst. The alkene products of the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions are then provided to a catalytic vapor phase partial oxidation process for conversion of the alkene to the corresponding unsaturated carboxylic acid or nitrile. Unreacted alkene and carbon dioxide are recovered from the oxidation product stream and recycled back to the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions.

Benderly, Abraham (Elkins Park, PA); Chadda, Nitin (Radnor, PA); Sevon, Douglass (Fairless Hills, PA)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

353

Why Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters? Strains of green algae from isolated acidic waters are being sequenced to understand how they adapt to variable levels of carbon dioxide, as well...

354

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

Greenhalgh, W.O.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

355

trans Fatty Acid Content Laboratory Proficiency Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for trans fatty acid content. Samples include non-hydrogenated Soybean Oil and hydrogenated Soybean Oil. trans Fatty Acid Content Laboratory Proficiency Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants certifie

356

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

359

Monthly Biodiesel Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Biodiesel Production Monthly Biodiesel Production Report November 2013 With Data for September 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Monthly Biodiesel Production Report This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or

360

acid  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

cut into the Pajarito Plateau in north- central New Mexico. From 1943 to 1964, during nuclear weapons research activities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, then...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of .sup.10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions.

Pollock, Charles W. (Richland, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran. Battelle ...

363

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Contact PNNL About This Technology ...

364

JGI - Product Offerings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Product Offerings Product Offerings Scientific Program Product Brief Description Deliverables FY14 target cycle time (median), days FY14 target cycle time (75th %), days Fungal Minimal Draft Low coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing for evaluation. May turn into a standard draft or improved standard draft. Assembly. Annotation optional (JGI portal); raw data submitted to SRA 250 400 Fungal Resequencing SNP and short indel calls, rearrangement detection, population analysis. Text file of SNPs (incl location in genome, coding/vs non, syn vs non-syn aa change etc) and structural rearrangements, alignment files, tracks for upload to genome browser and fastq files; raw data submitted to SRA 140 200 Fungal Standard Draft Whole genome shotgun sequencing. Exact scope items and quality of finished product depend on genome. Selected genomes will be improved based on feasibility and scientific merit. Assembly, annotation (JGI Portal + Genbank); raw data submitted to SRA 250 400

365

Net Primary Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 study sites, plus a worldwide data set, have been added to the global terrestrial Net Primary Production (NPP) reference database. The NPP database has been compiled by Dick...

366

Product Family Glossary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Printed on Recycled PaperIMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make changes to its products or to discontinue any semiconductor product or service without notice, and advises its customers to obtain the latest version of relevant information to verify, before placing orders, that the information being relied on is current. TI warrants performance of its semiconductor products and related software to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TI’s standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are utilized to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Specific testing of all parameters of each device is not necessarily performed, except those mandated by government requirements. Certain applications using semiconductor products may involve potential risks of death, personal injury, or severe property or environmental damage (“Critical Applications”).

Sprua Glossary; Tms Dsp; Literature Number Sprua

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction Introduction Collection 5 The MODIS data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are being reprocessed using revised algorithms beginning in September 2006. This new set of MODIS Products is called Collection 5. To view the product changes that took place in going from Collection 4 to Collection 5, please visit the following Web site: http://landweb.nascom.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/QA_WWW/newPage.cgi?fileName=MODLAND_C005_changes The ORNL DAAC provides subsets of the Collection 5 MODIS Land Products. Investigators from around the world have shown a great deal of interest in this activity, asking that over 1000 field and flux tower sites be included in Collection 5 subsetting (up from 280 sites for Collection 4 MODIS subsetting). Availability of the Collection 5 Data Products

368

production | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

production production Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 1, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses quadrillion BTUs, and quantifies the energy prices using U.S. dollars. The data is broken down into total production, imports, exports, consumption, and prices for energy types. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO consumption EIA export import production reference case total energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary - Reference Case (xls, 112.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed

369

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data for Selected Field Sites (n=1147) Data for Selected Field Sites (n=1147) Obtain MODIS data for areas centered on selected field sites or flux towers from around the world. The goal of the MODIS Subsets for Selected Field Sites is to prepare summaries of selected MODIS Land Products for the community to use for validation of models and remote sensing products and to characterize field sites. Search for data: By Site from a Map Server from Google Earth (Install Google Earth) From FTP site (ASCII) Methods Data products were first subsetted from one or more 1200x1200-km MODIS tiles to 25 x 25-km arrays by the MODIS Science Data Support Team (MODAPS). These products were further subsetted (7x7) and reformatted from their native HDF-EOS to ASCII using version 2.2 of the MODIS Reprojection Tool (MRT) in combination with code developed at the ORNL DAAC.

370

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

6. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by category, 2003-2012 person-years Year Exploration Mining Milling Processing Reclamation Total 2003 W W W W 117 321 2004 18...

371

Offshore Development and Production  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Natural gas production in the Federal offshore has increased substantially in recent years, gaining more than400 billion cubic feet between 1993 and 1997 to a level of 5.14 trillion cubic feet.

Information Center

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Natural Gas Production,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1996 (Million Cubic Feet) Table Alabama ... 530,841 5,361 -35,808 -163,227 0 921 18 325,542...

373

Coal production: 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US coal production and related data are reported for the year 1980, with similar data for 1979 given for comparison. The data here collected on Form EIA-7A, coal production report, from 3969 US mines that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1980. Among the items covered are production, prices, employment, productivity, stocks, and recoverable reserves. Data are reported by state, county, coal producing district, type of mining, and by type of coal (anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite). Also included are a glossary of coal terms used, a map of the coal producing disricts, and form EIA-7A with instructions. 14 figures, 63 tables.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Particle Data Group - Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA 94720-8166 USA In Europe, Africa, Middle East, India, Pakistan, Russia and all other countries: Via Email: pdg-products@cern.ch Via postal mail:...

375

Propane Production by Source  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 Notes: So where do we get our supplies of propane? Well, propane comes from both gas plants and refineries. Here we see data through May which shows that production at both gas...

376

Radioactivity in consumer products  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

EIA Drilling Productivity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Drilling Productivity Report Drilling Productivity Report For Center on Global Energy Policy, Columbia University October 29, 2013 | New York, NY By Adam Sieminski, Administrator The U.S. has experienced a rapid increase in natural gas and oil production from shale and other tight resources Adam Sieminski, EIA Drilling Productivity Report October 29, 2013 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Rest of US Marcellus (PA and WV) Haynesville (LA and TX) Eagle Ford (TX) Bakken (ND) Woodford (OK) Fayetteville (AR) Barnett (TX) Antrim (MI, IN, and OH) 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Eagle Ford (TX) Bakken (MT & ND) Granite Wash (OK & TX) Bonespring (TX Permian) Wolfcamp (TX Permian) Spraberry (TX Permian) Niobrara-Codell (CO) Woodford (OK)

378

Production of hydraulic oil from Baku crudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for low-pour oils for use in hydraulic systems is considerably greater than the possible production volume. The base stocks for hydraulic oils - AMG-10, MGE-10A, RM, and RMTs - are obtained by sulfuric acid treatment. In the interest of improving the ecological aspects of hydraulic oil production, sulfuric acid treatment is being replaced by hydroprocessing. The work described here was aimed at determining the feasibility of obtaining hydraulic oil of the RM type from lube distillate fractions of the mixed low-wax crudes processed in the Baku Azerneftyag Petroleum Refinery. This oil is intended for use in hydraulic systems of automatic control apparatus, mainly in flight vehicles operating in the North. Stringent requirements are imposed on its solid point and viscosity. solid point no higher than -60{degrees}C. viscosity w higher than 350 mm{sup 2}/sec at -40{degrees}C. The lube fractions used as starting materials had viscosities of 2.77 and 16.84 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C, with respective flash points of 85{degrees} and 168{degrees}C. As another starting material we used a gasoil cut with a viscosity of 4.4 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C and a flash point of 134{degrees}C.

Samedova, F.I.; Kasumova, A.M.; Alieva, V.M.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

Moens, L.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

380

PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

1963-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ethanol production from lignocellulose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Particle production at HERA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H1 has measured a number of different known particles and compared their production to QCD models and to other reactions such as N-N collisions. ZEUS has also measured the production of K0SK0S pairs with a view to searching for glueballs. Several resonances are seen which are glueball candidates. The results on the masses and widths are compared to other experiments.

Changyi Zhou

2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi Heng (East Lansing, MI); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Danzig, Morris (Northbrook, IL); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

384

Grid-based Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Grid-based Production Grid-based Production Grid-based Production PDSF is a Tier 2 site for ALICE and as such has the infrastructure in place to run automated grid-based ALICE production jobs. The main components of this infrastructure are listed below. Grid-Enabled Storage Elements There are currently a set of 10 servers running XRootD with a total capacity of 720TB. Included in XRootD are the data transfer tools used to transfer the input and output files for the production jobs running at PDSF. In addition to the 10 servers there is also the XRootD redirector which is currently running on pc1801.nersc.gov (pdsf5.nersc.gov). VO Box A VO (Virtual Organization) box is a dedicated node (palicevo1.nersc.gov) that coordinates the production. It runs the grid-monitoring tool MonALISA, the AliEn grid framework software, a Condor-G client and does job

385

An investigation of the effectiveness of anhydrous mud acid to remove damage in sandstone formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental research was to determine the reactivity of anhydrous mud acid with clay minerals present in sandstone formations and its ability to remove damage in sandstone acidizing. Berea core flood experiments were conducted with a mixture of carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. These tests were carried out with oven dried cores and cores at irreducible water saturation. Anhydrous mud acid appears to be reactive with all the cores tested. However, it does not have the ability to reduce damage as hoped. The aqueous phase is required to transport the products of the reaction. To confirm this, other tests with a mixture of 75% C02 and 25% aqueous acid by volume were done and again found to be reactive with the cores tested but were unable to remove the products of the reactions. Salt water afterflushes were done on these cores and the dissolved material was able to be transported out of the core. Therefore, it appears aqueous acid is required in an amount greater than 25% by volume to remove damage effectively in sandstone mud acidizing treatments utilizing C02 as a conjugate fluid.

Haase, Dalan David

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

Nguyen, Quang A

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL); Kaplan, Louis (Lombard, IL); Mason, George W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Ensuring lead-acid battery performance with pulse technology  

SciTech Connect

Basic lead-acid battery technology has remained virtually unchanged for almost 100 years. Although improvements have been made in chemistry and construction, the common causes that promote battery failure have remained the same. These causes are the result of sulfation buildup on the battery plates. The most effective solution to this problem is pulse technology. Pulse technology helps eliminate battery failure in the following ways: Prevents sulfation buildup; Enables the battery to have more active material in the electrolyte; and Prevents physical degradation of the battery plates. As a result, productivity is improved, replacement and other battery-related expenses are avoided, and unnecessary negative environmental impact is averted.

Shilling, S. [PulseTech Products Corp., Irving, TX (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. In addition to the maximum jet fuel schemes, conceptual designs have also been formulated for maximizing profits from refining of the Great Plains by-products. Conceptual processing schemes for profitable production of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X have been developed, as has a maximum profit'' case. All four of these additional cases have now been transferred to Lummus for design and integration studies. Development of these schemes required the use of linear programming technology. This technology includes not only conventional refining processes which have been adapted for use with coal-derived liquids (e.g. hydrotreating, hydrocracking), but also processes which may be uniquely suited to the Great Plains by-products such as cresylic acid extraction, hydordealkylation, and needle coking. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

ARM - PI Product - Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsRaman lidarAERI PBL Height Product Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Raman lidarAERI PBL...

391

ENERGY MODELING OF A LEAD-ACID BATTERY WITHIN HYBRID WIND / PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY MODELING OF A LEAD-ACID BATTERY WITHIN HYBRID WIND / PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS O. GERGAUD, G Abstract: Within the scope of full-scale energy modeling of a hybrid wind / photovoltaic system coupled / photovoltaic production system coupled to the network grid (with energy storage) ENERGY MODELING OF A LEAD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements In Fly Ash  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements in Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS: Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, pH ABSTRACT In the US, over 100 million tons of coal utilization by-products (CUB) are generated annually. To determine if exposure of these materials to aqueous fluids poses an environmental threat, researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have conducted extensive leaching tests. Five 1 kg samples of 35 PC fly ashes have been leached with acid, neutral and alkaline solutions at an approximate rate of 130 mL/d for 1 to 3 months. The leachates are

393

Storage of methane as volatile fatty acids for intermittent fuel use  

SciTech Connect

A process for on-site production of methane from sweet potato canning wastes was developed. In this process methane is stored conveniently as a liquid in the form of organic acids which are produced in an acid pond. When methane is needed, the acids are pumped into a methane pond underneath a sludge blanket, where high rates of methane production begin shortly after feeding. A demonstration plant has been designed and is being constructed using the existing pond system and facilities in a sweet potato canning factory in Louisiana. The methane produced is burned on-site to generate process steam for use in the main plant. 14 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

Nghiem, N.P.; Mehta, K.; Callihan, C.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Reaction products of aquatic humic substances with chlorine. Environ. Health Perspect. 46  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major concern of the chlorination of aquatic humic materials is the ubiquitous production of trihalomethanes. A large number of other chlorinated organic compounds, however, have been shown to be formed by chlorine's reaction with humic substances. In this study, humic material was concentrated from a coastal North Carolina lake and chlorinated at a chlorine to carbon mole ratio of 1.5 at pH 12. A high pH was necessary for complete dissolution of the humic material and for production of adequate quantities of oxidation and chlorination products for extraction, separation and mass spectrometric identification. After concentration in ether, samples were methylated, separated with a 50-m OV-17 glass capillary column or a 25 m SP-2100 fused-silica column and identified. A Hewlett-Packard 5710A gas chromatograph interfaced to a VG Micromass 7070F double-focusing mass spectrometer was used. Low resolution, accurate mass measurements were made with a combined EI-CI source. The ability to do low resolution, accurate mass measurements made possible a rapid scan function necessary for capillary column gas chromatography. Accurate mass measurements allowed increased confidence in the identification of compounds, most of which are not available as standards. The products identified in these studies were chlorinated aliphatic straight-chain acids dominated by di- and trichloroacetic acid and the chlorinated dicarboxylic acids: succinic, fumaric and maleic acids. Chlorinated and unchlorinated aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids and unchlorinated polycarboxylic aromatic acids comprise the remaining bulk of the compounds identified.

J. D. Johnson; R. F. Christman; D. L. Norwood; D. S. Millington

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

396

Utah Percent of Historical Oil Well Production (BOE) by Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Utah Percent of Historical Oil Well Production (BOE) by Production Rate Bracket. Energy Information Administration (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

397

Ohio Percent of Historical Gas Well Production (BOE) by Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ohio Percent of Historical Gas Well Production (BOE) by Production Rate Bracket. Energy Information Administration (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

398

TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEMTOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM ( TPS ) 1930( TPS ) 1930s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Why Leany #12;// ? ? ?? ?? #12;#12;TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEMTOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM. 80 : (Standard Work- CPG) 2 Toyota2. Toyota // waste value 3. (time, human effort

Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

399

Ohio Percent of Historical Oil Well Production (BOE) by Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ohio Percent of Historical Oil Well Production (BOE) by Production Rate Bracket. Energy Information Administration (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

400

Technology's Impact on Production  

SciTech Connect

As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Technology's Impact on Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) ?? entitled Technology’s Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level ? ? the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies ??Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

Amann, Rachel; Deweese, Ellis; Shipman, Deborah

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

Engineering Thermotolerant Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock for producing renewable chemicals and transportation fuels as petroleum substitutes. Fermentation of the cellulose in biomass in an SSF process requires that the properties of the microbial biocatalyst match the fungal cellulase activity optima for cost-effective production of products. Fermentation of the pentose sugars derived from hemicellulose in biomass is an additional asset of an ideal biocatalyst. The microbial biocatalyst used by the industry, yeast, lacks the ability to ferment pentose sugars. The optimum temperature for growth and fermentation of yeast is about 35°C. The optimum temperature for commercially available cellulase enzymes for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation is 50-55 °C. Because of the mismatch in the temperature optima for the enzyme and yeast, SSF of cellulose to ethanol (cellulosic ethanol) with yeast is conducted at a temperature that is close to the optimum for yeast. We have shown that by increasing the temperature of SSF to 50-55 °C using thermotolerant B. coagulans, the amount of cellulase required for SSF of cellulose to products can be reduced by 3-4 –fold compared to yeast-based SSF at 35°C with a significant cost savings due to lower enzyme loading. Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strains ferment hemicellulose-derived pentose sugars completely to L(+)-lactic acid, the primary product of fermentation. We have developed genetic tools to engineer B. coagulans for fermentation of all the sugars in biomass to ethanol. Using these tools, we have altered the fermentation properties of B. coagulans to produce ethanol as the primary product. The thermotolerant property of B. coagulans has been shown to also lower the cellulase requirement and associated cost in SSF of cellulose to lactic acid compared to lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid is a potential petroleum substitute for bio-based renewable plastics production. This study has led to the development of B. coagulans as a thermotolerant microbial biocatalyst for production of ethanol as a transportation fuel and lactic acid as a starting material for bio-based plastics in a cost-effective manner from renewable biomass.

K. T. Shanmugam, L. O. Ingram and J. A. Maupin-Furlow

2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

403

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Wade, Leslie E. (Corpus Christi, TX); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

FORMIC ACID FREE FLOWSHEET DEVELOPMENT TO ELIMINATE CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF’s chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Fellinger, T.; Bricker, J.

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

405

Effect of Bioreactor Mode of Operation on Mixed-Acid Fermentations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using mixed-culture fermentation, the carboxylate platform produces carboxylic acids, which are chemically converted into chemicals and fuels. To optimize the mixed-acid fermentation, different bioreactor configurations and operating modes were investigated. Intermittent air exposure did not affect fermentation performance and bacterial profiles, but reduced the high-molecular-weight carboxylic acids. The microbial flora contained strict and facultative microbes, suggesting the presence of a facultative anaerobic community existing in a biofilm. Compared to countercurrent trains, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivity and acid distribution, but lower yield, conversion, productivity, and acid concentration. One- to six-stage countercurrent fermentations were operated with similar conditions. Fewer stages increased conversion, whereas more stages increased acid concentration and selectivity. One to four stages achieved similar yield, and four to six stages achieved similar maximum acid concentration. Maximum conversion was achieved with a single stage. Recycling residual biomass retained microorganisms and nutrients and increased yield and productivity. Relative to lower biomass reflux, higher reflux increased conversion, decreased selectivity, and did not affect yield. The recommended carbon-nitrogen ratio is ~24 g carbon/g nitrogen. In four-stage fermentations, recycle to the second fermentor and in parallel to the first three fermentors was optimal. Fermentations with excess or insufficient nitrogen had higher selectivity, but decreased yield and conversion. The glucose-utilization assay is a rapid and repeatable method for determining the amount of microbial activity in a sample. This method determined ~25% efficiency of a new cell separation method. In continuous fermentation, compared to no cell recycle, recycling cellular biomass increased selectivity and yield, but decreased conversion. Compared to lower cell reflux, higher reflux increased productivity, yield, and conversion, but decreased selectivity. Compared to residual biomass recycle, cell recycle had increased selectivity and yield, but decreased conversion. A new method to screen and rank inoculum sources from natural environments was successfully developed and tested.

Golub, Kristina

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

407

Comparison of soy protein concentrates produced by membrane filtration and acid precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recovery of proteins using ultrafiltration (UF) process is an attractive alternative compared to conventional acid precipitation method. The mild processing condition, which leads to less protein denaturation, may be one of major virtues of this method. This research was directed to identify such assumptions of the products. Three soy protein concentrates were obtained in this study. Full-fat soybean flour and hexane-defatted soybean flour were dispersed into distilled water (1:8) at 60?C, respectively. A series of operations including pH adjustment (8.0), agitation (250 rpm, 30 min), sonication (40 dB, 20 min), homogenization (3 min), and centrifugation (3,000 x g, 15 min) were followed. For the membrane processing, the ultrafiltration cartridge used molecular weight cut-off 100,000 daltons. Acid-precipitated protein (at pH 4.5) was produced from hexane-defatted soybean flour following the identical procedures as above. Protein content of the membrane-processed product from full-fat soybean flour was 63.5% and that of the acid precipitated product was 71.9%. All samples were comparable in their functional properties. Nitrogen solubility at pH 7.0 was exhibited better in the protein produced by membrane filtration than the protein produced by acid precipitation due to protein denaturation. Also the membrane-processed soy protein showed good heat coagulation, emulsifying stability, and foaming stability. Amino acid patterns were similar to the typical one of soy proteins. However, relatively low lysine, threonine and valine contents in the acid-precipitated protein were noteworthy. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns were almost comparable among samples. In appearance, the acid-precipitated protein was light and slightly greenish tint.

Kim, Hyun Jung

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hydrogenation using hydrides and acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a very rapid, non-catalytic process for hydrogenating unsaturated organic compounds that can be carried out at temperatures generally lower than previously utilized. In this process organic compounds which contain at least one reducible functional group are hydrogenated non-catalytically by reacting them with a hydride complex and a strong acid. The reducible functional group may be, for example, C=C, C-OH, C-O-C, or a strained cyclic structure. If the reactants are not mutually soluble, they are dissolved in an appropriate inert solvent. 3 tabs.

Bullock, R.M.

1989-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

409

(Acidic deposition and the environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

410

Dehydration of acetic acid-water mixtures with near critical and supercritical fluid solvents  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium tie lines and phase densities are presented for acetic acid-water mixtures with near critical propane at 361K and 52 bar. Experimental measurements were obtained with a static technique; the equilibrium phases were directly sampled with high-pressure liquid sample injection valves at the temperature and pressure of interest. The data obtained in this work indicate that near critical propane can be used to facilitate the production of glacial acetic acid from dilute acetic acid-water solutions. Both these experimental data and the authors earlier results for acetic acid-water mixtures with supercritical carbon dioxide have been used to test an equation of state which has recently been developed by Grenzheuser and Gmehling for systems which contain associating fluids. Results indicate that the equation's pure component parameters need to be refitted to represent the critical region more accurately.

McCully, M.A.; Mullins, J.C.; Thies, M.C.; Hartley, I.J.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Hydrogen generation in SRAT with nitric acid and late washing flowsheets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, SRTC recommended two process changes: (1) a final wash of the tetraphenylborate precipitate feed slurry and (2) the use of nitric acid to neutralize the sludge in the SRAT. The first change produced an aqueous hydrolysis product (PHA) with higher formic acid/formate and copper concentration, and reduced the nitrate content in the PHA by an order of magnitude. The second change is to substitute part of formic acid added to the SRAT with nitric acid, and therefore may reduce the hydrogen generated in the SRAT as well as provide nitrate as an oxidant to balance the redox state of the melter feed. The purpose of this report is to determine the pertinent variables that could affect the hydrogen generation rate with these process changes.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

412

ORGANICS CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANT SIMULANTS, GLYCOLIC ACID, AND ANTIFOAM 747  

SciTech Connect

The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts of impurities such as formic and diglycolic acid that were then carried over in the SME products. Oxalic acid present in the simulated tank farm waste was also detected. Finally, numerous other compounds, at low concentrations, were observed present in etheric extracts of aqueous supernate solutions of the SME samples and are thought to be breakdown products of antifoam 747. The data collectively suggest that although addition of glycolic acid and antifoam 747 will introduce a number of impurities and breakdown products into the melter feed, the concentrations of these organics is expected to remain low and may not significantly impact REDOX or off-gas flammability predictions. In the SME products examined presently, which contained variant amounts of glycolic acid and antifoam 747, no unexpected organic degradation product was found at concentrations above 500 mg/kg, a reasonable threshold concentration for an organic compound to be taken into account in the REDOX modeling. This statement does not include oxalic or formic acid that were sometimes observed above 500 mg/kg and acetic acid that has an analytical detection limit of 1250 mg/kg due to high glycolate concentration in the SME products tested. Once a finalized REDOX equation has been developed and implemented, REDOX properties of known organic species will be determined and their impact assessed. Although no immediate concerns arose during the study in terms of a negative impact of organics present in SME products of the glycolic flowsheet, evidence of antifoam degradation suggest that an alternative antifoam to antifoam 747 is worth considering. The determination and implementation of an antifoam that is more hydrolysis resistant would have benefits such as increasing its effectiveness over time and reducing the generation of degradation products.

White, T.; Wiedenman, B.; Lambert, D.; Crump, S.; Fondeur, F.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Design of product development systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of successful new products in less time and using fewer resources is key to the financial success of most consumer product companies. In this thesis we have studied the development of new products and how ...

Aguirre Granados, Adrian

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Mesoporous Silica with Site-Isolated Amine and Phosphotungstic Acid Groups: A Solid Catalyst with Tunable Antagonistic Functions for One-Pot Tandem Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bifunctional solid catalyst is prepared by combining acid and base functions on mesoporous silica supports. The co-existence of these functions is shown by a two-step reaction sequence in one pot. Excellent product yields, which cannot be obtained by separated acid and base functions in one pot, show the validity of our concept.

Shiju N. R.; Syed K.; Alberts A.; Brown D. and Rothenberg G.

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

MTBE Production Economics  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE Production MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne market) of MTBE rose from $1.00 per gallon to over $1.60 per gallon. This represented an increase in the price premium for MTBE over the wholesale price of conventional gasoline from its normal (1995 though 2000 average) $0.26 per gallon to $0.60 per gallon. The MTBE

416

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production The simplest and most common element, hydrogen is all around us, but always as a compound with other elements. To make it usable in fuel cells or otherwise provide energy, we must expend energy or modify another energy source to extract it from the fossil fuel, biomass, water, or other compound in which it is found. Nearly all hydrogen production in the United States today is by steam reformation of natural gas. This, however, releases carbon dioxide in the process and trades one relatively clean fuel for another, with associated energy loss, so it does little to meet national energy needs. Hydrogen can also be produced by electrolysis-passing an electrical current through water to break it into hydrogen and oxygen-but electrolysis is inefficient and is only as clean

417

PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

1960-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gas production apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure gas stream for removing and separating the tritium from the solid lithium, and these means are contained in a low activity shell containing a thermal insulator and a neutron moderator.

Winsche, Warren E. (Bellport, NY); Miles, Francis T. (Bellport, NY); Powell, James R. (Wading River, NY)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Development of an Amino Acid (in Solution) Standard ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of an Amino Acid (in Solution) Standard Reference Material. Summary: Amino acids are the sequential components ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

420

Commercial Lining Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Comparative ranking of rubber lining materials...Heat Oxidation Ultraviolet Abrasion Weathering Oil Motor fuels Acid Alkali Flame Natural rubber NR 5 4 4 4 4 6 6 3 3 6 Styrene-butadiene SBR 4 3 3 2 4 5 6 3 3 6 Nitrile NBR 3 3 3 2 3 1 6 4 4 6 Chloroprene CR 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 Chlorosulfonylpolyethylene CSM 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 Isobutylene-isoprene...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Anaerobic fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure to carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, 80% lime-treated rice straw and 20% lime-treated chicken manure were used as substrates in rotary fermentors. Countercurrent fermentation was performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). The highest acid productivity of 1.69 g/(L�·d) was at a total acid concentration of 32.4 g/L. The highest conversion and yield were 0.692 g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.29 g total acids/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to predict product concentrations at various VSLR and LRT. CPDM predicted the experimental total acid concentration and conversion at an average error of 6.41% and 6.55%, respectively. A fixed-bed fermentation system was designed to perform pretreatment and fermentation in the same unit. High product concentrations (~48 g/L) as well as high conversions (0.741 g VS digested/g VS fed, F4, Train B) were obtained from the same fermentor. CPDM was extended to predict product concentrations in the fixed-bed fermentation system. The model gave a good estimate of the product concentrations and retention time. After biomass fermentation, the residue can be combusted to generate heat. For pretreatment purposes, the use of ash can replace lime. A study was performed using ash as a potential pretreatment agent. Ash from raw poplar wood was effective in pretreating poplar wood; however, ash from bagasse fermentation residues was not useful in pretreating bagasse. Previous modeling studies indicate that a conversion of 95% could be achieved with bagasse using countercurrent fermentation. Because lignin constitutes 13% of the dry weight of bagasse, this means lignin would have to be digested to obtain a conversion of 95%. Experiments on the fermentation of enzymatically liberated lignin from both poplar wood and bagasse do not show that solubilized lignin was fermented to organic acids by using a mixed culture of marine microorganisms. Two buffer systems (ammonium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate) were used to compare product concentrations of carboxylic acid fermentations using office paper and chicken manure. It has been demonstrated that the total product concentration using ammonium bicarbonate is almost double the product concentration using calcium carbonate.

Agbogbo, Frank Kwesi

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

SEDS: State Energy Production Estimates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity. ... Production. by state and for the United States; by energy source;

423

emerging technologies for metals production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics of Production of Primary Titanium by Electrolytic Winning [pp. 13-41] ... A Process for Continuous Titanium Production from Titanium Oxide [pp. 79-88

424

Production analysis of Marcellus Shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the production potential of Marcellus shale using actual field data. By using real field production data for… (more)

Belyadi, Hossein.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Cumulative Crude Production Additions (Annual)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This graph shows the cumulative growth of the Atlantic Basin light sweet crude oil production relative to the growth in crude oil production from the rest of the ...

426

Covered Product Categories (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program Energy-Efficient Product Procurement Program and its designated product category list.

Not Available

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energy and Biomedical / Primary Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 15, 2012 ... The distillation product by vacuum distillation process produced a high purity metal magnesium product, it can be deduced that reversion ...

428

LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA  

SciTech Connect

A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

429

Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Advanced lead acid battery development project. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involved laboratory and road testing of the Horizon (registered) advanced lead acid batteries produced by Electrosource, Inc. A variety of electric vehicles in the fleet operated by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District and McClellan Air Force Base were used for road tests. The project was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under RA 93-23 entitled Electric Vehicle Technology and Infrastructure. The Horizon battery is a valve regulated, or sealed, lead acid battery produced in a variety of sizes and performance levels. During the project, several design and process improvements on the Horizon battery resulted in a production battery with a specific energy approaching 45 watt-hours per kilogram (Whr/kg) capable of delivering a peak current of 450 amps. The 12 volt, 95 amp-hour (Ahr) Horizon battery, model number 12N95, was placed into service in seven (7) test vehicles, including sedans, prototype lightweight electric vehicles, and passenger vans. Over 20,000 miles have been driven to date on vehicles powered by the Horizon battery. Road test results indicate that when the battery pack is used with a compatible charger and charge management system, noticeably improved acceleration characteristics are evident, and the vehicles provide a useful range almost 20% greater than with conventional lead-acid batteries.

NONE

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Breakdown of Cell Wall Nanostructure in Dilute Acid Pretreated Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generation of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass holds great promise for renewable and clean energy production. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of lignocellulose breakdown during various pretreatment methods is needed to realize this potential in a cost and energy efficient way. Here, we use small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to characterize morphological changes in switchgrass lignocellulose across molecular to sub-micron length scales resulting from the industrially-relevant dilute acid pretreatment method. Our results demonstrate that dilute acid pretreatment increases the cross-sectional radius of the crystalline cellulose fibril. This change is accompanied by removal of hemicellulose and the formation of Rg ~ 135 lignin aggregates. The structural signature of smooth cell wall surfaces is observed at length scales larger than 1000 , and it remains remarkably invariable during pretreatment. This study elucidates the interplay of the different biomolecular components in the break down process of switchgrass by dilute acid pretreatment. The results are important for the development of efficient strategies of biomass to biofuel conversion.

Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL; McGaughey, Joseph [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Universal Product Design: Transforming User Activity Into Product Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many people have disabilities and would like to have all of the amenities typical of daily life. Universal product design is important in designing for the disabled and creating user-friendly products for all people. The goal of this thesis is to develop a universal product method by understanding how user activity closely resembles product function. The research results include a twenty product pair study in which a universal and typical product were compared. An activity diagram and functional model for each product in the product pair were the design tools used for this comparison. User activities were used to cluster product function changes. In addition, design changes such as functional, morphological and parametric were identified between the universal and typical product. The result was an action-function diagram showing the clusters and design changes for all of the twenty product pairs. An interactive GUI universal product design repository detailing the information from the action-function diagrams was created and used for eventual modification of typical products to make them universal. A universal product family was created using a user-centric universal design method developed because of the universal product design repository. Furthermore, user disability ratings from the ICF helped to expand the database and make creation of a universal product family more focused on levels of disability. The useful application of the research will be in developing a universal design method for product designers and engineers. This method will be broken down into a design structure matrix representation of functions from a universal product family of household kitchen appliances. In addition, an embodied concept for a product family consisting of existing accessible dispensers will be used to validate the universal design method developed from the twenty product study. Both case studies will serve as an example of how to extend universal design principles to a wide range of consumer product categories.

Kostovich, Vincent

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Table 1. U.S. Biodiesel Production Capacity and Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Production Capacity and Production Biodiesel Production Capacity and Production (million gallons) Period 2011 January 2,114 35 February 2,104 40 March 2,081 60 April 2,101 71 May 2,064 77 June 2,069 81

434

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentations Presentations Web and Web Services based tool that provides Subsets and Visualization of MODIS land products to facilitate land validation and field site characterization. S.K. Santhana Vannan; R. B. Cook; B. E. Wilson. AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 14-18 2009 MODIS Land Product Subsets,S.K. Santhana Vannan; R. B. Cook. November, 2009 MODIS Web Service, S.K. Santhana Vannan. ORNL DAAC UWG Meeting, May 2009 Subsetting Tools for MODIS Land Products: Time-series data for field sites, R. B. Cook, S. M. Margle, S. K. Santhana Vannan, S. K. Holladay, and T. W. Beaty. Global Vegetation Workshop, Missoula MT, August 8-10, 2006 MODIS ASCII Subsets, R. B. Cook. May 2006 Subsets of Remote Sensing Products for AmeriFlux Sites: MODIS ASCII Subsets, AmeriFlux Annual Meeting, R. B. Cook, S. M. Margle, S. K. Holladay, F. A. Heinsch, and C. B. Schaaf. October 5-7, 2004, Boulder, Colorado

435

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012 2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012 Production / Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Underground (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W Open Pit (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching (thousand pounds U3O8) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W Other1 (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W Total Mine Production (thousand pounds U3O8) E2,200 2,452 3,045 4,692 4,541 3,879 4,145 4,237 4,114 4,335 Number of Operating Mines Underground 1 2 4 5 6 10 14 4 5 6 Open Pit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching 2 3 4 5 5 6 4 4 5 5 Other Sources1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

436

Inclusive neutral particle production  

SciTech Connect

Results of recent inclusive neutral particle production experiments are compared to existing experimental results. These experiments range from 15 to 2000 GeV/c in laboratory beam momentum and use $pi$$sup -$, $pi$$sup +$, p and anti p beams. (auth)

Kahn, S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was produced by Wisconsin Electric's coal-fired power plants. The criteria for selecting these mixtures was to utilize minimal cost materials, such as coal combustion by-products (fly ash, bottom ash, etc of sufficient strength to withstand handling, transfer and long term exposure. The final phase (4) was designed

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

438

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Management & Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs), Tampa, Florida, Jan. 27-30, 2003. Department of Civil-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201 d Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute * Director UWM concrete mixtures can be made with up to blends of 20% ponded-ash and 5% Class F fly ash. #12;Introduction

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

439

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigation. Two additional ash samples were prepared by blending these selected conventional and clean coalCenter for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

440

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST by blending these selected conventional and clean coal ashes. Using these sixdifferent ash samples, eleven of 0 and60 percent by high-sulfurcoal ashes (Class F and clean-coal ashes) andcoal ash blends (Class F

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "adipic acid production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-lime fly ash in blended cements with minimum (less than 20%) portland cement in the blend. Keywords: Fly 232, Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans. #12;4 INTRODUCTION Coal is the most widely used source of energy ash. In 1992, total coal ash production in the world was estimated to be 600 million tons, of which

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

442

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Class C fly ash in blended cements with minimum (less than 10 %) portland cement in the blend. Keywords; freezing and thawing durability; strength; sulfate resistance. #12;2 INTRODUCTION Coal is the most widely amounts of coal combustion products (CCPs), which include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

443

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the coal ash derived from SOx control technology. Up to 80% of CCA was blended with ground portland cement: blended cement, clean coal ash, sulfate resistance, time of setting #12;3 Zichao Wu is Structural EngineerCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

444

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and clean-coal ashes) andcoal ash blends (Class F plus clean-coal ash blends) in the range of 0 to 60Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLY ASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL,and Bruce W. Ramme CBU-1996-08 REP-283 July 1996 Presented andPublished at the American Coal Ash Association

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

445

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Test results indicated that all the blends with coal ash had lower expansion than the control mixtureCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

446

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mixtures were developed using blends of wood FA and Class C coal FA. Two levels of blended ash of concrete. Blending of wood FA with Class C coal FA improved performance of wood FA to a significant extentCenter for By-Products Utilization GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

447

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

Calkins, V.P.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

448

Selected Vendor Telecommunications Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;APPENDIX A A-2 Product: CellNet Developers: CellNet Data Systems Investors: AT&T Ventures Bank of Boston- held or other mobile receivers. CellNet's fixed wireless radio system consists of a two-way network, operation, and maintenance of the system, paying a fee of roughly $1.00 per meter per month for the basic

449

Electrolytic tritium production  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports fifty-three electrolytic cells of various configurations and electrode compositions examined for tritium production. Significant tritium was found in 11 cells at levels between 1.5 and 80 times the starting concentration after enrichment corrections are made.

Storms, E.; Talcott, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., Nuclear Materials Technology Div. and Material Science and Technology Div., MS C348, Los Alamos, NM (US))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Programs on Product Spaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study program states that are described as tuples, i.e., product state spaces. We show how to add program variables and assignment notation to simply typed lambda calculus in order to describe functions, relations and predicate transformers on such ...

Ralph Back; Joakim Wright von

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

& CONSUMPTION US HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12% of the nation's electricity. Hydropower produces more than 90,000 megawatts of electricity, which is enough to meet the needs of 28.3 million consumers. Hydropower accounts for over 90% of all electricity the NAO. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION IN NORWAY AND THE NAO The demand for heating oil in Norway

452

Weekly Coal Production by State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Weekly Coal Production Weekly Coal Production Data for week ended: December 14, 2013 | Release date: December 19, 2013 | Next release date: December 30, 2013 For the week ended December 14, 2013: U.S. coal production totaled approximately 18.9 million short tons (mmst) This production estimate is 3.1% higher than last week's estimate and 2.9% lower than the production estimate in the comparable week in 2012 Coal production east of the Mississippi River totaled 8.2 mmst Coal production west of the Mississippi River totaled 10.8 mmst U.S. year-to-date coal production totaled 957.1 mmst, 1.9% lower than the comparable year-to-date coal production in 2012 EIA revises its weekly estimates of state-level coal production using Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) quarterly coal production data.

453

Microalgal Triacylglycerols as Feedstocks for Biofuel Production: Perspectives and Advances  

SciTech Connect

Microalgae represent an exceptionally diverse but highly specialized group of micro-organisms adapted to various ecological habitats. Many microalgae have the ability to produce substantial amounts (e.g. 20-50% dry cell weight) of triacylglycerols (TAG) as a storage lipid under photo-oxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. Fatty acids, the building blocks for TAGs and all other cellular lipids, are synthesized in the chloroplast using a single set of enzymes, of which acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is key in regulating fatty acid synthesis rates. However, the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis is poorly understood in microalgae. Synthesis and sequestration of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies appear to be a protective mechanism by which algal cells cope with stress conditions, but little is known about regulation of TAG formation at the molecular and cellular level. While the concept of using microalgae as an alternative and renewable source of lipid-rich biomass feedstock for biofuels has been explored over the past few decades, a scalable, commercially viable system has yet to emerge. Today, the production of algal oil is primarily confined to high-value specialty oils with nutritional value, rather than commodity oils for biofuel. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge on oleaginous algae and their fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis, algal model systems and genomic approaches to a better understanding of TAG production, and a historical perspective and path forward for microalgae-based biofuel research and commercialization.

Hu, Q.; Sommerfeld, M.; Jarvis, E.; Ghirardi, M.; Posewitz, M; Seibert, M.; Darzins, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Syngas Processing Systems Syngas Processing Systems Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FE0013363 Project Description In this project, Air Products will operate a two-bed mobile system at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) facility. A slipstream of authentic, high-hydrogen syngas based on low-rank coal will be evaluated as the feedstock. Testing will be conducted for approximately eight weeks, thereby providing far longer adsorbent exposure data than demonstrated to date. By utilizing real-world, high- hydrogen syngas, information necessary to understand the utility of the system for methanol production will be made available. In addition, Air Products will also operate a multi-bed PSA process development unit (PDU), located at its Trexlertown, PA headquarters, to evaluate the impact of incorporating pressure equalization steps in the process cycle. This testing will be conducted utilizing a sulfur-free, synthetic syngas, and will improve the reliability of the prediction of the system's operating performance at commercial scale.

457

Integrated process for microbial solvent production from whey permeate. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Acetone and butanol were historically produced through fermentation of carbohydrate raw materials. Conventional feedstocks such as grain and molasses, and the energy required to recover products by distillation, are too costly for traditional batch fermentation to compete with petrochemical synthesis. The authors proposed to evaluate an acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of acid whey permeate, a cheap carbohydrate source, using up-to-date bioreactor technology continuous fermentation with cell recycle and in-situ butanol recovery by gas stripping. Clostridium acetobutylicum P262 was the strain chosen, as it assimilates both the lactose and lactic acid in acid whey. Single-stage continuous culture proved unsuitable for butanol production, since productivity is low and cultures degenerated quickly. Two-stage culture improved productivity by a factor of two over batch runs. All continuous cultures showed major oscillations in cell density, substrate concentration and products formed. Under these conditions, cell recycle did not affect productivity in two-stage culture. Gas stripping with fermentor off-gases recovered a clean condensate of butanol and acetone at 70--90% yield and with purification factors of 14 to 35. Stripping maintained solvent concentrations in the range of 2--4 g/l even at the peak of solventogenesis, eliminating product inhibition. Gas stripping produced a 50% improvement in substrate uptake and a 10--20% improvement in solvent productivity.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Nucleic Acid Standards - Program List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

List of Programs and References List of Programs and References CEHS M. A. El Hassan & C. R. Calladine (1995). ``The Assessment of the Geometry of Dinucleotide Steps in Double-Helical DNA: A New Local Calculation Scheme.'' J. Mol. Biol. 251, 648-664. X. J. Lu, M. A. El Hassan & C. A. Hunter (1997). ``Structure and Conformation of Helical Nucleic Acids: Analysis Program (SCHNAaP).''J. Mol. Biol. 273, 668-680. CompDNA (Please refer to Dr. Andrey A. Gorin: agor@sbnmr1.ski.mskcc.org OR Dr. Victor B. Zhurkin: zhurkin@lmmb.nci.nih.gov) A. A. Gorin, V. B. Zhurkin & W. K. Olson (1995). ``B-DNA Twisting Correlates with Base-pair Morphology.'' J. Mol. Biol. 247, 34-48. K. M. Kosikov, A. A. Gorin, V. B. Zhurkin & W. K. Olson (1999). ``DNA Stretching and Compression: Large-scale Simulations of Double Helical

459

Nucleic Acid Standards - Refinement Parameters  

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Refinement Parameters Refinement Parameters The DNA/RNA topology and parameter files for X-PLOR are shown below. These were tested with DNA structures and with protein-DNA complexes. X-PLOR topology file X-PLOR parameter files: X-PLOR parameter file For the refinement of high resolution structures (< 1.7 Angstroms) the parameter file with distinct bond distances and bond angles for both C2'-endo and C3'-endo conformations should be considered: X-PLOR parameter file for high resolution structures "New Parameters for the Refinement of Nucleic Acid Containing Structures." Gary Parkinson, Jaroslav Vojtechovsky, Lester Clowney, Axel Brunger*, and Helen M. Berman. (1996) Acta Cryst. D 52, 57-64 Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0939; *The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Molecular and

460

Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...correctly will provide the best opportunity for sustainability once the work cells initiate production....

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461

Synthesizing products for online catalogs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive product catalog is essential to the success of Product Search engines and shopping sites such as Yahoo! Shopping, Google Product Search, and Bing Shopping. Given the large number of products and the speed at which they are released to ...

Hoa Nguyen; Ariel Fuxman; Stelios Paparizos; Juliana Freire; Rakesh Agrawal

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Codes base on unambiguous products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the notion of +-unambiguous product which is expanded from unambiguous product and the definitions of alternative product, alternative code, even alternative code on a pair (X, Y) of languages. Some basic properties of ... Keywords: +-unambiguous product, alt-code, ealt-code, generations of code, independency of conditions

Ho Ngoc Vinh; Vu Thanh Nam; Phan Trung Huy

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM, PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY PEROXIDE DISSOLUTION METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating U/sup 233/ from thorium and fission products. The separation is effected by forming a thorium-nitric acid solution of about 3 pH, adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium and thorium peroxide, treating the peroxides with sodium hydroxide to selectively precipitate the uranium peroxide, and reacting the separated solution with nitric acid to re- precipitate the uranium peroxide.

Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

1959-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

464

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic200X An alternative biomass-based route to aromatics isaromatic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

Arceo, Elena

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)  

SciTech Connect

Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

466

The methylation of benzoic and n-butyric acids by chloromethane in Phellinus pomaceus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetics of carboxylic acid methylation by chloromethane (CH3Cl) in myceliaaf the fungus Phellinus pomaceus were examined. Substantial incorporation of C2H3- into ester was observed within 5 min of addition of C2H3Cl to washed mycelia in the presence of the non-physiological acceptor butyric acid, rendering it unlikely that CH3Cl was converted to a diffusible intermediate before acting as methyl donor. The rate of methyl butyrate biosynthesis attained a maximum of 0.14 pmol g-l h-l at 1-5 mM-butyric acid, with higher concentrations causing increasing inhibition. Exogenous CH3Cl did not affect methyl butyrate production implying that the rate of CH3Cl biosynthesis did not limit methylation. However, C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into methyl butyrate rose sharply from 20 to 60 % between 1.5 and 4 mM-butyric acid, suggesting inhibition of CH3Cl biosynthesis by the acid, an interpretation supported by the rapid decline in gaseous CH3Cl release by mycelia between 1.5 and 2 mM-butyric acid. With the natural acceptor benzoic acid as substrate a significant increase in the rate of ester biosynthesis was obtained in the presence of exogenous CH3Cl. Ester biosynthesis was maximal (0.18 pmol g-l h-l) at 0.5 mM-benZOiC acid but fell extremely rapidly with increasing concentration. As with butyric acid supraoptimal concentrations halted CH3Cl release and increased C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl. Studies on C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into ester revealed a linear relationship between the logarithm of the percentage C2H3-incorporation and the logarithm of C2H3Cl

Kieran J. Mcnally; David B. Harper. *t

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

468

CE IGCC Repowering plant sulfuric acid plant. Topical report, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the CE IGCC Repowering project is to demonstrate a hot gas clean-up system (HGCU), for the removal of sulfur from the product gas stream exiting the gasifier island. Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) intends to use a HGCU developed by General Electric Environmental Services (GEESI). The original design of this system called for the installation of the HGCU, with a conventional cold gas clean-up system included as a full-load operational back-up. Each of these systems removes sulfur compounds and converts them into an acid off-gas. This report deals with the investigation of equipment to treat this off-gas, recovering these sulfur compounds as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or some other form. ABB CE contracted ABB Lummus Crest Inc. (ABB LCI) to perform an engineering evaluation to compare several such process options. This study concluded that the installation of a sulfuric acid plant represented the best option from both a technical and economic point of view. Based on this evaluation, ABB CE specified that a sulfuric acid plant be installed to remove sulfur from off-gas exiling the gas clean-up system. ABB LCI prepared a request for quotation (RFQ) for the construction of a sulfuric acid production plant. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Inc. presented the only proposal, and was eventually selected as the EPC contractor for this system.

Chester, A.M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Read the Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013. Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013 Industrial Oil Products Newsletter April 2013 ...

470

MODIS Land Products Subsets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Subsetting and Visualization Tool Global Subsetting and Visualization Tool The Global Subsetting and Visualization Tool provides customized subsets of MODIS Land