National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for additive methyl tertiary

  1. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  2. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1983-01-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C.sub.4 hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether.

  3. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  4. Activation of water soluble amines by halogens for trapping methyl radioactive iodine from air streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-01-01

    Gas adsorbent charcoals impregnated with an aqueous solution of the reaction product of a tertiary amine and elemental iodine or bromine are better than 99 per cent efficient in trapping methyl iodine.sup.131. The chemical addition of iodine or bromine to the tertiary amine molecule increases the efficiency of the impregnated charcoal as a trapping agent, and in conjunction with the high flash point of the tertiary amine raises the ignition temperature of the impregnated charcoal.

  5. Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

  6. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  7. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  8. Additive Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MST » MST Research Programs » Additive Manufacturing Additive Manufacturing A method allowing unparalleled manufacturing control, data visualization, and high-value parts repair. Through additive manufacturing, Los Alamos is developing materials for the future. Taking complex manufacturing challenges from design to fabrication. A science and engineering approach for additive manufacturing solutions. Get Expertise John Carpenter Technical Staff Member Metallurgy Email Division Leader Materials

  9. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  10. additive manufacturuing

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing.

    Lawrence Livermore Lab engineer Bryan Moran wasn't necessarily...

  11. Additive Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... laser-sintering) Optomec LENS MR-7 Sciaky EBAM 68 Non-metal additive manufacturing Powder bed FORMIGA P 110 PolyJet 3D ... Fused deposition modeling print technology MakerBot ...

  12. Method and apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivas, N.; Beichel, R.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from oil fields comprising: a. a bipropellant generator capable of producing exhaust gases at supercritical pressures and temperatures; b. transport means for carrying the exhaust gases into a well bore, at least a portion of the well bore extending into a hydrocarbon bearing formation from which hydrocarbons are to be recovered; c. means for introducing water into the transport means; and d. a water cooling jacket extending into at least the upper portion of the well bore, the center of the cooling jacket receiving the exhaust gases from the transport means, means being provided for the introduction of chemical additives through a portion of the cooling jacket. A process is described for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from geological formations comprising: a. providing a well bore extending at least into the strata of the geologic formation containing the hydrocarbons to be recovered; b. providing at least the upper portion of the well bore with a cooling jacket, the cooling jacket being provided with a central, open portion; c. generating gases at supercritical temperatures and pressures; d. introducing water into the supercritical gases to form steam; e. forcing the mixture of supercritical combustion gases and steam through the central open portion of the cooling jacket and the well bore into the hydrocarbon strata; and f. adding chemical additives to the mixture of combustion gases and steam below the cooling jacket.

  13. additive manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    additive manufacturing - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  14. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  15. Phosphazene additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  16. Controlling DNA Methylation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some

  17. Dcm methylation is detrimental to plasmid transformation in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Adam M; Olson, Daniel G.; Caiazza, Nicky; Lynd, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Industrial production of biofuels and other products by cellulolytic microorganisms is of interest but hindered by the nascent state of genetic tools. Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve relatively low efficiency and similar plasmids can transform C. thermocellum at dramatically different efficiencies. RESULTS: We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been methylated by Escherichia coli Dam but not Dcm methylases. When isolated from a dam+ dcm+ E. coli strain, pAMG206 transforms C. thermocellum 100-fold better than the similar plasmid pAMG205, which contains an additional Dcm methylation site in the pyrF gene. Upon removal of Dcm methylation, transformation with pAMG206 showed a four- to seven-fold increase in efficiency; however, transformation efficiency of pAMG205 increased 500-fold. Removal of the Dcm methylation site from the pAM205 pyrF gene via silent mutation resulted in increased transformation efficiencies equivalent to that of pAMG206. Upon proper methylation, transformation efficiency of plasmids bearing the pMK3 and pB6A origins of replication increased ca. three orders of magnitude. CONCLUSION: E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. The use of properly methylated plasmid DNA should facilitate genetic manipulation of this industrially relevant bacterium.

  18. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  19. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  20. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  1. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J

    2013-11-26

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  2. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  3. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  4. Exploring the roles of DNA methylation in the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bendall, Matthew L.; Luong, Khai; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Blow, Matthew; Korlach, Jonas; Deutschbauer, Adam; Malmstrom, Rex

    2013-08-30

    We performed whole genome analyses of DNA methylation in Shewanella 17 oneidensis MR-1 to examine its possible role in regulating gene expression and 18 other cellular processes. Single-Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing 19 revealed extensive methylation of adenine (N6mA) throughout the 20 genome. These methylated bases were located in five sequence motifs, 21 including three novel targets for Type I restriction/modification enzymes. The 22 sequence motifs targeted by putative methyltranferases were determined via 23 SMRT sequencing of gene knockout mutants. In addition, we found S. 24 oneidensis MR-1 cultures grown under various culture conditions displayed 25 different DNA methylation patterns. However, the small number of differentially 26 methylated sites could not be directly linked to the much larger number of 27 differentially expressed genes in these conditions, suggesting DNA methylation is 28 not a major regulator of gene expression in S. oneidensis MR-1. The enrichment 29 of methylated GATC motifs in the origin of replication indicate DNA methylation 30 may regulate genome replication in a manner similar to that seen in Escherichia 31 coli. Furthermore, comparative analyses suggest that many 32 Gammaproteobacteria, including all members of the Shewanellaceae family, may 33 also utilize DNA methylation to regulate genome replication.

  5. Additive Manufacturing Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Manufacturing 1 Technology Assessment 2 1. Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1 Introduction to Additive Manufacturing ....................................................................................... 2 5 1.2 Additive Manufacturing Processes ............................................................................................... 2 6 1.3 Benefits of Additive

  6. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1990-12-31

    Iodide-impregnated activated carbon that had been in use for up to 30 months was studied to characterize those factors that affect its interaction with and retention of methyl iodide. Humidity and competing organic sorbents were observed to decrease the residence time of the methyl iodide on the carbon bed. Additionally, changes in the effective surface area and the loss of iodide from the surface are both important in determining the effectiveness of the carbon for retaining radioactive iodine from methyl iodide. A simple model incorporating both factors gave a fairly good fit to the experimental data.

  7. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Iodide-impregnated activated carbon that had been in use for up to 30 months was studied to characterize those factors that affect its interaction with and retention of methyl iodide. Humidity and competing organic sorbents were observed to decrease the residence time of the methyl iodide on the carbon bed. Additionally, changes in the effective surface area and the loss of iodide from the surface are both important in determining the effectiveness of the carbon for retaining radioactive iodine from methyl iodide. A simple model incorporating both factors gave a fairly good fit to the experimental data.

  8. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  9. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

  10. Additive Manufacturing Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For instance, the following parts have already been manufactured additively: 179 Structure parts for unmanned aircraft by SAAB Avitronics 15, 16; 180 Special tools for ...

  11. Additive Manufacturing: Going Mainstream

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is receiving attention from media, investment communities and governments around the world transforming it from obscurity to something to be talked about.

  12. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2014-08-01

    are soluble in NaOH scrubbing solution for iodine analysis. But when NOx and H2O are not present, then the majority of the uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent is in the form of methyl iodide. Methyl iodide adsorption efficiencies have been high enough so that initial DFs exceed 1,000 to 10,000. The methyl iodide mass transfer zone depths are estimated at 4-8 inches, possibly deeper than mass transfer zone depths estimated for I2 adsorption on AgZ. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  13. Additional Distinguished Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additional Distinguished Awards Additional Distinguished The Lab's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. Contact Jenna L. Montoya (505) 665-4230 Email The atomic bomb made the prospect of future war unendurable. It has led us up those last few steps to the mountain pass; and beyond there is a different country. ~

  14. Effect of additives on lithium cycling efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, J. )

    1994-09-01

    Lithium cycling efficiency was evaluated for LiAsF[sub 6]-ethylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixed-solvent electrolyte (LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF) with several additives: tetraalkylammonium chlorides with a long n-alkyl chain and three methyl groups. The ammonium chlorides with n-alkyl group longer than n-C[sub 12]H[sub 25]- increased lithium cycling efficiency. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) produced the best improvement in lithium cycling efficiency. A figure of merit (FOM) of lithium for 0.01 M CTAC was 46, which was 1.5 times the FOM for the corresponding additive-free electrolyte. The LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF with CTAC showed an increase in FOM with stack pressure, but the effect was less than that for the additive-free LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the addition of CTAC decreased the needle-like lithium deposition and increased particulate lithium deposition. This deposition morphology may be the main cause of the increase in FOM. The additive had no effect on rate capability for cell cycling at 3 mA/cm[sup 2] discharge and 1 mA/cm[sup 2] charge.

  15. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  16. Stepwise DNA Methylation Changes Are Linked to Escape from Defined Proliferation Barriers and Mammary Epithelial Cell Immortalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novak, Petr; Jensen, Taylor J.; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-04-20

    The timing and progression of DNA methylation changes during carcinogenesis are not completely understood. To develop a timeline of aberrant DNA methylation events during malignant transformation, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model of transformation. To acquire immortality and malignancy, the cultured finite lifespan HMEC must overcome two distinct proliferation barriers. The first barrier, stasis, is mediated by the retinoblastoma protein and can be overcome by loss of p16(INK4A) expression. HMEC that escape stasis and continue to proliferate become genomically unstable before encountering a second more stringent proliferation barrier, telomere dysfunction due to telomere attrition. Rare cells that acquire telomerase expression may escape this barrier, become immortal, and develop further malignant properties. Our analysis of HMEC transitioning from finite lifespan to malignantly transformed showed that aberrant DNA methylation changes occur in a stepwise fashion early in the transformation process. The first aberrant DNA methylation step coincides with overcoming stasis, and results in few to hundreds of changes, depending on how stasis was overcome. A second step coincides with immortalization and results in hundreds of additional DNA methylation changes regardless of the immortalization pathway. A majority of these DNA methylation changes are also found in malignant breast cancer cells. These results show that large-scale epigenetic remodeling occurs in the earliest steps of mammary carcinogenesis, temporally links DNA methylation changes and overcoming cellular proliferation barriers, and provides a bank of potential epigenetic biomarkers that mayprove useful in breast cancer risk assessment.

  17. Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

    1999-05-05

    Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

  18. Low temperature synthesis of methyl formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder; Slegeir, William A.; Sapienza, Richard S.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    A gas reaction process for the preferential production of methyl formate over the co-production of methanol wherein the reactant ratio of CO/H.sub.2 is upgraded and this reaction takes place at low temperatures of 50.degree.-150.degree. C. and moderate pressures of .gtoreq.100 psi.

  19. Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ARGININE; CARCINOGENS; CHROMIUM; DNA DAMAGES; GENES; HUMAN POPULATIONS; LUNGS; LYSINE; METHYLATION; NEOPLASMS; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; PROMOTERS ...

  20. Zinc electrode with cement additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charkey, Allen

    1982-06-01

    A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

  1. Experimental study of the oxidation of methyl oleate in a jet-stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bax, Sarah; Hakka, Mohammed Hichem; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique

    2010-06-15

    The experimental study of the oxidation of a blend containing n-decane and a large unsaturated ester, methyl oleate, was performed in a jet-stirred reactor over a wide range of temperature covering both low and high temperature regions (550-1100 K), at a residence time of 1.5 s, at quasi atmospheric pressure with high dilution in helium (n-decane and methyl oleate inlet mole fractions of 1.48 x 10{sup -3} and 5.2 x 10{sup -4}) and under stoichiometric conditions. The formation of numerous reaction products was observed. At low and intermediate temperatures, the oxidation of the blend led to the formation of species containing oxygen atoms like cyclic ethers, aldehydes and ketones deriving from n-decane and methyl oleate. At higher temperature, these species were not formed anymore and the presence of unsaturated species was observed. Because of the presence of the double bond in the middle of the alkyl chain of methyl oleate, the formation of some specific products was observed. These species are dienes and esters with two double bonds produced from the decomposition paths of methyl oleate and some species obtained from the addition of H-atoms, OH and HO{sub 2} radicals to the double bond. Experimental results were compared with former results of the oxidation of a blend of n-decane and methyl palmitate performed under similar conditions. This comparison allowed highlighting the similarities and the differences in the reactivity and in the distribution of the reaction products for the oxidation of large saturated and unsaturated esters. (author)

  2. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including ?-globin, ?-globin, ?-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including ?-globin, ?-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ? Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ? Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ? Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

  3. Additive Manufacturing for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blake Marshall, AMO's lead for Additive Manufacturing Technologies, will provide an overview of current R&D activities in additive manufacturing and its application to fuel cell prototyping and...

  4. Additive Manufacturing: Technology and Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Manufacturing: Technology and Applications Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and ... * Success in development and integration of multidisciplinary teams ...

  5. Lubrication with boric acid additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

  6. Tension-compression-tension tertiary twins in coarse-grained polycrystalline pure magnesium at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-07

    Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of TiCjTj type. TiCi+1Ti+1 (or TiCi–1Ti–1) variants are observed more frequently than TiCi+2Ti+2 (or TiCi–2Ti–2) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.

  7. Impaired methylation as a novel mechanism for proteasome suppression in liver cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osna, Natalia A.; White, Ronda L.; Donohue, Terrence M.; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 ; Beard, Michael R.; Tuma, Dean J.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105

    2010-01-08

    The proteasome is a multi-catalytic protein degradation enzyme that is regulated by ethanol-induced oxidative stress; such suppression is attributed to CYP2E1-generated metabolites. However, under certain conditions, it appears that in addition to oxidative stress, other mechanisms are also involved in proteasome regulation. This study investigated whether impaired protein methylation that occurs during exposure of liver cells to ethanol, may contribute to suppression of proteasome activity. We measured the chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity in Huh7CYP cells, hepatocytes, liver cytosols and nuclear extracts or purified 20S proteasome under conditions that maintain or prevent protein methylation. Reduction of proteasome activity of hepatoma cell and hepatocytes by ethanol or tubercidin was prevented by simultaneous treatment with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Moreover, the tubercidin-induced decline in proteasome activity occurred in both nuclear and cytosolic fractions. In vitro exposure of cell cytosolic fractions or highly purified 20S proteasome to low SAM:S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratios in the buffer also suppressed proteasome function, indicating that one or more methyltransferase(s) may be associated with proteasomal subunits. Immunoblotting a purified 20S rabbit red cell proteasome preparation using methyl lysine-specific antibodies revealed a 25 kDa proteasome subunit that showed positive reactivity with anti-methyl lysine. This reactivity was modified when 20S proteasome was exposed to differential SAM:SAH ratios. We conclude that impaired methylation of proteasome subunits suppressed proteasome activity in liver cells indicating an additional, yet novel mechanism of proteasome activity regulation by ethanol.

  8. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  9. Unexpected methyl migrations of ethanol dimer under synchrotron VUV radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Weizhan; Hu, Yongjun E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Weixing; Guan, Jiwen; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-01-14

    While methyl transfer is well known to occur in the enzyme- and metal-catalyzed reactions, the methyl transfer in the metal-free organic molecules induced by the photon ionization has been less concerned. Herein, vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization and dissociation of ethanol dimer are investigated with synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectroscopy and theoretical methods. Besides the protonated clusters cation (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} (m/z = 47) and the β-carbon-carbon bond cleavage fragment CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} (m/z = 77), the measured mass spectra revealed that a new fragment (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ (CH{sub 3}){sup +} (m/z = 61) appeared at the photon energy of 12.1 and 15.0 eV, where the neutral dimer could be vertically ionized to higher ionic state. Thereafter, the generated carbonium ions are followed by a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement and then dissociate to produce this new fragment, which is considered to generate after surmounting a few barriers including intra- and inter-molecular methyl migrations by the aid of theoretical calculations. The appearance energy of this new fragment is measured as 11.55 ± 0.05 eV by scanning photoionization efficiency curve. While the signal intensity of fragment m/z = 61 starts to increase, the fragments m/z = 47 and 77 tend to slowly incline around 11.55 eV photon energy. This suggests that the additional fragment channels other than (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} and CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} have also been opened, which consume some dimer cations. The present report provides a clear description of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the ethanol dimer in the range of the photon energy 12-15 eV.

  10. Additional Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Resources Additional Resources Additional Resources Energy Assurance Planning The Local Government Energy Assurance Planning (LEAP) program, developed by the Public Technology Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, offers resources to help local governments of all sizes in developing energy assurance plans for their communities. U.S. Department of Energy, State and Local Energy Assurance Planning The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) The National Association

  11. LANL installs additional protective measures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab completes additional protections LANL installs additional protective measures Work crews completed additional flood and erosion-control measures this week to reduce the environmental effects of any flash floods following the Las Conchas Fire. July 20, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  12. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2010-02-19

    Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  13. Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithiumand...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium methyl carbonate is only one of the components, the others being lithium oxalate and lithium methoxide. Authors: Zhuang, Guorong V. ; Yang, Hui ; Ross Jr., Philip N. ; Xu, ...

  14. Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acid is a highly desirable renewable chemical platform, which, using this process, can be converted into Methyl Tetrahydrofuran (Me-THF) with reasonable yield. The...

  15. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of S-methyl thioformate and O-methyl thioformate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senent, M. L.; Puzzarini, C.; Hochlaf, M.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.; Carvajal, M.

    2014-09-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are employed to determine spectroscopic properties at low temperatures of two S-analogs of methyl formate: S-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-S-CHO (MSCHO) and O-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-O-CHS (MOCHS). Both species are detectable and they are expected to play an important role in Astrochemistry. Molecular properties are compared with those of the O-analog, methyl formate. Both isomers present two conformers cis and trans. cis-CH{sub 3}-S-CHO represents the most stable structure lying 4372.2 cm{sup −1} below cis-CH{sub 3}-O-CHS. The energy difference between the cis and trans forms is drastically lower for MSCHO (1134 cm{sup −1}) than for MOCHS (1963.6 cm{sup −1}). Harmonic and anharmonic fundamentals and the corresponding intensities, as well as the rotational constants for the ground vibrational and first excited torsional states and the centrifugal distortions constants, are provided. Low torsional energy levels have been obtained by solving variationally a two dimensional Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the two torsional degrees of freedom. The corresponding 2D potential energy surfaces have been computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The methyl torsional barriers V{sub 3}(cis) are determined to be 139.7 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-S-CHO) and 670.4 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-O-CHS). The A/E splitting of ground torsional state has been estimated to be 0.438 cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 3}-S-CHO and negligible for CH{sub 3}-O-CHS.

  16. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol produces more ordered crystals and a higher resolution protein structure than crystallization with (S)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol. The results suggest that chiral interactions with chiral additives are important in protein crystal formation. Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozyme and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.

  17. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A.; West; Ryan M.

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  18. Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Howard H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-07-26

    The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

  19. Fight over fuel additive rekindled

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, J.

    1996-03-20

    Ethyl and EPA are trading punches over EPA`s doubts about the safety of Ethyl`s gasoline additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT). Late last week, EPA released a statement reaffirming its position that there has not been enough research on health effects of MMT and asking gas stations to label pumps that contain the additive so consumers will be aware they are using it. Responding to that statement, Ethyl has written Administrator Carol Browner asking why she appears to be supporting the Environmental Defense Fund`s (EDF; Washington) campaign against MMT and advocating the delay of the additive use in light of its known emission-reducing characteristics. The tension began in the early `90s, when the EPA refused to allow Ethyl to market MMT and required it to perform more long-term health studies. Last October a court ordered the agency to grant Ethyl approval to use MMT in nonreformulated gasoline.

  20. Out of Bounds Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holshouser, Chris [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Newell, Clint [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Palas, Sid [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Rowe, John C [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing (AM) system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  1. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  2. Field pilot tests for tertiary recovery using butane and propane injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, E.F.; Garcia, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    This work describes a pilot project for tertiary recovery of liquid hydrocarbons through LPG injection in water-out sections of the Bolivar reservoir in La Pena Field, Santa Cruz, Boliva. The promising results obtained in the initial field miscibility tests, as well as the results from a mathematical model built to stimulate and evaluate the tertiary recovery project, directed subsequent work into a cyclic scheme for enhanced recovery. This scheme is explained and injection production data is presented. Field facilities built to handle both the injected LPG and the produced oil-LPG mixture are described. The oil/LPG ratio and the LPG recovered/injected fraction are the main factors measured in this to make further considerations for a full scale project.

  3. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  4. Laramide thrusting and Tertiary deformation Tierra Caliente, Michoacan and Guerrero States, southwestern Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.A.; Harrison, C.G.A. ); Lang, H. ); Barros, J.A.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    1990-05-01

    Field investigations and detailed interpretations of Landsat Thematic Mapper images are in progress to improve understanding of regional structure and tectonics of the southernmost extension of the North American cordillera. Two areas have been selected within the Ciudad Altamirano 1:250,000 topographical sheet for geologic mapping and structural interpretation at 1:50,000 scale. The authors results to date require modification of previous ideas concerning the style and timing of deformations, the role and timing of terrane accretion in the overall tectonic history of the region, and the importance of southern Mexico to investigations of the tectonic evolution of the plates in the region. The relative sequence of deformation in the area correlates well with variations in relative motion between North America and plates in the Pacific. Post-Campanian thrusts and generally eastward-verging folds deformed the Mesozoic sequence during the (Laramide equivalent) Hidalgoan orogeny, associated with high-velocity east-west convergence with the Farallon plate that began about 70 Ma. The resulting unconformity was covered by the Tertiary Balsas Formation, a thick sequence of mostly continental clastics. The Tertiary stratigraphy is regionally and sometimes locally variable, but it can be divided into two members. The lower member is relatively volcanic poor and more deformed, and it lies below a regionally significant mid-Tertiary unconformity, which may mark a change to northeast-directed convergence with the Farallon plate sometime prior to 40 Ma. Continued mid-Tertiary deformation in southern Mexico may be related to eastward movement of the Chortis block and the resulting truncation of the Pacific margin of Mexico. The authors also suggest a tentative correlation between the volcaniclastic member of the Lower Cretaceous San Lucas Formation and the protolith of the Roca Verde metamorphics to the east.

  5. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  6. Role of methyl groups in dynamics and evolution of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, Jonathan D [ORNL; Curtis, J. E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Oneill, Hugh [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have discovered strong differences between the dynamics of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins, especially at low hydration and low temperatures. This difference is caused primarily by dynamics of methyl groups that are abundant in proteins, but are absent or very rare in RNA and DNA. In this paper, we present a hypothesis regarding the role of methyl groups as intrinsic plasticizers in proteins and their evolutionary selection to facilitate protein dynamics and activity. We demonstrate the profound effect methyl groups have on protein dynamics relative to nucleic acid dynamics, and note the apparent correlation of methyl group content in protein classes and their need for molecular flexibility. Moreover, we note the fastest methyl groups of some enzymes appear around dynamical centers such as hinges or active sites. Methyl groups are also of tremendous importance from a ydrophobicity/folding/entropy perspective. These significant roles, however, complement our hypothesis rather than preclude the recognition of methyl groups in the dynamics and evolution of biomolecules.

  7. Tension-compression-tension tertiary twins in coarse-grained polycrystalline pure magnesium at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-07

    Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of TiCjTj type. TiCi+1Ti+1 (or TiCi–1Ti–1) variants are observed more frequently than TiCi+2Ti+2 (or TiCi–2Ti–2) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.

  8. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-04-10

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. The first quarter of 1996 was outstanding both in terms of volume of air injected and low cost operations. More air was injected during this quarter than in any preceding quarter. The compressors experienced much improved run time with minimal repairs. Low operating costs resulted from no repairs required for injection or production wells. A discussion of the following topics are contained herein: (1) performance summary for the injection and production wells, (2) air compressor operations, (3) updated bottom hole pressure data, (4) technology transfer activities and (5) plans for the upcoming quarter.

  9. Spherules from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay at Gubbio, Italy: the problem of outcrop contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, A.

    1986-12-01

    Surficial outcrop contamination has occurred in some well-known stratigraphic sections of carbonate rocks in the northern Apennines. A critical case involves several contaminated clay partings, including the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay in the classic Bottaccione section near Gubbio, Italy. These clay layers contain shiny spherules which, in several recent studies, have been said to consist of volcanic glass and have been used to support the hypothesis that the terminal Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by widespread volcanism. Laboratory tests, however, indicate that these shiny spherules are made of HF-insoluble and combustible material and are therefore of recent biological origin. These objects were introduced into the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and other clay layers from the surrounding soil along with abundant detrital contaminants derived from erosion of the middle Miocene flysch exposed at the head of the Bottaccione Gorge. They are completely different from the altered and flattened microtektitelike spheroids that are found only in the iridium-rich Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and that provide strong evidence for a large impact.

  10. Phosphine nickel complex as catalyst in reactions of organic bromides RBr with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketones, nitriles, and esters. Conjugate addition of R group and H atom across the C=C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, S.A.; Lopatina, V.S.; Petrov, E.S.

    1995-09-10

    Reactions of organic bromides, particularly of secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides, with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and acrylonitrile in the presence of the catalytic system nickel complex-zinc. The products correspond to the conjugate addition of the organic moiety of the bromide and a hydrogen atom across the C=C double bond of the unsaturated substrate. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  12. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications

  13. TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  14. TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  15. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 ; Mallory, Clelia W.; Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 ; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 212 kJ?mol{sup ?1} range.

  16. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohl, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  17. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  18. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Additives that Enhance Thermal and Overcharge Abuse Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery

  19. Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options The ORSSAB encourages DOE to evaluate additional storage...

  20. Properties of some ionic liquids based on1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Yakelis, Neal; Salminen, Justin; Bergman,Robert; Prausnitz, John M.

    2005-09-29

    Syntheses are reported for ionic liquids containing 1-methyl-3octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations, and trifluoromethansulfonate, dicyanamide, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and nonafluorobutanesulfonate anions. Densities, melting points and glass transition points, solubility in water as well as polarities have been measured. Ionic liquids based on pyridinium cations exhibit higher melting points, lower solubility in water, and higher polarity than those based on imidazolium cations.

  1. Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. )

    1993-04-01

    A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

  2. Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity ORSSAB's recommendations encourage DOE to...

  3. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse ...

  4. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate ...

  5. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & Evaluate ...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Publications » Latest Additions Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Digg Find More

  7. Evidence for temperate conditions along the Antarctic peninsula during the Early Tertiary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several investigators based on deep sea glacial marine sediments from the southern oceans and volcanic sequences in West Antarctica have suggested extreme glacial conditions existed around Antarctica during the early Tertiary. Their data suggest ice sheets with ice shelves greater than those today were present on Antarctica by the late Eocene. If these data are correct, conditions during the Eocene along the Peninsula were similar to those that exist today. Late Eocene faunas and floras from Seymour Island indicate that conditions along the Peninsula were temperature. No paleontologic or geologic evidence have been obtained from Seymour Island (64/degree/18'S) to support the existence of glacial conditions along the northern part of the Peninsula during the early Tertiary. The presence of large quantities of fossil wood and plant debris in the upper Eocene sediments on Seymour Island indicates the presence of dense forests on the Peninsula during the Eocene. The discovery of marsupial and land birds remains on Seymour Island also indicate the presence of abundant terrestrial life on the Peninsula. The occurrence of an abundant marine life on Seymour Island supports the existence of temperate conditions along the Peninsula. Similarities of the Eocene faunas and floras with present day biotas from Tasmania, New Zealand and southern South America indicate that conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene were comparable to present day mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

  8. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A.; Palmisano, William A.

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  9. Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermediates of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase 9 Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III) Intermediates of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the terminal step in biological methane synthesis. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to form methane and the heterodisulfide product, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox active nickel tetrapyrrolic

  10. Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and ...

  11. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  12. Directives Requiring Additional Documentation - DOE Directives,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delegations, and Requirements Requiring Additional Documentation by Website Administrator PDF document icon DirectivesRequiringAdditionalDocumentation (1).pdf - PDF document, 35 KB (36219

  13. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies Brookhaven ... activation of the cell of a lithium battery having a primary metal sulfide additive ...

  14. Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures for Testing Energy Consumption of Clothes Washers with Warm Rinse Cycles, Issued: June 30, 2010 Additional Guidance...

  15. Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fact sheet overviewing additive manufacturing techniques that are projected to exert a profound impact on manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise More Documents...

  16. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop WHEN: Jul 20, 2015 8:30 AM - Jul 21, 2015...

  17. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing Workshop Poster Abstract Submission - deadline July 10, 2015 Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials using in situ sensors, diagnostics...

  18. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine qThe alkyl chain ...

  19. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  20. Autoignition measurements and a validated kinetic model for the biodiesel surrogate, methyl butanoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M.

    2008-04-15

    The autoignition of methyl butanoate has been studied at 1 and 4 atm in a shock tube over the temperature range 1250-1760 K at equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 at fuel concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. These measurements are complemented by autoignition data from a rapid compression machine over the temperature range 640-949 K at compressed gas pressures of 10, 20, and 40 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.33 using fuel concentrations of 1.59 and 3.13%. The autoignition of methyl butanoate is observed to follow Arrhenius-like temperature dependence over all conditions studied. These data, together with speciation data reported in the literature in a flow reactor, a jet-stirred reactor, and an opposed-flow diffusion flame, were used to produce a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio, fuel fraction, and pressure for shock tube ignition delays. The agreement with rapid compression machine ignition delays is less accurate, although the qualitative agreement is reasonable. The model reproduces most speciation data with good accuracy. In addition, the important reaction pathways over each regime have been elucidated by both sensitivity and flux analyses. (author)

  1. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robaeys, Pieter Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bourgeois, Emilie; D'Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos; Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank; Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C.

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  2. Chemically induced Parkinson's disease: intermediates in the oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, J.N.; Chedekel, M.R.; Land, E.J.; Truscott, T.G.

    1987-04-29

    Various unstable intermediate oxidation states have been postulated in the metabolic activation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion. We now report the first direct observation of these free radical intermediates by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Studies are described of various reactions of such species, in particular with dopamine whose autoxidation to dopamine quinone is reported to be potentiated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine.

  3. Additive Manufacturing - Materials by Design - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing - Materials by Design Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ... Send Message Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Industrial Partnerships Office Visit ...

  4. Additional Resources for Tribes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Resources for Tribes Additional Resources for Tribes The following tribal and federal organizations, education and training opportunities, and tribal directories provide helpful information for Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. For resources specifically related to developing and financing energy projects on tribal lands, visit the Energy Resource Library. Resource Type Additional Resources for Tribes

  5. Nonpremixed ignition, laminar flame propagation, and mechanism reduction of n-butanol, iso-butanol, and methyl butanoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei; Kelley, A. P.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    The non-premixed ignition temperature of n-butanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), iso-butanol ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}OH) and methyl butanoate (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}) was measured in a liquid pool assembly by heated oxidizer in a stagnation flow for system pressures of 1 and 3 atm. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of airn-butanol/iso-butanol/methyl butanoate were determined from the outwardly propagating spherical flame at initial pressures of up to 2 atm, for an extensive range of equivalence ratio. The ignition temperature and laminar flame speeds of n-butanol and methyl butanoate were computationally simulated with three recently developed kinetic mechanisms in the literature. Dominant reaction pathways to ignition and flame propagation were identified and discussed through a chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and sensitivity analysis. The detailed models were further reduced through a series of systematic strategies. The reduced mechanisms provided excellent agreement in both homogeneous and diffusive combustion environments and greatly improved the computation efficiency.

  6. Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the supply impacts of removing methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline.

  7. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylinder chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.

  8. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylindermore » chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.« less

  9. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-03-01

    Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozymemore » and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.« less

  10. Tropospheric oxidation mechanism of dimethyl ether and methyl formate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Good, D.A.; Francisco, J.S.

    2000-02-17

    The oxidation mechanism of dimethyl ether is investigated using ab initio methods. The structure and energetics of reactants, products, and transition structures are determined for all pathways involved in the oxidation mechanism. The detailed pathways leading to the experimentally observed products of dimethyl ether oxidation are presented. The energetics of over 50 species and transition structures involved in the oxidation process are calculated with G2 and G2(MP2) energies. The principal pathway following the initial attack of dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) by the OH radical is the formation of the methoxymethyl radical (CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}). Oxidation steps lead to the formation of methyl formate, which is consistent with the experimentally observed products. Oxidation pathways of methyl formate are also considered.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

    1999-04-21

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

  12. Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-n-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-28

    The material presented here has been described to some extent in Status Reports 12, 13, and 14 and covers the progress toward the synthesis of the modified target molecules 9-isopropyl-4-methoxy-6-methyldibenzothiophene (13) and 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol (14). It is divided into three parts: (a) Dehydrogenation experiments On tetrahydrodibenzothiophene 12. (b) methoxyl methyl cleavage of 13 to 14 using boron tribromide. (c) isolation and purification of methoxydibenzothiophene 13.

  13. "Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set

  14. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing Workshop Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials (AM) Workshop Our goal is to define opportunities and research gaps within additive manufacturing (AM) and to engage the broader scientific/engineering community to discuss future research directions. thumbnail of thumbnail of Contact Institute Director Dr. Alexander V. Balatsky Institute for Materials Science (505) 665-0077 Email Deputy Director Dr. Jennifer S. Martinez Institute for Materials Science

  15. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  16. Microsoft Word - Appendix I - Additional Field Implementation...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... SPPTS Solar Ponds Plume Treatment System TSS total suspended solids Additional Field Implementation Detail for Selected Monitoring Objectives U.S. Department of Energy Doc. No. ...

  17. ,"Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015"...

  18. ,"Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  19. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  20. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  1. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  2. ,"Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  3. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  4. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  5. ,"Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  6. ,"Alaska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska...

  7. ,"California Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  8. ,"Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  9. ,"Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  10. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  11. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  12. ,"Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  13. ,"Texas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  14. ,"Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  15. ,"Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  16. ,"Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  17. ,"Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  18. ,"Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  19. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  20. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  1. Surface Additives for Enhanced Electrode Performance - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...efficient and almost non-polluting, making them an attractive alternative for energy generation. Some solid oxide fuel cells burn ... High performance additives then can be ...

  2. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing ...

  3. additive manufacturuing | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Laboratory engineer Bryan Moran won an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing.Lawrence Livermore Lab engineer Bryan Moran...

  4. DOE Announces Additional Energy Efficiency Enforcement Action...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Counsel, Haier voluntarily identified a parts defect that had caused the freezer models to consume additional energy and took immediate steps on its own to remedy the defects. ...

  5. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To increase acceptance of additive manufacturing as a viable processing method, pathways ... Included in this Gordon style workshop will be panel discussions with the invited ...

  6. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: additive manufacturing Word Cloud More ...

  7. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.H.; Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Iridium profile for 10 million years across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, W.; Montanari, A. ); Asaro, F. )

    1990-12-21

    The iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary was discovered in the pelagic limestone sequence at Gubbio on the basis of 12 samples analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and was interpreted as indicating impact of a large extraterrestrial object at exactly the time of the KT mass extinction. Continuing controversy over the shape of the Ir profile at the Gubbio KT boundary and its interpretation called for a more detailed follow-up study. Analysis of a 57-meter-thick, 10-million-year-old part of the Gubbio sequence using improved NAA techniques revealed that there is only one Ir anomaly at the KT boundary, but this anomaly shows an intricate fine structure, the origin of which cannot yet be entirely explained. The KT Ir anomaly peaks in a 1-centimeter-thick clay layer, where the average Ir concentration is 3,000 parts per trillion (ppt); this peak is flanked by tails with Ir concentrations of 20 to 80 ppt that rise above a background of 12 to 13 ppt. The fine structure of the tails is probably due in part to lateral reworking, diffusion, burrowing, and perhaps Milankovitch cyclicity.

  9. Synsedimentary tectonics in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary pelagic basin of northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, A.; Chan, L.S.; Alvarez, W.

    1987-05-01

    The sequence of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary pelagic limestones in the Umbria-Marches Apennines of Italy have recorded, with remarkable continuity, the geologic history of an epeiric sea on the eastern continental margin of the Ligurian Ocean during a time of widespread tectonism in the western Tethys domain. Sedimentary facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate that intrabasinal depocenters and structural highs have formed in response to extensional tectonic movements which started to affect the central part of the paleobasin in the early Turonian. The topography of the paleobasin was probably controlled by a complex pattern of buried fault blocks formed during the passive margin phase of the western Tethys and then reactivated in the Turonian after a prolonged time (Aptian to Cenomanian) of tectonic quiescence. Calcareous turbidites essentially made of remobilized pelagic mud were generated on the newly formed intrabasinal slopes and deposited in the adjacent depocenters. Conspicuous sedimentary events such as maxima in turbiditic deposition and soft-sediment slumps in these intrabasinal depocenters are attributed to major syndepositional earthquakes of regional extent. A detailed event-stratigraphy based on these sedimentary features indicates that the level of syndepositional tectonic activity reached a peak in the late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene and rapidly diminished in the Eocene.

  10. Redox Shuttle Additives | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Shuttle Additives Technology available for licensing: A series of novel redox shuttle additives for lithium-ion batteries Seven-technology suite helps reduce battery costs Provides overcharge protection and increased battery safety and reliability PDF icon redox_shuttles

  11. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  12. About Additive Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Prabhjot Singh, manager of the Additive Manufacturing Lab at GE Global Research, describes the technology used in his lab. You Might Also Like DirectWrite_V

  13. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  14. Martin's Additions, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Martin's Additions is a village in Montgomery County, Maryland. It falls under Maryland's 8th congressional district.12...

  15. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing Workshop Poster Abstract Submission - deadline July 10, 2015 Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials using in situ sensors, diagnostics and modeling Contact Institute Director Dr. Alexander V. Balatsky Institute for Materials Science (505) 665-0077 Email Deputy Director Dr. Jennifer S. Martinez Institute for Materials Science (505) 665-0045 Email Deputy Director Dr. Nathan A. Mara Institute for Materials Science (505) 667 8665 Email Institute

  16. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July » Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop WHEN: Jul 20, 2015 8:30 AM - Jul 21, 2015 7:30 PM WHERE: La Fonda on the Plaza Santa Fe, New Mexico SPEAKER: Multiple speakers CONTACT: Caryll Blount (505) 665-3950 CATEGORY: Science TYPE: Workshop INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Invited speakers from universities and research centers, both US-based and Europe-based, will provide updates on

  17. Methyl aryl ethers from coal liquids as gasoline extenders and octane improvers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singerman, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    A mixture of methyl aryl ethers derived from the phenols present in direct liquefaction coal liquids shows considerable promise as a gasoline blending agent and octane improver. The mixture of methyl aryl ethers was blended at five volume percent with a commercial, unleaded gasoline. The properties and performance of the blend in a variety of laboratory and automotive tests is reported. The tests show that the mixture of methyl aryl ethers improves gasoline octane without degrading other gasoline properties.

  18. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  19. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide ...

  20. Evaluation of alternate routes for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1998-12-31

    The use of coal-derived syngas to produce high value chemicals is an important means of upgrading this resource. One example of a chemical that can be produced from coal-derived syngas is methyl methacrylate (MMA). Poly-methyl methacrylate is widely used in coatings and in various industrial molded products. The most widely practiced commercial technology for the synthesis of MMA is the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. This process requires handling of large quantities of toxic hydrogen cyanide and generates one mole of ammonium bisulfate waste per mole of MMA. This bisulfate must either be regenerated or discarded, either of which substantially increases the cost. The ACH technology is thus environmentally and economically untenable for any new MMA plant expansions that would be needed to meet increasing demand. The RTI-Eastman-Bechtel research team is developing an alternative, environmentally benign route to MMA consisting of three steps; (step 1) synthesis of a propionate from ethylene, carbon monoxide, and steam, (step 2) condensation of this propionate with formaldehyde, and (step 3) esterification of resulting methacrylic acid with methanol to form MMA. This paper describes the preliminary economics of the overall process compared to other emerging processes, and focuses on step 2, including long term testing of catalysts for the condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde to form MAA.

  1. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  2. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  3. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  4. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.

  5. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1996-12-10

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.

  6. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  7. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  8. Redox Shuttle Additives - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Redox Shuttle Additives Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p align="LEFT"> <i><font color="#808285" size="1"><font color="#808285" size="1">Charge Transfer Mechanism for Li-ion Battery Overcharge Protection &mdash; The boron and fluorine additive is in the electrolyte. When the battery is

  9. Polydimethylsiloxane as a Macromolecular Additive for Enhanced Performance of Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Mei, Jianguo; Stalder, Romain; Shim, Jae Won; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Steffy, Fred; So, Franky; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the macromolecular additive, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), on the performance of solution processed molecular bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated, and the addition of PDMS is shown to improve device power conversion efficiency by ~70% and significantly reduce cell-to-cell variation, from a power conversion efficiency of 1.25 0.37% with no PDMS to 2.16 0.09% upon the addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS to the casting solution. The cells are based on a thiophene and isoindigo containing oligomer as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as the electron acceptor. PDMS is shown to have a strong influence on film morphology, with a significant decrease in film roughness and feature size observed. The morphology change leads to improved performance parameters, most notably an increase in the short circuit current density from 4.3 to 6.8 mA/cm2 upon addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS. The use of PDMS is of particular interest, as this additive appears frequently as a lubricant in plastic syringes commonly used in device fabrication; therefore, PDMS may unintentionally be incorporated into device active layers.

  10. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, John R.; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-04-06

    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify a DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. 3/4-site ATC and GAT). All together, these results imply that Dam, in addition to being responsible for GATC methylation, could also function as a methylation-independent transcriptional repressor.

  11. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horton, John R.; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-04-06

    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify amore » DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. 3/4-site ATC and GAT). All together, these results imply that Dam, in addition to being responsible for GATC methylation, could also function as a methylation-independent transcriptional repressor.« less

  12. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numericalmore » modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.« less

  13. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  14. The addition of disilanes to cumulenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.

    1997-10-08

    The syntheses of silicon-containing compounds and the studies of their rearrangements have been active research areas in the Barton research group. Previously, the addition of disilanes to acetylenes was studied in the group and an intramolecular 2S + 2A mechanism has been proposed. In this thesis, the work is focused on the addition of disilanes to cumulenes. The syntheses of the precursors are discussed and the possible mechanisms for their thermal, photochemical and catalytic rearrangements are proposed. Conjugated organic polymers have been studied in the group since 1985 because of their potential for exhibiting high electroconductivity, photoconductivity, strong non-linear optical response and intense fluorescence. In the second section of this dissertation, the synthesis and property studies of poly(phenylene vinylene) analogues are discussed.

  15. Vehicular fuels and additives for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Interest in automotive fuel is resurging. Automobile fuels must increasingly deal with clean air regulations and ozone problems. Furthermore, feedstocks become heavier,as refinery production changes, as more unleaded is produced, and as an increasing number of pollution regulations must be satisfied greater attention will be paid to better mixtures, solvents, additives, and neat methanol. BCC report analyzes developments technologies, markets, players and the political/regulations aspects of this important market. Study also assesses the advantages and drawbacks of methanol, ethanol, MTBE and other additives which have their place as octane enhancers and fuel substitutes-all now deeply involved in the gasoline modification battle. Other issues addressed are subsidies, farm lobbying, imports, pricing, economics, Detroit's response, neat fuel testing projects, volatility problems vs. fewer ozone-forming hydrocarbon species, and emission ratings.

  16. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harwell, Lane D.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Greene, Donald L.; Pressly, Gary A.

    2000-11-07

    A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

  17. Additional Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Development Additional Resources Photo: DARHT's Accelerators help create the x-rays at DARHT, the world's most advanced radiography facility. Reports 2013 Stewardship Science Academic Programs Annual 2012 Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Annual 2011 Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Annual FY 2011 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan, Annex A (April 7, 2010) Supplement to the Stockpile Stewardship Plan, Fiscal Years 2010-2014 (December 2009) Advances in Matter Under Extreme

  18. Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

  19. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  20. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bellows, Richard J. (Hampton, NJ); Kantner, Edward (E. Brunswick, NJ)

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  1. Laser Additive Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revolutionizing the Age-Old Rules of Manufacturing Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Revolutionizing the Age-Old Rules of Manufacturing Learn how additive manufacturing, a 3D-printing technology, frees engineers to design the perfect jet engine. You Might Also Like IMG_0475 Innovation 24/7: We're Always

  2. Phosphorylation and Methylation of Proteasomal Proteins of the Haloarcheon Haloferax volcanii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Reuter, Christopher J.; Zuobi-Hasona, Kheir; Zhou, Guangyin; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Promore » teasomes are composed of 20S core particles (CPs) of α - and β -type subunits that associate with regulatory particle AAA ATPases such as the proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) complexes of archaea. In this study, the roles and additional sites of post-translational modification of proteasomes were investigated using the archaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model. Indicative of phosphorylation, phosphatase-sensitive isoforms of α 1 and α 2 were detected by 2-DE immunoblot. To map these and other potential sites of post-translational modification, proteasomes were purified and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Using this approach, several phosphosites were mapped including α 1 Thr147, α 2 Thr13/Ser14 and PAN-A Ser340. Multiple methylation sites were also mapped to α 1 , thus, revealing a new type of proteasomal modification.bing the biological role of α 1 and PAN-A phosphorylation by site-directed mutagenesis revealed dominant negative phenotypes for cell viability and/or pigmentation for α 1 variants including Thr147Ala, Thr158Ala and Ser58Ala. An H. volcanii Rio1p Ser/Thr kinase homolog was purified and shown to catalyze autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to α 1 . The α 1 variants in Thr and Ser residues that displayed dominant negative phenotypes were significantly reduced in their ability to accept phosphoryl groups from Rio1p, thus, providing an important link between cell physiology and proteasomal phosphorylation.« less

  3. Phosphorylation and Methylation of Proteasomal Proteins of the HaloarcheonHaloferax volcanii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Reuter, Christopher J.; Zuobi-Hasona, Kheir; Zhou, Guangyin; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasomes are composed of 20S core particles (CPs) of?- and?-type subunits that associate with regulatory particle AAA ATPases such as the proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) complexes of archaea. In this study, the roles and additional sites of post-translational modification of proteasomes were investigated using the archaeonHaloferax volcaniias a model. Indicative of phosphorylation, phosphatase-sensitive isoforms of?1and?2were detected by 2-DE immunoblot. To map these and other potential sites of post-translational modification, proteasomes were purified and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Using this approach, several phosphosites were mapped including?1Thr147,?2 Thr13/Ser14 and PAN-A Ser340. Multiple methylation sites were also mapped to?1, thus, revealing amorenew type of proteasomal modification. Probing the biological role of?1and PAN-A phosphorylation by site-directed mutagenesis revealed dominant negative phenotypes for cell viability and/or pigmentation for?1variants including Thr147Ala, Thr158Ala and Ser58Ala. AnH. volcaniiRio1p Ser/Thr kinase homolog was purified and shown to catalyze autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to?1. The?1variants in Thr and Ser residues that displayed dominant negative phenotypes were significantly reduced in their ability to accept phosphoryl groups from Rio1p, thus, providing an important link between cell physiology and proteasomal phosphorylation.less

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-?B expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ? Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ? MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ? MP and EP decreased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ? MP and EP reduced NF-?B expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ? MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  5. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  6. Global prevalence and distribution of genes and microorganisms involved in mercury methylation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Podar, Mircea; Gilmour, C. C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Soren, Allyson; Brown, Steven D.; Crable, Bryan R.; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Somenahally, Anil C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury methylation produces the neurotoxic, highly bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Recent identification of the methylation genes (hgcAB) provides the foundation for broadly evaluating microbial Hg-methylation potential in nature without making explicit rate measurements. We first queried hgcAB diversity and distribution in all available microbial metagenomes, encompassing most environments. The genes were found in nearly all anaerobic, but not in aerobic, environments including oxygenated layers of the open ocean. Critically, hgcAB was effectively absent in ~1500 human microbiomes, suggesting a low risk of endogenous MeHg production. New potential methylation habitats were identified, including invertebrate guts, thawing permafrost, coastal dead zones, soils, sediments,more » and extreme environments, suggesting multiple routes for MeHg entry into food webs. Several new taxonomic groups potentially capable of Hg-methylation emerged, including lineages having no cultured representatives. We then begin to address long-standing evolutionary questions about Hg-methylation and ancient carbon fixation mechanisms while generating a new global view of Hg-methylation potential.« less

  7. Global prevalence and distribution of genes and microorganisms involved in mercury methylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podar, Mircea; Gilmour, C C; Brandt, Craig C; Bullock, Allyson L; Brown, Steven D; Crable, Bryan R; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Somenahally, Anil C; Elias, Dwayne A

    2015-01-01

    Mercury methylation produces the neurotoxic, highly bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Recent identification of the methylation genes (hgcAB) provides the foundation for broadly evaluating microbial Hg-methylation potential in nature without making explicit rate measurements. We queried hgcAB diversity and distribution in all available microbial metagenomes, encompassing most environments. The genes were found in nearly all anaerobic, but not in aerobic, environments including oxygenated layers of the open ocean. Critically, hgcAB was effectively absent in ~1500 human microbiomes, suggesting a low risk of endogenous MeHg production. New potential methylation habitats were identified, including invertebrate guts, thawing permafrost, coastal dead zones , soils, sediments, and extreme environments, suggesting multiple routes for MeHg entry into food webs. Several new taxonomic groups potentially capable of Hg-methylation emerged, including lineages having no cultured representatives. We begin to address long-standing evolutionary questions about Hg-methylation and ancient carbon fixation mechanisms while generating a new global view of Hg-methylation potential.

  8. Global prevalence and distribution of genes and microorganisms involved in mercury methylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podar, Mircea; Gilmour, C. C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Soren, Allyson; Brown, Steven D.; Crable, Bryan R.; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Somenahally, Anil C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury methylation produces the neurotoxic, highly bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Recent identification of the methylation genes (hgcAB) provides the foundation for broadly evaluating microbial Hg-methylation potential in nature without making explicit rate measurements. We first queried hgcAB diversity and distribution in all available microbial metagenomes, encompassing most environments. The genes were found in nearly all anaerobic, but not in aerobic, environments including oxygenated layers of the open ocean. Critically, hgcAB was effectively absent in ~1500 human microbiomes, suggesting a low risk of endogenous MeHg production. New potential methylation habitats were identified, including invertebrate guts, thawing permafrost, coastal dead zones, soils, sediments, and extreme environments, suggesting multiple routes for MeHg entry into food webs. Several new taxonomic groups potentially capable of Hg-methylation emerged, including lineages having no cultured representatives. We then begin to address long-standing evolutionary questions about Hg-methylation and ancient carbon fixation mechanisms while generating a new global view of Hg-methylation potential.

  9. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is usedmore » to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.« less

  10. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1999-01-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(Oct.-Dec./98), we have investigated the condensation between methyl propionate and formaldehyde (MP/HCHO=4.5/1) at various reaction temperatures(280-360EC) over 5%, 10%, and 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts. The conversion of HCHO increases with reaction 2 5 2 temperature and niobium loading. MMA+MAA selectivity goes through a maximum with the temperature over both 10% and 20% Nb O /SiO . The selectivities to MMA+MAA are 67.2%, 2 5 2 72.3%and 58.1% at 320EC over 5%, 10%, 20% Nb O /SiO , respectively. However, the 2 5 2 conversion of formaldehyde decreases rapidly with time on stream. The results suggest that silica supported niobium catalysts are active and selective for condensation of MP with HCHO, but deactivation needs to be minimized for the consideration of commercial application. We have preliminarily investigated the partial oxidation of dimethyl ether(DME) over 5% Nb O /SiO catalyst. Reactant gas mixture of 0.1% DME, 0.1% O and balance nitrogen is 2 5 2 2 studied with temperature ranging from 200°C to 500°C. The conversion of DME first increases with temperature reaching an maximum at 400°C then decreases. The selectivity to HCHO also increases with reaction temperature first. But the selectivity to HCHO decreases at temperature above 350

  11. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi

    1999-07-19

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. During the April-June quarter(04-06/99) the first in-situ formaldehyde generation from DME and condensation with methyl propionate is demonstrated and the results are summarized. The supported niobium catalyst shows better condensation activity, but supported tungsten catalyst has higher formaldehyde selectivity. The project team has also completed a 200-hour long term test of PA-HCHO condensation over 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. Three activity cycles and two regeneration cycles were carried out. 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} showed similar MAA yields as 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. However, the deactivation appears to be slower with 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} than 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. An detailed economic analysis of PA-HCHO condensation process for a 250 million lb/yr MMA plant is currently studied by Bechtel. Using the Amoco data-based azeotropic distillation model as the basis, an ASPEN flow sheet model was constructed to simulate the formaldehyde and propionic acid condensation processing section based on RTI's design data. The RTI MAA effluent azeotropic distillation column was found to be much more difficult to converge. The presence of non-condensible gases along with the byproduct DEK (both of which were not presented in

  12. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  13. Structural and biochemical insights into 2′-O-methylation at the 3′-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Chio Mui; Zhou, Chun; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Huang, Raven H.

    2010-01-28

    Small RNAs of {approx}20-30 nt have diverse and important biological roles in eukaryotic organisms. After being generated by Dicer or Piwi proteins, all small RNAs in plants and a subset of small RNAs in animals are further modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation, carried out by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (MTase) Hen1. Methylation at the 3' terminus is vital for biological functions of these small RNAs. Here, we report four crystal structures of the MTase domain of a bacterial homolog of Hen1 from Clostridium thermocellum and Anabaena variabilis, which are enzymatically indistinguishable from the eukaryotic Hen1 in their ability to methylate small single-stranded RNAs. The structures reveal that, in addition to the core fold of the MTase domain shared by other RNA and DNA MTases, the MTase domain of Hen1 possesses a motif and a domain that are highly conserved and are unique to Hen1. The unique motif and domain are likely to be involved in RNA substrate recognition and catalysis. The structures allowed us to construct a docking model of an RNA substrate bound to the MTase domain of bacterial Hen1, which is likely similar to that of the eukaryotic counterpart. The model, supported by mutational studies, provides insight into RNA substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of Hen1.

  14. Thermochemistry of C-O, (CO)-O, and (CO)-C bond breaking in fatty acid methyl esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osmont, Antoine; Yahyaoui, Mohammed; Catoire, Laurent; Goekalp, Iskender; Swihart, Mark T.

    2008-10-15

    Density functional theory quantum chemical calculations corrected with empirical atomic increments have been used to examine C-O, (CO)-O, and (CO)-C bond scission enthalpies in gas-phase fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) present in biodiesel derived from rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester. Mechanistic information, currently not available elsewhere for these large species, is obtained based on thermochemical considerations and compared to thermochemical considerations reported for methyl butanoate, a small methyl ester sometimes used as a model for FAMEs. These results are compared to previously reported C-C and C-H bond scissions in these FAMEs, derived using this same protocol. (author)

  15. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  16. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  17. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  18. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-04-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

  19. Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.; Tischer, R.E.; Srivastava, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

  20. Substantial improvements in methyl ketone production in E. coli...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1096-7176 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and ...

  1. Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithiumand...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE. Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency andRenewable Energy. ...

  2. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  3. Optimized End-Stacking Provides Specificity of N-Methyl Mesoporphyrin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimized End-Stacking Provides Specificity of N-Methyl Mesoporphyrin IX for Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimized End-Stacking ...

  4. Review and reconnaissance of the hydrogeology of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Frenchman Flat, which has been identified in the FFACO as a Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a CAU-specific hydrologic flow and transport model that will be used to predict contaminant boundaries. Hydrogeologic maps and cross sections are currently being prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted in Frenchman Flat. During this effort, it has been found that older Tertiary-age sediments might be hydrogeologically important in the Frenchman Flat model area. Although the character and extent of these units are poorly known, there is reason to believe that in some parts of Frenchman Flat they may lie between the regional Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the younger Tertiary saturated alluvium and volcanic units in which several underground nuclear tests were conducted. It was not possible to quickly determine their extent, or ascertain whether or not these units might act as confining units or aquifers. The work described in this report was done to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeology of these rocks.

  5. Renewed petroleum generation related to Tertiary intrusions and increased heat flow, western Permian basin, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    Higher paleogeothermal gradients, commencing in the Tertiary after maximum burial, have caused renewed petroleum generation in the western Permian basin. Evidence for this reheating is two distinct trends in the mean random vitrinite reflectance (R/sub m/) and depth data compiled from over 40 wells. One group, with a 0.7% R/sub m//km gradient, is from the western edge of the basin; the other, with a 0.5% R/sub m//km gradient, is from the central and eastern portions. Post-Mississippian tilting produced greater subsidence and a thicker, mostly uneroded sedimentary section in the eastern portion of the Permian basin. Continued tilting prior to the Cretaceous caused uplift and erosion that exposed the Upper Permian section in the western part. Potassium-argon ages of igneous intrusions along the western edge of the basin show they were emplaced about 35 Ma, followed by Miocene to Holocene basin-and-range-type block faulting and associated high heat flow. Isopach-reflectance contours confirm this renewed heating is post-tectonic - that is, it occurred after eastward tilting and erosion had reduced burial depth. Maximum temperatures computed from R/sub m/-depth relationships infer that paleogeothermal gradients exceeded 40/degrees/C/km (2.2/degrees/F/100 ft) in the Tertiary. This reheating thermally matured rocks as young as Guadalupian in the western Permian basin and apparently caused a second episode of petroleum generation. By this time, however, the potential reservoir rocks and evaporite seals had been deeply eroded, resulting in poor conditions for trapping the renewed pulse of petroleum.

  6. Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-08-12

    Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

  7. Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-08-05

    Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

  8. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid

  9. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & ...

  10. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse High Voltage ...

  11. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Extinction and Ignition of Methyl Decanoate in Laminar Nonpremixed Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, K; Lu, T; Herbinet, O; Humer, S; Niemann, U; Pitz, W J; Law, C K

    2008-01-09

    Methyl decanoate is a large methyl ester that can be used as a surrogate for biodiesel. In this experimental and computational study, the combustion of methyl decanoate is investigated in nonpremixed, nonuniform flows. Experiments are performed employing the counterflow configuration with a fuel stream made up of vaporized methyl decanoate and nitrogen, and an oxidizer stream of air. The mass fraction of fuel in the fuel stream is measured as a function of the strain rate at extinction, and critical conditions of ignition are measured in terms of the temperature of the oxidizer stream as a function of the strain rate. It is not possible to use a fully detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate to simulate the counterflow flames because the number of species and reactions is too large to employ with current flame codes and computer resources. Therefore a skeletal mechanism was deduced from a detailed mechanism of 8555 elementary reactions and 3036 species using 'directed relation graph' method. This skeletal mechanism has only 713 elementary reactions and 125 species. Critical conditions of ignition were calculated using this skeletal mechanism and are found to agree well with experimental data. The predicted strain rate at extinction is found to be lower than the measurements. In general, the methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  12. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-07-27

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300°C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400°C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

  13. Vapor phase tri-methyl-indium seeding system suitable for high temperature spectroscopy and thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiddon, R.; Zhou, B.; Borggren, J.; Aldén, M.; Li, Z. S.

    2015-09-15

    Tri-methyl-indium (TMI) is used as an indium transport molecule to introduce indium atoms to reactive hot gas flows/combustion environments for spectroscopic diagnostics. A seeding system was constructed to allow the addition of an inert TMI laden carrier gas into an air/fuel mixture burning consequently on a burner. The amount of the seeded TMI in the carrier gas can be readily varied by controlling the vapor pressure through the temperature of the container. The seeding process was calibrated using the fluorescent emission intensity from the indium 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions as a function of the calculated TMI seeding concentration over a range of 2–45 ppm. The response was found to be linear over the range 3–22.5 ppm; at concentrations above 25 ppm there is a loss of linearity attributable to self-absorption or loss of saturation of TMI vapor pressure in the carrier gas flow. When TMI was introduced into a post-combustion environment via an inert carrier gas, molecular transition from InH and InOH radicals were observed in the flame emission spectrum. Combined laser-induced fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy were applied to detect indium atoms in the TMI seeded flame and the measured atomic indium concentration was found to be at the ppm level. This method of seeding organometallic vapor like TMI to a reactive gas flow demonstrates the feasibility for quantitative spectroscopic investigations that may be applicable in various fields, e.g., chemical vapor deposition applications or temperature measurement in flames with two-line atomic fluorescence.

  14. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  15. {sup 13}C-METHYL FORMATE: OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS INCLUDING ORION-KL AND SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favre, Ccile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Neill, Justin L.; Carvajal, Miguel; Field, David; Jrgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier; Baudry, Alain; Kleiner, Isabelle; Marguls, Laurent; Huet, Thrse R.; Demaison, Jean E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es

    2015-01-01

    We have surveyed a sample of massive star-forming regions located over a range of distances from the Galactic center for methyl formate, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and its isotopologues H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}. The observations were carried out with the APEX telescope in the frequency range 283.4-287.4GHz. Based on the APEX observations, we report tentative detections of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologue HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} toward the following four massive star-forming regions: Sgr B2(N-LMH), NGC6334 IRS 1, W51 e2, and G19.61-0.23. In addition, we have used the 1mm ALMA science verification observations of Orion-KL and confirm the detection of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate species in Orion-KL and image its spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope ratio in methyl formate toward the Orion-KL Compact Ridge and Hot Core-SW components (68.4 10.1 and 71.4 7.8, respectively) are, for both the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologues, commensurate with the average {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio of CO derived toward Orion-KL. Likewise, regarding the other sources, our results are consistent with the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C in CO. We also report the spectroscopic characterization, which includes a complete partition function, of the complex H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} species. New spectroscopic data for both isotopomers H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}, presented in this study, have made it possible to measure this fundamentally important isotope ratio in a large organic molecule for the first time.

  16. Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise Fact sheet overviewing additive manufacturing techniques that are projected to exert a profound impact on manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise (1.42 MB) More Documents & Publications Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop A National Strategic Plan For Advanced Manufacturing

  17. Vapor pressures of methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, isopropyl tert-butyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, and tert-amyl ethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraehenbuehl, M.A.; Gmehling, J. . Technische Chemie)

    1994-10-01

    The vapor pressures of methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, isopropyl tert-butyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, and tert-amyl ethyl ether were measured by ebulliometry or the static method in the pressure ranges 14--102 and 3--835 kPa (methyl tert-butyl ether), respectively. The data were correlated using the Antoine and Wagner equations. The experimental data of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether were compared with data available in the literature.

  18. Novel catalysts for the environmentally friendly synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    The development of a process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas can alleviate the environmental hazards associated with the current commercial MMA technology, the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. A three-step syngas-based process consisted of synthesis of a propionic acid, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) to form MMA. The first two steps, propionic acid synthesis and condensation, are discussed here. The low-temperature, low-pressure process for single-step hydrocarbonylation of ethylene to propionic acid is carried out using a homogeneous iodine-promoted Mo(CO){sub 6} catalyst at pressures (30--70 atm) and temperatures (150--200 C) lower than those reported for other catalysts. Mechanistic investigations suggest that catalysis is initiated by a rate-limiting CO dissociation from Mo(CO){sub 6}. This dissociation appears to be followed by an inner electron-transfer process of an I atom from EtI to the coordinately unsaturated Mo(CO){sub 5}. This homogeneous catalyst for propionate synthesis represents the first case of an efficient carbonylation process based on Cr group metals. The condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid is carried out by acid-base bifunctional catalysts. As a result of screening over 80 catalytic materials, group V metals supported on an amorphous silica are found to be most effective. A 20% Nb/SiO{sub 2} catalyst appears to be the most active and stable catalyst thus far. Preliminary relations among the reaction yield and catalyst properties indicate that a high surface area and a low overall surface acidity (<50 = mol of NH{sub 3}/g), with a high proportion of the acidity being weak (<350 C desorption of NH{sub 3}), are desirable. Long-term deactivation of V-Si-P, Nb-Si, and Ta-Si catalysts suggests that carbon deposition is the primary cause for activity decay, and the catalyst activity is partially restorable by oxidative regeneration.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1998-10-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction ...

  1. EIS-0489: Notice of Additional Public Scoping Meetings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Public Scoping Meetings EIS-0489: Notice of Additional Public Scoping Meetings Jordan Cove Liquefaction Project (Coos County, OR) and Pacific Connector Pipeline Project ...

  2. An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies Peterson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies Peterson, Dominic S. Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory Materials Science(36) Additive Manufacturing...

  3. Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Download presentation...

  4. Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications 2009 DOE Hydrogen ... More Documents & Publications Novel Electrolytes and Additives Novel Electrolytes and ...

  5. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, ...

  6. Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and Durability in Engines Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and Durability in ...

  7. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive ...

  8. Department of Energy Announces Two Additional Loans of Oil from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Additional Loans of Oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Department of Energy Announces Two Additional Loans of Oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve September 2, 2005 - ...

  9. Technical Options for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Technical Options for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes within the United ... for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes within the United States i This ...

  10. Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and ...

  11. Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils 2003 DEER Conference ...

  12. An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies You are ...

  13. Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's ...

  14. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives PDF icon nanoparticulate-basedlubricati...

  15. The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects ...

  16. Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry Download presentation ...

  17. EERE Success Story - Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Story - Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives Demonstrate Improved Fuel Economy EERE Success Story - Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives Demonstrate Improved Fuel ...

  18. Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG Facility to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Authorizes Additional Volume at Proposed Freeport LNG Facility to Export ...

  19. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  20. Additional Guidance for EERE Digital Data Management Plans |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Services Funding Digital Data Management Additional Guidance for EERE Digital Data Management Plans Additional Guidance for EERE Digital Data Management Plans Beyond the ...

  1. Digital Data Management Additional Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Guidance Digital Data Management Additional Guidance Beyond the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) digital data management requirements, the ...

  2. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing...

  3. Recommendation 222: Recommendations on Additional Off-site Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Recommendations on Additional Off-site Groundwater Migration Studies Recommendation 222: Recommendations on Additional Off-site Groundwater Migration Studies ORSSAB recommends...

  4. The use of nonmarine palynomorphs as correlation tools in rapidly deposited upper tertiary sediments of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravn, R.L. ); D'Ablaing, J.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Rapidly deposited upper Tertiary sediments can pose significant correlation problems for the biostratigrapher using foraminifera or calcareous nannoplankton because the abundance of marine organisms commonly is greatly diluted. In contrast, such sediments often contain abundant pollen and spores. This palynological population was collected by the proto-Mississippi and perhaps other rivers from a huge hinterland source area probably comparable to that of the Mississippi drainage today. The sediment therefore reflects a general floral population over a large region and may be expected to record important fluctuations in constituent elements of the flora due to climatic changes over time. A secondary overprint of physical sorting also may influence the relative distributions of certain forms. Although not strongly useful as an age-dating tool (the vast majority of forms occurring in Miocene or younger strata represent parent plant types that still exist today), these palynomorph populations do show strong potential as tools for correlation based on quantitative analyses. Palynological [open quotes]logs[close quotes] can be produced using inexpensive standard spreadsheet software and various mathematical evaluation techniques. An example from the Pliocene of offshore Louisiana demonstrates that numerous potential correlation horizons can be defined in a relatively brief time interval in a section in which standard marine microfossils are of little use owing to their scarcity.

  5. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  6. Biomass 2014: Additional Speaker Biographies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Speaker Biographies Biomass 2014: Additional Speaker Biographies This document outlines the biographies of the additional speakers for Biomass 2014, held July 29-July 30 in Washington, D.C. additional_speaker_biographies_biomass_2014 (236.61 KB) More Documents & Publications 2016 Sustainable Transportation Summit Speaker Biographies Bioenergy 2015 Speaker Biographies Demonstration and Deployment Workshop - Day 2

  7. Texas Liquefied Natural Gas Additions to and Withdrawals from Storage

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2012 2013 2014 View History Net Withdrawals 0 2013-2013 Additions 0 * 0 2012

  8. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  9. Polylactide?Poly(6-methyl-[espilson]-caprolactone)?Polylactide Thermoplastic Elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martello, Mark T.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-11-14

    Amorphous ABA type block aliphatic polyesters can be useful as degradable and biorenewable thermoplastic elastomers. These materials can be prepared by sequential ring-opening transesterification polymerization (ROTEP) reactions and can exhibit a range of physical properties and morphologies. In this work a set of amorphous polylactide-poly(6-methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactone)-polylactide aliphatic polyester ABA triblock copolymers were prepared by consecutive controlled ring-opening polymerizations. Ring-opening polymerization of neat 6-methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactone in the presence of 1,4-benzenedimethanol and tin(II) octoate afforded {alpha},{omega}-hydroxyl-terminated poly(6-methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactone). High conversions of 6-methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactone (>96%) afforded polymers with molar masses ranging from 12 to 98 kg mol{sup -1}, depending on monomer-to-initiator ratios, polymers with narrow, monomodal molecular weight distributions. An array of polylactide-poly(6-methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactone)-polylactide triblock copolymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions were synthesized using the telechelic poly(6-methyl-{epsilon}-caprolactone) samples as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide. The morphological, thermal, and mechanical behaviors of these materials were explored. Several triblocks adopted well-ordered microphase-separated morphologies, and both hexagonally packed cylindrical and lamellar structures were observed. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was determined, x(T) = 61.2 T{sup -1} - 0.1, based on the order-to-disorder transition temperatures of two symmetric triblocks using the calculated mean field theory result. The elastomeric mechanical behavior of two high molecular weight triblocks was characterized by tensile and elastic recovery experiments.

  10. Isomerization and dissociation in competition: The two-component dissociation rates of methyl propionate ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazyar, O.A.; Baer, T.

    1999-03-04

    Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the unimolecular chemistry of gas-phase methyl propionate ions. This ion undergoes isomerization to a lower energy enol structure, CH{sub 3}CHC(OH)OCH{sub 3}{sup {sm_bullet}+}, via two different pathways involving two distonic isomers, {sup {sm_bullet}}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C{sup +}(OH)OCH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}C{sup +}(OH)OCH{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}}. This isomerization reaction is in competition with the direct CH{sub 3}O{sup {sm_bullet}} loss reaction, which leads to two-component dissociation rates of the methyl propionate ions. Detailed modeling of this complex reaction permitted the extraction of the dissociative photoionization threshold for methyl propionate, which at 0 K is 10.83 {+-} 0.01 eV, as well as the isomerization barrier between the distonic CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}C{sup +}(OH)OCH{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}} and enol CH{sub 3}CHC(OH)OCH{sub 3}{sup {sm_bullet}+} ions of 8.5 kcal/mol (relative to the methyl propionate ion). By combining this with the 0 K heats of formation of methyl propionate and the methoxy radical, the authors derive a 0 K heat of formation of the product propanoyl ion of 147 kcal/mol. Also measured was the adiabatic ionization energy of methyl propionate, 10.03 {+-} 0.05 eV.