National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for adding flue gas

  1. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  2. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  3. Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinger, D. H.; Romero, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    -scale FFGC plant. I. EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES Pollution reduction technologies addressed in this document can be used to clean up any type of flue gas including the high pollution levels from untreated coal fired power plants. A typical... tons by 2010 and at 15 tons by 2018. Although coal fired industry representatives state, “there still is no mercury control technology that exists today that can achieve the reduction levels finalized by the Clean Air Mercury rule”( g ), WOW...

  4. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  5. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant...

  6. The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, R.L.; O'Leary, T.J.; Shirk, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process removes sulfur dioxide from a flue by cold water scrubbing. Sulfur dioxide is significantly more soluable in cold water (35/sup 0/F to 60/sup 0/F) than in warm water (100/sup 0/F). Sulfur dioxide reacts in water similarly as carbon dioxide reacts in water, in that both gasses are released from the water as the temperature of the water increases. The researchers at the Gonzaga University developed this process from the observations and techniques used in studying the acid and aldehyde concentrations in flue gasses with varying of fuel to air ratios. The apparatus was fixed to a stationary engine and a gas/oil fired boiler. The flue gas was cooled to the dew point temperature of the air entering the combustion chamber on the pre-air heater. The system is described in two parts: the energies required for cooling in the scrubbing section and the energies required in the treatment section. The cold flue gas is utilized in cooling the scrubber section.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, OH)

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  11. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPACTORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; FLUE GAS; PARTICLE SIZE; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; AIR FILTERS; DISTRIBUTION; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; SORTING; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION;...

  12. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  13. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  14. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  15. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  19. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  20. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. EPRICON: Agentless flue gas conditioning for electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibbo, P.P. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Branchburg, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Achieving efficient particulate control in coal burning electric utility plants is becoming an increasingly difficult proposition, giver, the variety of regulatory, technical, operating and environmental pressures that exist in the US. For most powerplants, particulate control is achieved by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Under optimal conditions, modern ESPs are capable of achieving particulate removal efficiencies of 99.7 %. Unfortunately, optimal conditions are not always present. ESP`s are sensitive to flue gas conditions, and those conditions may change dramatically after a fuel switch or the installation of some types of emissions control technology upstream of the ESP. Gas conditioning has been shown to be an effective means of returning flue gas to the ``optimal`` conditions required for efficient ESP operation following a fuel switch to a low, or at least, lower sulfur coal. Borrowing technology common in conventional soap-making plants around the turn of the century, sulfur-burning SO3 gas conditioning has been the solution to may difficult fuels in electrostatic precipitators. Although it has contributed most to improved ESP performance after a fuel switch, conventional gas conditioning has significant drawbacks. In an effort to develop an alternative to conventional SO{sub 3} gas conditioning, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a research and development project that has produced an alternative and modem technology for flue gas conditioning, now called EPRICON, and licensed it to Research-Cottrell. This article describes the EPRICON process and its performance in pilot and demonstration plants.

  2. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

  3. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  4. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  5. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  6. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  7. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  8. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

  9. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.

  10. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  11. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Beckett Heat Recovery is a series of techniques for recovering low-grade waste heat from flue gas. Until the cost of fossil fuels began rising rapidly, flue gas below 600 F was considered economically unworthy of reclaim. This paper...

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  13. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-10-14

    By injecting high concentrations of SO[sub 3] (80 to 100 ppM) it was possible to reduce the particle resistivity from 10[sup 11] to 10[sup 7] ohm-cm. However, it was very difficult to consistently obtain intermediate levels of resistivity. This was because of the steep relationships between gas phase SO[sub 3] and resistivity. It only takes a few ppM of SO[sub 3] to provide an order of magnitude change in resistivity. This is demonstrated by the curves in Figure 2. The water dew point for a gas stream with a moisture content of 10%, which is typical of coal fired boilers, is approximately 120[degrees]F. However, in a flue gas with only 2 ppM of SO[sub 3], sulfuric acid will begin to condense at 270[degrees]F. The effect of the rapid rise in acid dew point is reflected by the corresponding rapid decrease in resistivity. With no gas phase SO[sub 3] present the resistivity is in the high 10[sup 11] ohm-cm range. However with only 10 ppM of SO[sub 3], the resistivity drops three orders of magnitude. Therefore, intermediate levels of resistivity can only be obtained by controlling the SO[sub 3] concentration within 1 or 2 ppM.

  14. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  15. CO? Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2011-09-30

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO?, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO? capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO? from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO? purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO?-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO?, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO? over N? and CO? permeance greater than 300 gas permeation units (GPU) targeted; - Development of next-generation polycarbonate hollow-fiber membranes and membrane modules with higher CO? permeance than current commercial polycarbonate membranes; - Development and fabrication of membrane hollow fibers and modules from candidate polymers; - Development of a CO? capture membrane process design and integration strategy suitable for end-of-pipe, retrofit installation; and - Techno-economic evaluation of the "best" integrated CO? capture membrane process design package In this report, the results of the project research and development efforts are discussed and include the post-combustion capture properties of the two membrane material platforms and the hollow-fiber membrane modules developed from them and the multi-stage process design and analysis developed for 90% CO? capture with 95% captured CO? purity.

  16. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  17. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

  18. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  19. New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes in the way combustion control systems are implemented. The recent availability of in line flue gas analyzers and microprocessor technology are teaming up to produce...

  20. Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilly, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

  1. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  2. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  3. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  4. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  5. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  6. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Fout

    2007-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer is used for the increase of absorption rate, and plays the role of transportation of CO{sub 2}. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the liquid mass transfer coefficients for the CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system. For the CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system, the enhanced factor is not only dependent on the liquid mass transfer coefficients, but also the chemical reaction rates.

  7. Effect of connate water on miscible displacement of reservoir oil by flue gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, H. D.

    1960-01-01

    EFFECT OF CONNATE WATER ON MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF RESERVOIR OIL BY FLUE GAS A Thesis By H. D. MAXWELL, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Au gus t, 19 60 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING EFFECT OF CONNATE WATER ON MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF RESERVOIR OIL BY FLUE GAS A Thesis H. D. MAXWELL, JR. Approved as to style and content by: haxrman of ommitte...

  8. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, chemically activated bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective sorbent, showing over 99% mercury removal according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 101A. Data indicate that adding O{sub 2} at 4 vol% reduced the effectiveness of the steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, and sulfur- impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. Adding SO{sub 2} at 500 ppm improved the mercury removal of the sulfur-impregnated carbon. Further, the presence of HCl gas (at 50 ppm) produced an order of magnitude increase in mercury removal with the chemically activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  9. Experimental analysis and model-based optimization of microalgae growth in photo-bioreactors using flue gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Experimental analysis and model-based optimization of microalgae growth in photo-bioreactors using]. Besides physical and chemical methods for sequestration of CO2 from flue gas [2], microalgae culture holds great potential for converting flue gas to biomass. Microalgae can capture solar energy more efficiently

  10. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  11. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  12. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  13. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  14. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  15. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06

    The hybrid Zero Valent Iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment platform that has shown great potential in our previous bench-scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and other pollutants from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) wastewater...

  16. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  17. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  18. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  19. Hot waste-to-energy flue gas treatment using an integrated fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M. [DIEM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Saccani, C. [DIEM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: cesare.saccani@unibo.it

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes an innovative process to increase superheated steam temperatures in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. This solution is mainly characterised by a fluidised bed reactor in which hot flue gas is treated both chemically and mechanically. This approach, together with gas recirculation, increases the energy conversion efficiency, and raises the superheated steam temperature without decreasing the useful life of the superheater. This paper presents new experimental data obtained from the test facility installed at the Hera S.p.A. WTE plant in Forli, Italy; discusses changes that can be implemented to increase the duration of experimental testing; offers suggestions for the design of an industrial solution.

  20. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and l

  1. Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  2. Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  3. A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

    2001-01-01

    A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

  4. EPA reports advances in scrubber technology at Flue Gas Desulfurization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1982-07-01

    The overall message of the recent Symposium on Flue Gas Desulfurization was that the technology for sulfur dioxide scrubbing has matured enough for discussions to focus on future improvements rather than whether scrubbers work at all. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations will not change in the near future, however, unless there are changes in the Clean air Act to deal with acid rain, despite the improvements in performance data. The symposium covered reports on dual-alkali scrubbing, organic buffer additives, the probability that scrubber wastes will not be classified as hazardous, simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and continuous monitoring programs. 3 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  5. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Lesch

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

  6. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash...

  7. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash A...

  8. Mercury oxidation in flue gas using gold and palladium catalysts on fabric filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason A. Hrdlicka; Wayne S. Seames; Michael D. Mann; Darrin S. Muggli; Carol A. Horabik [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-09-01

    The feasibility of oxidizing elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas using catalytic material impregnated onto fabric filters was explored. TiO{sub 2}, Au/TiO{sub 2}, and Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were studied based on promising results in previous research. Several fabric coating methods were investigated to determine the best way to load a filter. A spray coat method was found to have the highest initial loading and had the lowest losses after simulated pulse-jet cleaning. The oxidation performance of the catalyst-coated filters was tested using a simulated flue gas in a bench-scale reactor under conditions similar to those found in a baghouse. Au/TiO{sub 2} and Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were effective, yielding mercury oxidation ranges of 40-60% and 50-80%, respectively. A 19 kW research combustor equipped with a baghouse was used to fire a range of coals and further test the performance of Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Results obtained warrant further development of this technique as a means of mercury pollution control. 19 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  10. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  11. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a key component of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). The exhaust (flue gas) from the CCPP gas turbine flows through the HRSG -this gas typically contains a high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a key component of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). The exhaust (flue gas) from the CCPP gas turbine flows through the HRSG - this gas typically contains a high

  12. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  13. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  14. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  15. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

  16. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  17. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  18. High Pressure Superheater 1 (HPSH1) is the first heat exchange tube bank inside the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to encounter exhaust flue gas from the gas turbine of a Combined Cycle Power Plant. Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steam Generator (HRSG) to encounter exhaust flue gas from the gas turbine of a Combined Cycle Power Plant. Steam flowing through the HPSH1 gains heat from the flue gas prior to entering the steam turbine changes that occurred, especially in the steam temperature at the HPSH1 entry, and the different rates

  19. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  20. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

  1. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James L. A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and...

  2. Manganese oxide/titania materials for removal of NOx and elemental mercury from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Ji; Pavani M. Sreekanth; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Stephen W. Thiel; Neville G. Pinto [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering

    2008-07-15

    A novel catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using CO as reductant, MnOx supported on titania, has been shown to be effective for both elemental mercury capture and low temperature SCR. In low temperature (200{sup o}C) SCR trials using an industrially relevant space velocity (50 000 h{sup -1}) and oxygen concentration (2 vol %), nearly quantitative reduction of NOx was obtained using CO as the reductant. Fresh catalyst used as an adsorbent for elemental mercury from an inert atmosphere showed remarkable mercury capture capacity, as high as 17.4 mg/g at 200{sup o}C. The catalyst effectively captured elemental mercury after use in NOx reduction. Mercury capture efficiency was not affected by the presence of water vapor. Mercury capacity was reduced in the presence of SO{sub 2}. Manganese loading and bed temperature, which influence surface oxide composition, were found to be important factors for mercury capture. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal that the mercury is present in its oxidized form (HgO) in spent catalyst, indicating the participation of lattice oxygen of the catalyst in the reaction. These results suggest that a single-step process integrating low temperature SCR and mercury capture from flue gas might be feasible. 42 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  4. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  5. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  6. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  7. CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2012-08-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

  8. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of “staining” upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

  9. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  10. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  12. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemical-activated hardwood and bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective carbon, showing over 99% mercury removal according to EPA Method 101A. Data indicate that O{sub 2} (4 vol%) and SO{sub 2} (500 ppm) improved the mercury removal of the other carbons for tests at 150{degrees}C using 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}. Further, the presence of HCl (at 50 ppm) produced a magnitude increase in mercury removal for the steam-activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  13. Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  15. Status of flue-gas treatment technologies for combined SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Markussen, J.M. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments and passage of state legislation leading to more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO.) regulations have fueled research and development efforts on the technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and NO[sub x]. The integrated removal of both SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  16. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-10-14

    By injecting high concentrations of SO{sub 3} (80 to 100 ppM) it was possible to reduce the particle resistivity from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 7} ohm-cm. However, it was very difficult to consistently obtain intermediate levels of resistivity. This was because of the steep relationships between gas phase SO{sub 3} and resistivity. It only takes a few ppM of SO{sub 3} to provide an order of magnitude change in resistivity. This is demonstrated by the curves in Figure 2. The water dew point for a gas stream with a moisture content of 10%, which is typical of coal fired boilers, is approximately 120{degrees}F. However, in a flue gas with only 2 ppM of SO{sub 3}, sulfuric acid will begin to condense at 270{degrees}F. The effect of the rapid rise in acid dew point is reflected by the corresponding rapid decrease in resistivity. With no gas phase SO{sub 3} present the resistivity is in the high 10{sup 11} ohm-cm range. However with only 10 ppM of SO{sub 3}, the resistivity drops three orders of magnitude. Therefore, intermediate levels of resistivity can only be obtained by controlling the SO{sub 3} concentration within 1 or 2 ppM.

  18. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 4, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler`s outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  19. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  20. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning. Topical report No. 1, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and FGD sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  1. Effects of HCl and SO{sub 2} concentration on mercury removal by activated carbon sorbents in coal-derived flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryota Ochiai; M. Azhar Uddin; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

    2009-09-15

    The effect of the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the simulated coal combustion flue gas on the Hg{sup 0} removal by a commercial activated carbon (coconut shell AC) was investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in a temperature range of 80-200{sup o}C. The characteristics (thermal stability) of the mercury species formed on the sorbents under various adsorption conditions were investigated by the temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. It was found that the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas affected the mercury removal efficiency of the sorbents as well as the characteristics of the mercury adsorption species. The mercury removal rate of AC increased with the HCl concentration in the flue gas. In the presence of HCl and the absence of SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, a single Hg{sup 0} desorption peak at around 300{sup o}C was observed in the TPDD spectra and intensity of this peak increased with the HCl concentration during mercury adsorption. The peak at around 300{sup o}C may be derived from the decomposition and desorption of mercury chloride species. The presence of SO{sub 2} during mercury adsorption had an adverse effect on the mercury removal by AC in the presence of HCl. In the presence of both HCl and SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, the major TPDD peak temperatures changed drastically depending upon the concentration of HCl and SO{sub 2} in flue gas during Hg{sup 0} adsorption. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang Yaji [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhou Hongcang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lan Jixiang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  5. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  6. The use of wet limestone systems for combined removal of SO sub 2 and NO sub x from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, G.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Shen, D.X.; Littlejohn, D.; Chang, S.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    A new approach by utilizing yellow phosphorus in conventional wet limestone systems for high efficiency control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from power plants has been developed. The addition of yellow phosphorus in the system induces the production of O{sub 3} which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO{sub 2}. The resulting NO{sub 2} dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO{sub 2} under appropriate conditions. Yellow phosphorus is oxidized to yield P{sub 2}O{sub 5} which picks up water to form H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} mists and can be collected as a valuable product. Proof of concept experiments have been performed using a 20 acfm bench-scale system. The results show that better than 90% of SO{sub 2} and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained. This ratio depends on operating conditions as well as the process configuration. A conceptual process flow diagram has been proposed. A preliminary cost evaluation of this approach appears to indicate great economic potential. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Alternative flue gas treatment technologies for integrated SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markussen, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Livengood, D.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue gas cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  8. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  9. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  10. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO? Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO? stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO? capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and safety risks have been addressed through experimental tests, consultation with vendors and engineering analysis. Multiple rounds of TEA were performed to improve the GPS-based PCC process design and operation, and to compare the energy use and cost performance of a nominal 550-MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plant among the DOE/NETL report Case 11 (the PC plant without CO? capture), the DOE/NETL report Case 12 (the PC plant with benchmark MEA-based PCC), and the PC plant using GPS-based PCC. The results reveal that the net power produced in the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MWe, greater than that of the Case 12 (550 MWe). The 20-year LCOE for the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of that of the Case 11, which is also 23% less than that of the Case 12. These results demonstrate that the GPS-based PCC process is energy-efficient and cost-effective compared with the benchmark MEA process.

  11. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  12. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  13. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  14. Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActToolsForNorthfor GasConference

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture | Center for Gas

  16. Scrubber strategy: the how and why of flue gas desulfurization. [Analysis of 20 US scrubbing systems in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baviello, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this report, INFORM provides facts that will help the non-technical decisionmakers in the US understand a technology that can significantly reduce the polluting effects of burning coal. Those decisionmakers include legislators, regulators and utility executives, public interest groups, concerned community organizations and environmentalists who have been involved in the debate over the broader use of our most abundant fossil fuel - coal. The use of this resource, especially in large industrial and utility plants, has created widespread and intense public controversy. For the past four years INFORM has turned its research capabilities to defining cleaner and more economical ways of using US coal supplies. We have focused on finding out what cleaning coal and using flue gas desulfurization systems (called scrubbers) can contribute to reducing the polluting effects of burning coal in utility plants. All in all, both scrubbers and coal cleaning offer exciting and important possibilities for putting more coal to work in generating power in this country more economically and still meeting critical air quality standards that have been set to protect public health. The need for accurate and clear information concerning these technologies is evident: 80% of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the US now come from utility power plant operations, and over 140 existing oil-fired power plants are candidates for conversion to coal use. We hope that this documentation of the technologies of scrubber systems along with INFORM's companion study of coal cleaning, may help government and business planners and concerned citizens chart intelligent future courses and set realistic goals for meeting our energy needs in an environmentally sound manner.

  17. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and increase carbon injection when inlet loading and mercury removal were low. The resulting mercury removal varied between 50 and 98%, with an overall average of 85.6%, showing that the process was successful at removing high percentages of vapor-phase mercury even with a widely varying mass loading. In an effort to improve baghouse performance, high-permeability bags were tested. The new bags made a significant difference in the cleaning frequency of the baghouse. Before changing the bags, the baghouse was often in a continuous clean of 4.4 p/b/h, but with the new bags the cleaning frequency was very low, at less than 1 p/b/h. Alternative sorbent tests were also performed using these high-permeability bags. The results of these tests showed that most standard, high-quality activated carbon performed similarly at this site; low-cost sorbent and ash-based sorbents were not very effective at removing mercury; and chemically enhanced sorbents did not appear to offer any benefits over standard activated carbons at this site.

  18. Field testing of a probe to measure fouling in an industrial flue gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohal, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology sponsors work in the area of measuring and mitigating fouling in heat exchangers. This report describes the design and fabrication of a gas-side fouling measuring device, and its testing in an industrial environment. The report gives details of the probe fabrication, material used, controllers, other instrumentation required for various measurements, and computer system needed for recording the data. The calibration constants for measuring the heat flux with the heat fluxmeter were determined. The report also describes the field test location, the tests performed, the data collected, and the data analysis. The conclusions of the tests performed were summarized. Although fouling deposits on the probe were minimal, the tests proved that the probe is capable of measuring the fouling in a harsh industrial environment. 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

    2005-11-01

    Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2...

  1. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project (NDP), with cost-shared funding support from DOE, is to design, construct, and operate a commercial-scale flue gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO process. The NDP consists of the NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit, designed to remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas and produce elemental sulfur by-product, and the liquid SO{sub 2} plant and air separation unit, designed to process the elemental sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit will be constructed at ALCOA Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana, and will treat all of the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The elemental sulfur produced will be shipped to the Olin Charleston Plant in Charleston, Tennessee, for conversion into liquid SO{sub 2}.

  2. Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

    1996-08-05

    A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

  3. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  4. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2003-10-31

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  5. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2012-04-24

    An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

  6. Study on multiphase flow and mixing in semidry flue gas desulfurization with a multifluid alkaline spray generator using particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y.G.; Wang, D.F.; Zhang, M.C. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2009-06-15

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to measure the velocity fields of gas-droplet-solid multiphase flow in the experimental setup of a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with a multifluid alkaline spray generator. The flow structure, mixing characteristic, and interphase interaction of gas-droplet-solid multiphase flow were investigated both in the confined alkaline spray generator and in the duct bent pipe section. The results show that sorbent particles in the confined alkaline spray generator are entrained into the spray core zone by a high-speed spray jet and most of the sorbent particles can be effectively humidified by spray water fine droplets to form aqueous lime slurry droplets. Moreover, a minimum amount of air stream in the generator is necessary to achieve higher collision humidification efficiency between sorbent particles and spray water droplets and to prevent the possible deposition of fine droplets on the wall. The appropriate penetration length of the slurry droplets from the generator can make uniform mixing between the formed slurry droplets and main air stream in the duct bent pipe section, which is beneficial to improving sulfur dioxide removal efficiency and to preventing the deposition of droplets on the wall.

  7. Process for the combined removal of SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (Oakland, CA); Griffiths, Elizabeth A. (Neston, GB2); Littlejohn, David (Oakland, CA)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention in one aspect relates to a process for the simultaneous removal of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 from a fluid stream comprising mixtures thereof and in another aspect relates to the separation, use and/or regeneration of various chemicals contaminated or spent in the process and which includes the steps of: (A) contacting the fluid stream at a temperature of between about 105.degree. and 180.degree. C. with a liquid aqueous slurry or solution comprising an effective amount of an iron chelate of an amino acid moiety having at least one --SH group; (B) separating the fluid stream from the particulates formed in step (A) comprising the chelate of the amino acid moiety and fly ash; (C) washing and separating the particulates of step (B) with an aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 5 to 8; (D) subsequently washing and separating the particulates of step (C) with a strongly acidic aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 1 to 3; (E) washing and separating the particulates of step (D) with an basic aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 9 to 12; (F) optionally adding additional amino acid moiety, iron (II) and alkali to the aqueous liquid from step (D) to produce an aqueous solution or slurry similar to that in step (A) having a pH value of between about 4 to 12; and (G) recycling the aqueous slurry of step (F) to the contacting zone of step (A). Steps (D) and (E) can be carried out in the reverse sequence, however the preferred order is (D) and then (E). In another preferred embodiment the present invention provides a process for the removal of NO.sub.x, SO.sub.2 and particulates from a fluid stream which includes the steps of (A) injecting into a reaction zone an aqueous solution itself comprising (i) an amino acid moiety selected from those described above; (ii) iron (II) ion; and (iii) an alkali, wherein the aqueous solution has a pH of between about 4 and 11; followed by solids separation and washing as is described in steps (B), (C), (D) and (E) above. The overall process is useful to reduce acid rain components from combustion gas sources.

  8. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. The plant general arrangement has been revised to incorporate principles used in the design of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) plants. A NOXSO plant availability analysis was prepared using operating experience from the recently completed pilot plant as a basis. The impact of water desorption in the sorbent heater and water adsorption in the sorbent cooler has been quantified and incorporated into the NOXSO process simulator. NOXSO process economics has been updated based on the present design. Capital cost for a 500 MW plant designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of the NO{sub x} is estimated at $247/kW.

  9. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture. Incorporation of the laboratory results showed that for the application at the aluminum smelter, the in-duct scrubber system is more economical than traditional methods. However, the reverse is true for the refinery case, where the bauxite residue is not effective enough as a sequestrant, combined with challenges related to contaminants in the bauxite residue accumulating in and fouling the scrubber absorbent. Sensitivity analyses showed that the critical variables by which process economics could be improved are enzyme concentration, efficiency, and half-life. At the end of the first part of the Phase 2 project, a gate review (DOE Decision Zero Gate Point) was conducted to decide on the next stages of the project. The original plan was to follow the pre-testing phase with a detailed design for the field testing. Unfavorable process economics, however, resulted in a decision to conclude the project before moving to field testing. It is noted that CO2 Solutions proposed an initial solution to reduce process costs through more advanced enzyme management, however, DOE program requirements restricting any technology development extending beyond 2014 as commercial deployment timeline did not allow this solution to be undertaken.

  10. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  11. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Napersville, IL); Kobylinski, Thadeus P. (Lisle, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  12. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  13. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  14. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.; Shoop, K.

    1994-06-01

    Column flotation represents a significant improvement over conventional flotation for many applications. This improvement consists of increased selectivity between hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles, which allows the column to produce higher-purity products. A schematic of the column used is given in Figure 1. The basic procedure for the flotation column experiments was as follows: 500 grams of the sludge from Plant A (prepared as described in the Second Quarterly Report) was suspended at 40% solids in distilled water, to produce 1600 ml of slurry. Reagents were added, and the slurry was agitated vigorously for 1 minute. Frother was added to all of the water to be added to the column, at a rate of 0.03 grams/liter (approximately 0.4 kilograms per metric ton, Kg/mt). The frother used was Dowfroth 200 (a mixture of polypropylene glycol methyl ethers, with a mean molecular weight of 200). The column was started, all of the water flowrates were set as desired, and the drain valve was closed. As soon as the water level had reached the base of the feed inlet tube (approximately 1 minute after closing the drain valve), the 1600 ml feed slurry was added over a 15 second interval. This allowed the feed to be added to the column with a minimum of disturbance to the froth layer, and without causing either surging of the pulp level or large losses to the sinks product. Flotation was carried out for 9 minutes after closing the drain valve. Froth and sinks products were collected, filtered, dried at 45{degrees}C, weighed, and analyzed by thermogravimetic analysis. It is readily seen that, when no collector is added, the column produces a product that is markedly higher purity than that produced by conventional flotation. The addition of oleic acid collector to the column feed is not able to produce any further improvement in product quality, and only results in a loss of product recovery.

  15. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  16. $?/s$ of a Relativistic Hadron Gas at RHIC: Approaching the AdS/CFT bound?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Demir; S. A. Bass

    2009-09-18

    Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are thought to have produced a state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma, characterized by a very small shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio $\\eta/s$, near the lower bound predicted for that quantity by AdS/CFT methods. As the produced matter expands and cools, it evolves through a phase described by a hadron gas with rapidly increasing $\\eta/s$. We calculate $\\eta/s$ as a function of temperature in this phase both in and out of chemical equilibrium and find that its value poses a challenge for viscous relativistic hydrodynamics, which requires small values of $\\eta/s$ in order to successfully describe the collective flow observables at RHIC. We therefore conclude that the origin of the low viscosity matter at the RHIC must be in the partonic phase of the reaction.

  17. One-loop amplitudes of winding strings in AdS$_3$ and the Coulomb gas approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaston Giribet

    2015-11-16

    We discuss a Coulomb gas realization of $n$-point correlation functions in the $SL(2,\\mathbb{R})$ Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model that is suitable to compute scattering amplitudes of winding strings in 3-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space at tree-level and one-loop. This is a refined version of previously proposed free-field realizations that, among other features, accomplishes to make the $H_3^+$ WZW-Liouville correspondence manifest.

  18. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1993-01-20

    We performed a wide variety of laboratory analyses during the past quarter. As with most of the work we performed during the previous quarter, our recent efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the cohesivity and tensile strength of powders. We also continued our analyses of dust cake ashes that have had the soluble compounds leached from their particle surfaces by repeated washings with water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes continued to provide some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show, that for many of the samples we have analyzed a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. In our examinations of the effects of water conditioning on sample cohesivity, we determined that in the absence of absorption of water into the interior of the particles, cohesivity usually increases sharply when environments having relative humidities above 75% are used to condition and test the samples. Plans are under way to condition selected samples with (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4], NH[sub 4]HSO[sub 4], CaCl[sub 2], organosiloxane, and SO[sub 3]. Pending approval, we will begin these conditioning experiments, and subsequent analyses of the conditioned samples.

  19. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-07-27

    SEM pictures of the three mixtures of sorbent and ash from the DITF and the base line ESP hopper ash from Muskingum are shown in Figures 1 through 4. The effects of sorbent addition on particle morphology are evident in Figures 2 through 4 by the presence of irregularly shaped particles and deposits on the surfaces of the spherical fly ash particles. In contrast, the base Ene ash particles have the characteristic relatively smooth, spherical morphology normally associated with pulverized-coal (PC) fly ashes. Resistivity determinations made on these four ashes in ascending and descending temperature modes. These data are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Sorbent injection processes performed at the DITF lowered the duct temperature to around 165{degrees}F from about 350{degrees}F for base line operation. Consequently, during collection in the ESP, the particulate matter from the sorbent injection processes had a significantly lower resitivity (approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 7} {Omega}-cm) than the base line ash (approximately 3 {times} 10{sup 11} {Omega}-cm at 350{degrees}F). Specific surface areas and true particle densities have been measured for the four samples obtained from the DOE/PETC Duct Injection Test Facility. These data are summarized in Table 4. The primary difference indicated by these initial analyses of these four samples is the significant increase in specific surface area due to sorbent addition. The specific surface areas of the three sorbent and ash mixtures from the DITF are quite similar.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  1. How gas-dynamic flare models powered by Petschek reconnection differ from those with ad hoc energy sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longcope, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of solar flare dynamics, such as chromospheric evaporation and flare light-curves, have long been studied using one-dimensional models of plasma dynamics inside a static flare loop, subjected to some energy input. While extremely successful at explaining the observed characteristics of flares, all such models so far have specified energy input ad hoc, rather than deriving it self-consistently. There is broad consensus that flares are powered by magnetic energy released through reconnection. Recent work has generalized Petschek's basic reconnection scenario, topological change followed by field line retraction and shock heating, to permit its inclusion into a one-dimensional flare loop model. Here we compare the gas dynamics driven by retraction and shocking to those from more conventional static loop models energized by ad hoc source terms. We find significant differences during the first minute, when retraction leads to larger kinetic energies and produces higher densities at the loop top, while ad h...

  2. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  3. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe supercritical PC plant with 90% CO2 capture. This plant has the same boiler firing rate and superheated high pressure steam generation as the DOE/NETL report’s Case 12 PC plant. However, due to the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant may not be exactly at 550 MWe.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    systems in EAF plants Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, fans in integrated steel mills Cogeneration

  5. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  6. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases Ron Zevenhoven Helsinki University of Technology Programme Solid Fuel Committee Ås, Norway Helsinki University of Technology Espoo, Finland #12;limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Chapter 2 Flue gases and fuel gases 2.1 Introduction

  7. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T.

    2011-06-15

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275 deg. C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases.

  8. Flue Gas Desulfurization Market Research Report 2018 | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that have the ability to reduce compliance costs. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) used at coal-fired electric plants has a theoretically uncertain impact on pollution emissions....

  9. Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zbikowski, T.

    1979-01-01

    in the field of heat recovery now make it possible to recover a portion of the wasted heat and improve the working conditions of the air purification equipment. Proper design and selection of heat recovery and pollution control equipment as a combination...

  10. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the two instruments at their present state of development. Authors: Montagna, J C ; Smith, G W ; Teats, F G ; Voge, G J ; Jonke, A A Publication Date: 1977-01-01 OSTI...

  11. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Black holes, AdS, and CFTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marolf, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Boundary observables and AdS/CFT . . . . .Unitiarity and AdS/CFT . . . . . . . . . . . . Thecharges in asymptotically AdS-spacetimes. Class. Quant.

  13. Feasibility of an alpha particle gas densimeter for stack sampling applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Randall Mark

    1983-01-01

    , for conceivable ranges of flue gas composition, the maximum error in density due to the uncertainty in gas composition is less than 2%. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. R. A. Fjeld and Dr. A. R. McFarland for their patience... LISTING APPENDIX C TABULATED RESULTS 58 60 72 VI TA 84 Vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE P age I Typical Flue Gas Compositions II Model Flue Gas Compositions 35 Coeff icients for Alpha particle Stopping Power Functions 59 Computed and Experimental...

  14. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  15. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  17. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  18. Stability of AdS black strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Delsate

    2008-08-14

    We review the recent developements in the stability problem and phase diagram for asymptotically locally $AdS$ black strings. First, we quickly review the case of locally flat black string before turning to the case of locally $AdS$ spacetimes.

  19. AdS$_3$ and AdS$_2$ Magnetic Brane Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed Almuhairi

    2010-11-04

    We investigate AdS$_3$ and AdS$_2$ magnetic brane solutions within the consistent truncation of AdS$_5 \\times S^5$ supergravity. The AdS$_3$ solution extends earlier work by allowing a general embedding of the magnetic $U(1)$ in $SO(6)$. We determine the ratio of strong- and weak-coupling entropies as a function of this embedding. Further, by considering crossed magnetic fields in different $U(1)$'s we are able to construct a solution that runs from AdS$_5$ in the UV to AdS$_2 \\times R^3$ in the IR. We find the notable result that there is a zero temperature entropy at strong coupling but not at weak coupling. We also show that the AdS$_2$ solution and at least some of the AdS$_3$ solutions are stable within the truncation.

  20. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan)data book Homefuelleasing Homemapsmockups

  1. OpenEI Community - natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data available for download onst,/0Thoughts after

  2. Evaluating energy dissipation during expansion in a refrigeration cycle using flue pipe acoustic resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luckyanova, Maria N. (Maria Nickolayevna)

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluates the feasibility of using a flue pipe acoustic resonator to dissipate energy from a refrigerant stream in order to achieve greater cooling power from a cryorefrigeration cycle. Two models of the ...

  3. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  4. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  5. VALUE-ADDED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Stanley J. Miller

    2000-07-01

    On a worldwide basis, the projected increase in coal usage over the next two decades in China, India, and Indonesia will dwarf the current U.S. coal consumption of 1 billion tons/year. Therefore, in the United States, coal will be the dominant source of mercury emissions, and worldwide, coal may be the cause of significantly increased mercury emissions unless an effective control strategy is implemented. However, there is much uncertainty over the most technically sound and cost-effective approach for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. Several approaches are suggested for mercury control from coal-fired boilers, including enhancing the ability of wet scrubbers to retain mercury. However, many coal-fired boilers are not equipped with wet scrubbers. On the other hand, since almost all coal-fired boilers are equipped with either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a baghouse, sorbent injection upstream of either an ESP or baghouse appears attractive, because it has the potential to control both Hg{sup 0} and Hg{sup 2+}, would appear to be easy to retrofit, and would be applicable to both industrial and utility boilers. Since mercury in the gas stream from coal combustion is present in only trace quantities, only very small amounts of sorbent may be necessary. If we assume a mercury concentration of 10 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and a sorbent-to-mercury mass ratio of 1000:1, the required sorbent loading is 10 mg/m{sup 3}, which is only 0.1% to 0.2% of a typical dust loading of 5-10 g/m{sup 3} (2.2-4.4 grains/scf). This amount of additional sorbent material in the ash would appear to be negligible and would not be expected to have an impact on control device performance or ash utilization. Accomplishing effective mercury control with sorbent injection upstream of a particulate control device requires several critical steps: (1) Dispersion of the small sorbent particles and mixing with the flue gas must be adequate to ensure that all of the gas is effectively treated in the short residence time (typically a few seconds) between sorbent injection and particle collection. (2) Assuming the sorbent particles can be injected and dispersed adequately, a second critical step is the mass transfer by diffusion of the mercury from the bulk flue gas to the particle surface within the available residence time. The ideal case would be to achieve sufficient mass transfer in the duct and not depend on additional transfer within the collection device. (3) Once the mercury molecules reach the surface of a sorbent particle, they will not be trapped unless sorption can occur at a rate equal to the rate of mass transfer by diffusion to the particle surface. Analysis by Rostam-Abadi and others concluded that only a very small surface area would theoretically be required to trap the mercury. The implication is that reactive surface sites are much more important than the amount of surface area. (4) Assuming the sorbent has the capacity and reactivity to trap the mercury that reaches the sorbent particles, the final critical step is long-term stability of the sorbed mercury.

  6. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    Condensate Return Automatic Steam Trap Monitoring Flue Gas Heat Recoveryheat recovery Blowdown steam Recovery Steam trap maintenance Automatic steam trap monitoring Leak repair Condensateheat recovery Blowdown steam recovery Steam trap maintenance Automatic steam trap monitoring Leak repair Condensate

  7. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  8. Comment on the new AdS universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozgur Sarioglu; Bayram Tekin

    2008-11-25

    We show that Bonnor's new Anti-de Sitter (AdS) universe and its D-dimensional generalization is the previously studied AdS soliton.

  9. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  10. Natural and industrial analogues for release of CO2 from storage reservoirs: Identification of features, events, and processes and lessons learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    Flue Flue Fuel oil Natural gas Natural gas Gas turbine Gasturbine Gas turbine Coal IGCC Flue Flue Flue Flue Fuel IEA,oil, natural gas, and gas turbine power plants. As shown,

  11. AdS spacetimes and isometric embeddings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven Willison

    2013-02-07

    An algebraic global isometric embedding of the nonrotating BTZ black hole is presented. The ambient spacetime is $\\mathbb{M}^{2,3}$, the 3+2 dimensional flat spacetime. We also present the analogous embedding for the Euclidean BTZ spacetime and by performing a kind of double analytic continuation construct a 1-parameter family of embeddings of cosmological AdS spacetime into $\\mathbb{M}^{2,3}$ which coincide asymptotically with the embedded BTZ manifold of the appropriate mass. Finally we note that the family of embeddings of cosmological AdS$_{n}$ into $\\mathbb{M}^{2,n}$ generalises to higher dimensions.

  12. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberger, Walter D.

    2009-01-01

    can be calculated using the AdS/CFT correspondence bySystematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds Walter D.Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds Walter D.

  13. Instability corners in AdS space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fotios V. Dimitrakopoulos; Ben Freivogel; Matthew Lippert; I-Sheng Yang

    2014-10-07

    We investigate whether arbitrarily small perturbations in global AdS space are generically unstable and collapse into black holes on the time scale set by gravitational interactions. We argue that current evidence, combined with our analysis, strongly suggests that a set of nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions does not collapse on this time scale. On the other hand, existing results do not provide an equally strong indication whether the unstable solutions also form a set of nonzero measure. We perform an analysis in position space to address this puzzle, and our formalism allows us to directly address the vanishing-amplitude limit. We show that gravitational self-interaction leads to tidal deformations which are equally likely to focus or defocus energy, and we sketch the phase diagram accordingly. We also clarify the connection between gravitational evolution in global AdS and holographic thermalization.

  14. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masafumi Ishihara; Feng-Li Lin; Bo Ning

    2013-04-04

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy, the so-called renormalized entanglement entropy which is independent of the choices of UV cutoff. Our main results are (i) the renormalized entanglement entropies of the AdS$_{d+1}$ soliton for $d=4,5$ are neither monotonically decreasing along the RG flow nor positive definite, especially around the deconfinement/confinement phase transition; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the renormalized entanglement entropy obeys an expected volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) based on AdS/MERA conjecture, we postulate that the IR fixed-point state for the non-extremal AdS soliton is a trivial product state.

  15. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  16. Predictive Modeling of Mercury Speciation in Combustion Flue Gases Using GMDH-Based Abductive Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    and boiler operating conditions. Prediction performance compares favourably with neural network models for future work to further improve performance. Index Terms: Mercury speciation, Flue gases, Boiler emissions activities are coal-fired electric utility boilers, where speciation depends on the operating conditions

  17. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  18. Black hole microstates in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    We extend a recently derived higher-dimensional Cardy formula to include angular momenta, which we use to obtain the Bekensten-Hawking entropy of AdS black branes, compactified rotating branes, and large Schwarzschild/Kerr black holes. This is the natural generalization of Strominger's microscopic derivation of the BTZ black hole entropy to higher dimensions. We propose an extension to include $U(1)$ charge, which agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of large Reissner-Nordstrom/Kerr-Newman black holes at high temperature. We extend the results to arbitrary hyperscaling violation exponent (this captures the case of black D$p$-branes as a subclass) and reproduce logarithmic corrections.

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and several episodes in London (1). All fuels used by humans such as coal, oil, natural gas, peat, wood s for a concentration range of 300-1000 ppmv. All the absorbed SO2 was recovered in the biotrickling filter liquid of sulfite). The biotrickling filter liquid effluent was further processed biologically in a single post

  20. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4.3 Emission standards for NOx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 2.6 Emission standards and exhaust gas composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

  1. Semiclassical strings in AdS(3) X S^2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogeun Gwak; Bum-Hoon Lee; Kamal L. Panigrahi; Chanyong Park

    2009-01-30

    In this paper, we investigate the semiclassical strings in AdS(3)XS^2, in which the string configuration of AdS(3) is classified to three cases depending on the parameters. Each of these has a different anomalous dimension proportional to logS, S^(1/3) and S, where S is a angular momentum on AdS(3). Further we generalize the dispersion relations for various string configuration on AdS(3)XS^2.

  2. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  3. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air...

  4. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  5. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01

    create the EPA as a separate agency reporting dir ectly to the President, but it established schedules and a regulatory mechanism to treat air quality on a national basis. Although the initial reaction to this law by coal burners was the switch...

  6. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Nitrogen and Water in Flue Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mera, Hilda 1989-

    2012-04-12

    coefficients of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water in MOFs. The metal-organic frameworks studied are copper trimesate (Cu-BTC), zinc terephthalate (IRMOF1), and MIL-47, which belongs to the Materials of the Institute Lavoisier series. Diffusion coefficients...

  7. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    0 removal in the presence of fly ash or powdered activatedash,24mg only (adsorption) Fly ash, 24 mg only (adsorption)Fly ash,24mg;[SCl2],24ppm Fly ash, Flyash,24mg; 24 mg; [SCl

  8. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1993-01-20

    We performed a wide variety of laboratory analyses during the past quarter. As with most of the work we performed during the previous quarter, our recent efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the cohesivity and tensile strength of powders. We also continued our analyses of dust cake ashes that have had the soluble compounds leached from their particle surfaces by repeated washings with water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes continued to provide some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show, that for many of the samples we have analyzed a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. In our examinations of the effects of water conditioning on sample cohesivity, we determined that in the absence of absorption of water into the interior of the particles, cohesivity usually increases sharply when environments having relative humidities above 75% are used to condition and test the samples. Plans are under way to condition selected samples with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}, CaCl{sub 2}, organosiloxane, and SO{sub 3}. Pending approval, we will begin these conditioning experiments, and subsequent analyses of the conditioned samples.

  9. SOx-NOx-Rox Box Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-12-15

    The SNRB{trademark} test program demonstrated the feasibility of controlling multiple emissions from a coal-fired boiler in a single processing unit. The degree of emissions removals for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates all exceeded the project goals. A high degree of removal for HAPs was also achieved. The SNRB system offers low space requirements, control of multiple pollutants, and operating flexibility. The pneumatic SO{sub 2} sorbent and ammonia injection systems are expected to have high reliability because of their mechanical simplicity. Despite these advantages, the SNRB process may not be an economic choice for applications involving SO{sub 2} removals above about 85%. For lower levels of SO{sub 2} removal, the projected economics for SNRB appear to be more favorable than those of existing processes which involve separate units for the same degree of control for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} , and particulates. Specific findings are summarized as follows: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of 85-90% was achieved at a calcium utilization of 40-45%, representing a significant improvement in performance over other dry lime injection processes. (2) When firing 3-4% sulfur coal, compliance with the 1990 CAAA Phase I SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 2.5 lb/10{sup 6} Btu was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio of less than 1.0. For the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu, compliance was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio as low as 1.5. Phase II compliance is the more relevant emissions limit. (3) When using NaHCO{sub 3} as the sorbent, the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit was achieved at a Na{sub 2}/S molar ratio of less than 2.0 (NSR < 1.0). (4) Compliance with the Phase I NO{sub x} emissions limit of 0.45 lb/10{sup 6} Btu for Group 1 boilers was achieved at an NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio of 0.85, with an ammonia slip of 5 ppm or less. (5) Particulate collection efficiency averaged 99.9%, corresponding to an average emissions rate of 0.018 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. This is significantly lower than the NSPS value of 0.03 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The high-temperature baghouse design incorporating an SCR catalyst for NO{sub x} reduction was demonstrated successfully. The technology is ready for commercial application. The key feature of the technology is control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates in a single process unit. However, this limits its commercial market to applications requiring control of all three components. Also, although the testing demonstrated greater than 90% SO{sub 2} capture, this was achieved at high sorbent/sulfur ratios. For applications requiring a high percentage of sulfur removal, a modern conventional FGD unit with LNBs for NO{sub x} control may be the preferred option.

  10. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.

    1993-07-13

    The experiments we have been performing are primarily designed to define the extent to which water affects key properties of ashes, powders, and mixtures of sorbents and ashes. We have included selected data from prior quarterly reports in this report for the sake of completeness, and for comparisons with newly-acquired data. In several places in this report samples are referred to by their identification (SID) numbers. Table I provides a brief description of all the samples we have used in this project along with their SID numbers. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and surface chemistry. Our recent laboratory efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the tensile and cohesive strengths of powders, the development of apparatus for SO{sub 3} and organosiloxane conditioning, and the conditioning of powders and ashes with organosiloxane.

  11. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, July 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.

    1993-10-26

    As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and surface chemistry. Our recent laboratory efforts were directed primarily toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the tensile and cohesive strengths of powders, and the conditioning of powders and ashes with SO{sub 3} and organosiloxane. Details of these conditioning methods are discussed under section 3.5.

  12. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-07-27

    SEM pictures of the three mixtures of sorbent and ash from the DITF and the base line ESP hopper ash from Muskingum are shown in Figures 1 through 4. The effects of sorbent addition on particle morphology are evident in Figures 2 through 4 by the presence of irregularly shaped particles and deposits on the surfaces of the spherical fly ash particles. In contrast, the base Ene ash particles have the characteristic relatively smooth, spherical morphology normally associated with pulverized-coal (PC) fly ashes. Resistivity determinations made on these four ashes in ascending and descending temperature modes. These data are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Sorbent injection processes performed at the DITF lowered the duct temperature to around 165{degrees}F from about 350{degrees}F for base line operation. Consequently, during collection in the ESP, the particulate matter from the sorbent injection processes had a significantly lower resitivity (approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 7} {Omega}-cm) than the base line ash (approximately 3 {times} 10{sup 11} {Omega}-cm at 350{degrees}F). Specific surface areas and true particle densities have been measured for the four samples obtained from the DOE/PETC Duct Injection Test Facility. These data are summarized in Table 4. The primary difference indicated by these initial analyses of these four samples is the significant increase in specific surface area due to sorbent addition. The specific surface areas of the three sorbent and ash mixtures from the DITF are quite similar.

  13. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1993-04-20

    Our recent laboratory efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the tensile strength of powders and the development of apparatus for Experiment 3.5. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show that, for many of the samples we have analyzed, a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. Under Experiment 3.5, which began during this last quarter, we have been developing a system capable of conditioning selected samples with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}CaCl{sub 2}, organosiloxane, and SO{sub 3}.

  14. Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports fromSheetsCascadia AnalysisCatalysis and

  15. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site: City ofNovel CO 2

  16. DOE/FETC/TR--98-01 SORBENTS FOR MERCURY REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORSSeries)Supported Researcher Is

  17. Ab Initio Rational Design of New MOFs for Separations and Flue Gas Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery Act Recovery ActARM Overview ToFuelSign up to be

  18. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production atmeasurementComparison StudyAdvancedArticle) | SciTech

  19. pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0 4 2 r m m m m port m fm f m Tomega( ( ( ( ( ( (

  20. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  1. Model Catalysis of Ammonia Synthesis ad Iron-Water Interfaces - ASum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Solid-GasInterfaces and Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Selected Anionclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, Michael James

    2005-12-15

    The ammonia synthesis reaction has been studied using single crystal model catalysis combined with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. The adsorption of gases N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH{sub 2} ({approx}3325 cm{sup -1}) and NH ({approx}3235 cm{sup -1}) under high pressure of ammonia or equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products on Fe(111) surfaces. Special attention was paid to understand how potassium promotion of the iron catalyst affects the intermediates of ammonia synthesis. An Fe(111) surface promoted with 0.2 monolayers of potassium red shifts the vibrational frequencies of the reactive surface intermediates, NH and NH{sub 2}, providing evidence for weakened the nitrogen-hydrogen bonds relative to clean Fe(111). Spectral features of these surface intermediates persisted to higher temperatures for promoted iron surfaces than for clean Fe(111) surfaces implying that nitrogen-iron bonds are stronger for the promoted surface. The ratio of the NH to NH{sub 2} signal changed for promoted surfaces in the presence of equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products. The order of adding oxygen and potassium to promoted surfaces does not alter the spectra indicating that ammonia induces surface reconstruction of the catalyst to produce the same surface morphology. When oxygen is co-adsorbed with nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia or potassium on Fe(111), a relative phase shift of the spectra occurs as compared to the presence of adsorbates on clean iron surfaces. Water adsorption on iron was also probed using SFG vibrational spectroscopy. For both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O, the only spectral feature was in the range of the free OH or free OD. From the absence of SFG spectra of ice-like structure we conclude that surface hydroxides are formed and no liquid water is present on the surface. Other than model catalysis, gas phase anion photoelectron spectroscopy of the Cl + H{sub 2} van der Waals well, silicon clusters, germanium clusters, aluminum oxide clusters and indium phosphide clusters were studied. The spectra help to map out the neutral potential energy surfaces of the clusters. For aluminum oxide, the structures of the anions and neutrals were explored and for silicon, germanium and indium phosphide the electronic structure of larger clusters was mapped out.

  2. Research and Education of CO{sub 2} Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-09-30

    A novel method using environment-friendly chemical magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) solution to capture carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants flue gas has been studied under this project in the post-combustion control area. The project utilizes the chemistry underlying the CO{sub 2}-Mg(OH){sub 2} system and proven and well-studied mass transfer devices for high levels of CO{sub 2} removal. The major goals of this research were to select and design an appropriate absorber which can absorb greater than 90% CO{sub 2} gas with low energy costs, and to find and optimize the operating conditions for the regeneration step. During the project period, we studied the physical and chemical characteristics of the scrubbing agent, the reaction taking place in the system, development and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gas absorber, desorption mechanism, and operation and optimization of continuous operation. Both batch and continuous operations were performed to examine the effects of various parameters including liquid-to-gas ratio, residence time, lean solvent concentration, pressure drop, bed height, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, bubble size, pH, and temperature on the absorption. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles, formation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO{sub 3}), and vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium (VLSE) of the system were also studied. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles and the steady release of magnesium ions into the solution was a crucial step to maintain a level of alkalinity in the CO{sub 2} absorption process. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model, and the dissolution reaction between proton ions and Mg(OH){sub 2} particles was found to be a rate-controlling step. The intrinsic surface reaction kinetics was found to be a strong function of temperature, and its kinetic expression was obtained. The kinetics of MgCO{sub 3} formation was also studied in terms of different pH values and temperatures, and was enhanced under high pH and temperatures.

  3. Fermilab Today - Classified Ad Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fermilab Classified Ad Policy Fermilab Today now requires that people placing classified ads must belong to one of these categories: a. active and retired employees of Fermi...

  4. Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Warren David

    1975-01-01

    (18) a 5. 3 (84) a 4. 8 (76) a 4. 2 (66) a 3. 8 (61) a 5. 2 (82) a 4. 1 (64) a 5. 0 (80) a *Duncan's Multiple Range Test. ? = . 05. Differences in yield due to rate of applied lime material followed by the same letter are not significantly...CEMENT KILN FLUE DUST AS A SOURCE OF LIME AND POTASSIUM IN FOUR EAST TEXAS SOILS A Thesis by WARREN DAVID POOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  5. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  6. Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass: Volume I--Results of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volume I--Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass: Volume I--Results of Screening for Potential...

  7. Logarithmic Operators in AdS_3/CFT_2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Lewis

    1999-11-30

    We discuss the relation between singletons in AdS_3 and logarithmic operators in the CFT on the boundary. In 2 dimensions there can be more logarithmic operators apart from those which correspond to singletons in AdS, because logarithmic operators can occur when the dimensions of primary fields differ by an integer instead of being equal. These operators may be needed to account for the greybody factor for gauge bosons in the bulk.

  8. Central Charge for 2D Gravity on AdS(2) and AdS(2)/CFT(1) Correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsen Alishahiha; Farhad Ardalan

    2008-08-19

    We study 2D Maxwell-dilaton gravity on AdS(2). We distinguish two distinctive cases depending on whether the AdS(2) solution can be lifted to an AdS(3) geometry. In both cases, in order to get a consistent boundary condition we need to work with a twisted energy momentum tensor which has non-zero central charge. With this central charge and the explicit form of the twisted Virasoro generators we compute the entropy of the system using the Cardy formula. The entropy is found to be the same as that obtained from gravity calculations for a specific value of the level of the U(1) current. The agreement is an indication of $AdS(2)/CFT(1) correspondence.

  9. Adding Value to Agricultural Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    You can significantly increase farm income by adding value to agricultural products and marketing those products effectively. This publication explains how to design a value-added product based on consumer preferences and how to build a business...

  10. AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan

    2012-08-01

    We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.

  11. $P-V$ criticality of AdS black hole in $f(R)$ gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Songbai Chen; Xiaofang Liu; Changqing Liu

    2013-05-31

    We study thermodynamics of a charged AdS black hole in the special $f(R)$ correction with the constant Ricci scalar curvature. Our results show that the the $f(R)$ correction influences the Gibbs free energy and the phase transition of system. The ratio $\\rho_c$ occurred at the critical point increases monotonically with the derivative term $f'(R_0)$. We also disclose that the critical exponents are the same as those of the liquid-gas phase transition in the Van der Waals model, which does not depend on the $f(R)$ correction considered here.

  12. Large rotating AdS black holes from fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Subhaneil Lahiri; R. Loganayagam; Shiraz Minwalla

    2008-07-25

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large rotating black holes in global AdS(D) spaces are dual to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on S**(D-2). Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our fluid dynamical description applies to large non-extremal black holes as well as a class of large non-supersymmetric extremal black holes, but is never valid for supersymmetric black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, string theory on AdS(5) x S**5 and M theory on AdS(4) x S**7 and AdS(7) x S**4.

  13. 201004ad.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VANaval Ordnance,:n5.5.8 , ' !Public

  14. 201008ad.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VANaval Ordnance,:n5.5.8 , '

  15. Ad Hoc Curriculum Implementation Working Group Ad Hoc Working Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Ad Hoc Curriculum Implementation Working Group MINUTES Ad Hoc Working Group 4 December 2002 Friedman on her visit next week. ONE CURRICULUM OR TWO? Information presented by Trudeau shows that PSE and other programs cannot be merged into a single curriculum. The Faculty Senate website states

  16. Ad Lucem Workshop Welcome | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s sconveyance(EPACT)SpringDOE during the DOE Ad Lucem

  17. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Puttarak Jai-akson; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-10-29

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated. We give analytic explanations for the general qualitative features of quasiperiodic solutions localized around a single mode, in close parallel to our discussion of the probe scalar field, and find numerical evidence for logarithmic modulations in the gravitational quasiperiodic spectra existing on top of the formulas previously reported in the literature.

  18. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Puttarak Jai-akson; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-09-04

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated. We give analytic explanations for the general qualitative features of quasiperiodic solutions localized around a single mode, in close parallel to our discussion of the probe scalar field, and find numerical evidence for logarithmic modulations in the gravitational quasiperiodic spectra existing on top of the formulas previously reported in the literature.

  19. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  20. CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmore, Robert (Irwin, PA); Allen, Douglas (Salem, MA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Hedges, Sheila (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-11-30

    Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

  1. A paucity of bulk entangling surfaces: AdS wormholes with de Sitter interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischetti, S; Marolf, D; Wall, AC

    2015-01-01

    Inside the horizon with AdS / CFT, Phys.Rev. D67 (2003)entanglement entropy from AdS/CFT, Phys.Rev.Lett. 96 (2006)dual to Reissner-Nordstrm AdS 5 , JHEP 1404 (2014) 023, [

  2. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  3. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohit Mishra; Harvendra Singh

    2015-07-14

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  4. Emergent quantum criticality, Fermi surfaces, and AdS2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Faulkner; Hong Liu; John McGreevy; David Vegh

    2011-10-30

    Gravity solutions dual to d-dimensional field theories at finite charge density have a near-horizon region which is AdS_2 x R^{d-1}. The scale invariance of the AdS_2 region implies that at low energies the dual field theory exhibits emergent quantum critical behavior controlled by a (0+1)-dimensional CFT. This interpretation sheds light on recently-discovered holographic descriptions of Fermi surfaces, allowing an analytic understanding of their low-energy excitations. For example, the scaling behavior near the Fermi surfaces is determined by conformal dimensions in the emergent IR CFT. In particular, when the operator is marginal in the IR CFT, the corresponding spectral function is precisely of the "Marginal Fermi Liquid" form, postulated to describe the optimally doped cuprates.

  5. Spiky Strings on AdS(4) X CP**3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Kamal L. Panigrahi; Chanyong Park

    2008-11-07

    We study a giant magnon and a spike solution for the string rotating on AdS(4) X CP**3 geometry. We consider rigid rotating fundamental string in the SU(2) X SU(2) sector inside the CP**3 and find out the general form of all the conserved charges. We find out the dispersion relation corresponding to both the known giant magnon and the new spike solutions. We further study the finite size correction in both cases.

  6. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  7. Fermilab Today | Classifieds Ad Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will be posted on the Internet and can lead to responses from outside the lab. Some ads posted in Fermilab Today in the past have received responses from scammers who, for...

  8. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  9. Geological and Geotechnical Site Investigation for the Design of a CO2 Rich Flue Gas Direct Injection and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, Paul; Bolz, Patricia

    2013-03-25

    With international efforts to limit anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere, various CO{sub 2} sequestration methods have been studied by various facilities worldwide. Basalt rock in general has been referred to as potential host material for mineral carbonation by various authors, without much regard for compositional variations due to depositional environment, subsequent metamorphism, or hydrothermal alteration. Since mineral carbonation relies on the presence of certain magnesium, calcium, or iron silicates, it is necessary to study the texture, mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of specific basalts before implying potential for mineral carbonation. The development of a methodology for the characterization of basalts with respect to their susceptibility for mineral carbonation is proposed to be developed as part of this research. The methodology will be developed based on whole rock data, petrography and microprobe analyses for samples from the Caledonia Mine in Michigan, which is the site for a proposed small-scale demonstration project on mineral carbonation in basalt. Samples from the Keweenaw Peninsula will be used to determine general compositional trends using whole rock data and petrography. Basalts in the Keweenaw Peninsula have been subjected to zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism with concurrent native copper deposition. Alteration was likely due to the circulation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures, which is the process that is attempted to be duplicated by mineral carbonation.

  10. Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourhassan, B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  11. Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Pourhassan; Mir Faizal

    2015-08-12

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  12. Tunneling during Quantum Collapse in AdS Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenalo Vaz; Kinjalk Lochan

    2013-01-30

    We extend previous results on the reflection and transmission of self-gravitating dust shells across the apparent horizon during quantum dust collapse to non-marginally-bound dust collapse in arbitrary dimensions with a negative cosmological constant. We show that the Hawking temperature is independent of the energy function and that the wave functional describing the collapse is well behaved at the Hawking-Page transition point. Thermal radiation from the apparent horizon appears as a generic result of non-marginal collapse in AdS space-time owing to the singular structure of the Hamiltonian constraint at the apparent horizon.

  13. Entanglement Entropy and Duality in AdS(4)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ioannis Bakas; Georgios Pastras

    2015-04-30

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy \\delta S and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian \\delta E are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS(4), using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, \\delta S = \\delta E, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  14. Topics in 3D N=2 AdS supergravity in superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriele Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli

    2012-02-01

    We review some recent results on the construction in superspace of 3D N=2 AdS supergravities and on the formulation of rigid supersymmetric theories in (1,1) and (2,0) AdS superspaces.

  15. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan

    2011-04-13

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like `in' and `out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  16. Strings on AdS Wormholes and Nonsingular Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Lu; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz; Zhibai Zhang

    2014-10-22

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole solutions of an f(R) type theory which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. If the AdS/CFT correspondence can be applied in this context, then the wormhole background describes a phase in which two copies of a conformal field theory interact with each other, whereas the nonsingular black hole describes entangled states. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the quarks and anti-quarks that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential. In the interacting phase of the two field theories, a quadruplet made up of one quark-antiquark pair in each field theory can undergo transitions involving how the quarks and antiquarks are paired in terms of the screening.

  17. AdHeat: An Influence-based Diffusion Model for Propagating Hints to Match Ads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    AdHeat: An Influence-based Diffusion Model for Propagating Hints to Match Ads Hongji Bao Google edchang@google.com ABSTRACT In this paper, we present AdHeat, a social ad model con- sidering user influence in addition to relevance for match- ing ads. Traditionally, ad placement employs the relevance

  18. Thermodynamics of Charged Lovelock - AdS Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasobh C. B.; Jishnu Suresh; V. C. Kuriakose

    2015-10-16

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  19. AdS Bubbles, E$p$-branes and Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvendra Singh

    2014-10-15

    The AdS-bubble solutions interestingly mimic Schr\\"odinger-like geometries when expressed in light-cone coordinates. These D$p$ bubble vacuas exhibit asymmetric scaling property with a negative dynamical exponent of time $a0$ in type II* super-strings. We obtain an expression for the entanglement entropy for `bubble E3-branes'. It is argued that the entropy from E3-bubbles has to be the lowest.

  20. $P-V$ criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming Zhang; Zhan-Ying Yang; De-Cheng Zou; Wei Xu; Rui-Hong Yue

    2014-12-03

    We study the $P-V$ critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills (YM) fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.

  1. Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen R. Green; Antoine Maillard; Luis Lehner; Steven L. Liebling

    2015-07-29

    We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS---including both collapsing and non-collapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasi-periodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this work we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic non-collapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.

  2. Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen R. Green; Antoine Maillard; Luis Lehner; Steven L. Liebling

    2015-08-27

    We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS---including both collapsing and non-collapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasi-periodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this work we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic non-collapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.

  3. Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS---including both collapsing and non-collapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasi-periodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this work we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic non-collapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs ...

  4. Corrosion in gas conditioning plants - An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, B.; Dupart, M.

    1987-01-01

    Since the early 1800's, fuel gases of various sorts (acetylene, blast furnace gas, flue water gas, carbureted water gas, coal gas, coke oven gas and producer gas) were transmitted at low pressures in pipelines and were conditioned for contaminate removal. The removal of such contaminates as H/sub 2/S was usually accomplished by solid absorbents such as iron oxide, a process that is still in use today. The discovery in the late 20's of a regenerative process employing alkanolamines was instrumental in rapid increase in the use of natural gas in large volumes. Also at this time, the development of wide diameter pipelines that could handle 500-700 psi gas pressure provided the means of handling these large volumes of gas. The protection of the pipeline from corrosion depended upon contaminate removal of water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. In the process of contaminant removal, the process equipment suffered severe corrosion damage. Corrosion test methods and inhibitors were applied to those early processes and have advanced from weep holes and coupons to the present way of electronic and physical test methods. The trend is away from the primary amine at either low strength or inhibited at high concentration to less corrosive, ''tailor-made'' solvents that can be designed or formulated to perform a given task at acceptable corrosion rates and at much lower energy levels.

  5. The AdS Graviton/Pomeron Description of Deep Inelastic Scattering at Small x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard C. Brower; Marko Djuric; Ina Sarcevic; Chung-I Tan

    2011-06-28

    In the holographic or AdS/CFT dual to QCD, the Pomeron is identified with a Reggeized Graviton in $AdS_5$. We emphasize the importance of confinement, which in this context corresponds to a deformation of $AdS_5$ geometry in the IR. The holographic Pomeron provides a very good fit to the combined data from HERA for Deep Inelastic Scattering at small $x$, lending new confidence to this AdS dual approach to high energy diffractive scattering.

  6. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); McCorkle, Dennis L. (Knoxville, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches.

  7. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  8. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.

  9. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2008-01-01

    is a family of asymptotically AdS 5 ×S 5 black holes chargedCvetic et al. , “Embedding AdS black holes in ten and elevenA toy model for the AdS/CFT correspondence,” JHEP 0407,

  10. Determining an asymptotically AdS Einstein spacetime from data on its conformal boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Alberto

    Determining an asymptotically AdS Einstein spacetime from data on its conformal boundary Alberto of the AdS/CFT correspondence in string theory is the holographic prescription problem for Einstein metrics and to discuss its physical implications. PACS numbers: 04.20.Ex, 04.20.Ha, 11.25.Tq Keywords: AdS metrics

  11. Spectral Flow in AdS(3)/CFT(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaston Giribet; Ari Pakman; Leonardo Rastelli

    2007-12-19

    We study the spectral flowed sectors of the H3 WZW model in the context of the holographic duality between type IIB string theory in AdS(3)x S^3 x T^4 with NSNS flux and the symmetric product orbifold of T^4. We construct explicitly the physical vertex operators in the flowed sectors that belong to short representations of the superalgebra, thus completing the bulk-to-boundary dictionary for 1/2 BPS states. We perform a partial calculation of the string three-point functions of these operators. A complete calculation would require the three-point couplings of non-extremal flowed operators in the H3 WZW model, which are at present unavailable. In the unflowed sector, perfect agreement has recently been found between the bulk and boundary three-point functions of 1/2 BPS operators. Assuming that this agreement persists in the flowed sectors, we determine certain unknown three-point couplings in the H3 WZW model in terms of three-point couplings of affine descendants in the SU(2) WZW model.

  12. Ad Building demolition, recycling completed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge KiosksAbout AwardedAcronyms This is aHomeAd Building

  13. Light-cone AdS/CFT-adapted approach to AdS fields/currents, shadows, and conformal fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. R. Metsaev

    2015-07-23

    Light-cone gauge formulation of fields in AdS space and conformal field theory in flat space adapted for the study of AdS/CFT correspondence is developed. Arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry fields in AdS space and arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space are considered on an equal footing. For the massless and massive fields in AdS and the conformal fields in flat space, simple light-cone gauge actions leading to decoupled equations of motion are found. For the currents and shadows, simple expressions for all 2-point functions are also found. We demonstrate that representation of conformal algebra generators on space of currents, shadows, and conformal fields can be built in terms of spin operators entering the light-cone gauge formulation of AdS fields. This considerably simplifies the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. Light-cone gauge actions for totally symmetric arbitrary spin long conformal fields in flat space are presented. We apply our approach to the study of totally antisymmetric (one-column) and mixed-symmetry (two-column) fields in AdS space and currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space.

  14. U(1) Instantons on AdS_4 and the Uplift to Exact Supergravity Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Imaanpur

    2011-11-23

    We consider self-duality equation of U(1) gauge fields on Euclidean AdS_4 space, and find a simple finite action solution. With a suitable ansatz, we are able to embed this solution into the 10d supergravity background of AdS_4\\times CP^3. Further, we show that the solution can be uplifted to an exact solution in 11d supergravity background of AdS_4\\times SE_7.

  15. Dynamical sectors for a spinning particle in AdS3 Carles Batlle1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carles

    Dynamical sectors for a spinning particle in AdS3 Carles Batlle1 , Joaquim Gomis2 , Kiyoshi the dynamics of a particle of mass M and spin J in AdS3. The study reveals the presence of different dynamical sectors depending on the relative values of M, J and the AdS3 radius R. For the subcritical M2 R2 -J2 > 0

  16. AdS solutions to the 2D type 0A effective action David Mattoon Thompson*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    AdS solutions to the 2D type 0A effective action David Mattoon Thompson* Jefferson Physical November 2004) We present a two-parameter family of AdS solutions to the two-dimensional type 0A effective action. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.70.106001 PACS numbers: 11.25.Mj I. INTRODUCTION AdS backgrounds of string

  17. Production Requirements Full-Page Ads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Production Requirements Full-Page Ads · The final trim size for a full-page ad is 8.75" x 10.875". · Full-page ads should also include .125-inch bleed on all four sides, making the total image area 9" x if over-trimming occurs in the printing process. 1/2-Page and 1/3-Page Ads · The final trim size for a 1

  18. Ads-Portal Domains: Identification and Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaowei

    4 Ads-Portal Domains: Identification and Measurements MISHARI ALMISHARI University of California, Irvine and XIAOWEI YANG Duke University An ads-portal domain refers to a Web domain that shows only develop a machine-learning- based classifier to identify ads-portal domains, which has 96% accuracy. We

  19. Online Effects of Offline Ads Diane Lambert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Online Effects of Offline Ads Diane Lambert Google, Inc. 76 Ninth Ave New York, NY 10011 dlambert a methodology for assessing how ad campaigns in offline media such as print, audio and TV affect online in ad appeared suggests heightened interest in the advertised product, as long as there would have been

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Android Ad Library Permissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallach, Dan

    Longitudinal Analysis of Android Ad Library Permissions Theodore Book, Adam Pridgen, Dan S. Wallach in the behavior of Android ad libraries. Taking a sample of 114,000 apps, we extract and classify their ad particular risks to user privacy and security. I. INTRODUCTION The Android operating system is one

  1. Porous Polymer Networks: Synthesis, Porosity, and Applications in Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation | Center for GasPhysics PhysicsFlue

  2. The different phases of hairy black holes in AdS5 space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaston Giribet; Andres Goya; Julio Oliva

    2014-12-31

    We investigate the thermodynamics of hairy black holes in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, including backreaction. Resorting to the Euclidean path integral approach, we show that matter conformally coupled to Einstein gravity in five dimensions may exhibit a phase transition whose endpoint turns out to be a hairy black hole in AdS5 space. The scalar field configuration happens to be regular everywhere outside and on the horizon, and behaves asymptotically in such a way that respects the AdS boundary conditions that are relevant for AdS/CFT. The theory presents other peculiar features in the ultraviolet, like the existence of black holes with arbitrarily low temperature in AdS5. This provides a simple setup in which the fully backreacting problem of a hair forming in AdS at certain critical temperature can be solved analytically.

  3. The different phases of hairy black holes in AdS5 space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giribet, Gaston; Oliva, Julio

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of hairy black holes in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, including backreaction. Resorting to the Euclidean path integral approach, we show that matter conformally coupled to Einstein gravity in five dimensions may exhibit a phase transition whose endpoint turns out to be a hairy black hole in AdS5 space. The scalar field configuration happens to be regular everywhere outside and on the horizon, and behaves asymptotically in such a way that respects the AdS boundary conditions that are relevant for AdS/CFT. The theory presents other peculiar features in the ultraviolet, like the existence of black holes with arbitrarily low temperature in AdS5. This provides a simple setup in which the fully backreacting problem of a hair forming in AdS at certain critical temperature can be solved analytically.

  4. Large-Scale Optimization of Complex Separator and Reactor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghougassian, Paul Gougas

    2013-01-01

    Capturing from Power Plant Flue Gases: Energetic ComparisonCapturing from Power Plant Flue Gases: Energetic Comparisondesign, the flue gas leaving the power plant’s boiler is

  5. Strings on AdS2 and the high-energy limit of noncritical M-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horava, Petr

    2008-01-01

    B. Clark, and A. Karch, The CFT/AdS correspondence, massiveCoordinate-free action for AdS(3) higher-spin-matterKlebanov and A. M. Polyakov, AdS dual of the critical O(N)

  6. The Incremental Reach and Cost Efficiency of Online Video Ads over TV Ads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    The Incremental Reach and Cost Efficiency of Online Video Ads over TV Ads Yuxue Jin, Sheethal number of brand marketers are including video ads in their advertising campaigns. These advertisers would like to know the incremental reach and cost efficiency of their video and display ads compared

  7. Boundary conditions for conformally coupled scalar in AdS$_4$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Hyuk Oh

    2015-02-05

    We consider conformally coupled scalar with $\\phi^4$ coupling in AdS$_4$ and study its various boundary conditions on AdS boundary. We have obtained perturbative solutions of equation of motion of the conformally coupled scalar with power expansion order by order in $\\phi^4$ coupling $\\lambda$ up to $\\lambda^2$ order. In its dual CFT, we get 2,4 and 6 point functions by using this solution with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions via AdS/CFT dictionary. We also consider marginal deformation on AdS boundary and get its on-shell and boundary effective actions.

  8. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan); Tawian Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan))

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Non-Relativistic AdS Branes and Newton-Hooke Superalgebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Sakaguchi; Kentaroh Yoshida

    2006-05-12

    We examine a non-relativistic limit of D-branes in AdS_5xS^5 and M-branes in AdS_{4/7}xS^{7/4}. First, Newton-Hooke superalgebras for the AdS branes are derived from AdSxS superalgebras as Inonu-Wigner contractions. It is shown that the directions along which the AdS-brane worldvolume extends are restricted by requiring that the isometry on the AdS-brane worldvolume and the Lorentz symmetry in the transverse space naturally extend to the super-isometry. We also derive Newton-Hooke superalgebras for pp-wave branes and show that the directions along which a brane worldvolume extends are restricted. Then the Wess-Zumino terms of the AdS branes are derived by using the Chevalley-Eilenberg cohomology on the super-AdSxS algebra, and the non-relativistic limit of the AdS-brane actions is considered. We show that the consistent limit is possible for the following branes: Dp (even,even) for p=1 mod 4 and Dp (odd,odd) for p=3 mod 4 in AdS_5xS^5, and M2 (0,3), M2 (2,1), M5 (1,5) and M5 (3,3) in AdS_{4}xS^{7} and S^{4}xAdS_{7}. We furthermore present non-relativistic actions for the AdS branes.

  10. Three-dimensional N=2 (AdS) supergravity and associated supercurrents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei M. Kuzenko; Gabriele Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli

    2012-09-28

    Long ago, Achucarro and Townsend discovered that in three dimensions (3D) N-extended anti-de Sitter (AdS) supergravity exists in several incarnations, which were called the (p,q) AdS supergravity theories with non-negative integers p>=q such that N=p+q. Using the superspace approach to 3D N-extended supergravity developed in arXiv:1101.4013, we present three superfield formulations for N=2 supergravity that allow for well defined cosmological terms and supersymmetric AdS solutions. The conformal compensators corresponding to these theories are respectively: (i) a chiral scalar multiplet: (ii) a vector multiplet; and (iii) an improved complex linear multiplet. The theories corresponding to (i) and (iii) are shown to provide two dually equivalent realizations of the (1,1) AdS supergravity, while (ii) describes the (2,0) AdS supergravity. We associate with each supergravity formulation, with and without a cosmological term, a consistent supercurrent multiplet. The supercurrents in the (1,1) and (2,0) AdS backgrounds are derived for the first time. We elaborate on rigid supersymmetric theories in (1,1) and (2,0) AdS superspaces.

  11. Supersymmetric Asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz Solutions in Einstein-Weyl and Conformal Supergravities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Lu; Zhao-Long Wang

    2012-05-22

    We show that there exist supersymmetric Lifshitz vacua in off-shell Einstein-Weyl supergravity, in addition to the BPS AdS_4 vacuum. The Lifshitz exponents are determined by the product of the cosmological constant and the coupling of the Weyl-squared term. We then obtain the equations of the supersymmetric solutions that are asymptotic to the AdS or Lifshitz vacua. We obtain many examples of exact solutions as well as numerical ones. We find examples of extremal AdS black branes whose near-horizon geometry is AdS_2\\times T^2. We also find an extremal Lifshitz black hole with z=-2, whose horizon coincides with the curvature singularity. However the asymptotic Lifshitz solutions are in general smooth wormholes. In conformal supergravity, we find intriguing examples of non-extremal "BPS" AdS and Lifshitz black holes whose local Killing spinor is divergent on the horizon. We show that all the supersymmetric asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz solutions have the vanishing Noether charge associated with some scaling symmetry. We also study the integrability condition of the Killing spinor equation and the supersymmetric invariance of the action. Finally we show that the only spherically-symmetric BPS solution is the AdS vacuum.

  12. University Policy No.: AD2530 Classification: Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    University Policy No.: AD2530 Classification: Administration PHOTOCOPY AND FACSIMILE (FAX may be obtained through library managed machines or through the use of personal accounts. 1

  13. Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AD LUCEM ... TOWARD THE LIGHT 3 Fig. 2: Projected solar market diffusion (including photovoltaic and concentrated solar power). Moore's law, the experience curve framework,...

  14. University Policy No.: AD2210 Classification: Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    University Policy No.: AD2210 Classification: Administration FIELDWORK AND INTERNATIONAL: includes all University of Victoria administrators, faculty, staff, and students while such individuals

  15. University Policy No.: AD2215 Classification: Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    University Policy No.: AD2215 Classification: Administration Approving Authority: Board Review: 1. This statement applies to the policies and administration of trademarks registered

  16. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Resource allocation techniques based on Bio-inspired computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled spectrum (this is nothing but the "common carrier principle" adopted in oil/gas/electricity pipelines/networks.), since all ad hoc networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force ad hoc networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology may resolve the spectrum scarcity. CR network proved to next generation wireless communication system that proposed as a way to reuse under-utilised spectrum of licensee user (primary network) in an opportunistic and non-interfering basis. A CR is a self-configuring entity in a wireless networking that senses its environment, tracks changes, and frequently exchanges information with their networks. Adding this layer of such intelligence to the ad hoc network by looking at the overall geography of the network known as cogni...

  17. Recent Results in AdS/QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua Erlich

    2008-12-29

    AdS/QCD is an extra-dimensional approach to modeling the light hadronic resonances in QCD. AdS/QCD models are generally successful at reproducing low-energy observables with around 10-20% accuracy, depending on the details of the model. We discuss the motivation for these models, their intrinsic limitations, and some recent results.

  18. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Schvellinger

    2008-06-03

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  19. Integrable twists in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan McLoughlin; Ian Swanson

    2006-06-26

    A class of marginal deformations of four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills theory has been found to correspond to a set of smooth, multiparameter deformations of the S^5 target subspace in the holographic dual on AdS_5 x S^5. We present here an analogous set of deformations that act on global toroidal isometries in the AdS_5 subspace. Remarkably, certain sectors of the string theory remain classically integrable in this larger class of so-called gamma-deformed AdS_5 x S^5 backgrounds. Relying on studies of deformed su(2)_gamma models, we formulate a local sl(2)_gamma Lax representation that admits a classical, thermodynamic Bethe equation (based on the Riemann-Hilbert interpretation of Bethe's ansatz) encoding the spectrum in the deformed AdS_5 geometry. This result is extended to a set of discretized, asymptotic Bethe equations for the twisted string theory. Near-pp-wave energy spectra within sl(2)_gamma and su(2)_gamma sectors provide a useful and stringent test of such equations, demonstrating the reliability of this technology in a wider class of string backgrounds. In addition, we study a twisted Hubbard model that yields certain predictions of the dual beta-deformed gauge theory.

  20. Duality invariance of $s \\ge 3/2$ fermions in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Deser; D. Seminara

    2014-09-11

    We show that in D=4 AdS, $s\\ge 3/2$ partially massless (PM) fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios $ {m^2}/{M^2}\

  1. Boundary conditions, effective action, and Virasoro algebra for AdS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porfyriadis, Achilleas P

    2010-01-01

    We construct an effective action of General Relativity for small excitations from asymptotic transformations and use it to study conformal symmetry in the boundary of AdS3. By requiring finiteness of the boundary effective ...

  2. Operator Product Expansion for Pure Spinor Superstring on AdS(5)*S(5)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentina Giangreco M. Puletti

    2006-07-16

    The tree-level operator product expansion coefficients of the matter currents are calculated in the pure spinor formalism for type IIB superstring in the AdS(5)*S(5) background.

  3. Near Flat Space limit of strings on AdS_4 x CP^3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kreuzer; R. C. Rashkov; M. Schimpf

    2008-11-03

    The non-linear nature of string theory on non-trivial backgrounds related to the AdS/CFT correspondence suggests to look for simplifications. Two such simplifications proved to be useful in studying string theory. These are the pp-wave limit which describes point-like strings and the so called "near flat space" limit which connects two different sectors of string theory -- pp-waves and "giant magnons". Recently another example of AdS/CFT duality emerged - $AdS_4/CFT_3$, which suggests duality between $\\mathcal N=6$ CS theory and superstring theory on $AdS_4\\times \\cp$. In this paper we study the "near flat space" limit of strings on the $AdS_4\\times \\cp$ background and discuss possible applications of the reduced theory.

  4. Turbulent strings in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    We study nonlinear dynamics of the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory using the AdS/CFT duality. In the gravity side, the flux tube is realized by a fundamental string whose endpoints are attached to the AdS boundary. We perturb the endpoints in various ways and numerically compute the time evolution of the nonlinearly oscillating string. As a result, cusps can form on the string, accompanied by weak turbulence and power law behavior in the energy spectrum. When cusps traveling on the string reach the boundary, we observe the divergence of the force between the quark and antiquark. Minimal amplitude of the perturbation below which cusps do not form is also investigated. No cusp formation is found when the string moves in all four AdS space directions, and in this case an inverse energy cascade follows a direct cascade.

  5. Turbulent strings in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takaaki Ishii; Keiju Murata

    2015-06-25

    We study nonlinear dynamics of the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory using the AdS/CFT duality. In the gravity side, the flux tube is realized by a fundamental string whose endpoints are attached to the AdS boundary. We perturb the endpoints in various ways and numerically compute the time evolution of the nonlinearly oscillating string. As a result, cusps can form on the string, accompanied by weak turbulence and power law behavior in the energy spectrum. When cusps traveling on the string reach the boundary, we observe the divergence of the force between the quark and antiquark. Minimal amplitude of the perturbation below which cusps do not form is also investigated. No cusp formation is found when the string moves in all four AdS space directions, and in this case an inverse energy cascade follows a direct cascade.

  6. Entropy of Warped Taub-NUT AdS Black String via the Brick Wall Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong Oh Lee

    2015-03-10

    When we consider five-dimensional warped Taub-NUT/bolt AdS black string with minimally coupled massive scalar field, we calculate entropies by using the brick wall method. It is found that they are proportional to being quadratically divergent in a cutoff parameter. In particular, we show that the entropy of warped Taub-NUT AdS black string holds for an area law in the bulk as well as on the brane.

  7. Geometry and supersymmetry of heterotic warped flux AdS backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, S W; Papadopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    We classify the geometries of the most general warped, flux AdS backgrounds of heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We show under some mild assumptions that there are no $AdS_n$ backgrounds with $n\

  8. Supersymmetric branes in AdS2S2 Aaron Simons, Andrew Strominger, David Thompson, and Xi Yin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    Supersymmetric branes in AdS2S2 CY3 Aaron Simons, Andrew Strominger, David Thompson, and Xi Yin-BPS (Bogomol'nyi- Prasad-Sommerfield) configurations, which are static for some choice of global AdS2 requires alignment of all the charge vectors. The radial position of the branes in global AdS2

  9. OKHEP-00-11 Quantum (In)Stability of a Brane-World AdS5 Universe at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milton, Kim

    OKHEP-00-11 Quantum (In)Stability of a Brane-World AdS5 Universe at Nonzero Temperature Iver Brevik effects of bulk matter (scalars, spinors) in the Randall-Sundrum AdS5 brane-world at nonzero temperature dynamical mechanism to stabilize the thermal AdS5 brane-world. It is shown that the brane separation

  10. AdAlyze Redux: Post-Click and Post-Conversion Text Feature Attribution for Sponsored Search Ads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    AdAlyze Redux: Post-Click and Post-Conversion Text Feature Attribution for Sponsored Search Ads In this paper, we present our ongoing research on an ads quality testing tool that we call AdAlyze Redux of textual ads features, tailored to exactly the ads in an advertiser's set of accounts. This lets them

  11. Classical Worldsheets for String Scattering on Flat and AdS Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles M. Sommerfield; Charles B. Thorn

    2008-05-21

    We present a study of the worldsheets that describe the classical limit of various string scattering processes. Our main focus is on string scattering in AdS spacetime because of its relation via the AdS/CFT correspondence to gluon scattering in {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. But we also consider analogous processes in flat Minkowski spacetime which we compare to the AdS case. In addition to scattering of string by string we also find and study worldsheets describing the scattering of a string by external sources.

  12. AdS and Lifshitz Black Holes in Conformal and Einstein-Weyl Gravities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Lu; Y. Pang; C. N. Pope; J. Vazquez-Poritz

    2012-04-14

    We study black hole solutions in extended gravities with higher-order curvature terms, including conformal and Einstein-Weyl gravities. In addition to the usual AdS vacuum, the theories admit Lifshitz and Schr\\"odinger vacua. The AdS black hole in conformal gravity contains an additional parameter over and above the mass, which may be interpreted as a massive spin-2 hair. By considering the first law of thermodynamics, we find that it is necessary to introduce an associated additional intensive/extensive pair of thermodynamic quantities. We also obtain new Liftshitz black holes in conformal gravity and study their thermodynamics. We use a numerical approach to demonstrate that AdS black holes beyond the Schwarzschild-AdS solution exist in Einstein-Weyl gravity. We also demonstrate the existence of asymptotically Lifshitz black holes in Einstein-Weyl gravity. The Lifshitz black holes arise at the boundary of the parameter ranges for the AdS black holes. Outside the range, the solutions develop naked singularities. The asymptotically AdS and Lifshitz black holes provide an interesting phase transition, in the corresponding boundary field theory, from a relativistic Lorentzian system to a non-relativistic Lifshitz system.

  13. Noncommutative geometry of AdS coordinates on a D-brane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence B. Crowell

    2012-07-02

    In this short paper the noncommutative geometry and quantization of branes and the AdS is discussed. The question in part addresses an open problem left by this author in [1] on how branes are generated by stringy physics. The breaking of an open type I string into two strings generates a nascent brane at the new endpoints with inflationary cosmologies. This was left as a conjecture at the end of this paper on the role of quantum critical points in the onset of inflationary cosmology. The noncommutative geometry of the clock and lapse functions for the AdS-brane are derived as is the number of degrees of freedom which appear. The role of the AdS spacetime, or in particular its boundary, in cosmology is discussed in an elementary regularization scheme of the cosmological constant on the boundary. This is compared to schemes of conformal compactification of the AdS spacetime and the Heisenberg group.

  14. On Thermodynamics of AdS Black Holes in M-Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Belhaj; M. Chabab; H. EL Moumni; K. Masmar; M. B. Sedra

    2015-09-07

    Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically AdS_4 black holes in M-theory, we investigate the thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of AdS black holes from M2 and M5-branes. Concretely, we consider AdS black holes in AdS_{p+2}\\times S^{11-p-2}, where p=2,5 by interpreting the number of M2 (and M5-branes) as a thermodynamical variable. We study the corresponding phase transition to examine their stabilities by calculating and discussing various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential. Then, we compute the thermodynamical curvatures from the Quevedo metric for M2 and M5-branes geometries to reconsider the stability of such black objects. The Quevedo metric singularities recover similar stability results provided by the phase transition program.

  15. Position Number: (Assigned when added to Library)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Position Number: (Assigned when added to Library) 02016240 Dept: INST OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES distributions to social media and trade media. 20% WEBSITE, SOCIAL MEDIA AND MEDIA MONITORING Monitor trends

  16. Phase transition and thermodynamical geometry for Schwarzschild AdS black hole in $AdS_5\\times{S^5}$ spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia-Lin Zhang; Rong-Gen Cai; Hongwei Yu

    2015-03-03

    We study thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in $AdS_5\\times{S^5}$ spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric and Quevedo metric, respectively and we find that the divergence of scalar curvature is related to the divergence of specific heat with fixed chemical potential in the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric, while in the Quevedo metric the divergence of scalar curvature is related to the divergence of specific heat with fixed number of colors and the vanishing of the specific heat with fixed chemical potential.

  17. Measuring value added characteristics in feeder cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathews, Crystal Dawn

    2009-05-15

    VALUE-ADDED CHARACTERISTICS IN FEEDER CATTLE A Thesis by CRYSTAL DAWN MATHEWS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 2007 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics MEASURING VALUE-ADDED CHARACTERISTICS IN FEEDER CATTLE A Thesis by CRYSTAL DAWN MATHEWS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

  18. AUAARHUS UNIVERSITY Adding of attachments Financial Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and the picture file from this scan must be saved (on a PC or server) before the file is added to the expense sheet. Important: Attachments must be saved in PDF or TIF format. If the attachment is not added in one address or save the picture file on your PC or a server. Open the file and save it on your PC #12;AUAARHUS

  19. On the Thermodynamic Geometry and Critical Phenomena of AdS Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anurag Sahay; Tapobrata Sarkar; Gautam Sengupta

    2010-04-21

    In this paper, we study various aspects of the equilibrium thermodynamic state space geometry of AdS black holes. We first examine the Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS (RN-AdS) and the Kerr-AdS black holes. In this context, the state space scalar curvature of these black holes is analysed in various regions of their thermodynamic parameter space. This provides important new insights into the structure and significance of the scalar curvature. We further investigate critical phenomena, and the behaviour of the scalar curvature near criticality, for KN-AdS black holes in two mixed ensembles, introduced and elucidated in our earlier work arXiv:1002.2538 [hep-th]. The critical exponents are identical to those in the RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS cases in the canonical ensemble. This suggests an universality in the scaling behaviour near critical points of AdS black holes. Our results further highlight qualitative differences in the thermodynamic state space geometry for electric charge and angular momentum fluctuations of these.

  20. A Simulation Study of Diffusion in Microporous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abouelnasr, Mahmoud Kamal Forrest

    2013-01-01

    separation. stream Coal power plant flue gas Natural Gas AirCO 2 from a coal power plant flue gas stream have recentlyThe flue gas of a hydrocarbon-combustion power plant is

  1. Comments on Cosmic Censorship in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubeny, Veronika E.

    2009-01-01

    black hole singularity in AdS/CFT, [arXiv:hep-th/0306170]. [Censorship Violation in AdS, [arXiv:gr-qc/0405050]. [17] D.Quasinormal modes of AdS black holes and the approach to

  2. SAO/NASA ADS Help Pages May 30, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardcastle, Martin

    SAO/NASA ADS Help Pages ADS Team May 30, 2014 #12;Contents 1 Overview 4 1.1 What is the ADS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1.1 Use of the ADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1.2 User Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 About the Data in the ADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.1 Origin

  3. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  4. 2D Gravity on $AdS_2$ with Chern-Simons Corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsen Alishahiha; Reza Fareghbal; Amir E. Mosaffa

    2008-12-23

    We study 2D Maxwell-dilaton gravity with higher order corrections given by the Chern-Simons term. The model admits three distinctive $AdS_2$ vacuum solutions. By making use of the entropy function formalism we find the entropy of the solutions which is corrected due to the presence of the Chern-Simons term. We observe that the form of the correction depends not only on the coefficient of the Chern-Simons term, but also on the sign of the electric charge; pointing toward the chiral nature of the dual CFT. Using the asymptotic symmetry of the theory as well as requiring a consistent picture we can find the central charge and the level of U(1) current. Upon uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we get purely geometric solutions which will be either $AdS_3$ or warped $AdS_3$ with an identification.

  5. 2D Gravity on $AdS_2$ with Chern-Simons Corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Mosaffa, Amir E

    2009-01-01

    We study 2D Maxwell-dilaton gravity with higher order corrections given by the Chern-Simons term. The model admits three distinctive $AdS_2$ vacuum solutions. By making use of the entropy function formalism we find the entropy of the solutions which is corrected due to the presence of the Chern-Simons term. We observe that the form of the correction depends not only on the coefficient of the Chern-Simons term, but also on the sign of the electric charge; pointing toward the chiral nature of the dual CFT. Using the asymptotic symmetry of the theory as well as requiring a consistent picture we can find the central charge and the level of U(1) current. Upon uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we get purely geometric solutions which will be either $AdS_3$ or warped $AdS_3$ with an identification.

  6. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  7. Low frequency quasi-normal modes of AdS black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Siopsis

    2007-02-10

    We calculate analytically low frequency quasi-normal modes of gravitational perturbations of AdS Schwarzschild black holes in $d$ dimensions. We arrive at analytic expressions which are in agreement with their counterparts from linearized hydrodynamics in $S^{d-2}\\times \\mathbb{R}$, in accordance with the AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results are also in good agreement with results of numerical calculations.

  8. Schwinger Pair Production in dS_2 and AdS_2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Pyo Kim; Don N. Page

    2009-02-20

    We study Schwinger pair production in scalar QED from a uniform electric field in dS_2 with scalar curvature R_{dS} = 2 H^2 and in AdS_2 with R_{AdS} = - 2 K^2. With suitable boundary conditions, we find that the pair-production rate is the same analytic function of the scalar curvature in both cases.

  9. Double-Trace Deformations and Entanglement Entropy in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiki Miyagawa; Noburo Shiba; Tadashi Takayanagi

    2015-11-30

    We compute the bulk entanglement entropy of a massive scalar field in a Poincare AdS with the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition when we trace out a half space. Moreover, by taking into account the quantum back reaction to the minimal surface area, we calculate how much the entanglement entropy changes under a double-trace deformation of a holographic CFT. In the AdS3/CFT2 setup, our result agrees with the known result in 2d CFTs. In higher dimensions, our results offer holographic predictions.

  10. Global causal propagator for the KleinGordon equation on a class of supersymmetric AdS backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Alberto

    Global causal propagator for the Klein­Gordon equation on a class of supersymmetric AdS backgrounds analyze the Cauchy problem for the Klein­Gordon equation on the type IIB super- gravity backgrounds AdS5 of their connections to the AdS/CFT correspon- dence [2]. More precisely, if Y is a Sasaki­Einstein 5-manifold

  11. Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switchFlue Gas Streams (Journal Article) |

  12. Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switchFlue Gas Streams (Journal Article) |Exploration and

  13. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  14. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henneken, Edwin A; Kurtz, Michael J; Grant, Carolyn S; Thompson, Donna; Luker, Jay; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Murray, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. More papers than ever are being written on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service which provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this presentation we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  15. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacopo Bechi

    2009-09-25

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate.

  16. Adaptive Scheduling in Ad Hoc and Cellular Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Choo Chin

    2013-01-01

    organization wireless networks and wireless mobile ad-hocfor heterogeneous wireless network”, in Proc. of IEEER. Khalaf, “Ad hoc wireless networks with mobile backbones,”

  17. Building America Expert Meeting: Key Innovations for Adding Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Expert Meeting: Key Innovations for Adding Energy Efficiency to Maintenance Projects Building America Expert Meeting: Key Innovations for Adding Energy Efficiency to Maintenance...

  18. Adaptive Scheduling in Ad Hoc and Cellular Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Choo Chin

    2013-01-01

    multicasting in energy-constrained wireless networks,” IEEEminimum-energy multicasting in wireless ad hoc networks,”minimum-energy multicasting in wireless ad hoc networks,” in

  19. Addendum Added to Innovative Demonstration of Geothermal Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Addendum Added to Innovative Demonstration of Geothermal Energy Production FOA Addendum Added to Innovative Demonstration of Geothermal Energy Production FOA July 2, 2010 - 2:13pm...

  20. Peculiarities of String Theory on AdS(4) x CP(3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri Sorokin; Linus Wulff

    2011-03-08

    We review peculiar features of type IIA string theory compactified on AdS(4) x CP(3) superspace, in particular, the structure of the Green-Schwarz action, issues with fixing its kappa-symmetry, classical integrability and the string instanton on CP(3)

  1. Gauge Non-Invariant Higher-Spin Currents in $AdS_4$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirnov, P A

    2015-01-01

    Conserved currents of any spin $t>0$ built from bosonic symmetric massless gauge fields of arbitrary integer spins in $AdS_4$ are found. Analogously to the case of $4d$ Minkowski space, currents considered in this paper are not gauge invariant but generate gauge invariant conserved charges.

  2. Hawking radiation for a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Valtancoli

    2015-02-05

    The decomposition in normal modes of a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole leads to a Heun equation with simple coefficients thanks to conformal invariance. By applying the Damour-Ruffini method we can relate the critical exponent of the radial part at the horizon surface to the Hawking radiation of scalar particles.

  3. The structural design of air and gas ducts for power stations and industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) book entitled, The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and Industrial Boiler Applications. This 312 page book was published by the ASCE in August of 1995. This ASCE publication was created to assist structural engineers in performing the structural analysis and design of air and flue-gas ducts. The structural behavior of steel ductwork can be difficult to understand for structural engineers inexperienced in ductwork analysis and design. Because of this needed expertise, the ASCE committee that created this document highly recommends that the structural analysis and design of ducts be performed by qualified structural engineers, not be technicians, designers or drafters. There is a history within the power industry of failures and major degradation of flue-gas ductwork. There are many reasons for these failures or degradation, but in many cases, the problems may have been voided by a better initial design. This book attempts to help the structural engineer with this task. This book is not intended to be used to size or configure ductwork for flow and pressure drop considerations. But it does recommend that the ductwork system arrangement consider the structural supports and the structural behavior of the duct system.

  4. Holographic Thermalization, stability of AdS, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkat Balasubramanian; Alex Buchel; Stephen R. Green; Luis Lehner; Steven L. Liebling

    2014-06-16

    For a real massless scalar field in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant, we uncover a large class of spherically symmetric initial conditions that are close to AdS, but whose numerical evolution does not result in black hole formation. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary, these bulk solutions are dual to states of a strongly interacting boundary CFT that fail to thermalize at late times. Furthermore, as these states are not stationary, they define dynamical CFT configurations that do not equilibrate. We develop a two-timescale perturbative formalism that captures both direct and inverse cascades of energy and agrees with our fully nonlinear evolutions in the appropriate regime. We also show that this formalism admits a large class of quasi-periodic solutions. Finally, we demonstrate a striking parallel between the dynamics of AdS and the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem.

  5. The Cornell Potential from General Geometries in AdS / QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C D White

    2007-07-02

    We consider the heavy quark-antiquark potential in the AdS / QCD correspondence, focusing in particular on a recently calculated AdS-like metric deformed by back-reaction effects. We find that tuning the long-distance behaviour of the potential leads to a discrepancy at small distances, and discuss how to better constrain AdS / QCD geometries. A systematic comparison of various geometries is presented, based on goodness of fit to lattice data in the quenched approximation. The back-reacted geometry is seen to be phenomenologically favoured over an alternative geometry with the same number of parameters, although it does not perform as well as some other geometries.

  6. OKHEP0011 Quantum (In)Stability of a BraneWorld AdS 5 Universe at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milton, Kim

    OKHEP­00­11 Quantum (In)Stability of a Brane­World AdS 5 Universe at Nonzero Temperature Iver the quantum e#ects of bulk matter (scalars, spinors) in the Randall­Sundrum AdS 5 brane­world at nonzero). That suggests a new dynamical mechanism to stabilize the thermal AdS 5 brane­world. It is shown that the brane

  7. Environ. Scl. Technol. 1994, 28, 277-283 Effects of Salts on Preparation and Use of Calcium Silicates for Flue Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    areacalciumsilicatehydratesthat arehighly reactive with SO2 can be made by slurrying fly ash and lime in water at elevated

  8. Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kunlei; Chen, Liangyong; Zhang, Yi; Richburg, Lisa; Simpson, James; White, Jay; Rossi, Gianalfredo

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

  9. Reduction of air in-leakage and flue gas by-passing in the penthouse of Duke Power-Marshall Unit No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.; Rush, T.

    1995-12-31

    After a year of operation, the penthouse was inspected and found to be {open_quotes}lightly dusted{close_quotes} with barely sufficient accumulation to show footprints. This is contrasted with previous five foot deep ash dunes. The savings in maintenance repairs are estimated at $65,000 for vacuuming that was not required, and $80,000 in maintenance personnel weld repairs. The history of repairs was such that vacuuming and weld repair costs were predictable, and before the IOSMEMBRANE{reg_sign} installation, always expected as recurring maintenance costs. The heat rate improvement of reducing air in-leakage is well known, and significant. The principal quantified savings are in reduced maintenance costs, more expedient repairs (reduced cool down time for repairs in the penthouse), and safety. The heat rate improvements, though not quantified yet, are expected to be significant. The success of the ISOMEMBRANE{reg_sign} on Unit No. 4 has resulted in similar plans for Unit No. 3 and other units in the Duke Power system.

  10. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Environmental information volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program is a $5 billion technology demonstration program that was legislated by Congress to be funded jointly by the federal government and industrial or other sector participants. The goal of the Program is to make available to the U.S. energy marketplace a number of advanced, more efficient, reliable, and environmentally responsive coal utilization and environmental control technologies. These technologies are intended to reduce or eliminate the economic and environmental impediments that limit the full consideration of coal as a future energy resource. Over the next decade, the Program will advance the technical, environmental and economic performance of these advanced technologies to the point where the private sector will be able to introduce them into the commercial marketplace. Each of these demonstrations is in a scale large enough to generate sufficient design, construction and operation data for the private sector to judge the technology`s commercial potential and to make informed confident decisions on its commercial readiness. The strategy being implemented to achieve the goal of the CCT Demonstration Program is to conduct a multi-phase effort consisting of at least five separate solicitations for projects, each with individual objectives that, when integrated, will make technology options available on a schedule consistent with the demands of the energy market and responsive to the relevant environmental considerations. This paper describes a commercial demonstration project to be fielded in support of this program.

  11. The AdS/CFT partition function, AdS as a lift of a CFT, and holographic RG flow from conformal deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean Cantrell

    2015-10-21

    Conformal deformations manifest in the AdS/CFT correspondence as boundary conditions on the AdS field. Heretofore, double-trace deformations have been the primary focus in this context. To better understand multitrace deformations, we revisit the relationship between the generating AdS partition function for a free bulk theory and the boundary CFT partition function subject to arbitrary conformal deformations. The procedure leads us to a formalism that constructs bulk fields from boundary operators. Using this formalism, we independently replicate the holographic RG flow narrative to go on to interpret the brane used to regulate the AdS theory as a renormalization scale. The scale-dependence of the dilatation spectrum of a boundary theory in the presence of general deformations can be thus understood on the AdS side using this formalism.

  12. 21st CENTURY ADS In CONTEXT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) · High power proton accelerator (E ~0.6 ­ 2 Gev; I = xmA > 5 MW) · Heavy accelerator-driven systems technology for nuclear waste transmutation and power generation (e.g., MYRRAH, SMART). · Finding #2: Accelerator-driven sub-critical systems offer the potential for safely burning

  13. LIQUOR POLICY University Policy No.: AD2400

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Page 1 LIQUOR POLICY University Policy No.: AD2400 Classification: Administration Approving and Appendices: Procedures Associated with the University Liquor Policy Appendix ,,A - Licensed Establishments on University Property PURPOSE 1.00 The purpose of this policy is to: set out requirements regarding

  14. Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011. This report examines new natural gas pipeline capacity added to the U.S. natural gas pipeline system during 2008. In addition, it discusses and analyzes proposed natural gas pipeline projects that may be developed between 2009 and 2011, and the market factors supporting these initiatives.

  15. Politico, Sept. 11, 2012 Making Political Ads Personal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peha, Jon M.

    Politico, Sept. 11, 2012 Making Political Ads Personal Jon M. Peha Published in Politico, Sept. 11 seeing campaign ads sharply attacking current environmental regulations, another sees ads passionately arguing for stronger environmental regulations and the campaign ads you see never mention the environment

  16. ADS modules Adel Alahmadi, S. K. Jain and Andre Leroy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    André, Leroy

    ADS modules Adel Alahmadi, S. K. Jain and Andr´e Leroy Abstract We study the class of ADS rings such as injectivity and quasi-continuousity. A simple ring R such that RR is ADS must be either right self injective or indecomposable as right R- module. Under certain conditions we can construct a unique ADS hull up to isomorphism

  17. Viewability Prediction for Online Display Ads Information Systems Dept.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borcea, Cristian

    Viewability Prediction for Online Display Ads Chong Wang Information Systems Dept. New Jersey. Advertisers are charged by ad serv- ing, where their ads are shown in web pages. However, re- cent studies show that about half of the ads were actually never seen by users because they do not scroll deep

  18. The free energy of N=2 supersymmetric AdS_4 solutions of M-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxime Gabella; Dario Martelli; Achilleas Passias; James Sparks

    2011-07-29

    We show that general N=2 supersymmetric AdS_4 solutions of M-theory with non-zero M2-brane charge admit a canonical contact structure. The free energy of the dual superconformal field theory on S^3 and the scaling dimensions of operators dual to supersymmetric wrapped M5-branes are expressed via AdS/CFT in terms of contact volumes. In particular, this leads to topological and localization formulae for the coefficient of N^{3/2} in the free energy of such solutions.

  19. High Energy Scattering in the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joao Penedones

    2008-02-06

    This work explores the celebrated AdS/CFT correspondence in the regime of high energy scattering in Anti--de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. In particular, we develop the eikonal approximation to high energy scattering in AdS and explore its consequences for the dual Conformal Field Theory (CFT). Using position space Feynman rules, we rederive the eikonal approximation for high energy scattering in flat space. Following this intuitive position space perspective, we then generalize the eikonal approximation for high energy scattering in AdS and other spacetimes. Remarkably, we are able to resum, in terms of a generalized phase shift, ladder and cross ladder Witten diagrams associated to the exchange of an AdS spin j field, to all orders in the coupling constant. By the AdS/CFT correspondence, the eikonal amplitude in AdS is related to the four point function of CFT primary operators in the regime of large 't Hooft coupling, including all terms of the 1/N expansion. We then show that the eikonal amplitude determines the behavior of the CFT four point function for small values of the cross ratios in a Lorentzian regime and that this controls its high spin and dimension conformal partial wave decomposition. These results allow us to determine the anomalous dimension of high spin and dimension double trace primary operators, by relating it to the AdS eikonal phase shift. Finally we find that, at large energies and large impact parameters in AdS, the gravitational interaction dominates all other interactions, as in flat space. Therefore, the anomalous dimension of double trace operators, associated to graviton exchange in AdS, yields a universal prediction for CFT's with AdS gravitational duals.

  20. Weak Field Collapse in AdS: Introducing a Charge Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Caceres; Arnab Kundu; Juan F. Pedraza; Di-Lun Yang

    2015-06-29

    We study the effect of a non-vanishing chemical potential on the thermalization time of a strongly coupled large $N_c$ gauge theory in $(2+1)$-dimensions, using a specific bottom-up gravity model in asymptotically AdS space. We first construct a perturbative solution to the gravity-equations, which dynamically interpolates between two AdS black hole backgrounds with different temperatures and chemical potentials, in a perturbative expansion of a bulk neutral scalar field. In the dual field theory, this corresponds to a quench dynamics by a marginal operator, where the corresponding coupling serves as the small parameter in which the perturbation is carried out. The evolution of non-local observables, such as the entanglement entropy, suggests that thermalization time decreases with increasing chemical potential. We also comment on the validity of our perturbative analysis.

  1. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-01-19

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  2. Critical Dimension for Stable Self-gravitating Stars in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong-Hua Li; Rong-Gen Cai

    2009-08-03

    We study the self-gravitating stars with a linear equation of state, $P=a \\rho$, in AdS space, where $a$ is a constant parameter. There exists a critical dimension, beyond which the stars are always stable with any central energy density; below which there exists a maximal mass configuration for a certain central energy density and when the central energy density continues to increase, the configuration becomes unstable. We find that the critical dimension depends on the parameter $a$, it runs from $d=11.1429$ to 10.1291 as $a$ varies from $a=0$ to 1. The lowest integer dimension for a dynamically stable self-gravitating configuration should be $d=12$ for any $a \\in [0,1]$ rather than $d=11$, the latter is the case of self-gravitating radiation configurations in AdS space.

  3. CFT dual of charged AdS black hole in the large dimension limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Er-Dong Guo; Miao Li; Jia-Rui Sun

    2015-12-28

    We study the dual CFT description of the $d+1$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-Anti de Sitter (RN-AdS$_{d+1}$) black hole in the large dimension (large $d$) limit, both for the extremal and nonextremal cases. The central charge of the dual CFT$_2$ (or chiral CFT$_1$) is calculated for the near horizon near extremal geometry which possess an AdS$_2$ structure. Besides, the $Q$-picture hidden conformal symmetry in the nonextremal background can be naturally obtained by a probe charged scalar field in the large $d$ limit, without the need to input the usual limits to probe the hidden conformal symmetry. Furthermore, an new dual CFT description of the nonextremal RN-AdS$_{d+1}$ black hole is found in the large $d$ limit and the duality is analyzed by comparing the entropies, the absorption cross sections and the retarded Green's functions obtained both from the gravity and the dual CFT sides.

  4. Homothety and Quasi Self Similarity in Asymptotically Flat and AdS Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenli Zhao

    2015-03-02

    For a spherically symmetric self-gravitating scalar field we study self similar and quasi-self similar solutions in asymptotically flat and AdS spacetimes in various dimensions. Our main approach relies on reducing the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system of equations under the self similarity assumption to a dynamical system. Applying standard techniques in the analysis of dynamical system we study the corresponding phase diagrams, gaining some insight into the short and long-term evolution of the system. In the asymptotically flat case the fixed points of the dynamical system correspond to conformally flat spacetimes. We observed a new transition from a fixed point to a black hole and we compute the corresponding exponent analytically. In the case of AdS spacetime, we observed the quasi self similar scalar field scattering to infinity after interfering near the center corresponding to the dynamical system with no fixed points.

  5. Extremal Static AdS Black Hole/CFT Correspondence in Gauged Supergravities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Lu; Jianwei Mei; C. N. Pope; J. Vazquez-Poritz

    2009-01-13

    A recently proposed holographic duality allows the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of extremal rotating black holes to be calculated microscopically, by applying the Cardy formula to the two-dimensional chiral CFTs associated with certain reparameterisations of azimuthal angular coordinates in the solutions. The central charges are proportional to the angular momenta of the black hole, and so the method degenerates in the case of static (non-rotating) black holes. We show that the method can be extended to encompass such charged static extremal AdS black holes by using consistent Kaluza-Klein sphere reduction ansatze to lift them to exact solutions in the low-energy limits of string theory or M-theory, where the electric charges become reinterpreted as angular momenta associated with internal rotations in the reduction sphere. We illustrate the procedure for the examples of extremal charged static AdS black holes in four, five, six and seven dimensions.

  6. Isometry Group Orbit Quantization of Spinning Strings in AdS_3 x S^3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Heinze; George Jorjadze; Luka Megrelidze

    2015-07-01

    Describing the bosonic AdS_3 x S^3 particle and string in SU(1,1) x SU(2) group variables, we provide a Hamiltonian treatment of the isometry group orbits of solutions via analysis of the pre-symplectic form. For the particle we obtain a one-parameter family of orbits parameterized by creation-annihilation variables, which leads to the Holstein-Primakoff realization of the isometry group generators. The scheme is then applied to spinning string solutions characterized by one winding number in AdS_3 and two winding numbers in S^3. We find a two-parameter family of orbits, where quantization again provides the Holstein-Primakoff realization of the symmetry generators with an oscillator type energy spectrum. Analyzing the minimal energy at strong coupling we verify the spectrum of short strings at special values of winding numbers.

  7. Distributed services for mobile ad hoc networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guangtong

    2005-11-01

    by equipping each node with a device like a GPS receiver, a GPS receiver?s functionality is limited due to its geographical constraints, high energy consumption and cost. Therefore, studying clock synchronization algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks has 7... Network Lifetime vs. Number of Nodes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 61 24 Standard Deviation of Remaining Energy vs. Number of Nodes : : : 63 25 The k-Mutual Exclusion System Architecture : : : : : : : : : : : : : 71 26 Operation of KRL Algorithm on a...

  8. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  9. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  10. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Michael

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  11. ADS development in Japan Kenji KIKUCHI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    , Fermi, Oct. 2009 / Kikuchi #12;Design parametersDesign parameters · Accelerator power: 20MW (1 3mA 1 5GeV)· Accelerator power: 20MW (1.3mA, 1.5GeV) · Reactor power: 800MW · SCLINAC (0.11.5GeV): 472m · Reactor size: 10m for a spallation target and a reactor coolant. · In the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system (ADS), LBE

  12. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  13. Recent Progress in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John H. Schwarz

    2009-07-28

    The study of AdS/CFT (or gauge/gravity) duality has been one of the most active and illuminating areas of research in string theory over the past decade. The scope of its relevance and the insights it is providing seem to be ever expanding. In this talk I briefly describe some of the attempts to explore how the duality works for maximally supersymmetric systems.

  14. Perturbative calculation of quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musiri, Suphot; Ness, Scott; Siopsis, George [Department of Physics, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    We calculate analytically quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes including first-order corrections. We consider massive scalar, gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations. Our results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. In the case of electromagnetic perturbations, ours is the first calculation to provide an analytic expression for quasinormal frequencies, because the effective potential vanishes at zeroth order. We show that the first-order correction is logarithmic.

  15. Stability of asymptotically AdS wormholes in vacuum against scalar field perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego H. Correa; Julio Oliva; Ricardo Troncoso

    2008-08-18

    The stability of certain class of asymptotically AdS wormholes in vacuum against scalar field perturbations is analyzed. For a free massive scalar field, the stability of the perturbation is guaranteed provided the squared mass is bounded from below by a negative quantity. Depending on the base manifold of the AdS asymptotics, this lower bound could be more stringent than the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. An exact expression for the spectrum is found analytically. For a scalar field perturbation with a nonminimal coupling, slow fall-off asymptotic behavior is also allowed, provided the squared mass fulfills certain negative upper bound. Although the Ricci scalar is not constant, an exact expression for the spectrum of the scalar field can also be found, and three different quantizations for the scalar field can be carried out. They are characterized by the fall-off of the scalar field, which can be fast or slow with respect to each asymptotic region. For these perturbations, stability can be achieved in a range of negative squared masses which depends on the base manifold of the AdS asymptotics. This analysis also extends to a class of gravitational solitons with a single conformal boundary.

  16. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  17. AdS Geometry, projective embedded coordinates and associated isometry groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roldao da Rocha; E. Capelas de Oliveira

    2006-03-20

    This work is intended to investigate the geometry of anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS), from the point of view of the Laplacian Comparison Theorem (LCT), and to give another description of the hyperbolical embedding standard formalism of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes in a pseudo-Euclidean spacetime. It is shown how to reproduce some geometrical properties of AdS, from the LCT in AdS, choosing suitable functions that satisfy basic properties of Riemannian geometry. We also introduce and discuss the well-known embedding of a 4-sphere and a 4-hyperboloid in a 5-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean spacetime, reviewing the usual formalism of spherical embedding and the way how it can retrieve the Robertson-Walker metric. With the choice of the de Sitter metric static frame, we write the so-called reduced model in suitable coordinates. We assume the existence of projective coordinates, since de Sitter spacetime is orientable. From these coordinates, obtained when stereographic projection of the de Sitter 4-hemisphere is done, we consider the Beltrami geodesic representation, which gives a more general formulation of the seminal full model described by Schrodinger, concerning the geometry and the topology of de Sitter spacetime. Our formalism retrieves the classical one if we consider the metric terms over the de Sitter splitting on Minkowski spacetime. From the covariant derivatives we find the acceleration of moving particles, Killing vectors and the isometry group generators associated to de the Sitter spacetime.

  18. Variations of 14-C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14-C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14-C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14-C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14-C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14-C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects...

  19. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of arbitrary spin fields in AdS and modified de Donder gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. R. Metsaev

    2009-01-22

    Using Poincare parametrization of AdS space, we study totally symmetric arbitrary spin massless fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized similarly to the ones of Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge transformation and Lagrangian of the AdS fields can be expressed in terms of ladder operators. Realization of the global AdS symmetries in the conformal algebra basis is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge leading to simple gauge fixed Lagrangian is found. The modified de Donder gauge leads to decoupled equations of motion which can easily be solved in terms of Bessel function. Interrelations between our approach to the massless AdS fields and the Stueckelberg approach to massive fields in flat space are discussed.

  20. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 3 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit at Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the as found baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu and to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an SO{sub 2} limit of 1.8 lb/MBtu, the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with SO{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The system was designed to inject sorbent at a rate corresponding to a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 2.0. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

  1. Ads by Goooooogle Unique, Unusual Gifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    : If that Hummer is draining your cash at the gas pump, Neiman Marcus Group Inc. has the perfect holiday gift deserves the credit for Angela Merkel's new hairstyle after the conservative leader traded a low-maintenance

  2. Gas Mask 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas...

  3. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2014-09-02

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  4. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  5. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  6. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  7. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye (Newton, MA)

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (SOsub 2) and nitric oxides (NOsub x) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup...

  9. REACTIONS OF SULFITE AND NITRITE IONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    technology for power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD).so 2 so 2 Because power plant flue gas contains hundreds of

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    low-temperature, catalytic dioxin formation DRAFT policiestime for the flue gas at the dioxin formation temperature700 -200 C) increases dioxin formation. Flue gas cooling

  11. Alternative approach to the regularization of odd dimensional AdS gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Mora

    2007-08-23

    In this paper I present an action principle for odd dimensional AdS gravity which consists of introducing another manifold with the same boundary and a very specific boundary term. This new action allows and alternative approach to the regularization of the theory, yielding a finite euclidean action and finite conserved charges. The choice of the boundary term is justified on the grounds that an enhanced 'almost off-shell' local AdS/Conformal symmetry arises for that very special choice. One may say that the boundary term is dictated by a guiding symmetry principle. Two sets of boundary conditions are considered, which yield regularization procedures analogous to (but different from) the standard 'background substraction' and 'counterterms' regularization methods. The Noether charges are constructed in general. As an application it is shown that for Schwarszchild-AdS black holes the charge associated to the time-like Killing vector is finite and is indeed the mass. The Euclidean action for Schwarzschild-AdS black holes is computed, and it turns out to be finite, and to yield the right thermodynamics. The previous paragraph may be interpreted in the sense that the boundary term dictated by the symmetry principle is the one that correctly regularizes the action.

  12. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  13. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troyan, D

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  14. Adding International Rates | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolar Energy LLC JumpInformationAdding International Rates

  15. ARM - Value-Added Products (VAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery Act Recovery Act LogogovDataValue-Added Products

  16. Retiree AD&D Insurance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday ProductionDesigningResources Thomas Jefferson JesupAD&D

  17. Higher Dimensional Gravity, Propagating Torsion and AdS Gauge Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Troncoso; Jorge Zanelli

    2000-10-02

    The most general theory of gravity in d-dimensions which leads to second order field equations for the metric has [(d-1)/2] free parameters. It is shown that requiring the theory to have the maximum possible number of degrees of freedom, fixes these parameters in terms of the gravitational and the cosmological constants. In odd dimensions, the Lagrangian is a Chern-Simons form for the (A)dS or Poincare groups. In even dimensions, the action has a Born-Infeld-like form. Torsion may occur explicitly in the Lagrangian in the parity-odd sector and the torsional pieces respect local (A)dS symmetry for d=4k-1 only. These torsional Lagrangians are related to the Chern-Pontryagin characters for the (A)dS group. The additional coefficients in front of these new terms in the Lagrangian are shown to be quantized.

  18. On Thermodynamics of AdS Black Holes in Arbitrary Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Belhaj; M. Chabab; H. El Moumni; M. B. Sedra

    2012-09-23

    Considering the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ as a thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate quantity as a thermodynamic volume as proposed in Kubiznak and Mann (2012), we discuss the critical behavior of charged AdS black hole in arbitrary dimensions $d$. In particular, we present a comparative study in terms of the spacetime dimension $d$ and the displacement of critical points controlling the transition between the small and the large black holes. Such behaviors vary nicely in terms of $d$. Among our result in this context consists in showing that the equation of state for a charged RN-AdS black hole predicts an universal number given by $\\frac{2d-5}{4d-8}$. The three dimensional solution is also discussed.

  19. POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano

    2014-01-20

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ?}), H?, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.

  20. Instantons and quark zero modes in AdS/QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacopo Bechi

    2009-09-16

    In this paper the quark zero modes creation effect is studied in the context of the AdS/QCD approach. This effect is generated, in presence of instantons, by a new that can be added in the bulk.

  1. The Reach and Persuasiveness of Viral Video Ads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    Many video ads are designed to go viral so that the total number of views they receive depends on customers sharing the ads with their friends. This paper explores the relationship between the number of views and how ...

  2. Managing On-air Ad Inventory in Broadcast Television

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bollapragada, Srinivas; Mallik, Suman

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the experiences of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), we present an analytical model for managing on-air ad inventory in broadcast television. The ad inventory in this industry is priced based on rating ...

  3. A $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Supersymmetric $AdS_4$ Solution in M-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano, Yolanda; Montero, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    We find a new $\\mathcal{N}=2$ $AdS_4$ solution in M-theory supported by purely magnetic flux via a sequence of abelian and non-abelian T-dualities. This provides the second known example in this class besides the uplift of the Pernici and Sezgin solution to 7d gauged supergravity constructed in the eighties. We compute the free energy of the solution, and show that it scales as $N^{3/2}$. It is intriguing that even though the natural holographic interpretation is in terms of M5-branes wrapped on a special Lagrangian 3-cycle, this solution does not exhibit the expected $N^3$ behavior.

  4. Superconductors for superstrings on AdS_5 x T^{1,1}

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Aprile; Andrea Borghese; Aldo Dector; Diederik Roest; Jorge G. Russo

    2012-05-09

    We construct a one-parameter family of five-dimensional N=2 supergravity Lagrangians with an SU(2,1) / U(2) hypermultiplet. For certain values of the parameter, these are argued to describe the dynamics of scalar modes of superstrings on AdS_5 x T^{1,1}, and therefore to be dual to specific chiral primary operators of Klebanov-Witten superconformal field theory. We demonstrate that, below a critical temperature, the thermodynamics is dominated by charged black holes with hair for the scalars that are dual to the operator of lowest conformal dimension 3/2. The system thus enters into a superconducting phase where condenses.

  5. Transition from AdS universe to DS universe in the BPP model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wontae Kim; Myungseok Yoon

    2007-03-03

    It can be shown that in the BPP model the smooth phase transition from the asymptotically decelerated AdS universe to the asymptotically accelerated DS universe is possible by solving the modified semiclassical equations of motion. This transition comes from noncommutative Poisson algebra, which gives the constant curvature scalars asymptotically. The decelerated expansion of the early universe is due to the negative energy density with the negative pressure induced by quantum back reaction, and the accelerated late-time universe comes from the positive energy and the negative pressure which behave like dark energy source in recent cosmological models.

  6. On Heat Properties of AdS Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Belhaj; M. Chabab; H. EL Moumni; K. Masmar; M. B. Sedra; A. Segui

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the heat properties of AdS Black Holes in higher dimensions. We consider the study of the corresponding thermodynamical properties including the heat capacity explored in the determination of the black hole stability. In particular, we compute the heat latent. To overcome the instability problem, the Maxwell construction, in the (T,S)-plane, is elaborated. This method is used to modify the the Hawking-Page phase structure by removing the negative heat capacity regions. Then, we discuss the thermodynamic cycle and the heat engines using the way based on the extraction of the work from a black hole solution.

  7. Conformally related massless fields in dS, AdS and Minkowski spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Huguet; J. Queva; J. Renaud

    2006-03-09

    In this paper we write down the equation for a scalar conformally coupled field simultaneously for de Sitter (dS), anti-de Sitter (AdS) and Minkowski spacetime in d-dimensions. The curvature dependence appears in a very simple way through a conformal factor. As a consequence the process of curvature free limit, including wave functions limit and two-points functions, turns to be a straightforward issue. We determine a set of modes, that we call de Sitter plane waves, which become ordinary plane waves when the curvature vanishes.

  8. A D2-brane in the Penrose limits of AdS(4)x CP(3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ali-Akbari

    2010-05-02

    We consider a D2-brane in the pp-wave backgrounds obtained from AdS$_4\\times$CP$^3$ when electric and magnetic fields have been turned on. Upon fixing the light-cone gauge, light-cone Hamiltonian and BPS configurations are obtained. In particular we study BPS configurations with electric dipole on the two sphere giant and a giant graviton rotating in transverse directions. Moreover we show that the gauge field living on the D2-brane is replaced by a scalar field in the light-cone Hamiltonian. We also present a matrix model by regularizing (quantizing) 2-brane theory.

  9. AdS/QCD at finite density and temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y., E-mail: ykim@apctp.org [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    We review some basics of AdS/QCD following a non-standard path and list a few results from AdS/QCD or holographic QCD. The non-standard path here is to use the analogy of the way one obtains an effective model of QCD like linear sigma model and the procedure to construct an AdS/QCD model based on the AdS/CFT dictionary.

  10. Approximate Minimum-Energy Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    Approximate Minimum-Energy Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--A wireless ad hoc network consists of mobile nodes that are equipped with energy on energy conservation in wireless ad hoc networks have been conducted. For example, energy efficient

  11. Categorization of Display Ads using Image and Landing Page Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Categorization of Display Ads using Image and Landing Page Features Andrew Kae Department the problem of automatically categorizing display ad images into a taxonomy of relevant interest categories. In particu- lar, we focus on the efficacy of using image features extracted by OCR techniques from the ad

  12. Low-Interference Topology Control for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    wireless ad hoc networks. Many aspects of the networking will affect the energy consumption of the wireless may cause larger energy consumption. In wireless ad hoc networks, each wireless device can selectively1 Low-Interference Topology Control for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Kousha Moaveni-Nejad, Xiang

  13. Google's Auction for Radio and TV Ads Preliminary version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Google's Auction for Radio and TV Ads Preliminary version Noam Nisan Jason Bayer Deepak Chandra Tal. Abstract This document describes the auction system used by Google for allocation and pricing of TV ads and Radio ads. It is based on a simultaneous ascending auction, and has been in use since September 2008. 0

  14. New Stochastic Algorithms for Placing Ads in Sponsored Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feuerstein, Esteban

    New Stochastic Algorithms for Placing Ads in Sponsored Search Esteban Feuerstein Depto. de@baeza.cl ABSTRACT We introduce a family of algorithms for the selection of ads in sponsored search that intends to increase ad diversity while not significantly reducing revenue and maintaining an incentive for advertisers

  15. LEARNING-BASED ROUTE MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littman, Michael L.

    and Wade Trappe The nodes in a wireless ad hoc network must act as routers in a self-configuring network to shortest-path routing protocols for managing router congestion and noise in wireless ad hoc networks. iiLEARNING-BASED ROUTE MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS BY BRIAN RUSSELL A dissertation

  16. Enhancing Cellular Multicast Performance Using Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasera, Sneha Kumar

    Enhancing Cellular Multicast Performance Using Ad Hoc Networks Jun Cheol Park and Sneha Kumar heterogeneity problem in cellular multicast with the help of an additional IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network. The basic idea is to allow the cellular receivers experiencing poor channel conditions to use the ad hoc network

  17. Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department of Computer Abstract--Most wireless ad hoc networks consist of mobile devices which operate on batteries. Power con, for an ad hoc network consisting of the same type of battery mobile nodes, two approximation algorithms

  18. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  19. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  20. Review of AdS/CFT Integrability, Chapter IV.3: N=6 Chern-Simons and Strings on AdS4xCP3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Klose

    2012-03-27

    We review the duality and integrability of N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory in three dimensions and IIA superstring theory on the background AdS4xCP3. We introduce both of these models and describe how their degrees of freedom are mapped to excitations of a long-range integrable spin-chain. Finally, we discuss the properties of the Bethe equations, the S-matrix and the algebraic curve that are special to this correspondence and differ from the case of N=4 SYM theory and strings on AdS5xS5.

  1. Vacuum densities for a thick brane in AdS spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Saharian; A. L. Mkhitaryan

    2007-10-18

    For a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter we evaluate Wightman function, vacuum expectation values of the field square and the energy-momentum tensor induced by a $Z_{2}$-symmetric brane with finite thickness located on $(D+1)$-dimensional AdS bulk. For the general case of static plane symmetric interior structure the expectation values in the region outside the brane are presented as the sum of free AdS and brane induced parts. For a conformally coupled massless scalar the brane induced part in the vacuum energy-momentum tensor vanishes. In the limit of strong gravitational fields the brane induced parts are exponentially suppressed for points not too close to the brane boundary. As an application of general results a special model is considered in which the geometry inside the brane is a slice of the Minkowski spacetime orbifolded along the direction perpendicular to the brane. For this model the Wightman function, vacuum expectation values of the field square and the energy-momentum tensor inside the brane are evaluated. It is shown that for both minimally and conformally coupled scalar fields the interior vacuum forces acting on the brane boundaries tend to decrease the brane thickness.

  2. Quartic AdS Interactions in Higher-Spin Gravity from Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekaert, Xavier; Ponomarev, Dmitry; Sleight, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Clarifying the locality properties of higher-spin gravity is a pressing task, but notoriously difficult due to the absence of a weakly-coupled flat regime. The simplest non-trivial case where this question can be addressed is the quartic self-interaction of the AdS scalar field present in the higher-spin multiplet. We investigate this issue in the context of the holographic duality between the minimal bosonic higher-spin theory on AdS$_4$ and the free $O\\left(N\\right)$ vector model in three dimensions. In particular, we determine the exact explicit form of the derivative expansion of the bulk scalar quartic vertex. The quartic vertex is obtained from the field theory four-point function of the operator dual to the bulk scalar, by making use of our previous results for the Witten diagrams of higher-spin exchanges. This is facilitated by establishing the conformal block expansions of both the boundary four-point function and the dual bulk Witten diagram amplitudes. We show that the vertex we find satisfies a ge...

  3. Geometric free energy of toric AdS4/CFT3 models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangmin Lee; Daisuke Yokoyama

    2015-01-22

    We study the supersymmetric free energy of three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theories holographically dual to AdS$_4$ times toric Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds. In the large $N$ limit, we argue that the square of the free energy can be written as a quartic polynomial of trial R-charges. The coefficients of the polynomial are determined geometrically from the toric diagrams. We present the coefficients of the quartic polynomial explicitly for generic toric diagrams with up to 6 vertices, and some particular diagrams with 8 vertices. Decomposing the trial R-charges into mesonic and baryonic variables, and eliminating the baryonic ones, we show that the quartic polynomial reproduces the inverse of the Martelli-Sparks-Yau volume function. On the gravity side, we explore the possibility of using the same quartic polynomial as the prepotential in the AdS gauged supergravity. Comparing Kaluza-Klein gravity and gauged supergravity descriptions, we find perfect agreement in the mesonic sector but some discrepancy in the baryonic sector.

  4. Emergent IR dual 2d CFTs in charged AdS5 black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Boer; Maria Johnstone; M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari; Joan Simon

    2011-12-20

    We study the possible dynamical emergence of IR conformal invariance describing the low energy excitations of near-extremal R-charged global AdS5 black holes. We find interesting behavior especially when we tune parameters in such a way that the relevant extremal black holes have classically vanishing horizon area, i.e. no classical ground-state entropy, and when we combine the low energy limit with a large N limit of the dual gauge theory. We consider both near-BPS and non-BPS regimes and their near horizon limits, emphasize the differences between the local AdS3 throats emerging in either case, and discuss potential dual IR 2d CFTs for each case. We compare our results with the predictions obtained from the Kerr/CFT correspondence, and obtain a natural quantization for the central charge of the near-BPS emergent IR CFT which we interpret in terms of the open strings stretched between giant gravitons.

  5. Wilson Loops in 3d QFT from D-branes in AdS(4) x CP**3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kluson; Kamal L. Panigrahi

    2009-03-09

    We study the Wilson loops and defects in the three dimensional QFT from the D-branes in the AdS(4) x CP**3 geometry. We find out explicit D-brane configurations in the bulk which correspond to both straight and circular Wilson lines extended to the boundary of AdS(4). We analyze critically the role of boundary contributions to the D2-branes with various topology and to the fundamental string actions.

  6. Adding Gauge Fields to Kaplan's Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Blum; Leo Karkkainen

    1993-12-10

    We experiment with adding dynamical gauge field to Kaplan (defect) fermions. In the case of U(1) gauge theory we use an inhomogenous Higgs mechanism to restrict the 3d gauge dynamics to a planar 2d defect. In our simulations the 3d theory produce the correct 2d gauge dynamics. We measure fermion propagators with dynamical gauge fields. They posses the correct chiral structure. The fermions at the boundary of the support of the gauge field (waveguide) are non-chiral, and have a mass two times heavier than the chiral modes. Moreover, these modes cannot be excited by a source at the defect; implying that they are dynamically decoupled. We have also checked that the anomaly relation is fullfilled for the case of a smooth external gauge field. This is an uuencoded ps-file. Use 'uudecode hepchiral.ps.Z' and 'uncompress hepchiral.ps.Z' to produce the psfile.

  7. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  8. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.

    1995-08-08

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.

  9. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, Robert M. (Glastonbury, CT); Wright, David D. (Vershire, VT)

    1995-01-01

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal focii coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  11. PROBLEM LIST FOR THE "NEW TECHNIQUES IN LORENTZ MANIFOLDS" WORKSHOP (1) (Labourie) Mess shows that compact oriented orthochronous 2 + 1 AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scannell, Kevin Patrick

    that compact oriented orthochronous 2 + 1 AdS spacetime with non-empty spacelike boundary S a product S × [0, 1] and embeds in a domain of dependence. Is it possible to construct a singular AdS manifold with more than two constant curvature spacetime. (3) (Schlenker) Let M be a compact AdS cone manifold with m singular curves

  12. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  13. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  14. AdS$_4$ solutions of massive IIA from dyonic ISO(7) supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Varela

    2015-09-23

    Explicit formulae are given for the consistent truncation of massive type IIA supergravity on the six-sphere to the SU(3)--invariant sector of $D=4$ ${\\cal N}=8$ supergravity with dyonic ISO(7) gauging. These formulae are then used to construct AdS$_4$ solutions of massive type IIA via uplift on $S^6$ of the critical points of the $D=4$ supergravity with at least SU(3) symmetry. We find a new ${\\cal N}=1$ solution with SU(3) symmetry, a new non-supersymmetric solution with SO(6) symmetry, and recover previously known solutions. We quantise the fluxes, calculate the gravitational free energies of the solutions and discuss the stability of the non-supersymmetric ones. Among these, only a (previously known) G$_2$--invariant solution is found to be stable.

  15. AdS$_4$ solutions of massive IIA from dyonic ISO(7) supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Explicit formulae are given for the consistent truncation of massive type IIA supergravity on the six-sphere to the SU(3)--invariant sector of $D=4$ ${\\cal N}=8$ supergravity with dyonic ISO(7) gauging. These formulae are then used to construct AdS$_4$ solutions of massive type IIA via uplift on $S^6$ of the critical points of the $D=4$ supergravity with at least SU(3) symmetry. We find a new ${\\cal N}=1$ solution with SU(3) symmetry, a new non-supersymmetric solution with SO(6) symmetry, and recover previously known solutions. We quantise the fluxes, calculate the gravitational free energies of the solutions and discuss the stability of the non-supersymmetric ones. Among these, only a (previously known) G$_2$--invariant solution is found to be stable.

  16. Dyonic AdS_4 black hole entropy and attractors via entropy function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulart, Prieslei

    2015-01-01

    Using the Sen's entropy function formalism, we compute the entropy for the extremal dyonic black hole solutions of theories in the presence of dilaton field coupled to the field strength and a dilaton potential. We solve the attractor equations analytically and determine the near horizon metric, the value of the scalar fields and the electric field on the horizon, and consequently the entropy of these black holes. The attractor mechanism plays a very important role for these systems, and after studying the simplest systems involving dilaton fields, we propose a general ansatz for the value of the scalar field on the horizon, which allows us to solve the attractor equations for gauged supergravity theories in AdS_4 spaces.

  17. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one c...

  18. The holographic superconductors in higher-dimensional AdS soliton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong Oh Lee

    2012-07-30

    We explore the behaviors of the holographic superconductors at zero temperature for a charged scalar field coupled to a Maxwell field in higher-dimensional AdS soliton spacetime via analytical way. In the probe limit, we obtain the critical chemical potentials increase linearly as a total dimension $d$ grows up. We find that the critical exponent for condensation operator is obtained as 1/2 independently of $d$, and the charge density is linearly related to the chemical potential near the critical point. Furthermore, we consider a slightly generalized setup the Einstein-Power-Maxwell field theory, and find that the critical exponent for condensation operator is given as $1/(4-2n)$ in terms of a power parameter $n$ of the Power-Maxwell field, and the charge density is proportional to the chemical potential to the power of $1/(2-n)$.

  19. Emerging Non-Anomalous Baryonic Symmetries in the AdS_5/CFT_4 Correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessi Benishti

    2011-06-06

    We study the breaking of baryonic symmetries in the AdS_5/CFT_4 correspondence for D3 branes at Calabi-Yau three-fold singularities. This leads, for particular VEVs, to the emergence of non-anomalous baryonic symmetries during the renormalization group flow. We claim that these VEVs correspond to critical values of the B-field moduli in the dual supergravity backgrounds. We study in detail the C^3/Z_3 orbifold, the cone over F_0 and the C^3/Z_5 orbifold. For the first two examples, we study the dual supergravity backgrounds that correspond to the breaking of the emerging baryonic symmetries and identify the expected Goldstone bosons and global strings in the infra-red. In doing so we confirm the claim that the emerging symmetries are indeed non-anomalous baryonic symmetries.

  20. Emergent Space and the Example of AdS_5XS^5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Ferrari

    2013-05-06

    We explain how to build field theoretic observables from which the geometrical properties of a dual holographic formulation can be read off straightforwardly. In some cases this construction yields explicit and calculable models of emergent space. We illustrate the idea on the type IIB background generated by N D3-branes in the near horizon limit, for which a full derivation from first principles can be presented. The six transverse dimensions emerge at large N and we find the full AdS_5XS^5 metric and self-dual Ramond-Ramond field strength on the resulting ten dimensional space-time, with the correct radii and quantization law. We briefly discuss possible applications and generalizations.

  1. Conformal Transformations and Strings for an Accelerating Quark-Antiquark Pair in AdS3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shijong Ryang

    2014-12-08

    From a simple moving open string solution dual to a moving heavy quark with constant velocity in the Poincare AdS_3 spacetime, we construct an accerlerating open string solution dual to a heavy quark-antiquark pair accelerated in opposite directions by performing the three mappings such as the SL(2,R)_L x SL(2,R)_R isometry transformation, the special conformal transformation and the conformal SO(2,2) transformation. Using the string sigma model action we construct two open string solutions staying in two different regions whose dividing line is associated with the event horizon appeared on the string worldsheet and obtain the accelerating open string solution by gluing two such solutions.

  2. Semiclassical Strings in Electric and Magnetic Fields Deformed $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wung-Hong Huang

    2006-01-06

    We first apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to the 11D M-theory with a stack N M2-branes to find the spacetime of a stack of N D2-branes with magnetic or electric flux in 10 D IIA string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We then perform the T duality to the spacetime to find the background of a stack of N D3-branes with magnetic or electric flux. In the near-horizon limit the background becomes the magnetic or electric field deformed $AdS_5 \\times S^5$. We adopt an ansatz to find the classical string solution which is rotating in the deformed $S^5$ with three angular momenta in the three rotation planes. The relations between the classical string energy and its angular momenta are found and results show that the external magnetic and electric fluxes will increase the string energy. Therefore, from the AdS/CFT point of view, the corrections of the anomalous dimensions of operators in the dual SYM theory will be positive. We also investigate the small fluctuations in these solutions and discuss the effects of magnetic and electric fields on the stability of these classical rotating string solutions. Finally, we find the possible solutions of string pulsating on the deformed spacetimes and show that the corrections to the anomalous dimensions of operators in the dual SYM theory are non-negative.

  3. Maximizing the throughput of large ad hoc wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Yingbo; Huang, Yi; J, Garcia-Luna-Aceves J

    2006-01-01

    The transport capacity of wireless networks over fadingimprovement of ad hoc wireless networks using directionalThe capacity of wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Inform.

  4. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    heat recovery Reduction of flue gas quantities Condensate return Reduction of excess air Blowdown steam

  6. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    maintenance Energy monitoring and management systems Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps,

  7. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business and Technology Cooperation Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-01-01

    maintenance Energy monitoring and management systems Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps,

  8. Incorporating the productivity benefits into the assessment of cost effective energy savings potential using conservation supply curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laitner, John A.; Ruth, Michael; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    maintenance Energy monitoring and management systems Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps,

  9. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    systems Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, and fans (integrated only) Cogeneration (

  10. Incorporating the productivity benefits into the assessment of cost effective energy savings potential using conservation supply curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laitner, John A.; Ruth, Michael; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    systems Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, and fans (integrated only) Cogeneration (

  11. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    plants Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, fans in integrated steel mills Cogeneration

  12. Natural and industrial analogues for release of CO2 from storage reservoirs: Identification of features, events, and processes and lessons learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    COMPOSITION OF FLUE GAS STREAMS AND CO 2 SEPARATION 43 3.3. NATURALcompositions by volume of flue (and fuel) gases from selected coal, fuel oil, natural

  13. Gas Drill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    .C. Wang, B.T. Lovell, Program, Summary Report TE4258-5-84, J. McCrank, "Topping of a Combined Gas DOE/ET/11292, Oct. 1984. and Steam Turbine Powerplant using a TAM Combustor," Thermo Electron [4J Final Report: "Thermionic Energy Report No. 4258... for each Btu fired in the burners has been cal culated with the process gas temperature as a variable. It was shown [2 ] that the maximum thermionic power produced is 18 kW per million Btu fired per hour. All com bustors are similar but progressively...

  14. What's in an ad? Print ads generally have four written parts --headline, support copy, call to action, and company name --plus a strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    What's in an ad? Print ads generally have four written parts -- headline, support copy, call. Strategy and copy · The most important step is to set a single objective for the ad. Are you featuring to get the attention of your reader. Your ad's headline is often the only part of an ad that is read

  15. The effect of reformate gas enrichment on extinction limits and NOX formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    , known as reformate gas, contains not only hydrogen, but also carbon monoxide and some other components premixed combustion. When the reformate gas is added, the formation of NO is reduced in a near advantage of the reformate gas enriched lean premixed combustion is that it greatly reduces the formation

  16. Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This special report looks at the use of natural gas pipeline compressor stations on the interstate natural gas pipeline network that serves the lower 48 states. It examines the compression facilities added over the past 10 years and how the expansions have supported pipeline capacity growth intended to meet the increasing demand for natural gas.

  17. Master Thesis Group Key Agreement for Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Master Thesis Group Key Agreement for Ad Hoc Networks Lijun Liao Date: 06 July 2005 Supervisor: M their financial support. #12;Abstract Over the last 30 years the study of group key agreement has stimulated much present a Tree-based group key agreement Framework for Ad-hoc Networks (TFAN). TFAN is especially suitable

  18. Curriculum Revision REPORT OF AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Curriculum Revision REPORT OF AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON CURRICULUM REVISION (November 2002- March (2) Charge to Ad Hoc Working Group on Curriculum.............................. 12 (3) Materials;Curriculum Revision SUMMARY Curriculum transformation at the College of Forest Resources (CFR) is a response

  19. Transmission capacity of CDMA ad hoc networks Steven Weber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    Transmission capacity of CDMA ad hoc networks Steven Weber Dept. of ECE Drexel University and tolerate co-located simultaneous transmissions. We develop analytic results on the transmission capacity of a CDMA ad hoc network. Transmission capacity is defined as the maximum permissible density

  20. Optimum Transmission Range for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jing

    Optimum Transmission Range for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Jing Deng Dept. of EECS Syracuse Univ-- The transmission range that achieves the most economical use of energy in wireless ad hoc networks is studied under homogeneous node distribution. By as- suming the knowledge of node location, we first proposed a transmission

  1. Developing Louisiana's Forest Products Industry: Adding Value for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a manufacturingThe increased value at each stage of a manufacturing assembly processassembly process Those and necessaryimportant and necessary Addition of net economic valueAddition of net economic value Value can be added through manufacturing orValue can be added through manufacturing or marketingmarketing Why Add Value

  2. Brief Contributions________________________________________________________________________________ Topology Control of Ad Hoc Wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poon, Chung Keung

    ________________________________________________________________________________ Topology Control of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks for Energy Efficiency Maggie X. Cheng, Member, IEEE, Mihaela of each wireless node such that the resulting network is connected and the total energy consumption the theoretical analysis. Index Terms--Multihop, ad hoc, wireless networks, energy efficiency, transmission power

  3. Improving the Battery Performance of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    Improving the Battery Performance of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols Q. Qi and C. Chakrabarti Department-- In ad-hoc networks formed by battery powered nodes, the network lifetime can be significantly enhanced by incorporateing the battery properties in the routing protocol. In this paper, we propose such a routing mechanism

  4. Projection from Yang-Mills Geometry to AdS Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. E. Eichinger

    2015-01-22

    The geometry that yields the gauge potential and curvature form of Yang-Mills theory is known to be $Sp(2)/Sp(1)\\times Sp(1)\\sim S^4$. The projective metric for this space will be constructed and the curvature tensor will be shown to consist of both self-dual and anti-self-dual components. In the central projection, one hemisphere of $S^4$ is mapped onto the other, such that one hemisphere, excluding the equator, is equivalent to a four dimensional ball. This enables a mapping between the compact geometry of YM theory and relativity, with the double cover of the equator mapping to infinity in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. By interpreting the YM geometry (instanton) as the space of interactions between two particles it is suggested that the $Sp(2)/Sp(1)\\times Sp(1)$ YM quaternionic geometry can be generalized to $n$ fermions, each having an $Sp(1)\\sim SU(2)$ gauge group.

  5. Emergent AdS3 and BTZ Black Hole from Weakly Interacting Hot 2d CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soo-Jong Rey; Yasuaki Hikida

    2006-05-02

    We investigate emergent holography of weakly coupled two-dimensional hyperK\\"ahler sigma model on cotangent bundle of (N-1)-dimensional complex projective space at zero and finite temperature. The sigma model is motivated by the spacetime conformal field theory dual to the near-horizon geometry of Q1 D1-brane bound to Q5 D5-brane wrapped on four-torus times circle, where N = Q1*Q5. The sigma model admits nontrivial instanton for all N greater than or equal to 2, which serves as a local probe of emergent holographic spacetime. We define emergent geometry of the spacetime as that of instanton moduli space via Hitchin's information metric. At zero temperature, we find that emergent geometry is AdS3. At finite temperature, time-periodic instanton is mappable to zero temperature instanton via conformal transformation. Utilizing the transformation, we show that emergent geometry is precisely that of the non-extremal, non-rotating BTZ black hole.

  6. New Formulation of the Type IIB Superstring Action in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John H. Schwarz

    2015-06-25

    Previous studies of the type IIB superstring in an ${AdS_5 \\times S^5}$ background are based on a description of the superspace geometry as the quotient space $PSU(2,2|4)/SO(4,1) \\times SO(5)$. This paper develops an alternative approach in which the Grassmann coordinates provide a nonlinear realization of $PSU(2,2|4)$ based on the quotient space $PSU(2,2|4)/SU(2,2) \\times SU(4)$, and the bosonic coordinates are described as a submanifold of $SU(2,2) \\times SU(4)$. This formulation keeps all bosonic symmetries manifest, and it provides the complete dependence on the Grassmann coordinates in terms of simple analytic expressions. It is used to construct the superstring world-sheet action in a form in which the $PSU(2,2|4)$ symmetry is manifest and kappa symmetry can be established. This formulation might have some advantages compared to previous ones, but this remains to be demonstrated.

  7. Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

  8. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

  9. Characteristic length of an AdS/CFT superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kengo Maeda; Takashi Okamura

    2008-10-30

    We investigate in more detail the holographic model of a superconductor recently found by Hartnoll, Herzog, and Horowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 031601], which is constructed from a condensate of a charged scalar field in AdS_4-Schwarzschild background. By analytically studying the perturbation of the gravitational system near the critical temperature T_c, we obtain the superconducting coherence length proportional to 1/\\sqrt{1-T/T_c} via AdS/CFT correspondence. By adding a small external homogeneous magnetic field to the system, we find that a stationary diamagnetic current proportional to the square of the order parameter is induced by the magnetic field. These results agree with Ginzburg-Landau theory and strongly support the idea that a superconductor can be described by a charged scalar field on a black hole via AdS/CFT duality.

  10. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  11. New $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ T-duals with $\\mathcal{N} = (0,4)$ supersymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano, Yolanda; Montero, Jesús; Colgáin, Eoin Ó

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that Hopf-fibre T-duality and uplift takes the D1-D5 near-horizon into a class of $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ geometries in 11D where the internal space is a Calabi-Yau three-fold. Moreover, supersymmetry dictates that Calabi-Yau is the only permissible $SU(3)$-structure manifold. Generalising this duality chain to non-Abelian isometries, a strong parallel exists, resulting in the first explicit example of a class of $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ geometries with $SU(2)$-structure. Furthermore, the non-Abelian T-dual of $AdS_3 \\times S^3 \\times S^3 \\times S^1$ results in a new supersymmetric $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ geometry, which falls outside of all known classifications. We explore the basic properties of the holographic duals associated to the new backgrounds. We compute the central charges and show that they are compatible with a large $\\mathcal{N}=4$ superconformal algebra in the infra-red.

  12. New $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ T-duals with $\\mathcal{N} = (0,4)$ supersymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yolanda Lozano; Niall T. Macpherson; Jesús Montero; Eoin Ó Colgáin

    2015-07-09

    It is well known that Hopf-fibre T-duality and uplift takes the D1-D5 near-horizon into a class of $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ geometries in 11D where the internal space is a Calabi-Yau three-fold. Moreover, supersymmetry dictates that Calabi-Yau is the only permissible $SU(3)$-structure manifold. Generalising this duality chain to non-Abelian isometries, a strong parallel exists, resulting in the first explicit example of a class of $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ geometries with $SU(2)$-structure. Furthermore, the non-Abelian T-dual of $AdS_3 \\times S^3 \\times S^3 \\times S^1$ results in a new supersymmetric $AdS_3 \\times S^2$ geometry, which falls outside of all known classifications. We explore the basic properties of the holographic duals associated to the new backgrounds. We compute the central charges and show that they are compatible with a large $\\mathcal{N}=4$ superconformal algebra in the infra-red.

  13. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

  14. Improving Gas-Fired Heat Pump Capacity and Performance by Adding a Desiccant Dehumidification Subsystem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, B. K.; Pesaran, A. A.; Bharathan, D.; Shelpuk, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    an initial screening we selected three materials for detailed anal- ysis: silica gel, lithium chloride, and mole- cular sieve. Silica gel has a high moisture recycling capacity and was identified by several investigators (e.g., Jurinak 1982) as being... completed considerable research on advanced dehumidifier geometries (e.g., Bharathan et al. 1987a, b; Maclaine-cross and Parsons 1986). For this study we selected a parallel-passage, rotary dehumidifier for de- tailed analysis (Figure 4). Parallel...

  15. arXiv:hep-th/0204081v422Jan2003 On the Geometry and Mass of Static, Asymptotically AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Greg

    arXiv:hep-th/0204081v422Jan2003 On the Geometry and Mass of Static, Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes, and the Uniqueness of the AdS Soliton G.J. Gallowaya , S. Suryab,c , E. Woolgarc,b a Dept. of Mathematics, University theorem is a unique- ness theorem for the negative mass AdS soliton spacetime. This result lends support

  16. Boundary values of mixed-symmetry massless fields in AdS space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chekmenev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on the ambient space approach to boundary values of $AdS_{d+1}$ gauge fields and apply it to massless fields of mixed-symmetry type. In the most interesting case of odd-dimensional bulk the respective leading boundary values are conformal gauge fields subject to the invariant equations. As a byproduct our approach gives a manifestly conformal and gauge covariant formulation for these fields. Although such formulation employs numerous auxiliary fields, it comes with a systematic procedure for their elimination that results in a more concise formulation involving only a reasonable set of auxiliaries, which eventually (at least in principle) can be reduced to the minimal formulation in terms of the irreducible Lorentz tensors. The simplest mixed-symmetry field, namely, the rank-3 tensor associated to the two-row Young diagram, is considered in some details.

  17. Noncommutative Extension of AdS-CFT and Holographic Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souvik Pramanik; Sudipta Das; Subir Ghosh

    2015-02-13

    In this Letter, we consider a Non-Commutative (NC) extension of AdS-CFT correspondence and its effects on holographic superconductors. NC corrections are incorporated via the NC generalization of Schwarzschild black hole metric in AdS with the probe limit. We study NC effects on the relations connecting the charge density and the critical temperature of the Holographic Superconductors. Furthermore, condensation operator of the superconductor has been analyzed. Our results suggest that generically, NC effects increase the critical temperature of the holographic superconductor.

  18. Investigating AdS/QCD duality through scalar glueball correlators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Colangelo; F. De Fazio; F. Jugeau; S. Nicotri

    2009-09-03

    We investigate AdS/QCD duality for the two-point correlation function of the lowest dimension scalar glueball operator, in the case of the IR soft wall model. We point out the role of the boundary conditions for the bulk-to-boundary propagator in determining the gluon condensates. We show that a low energy QCD theorem can be obtained within the AdS approach, together with a gluon condensate close to the commonly accepted value and robust against perturbation of the background dilaton field.

  19. Towards a consistent AdS/QCD dictionary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederic Jugeau

    2009-03-01

    This note focuses on the large-N behaviour of the Hard Wall model of QCD and clarifies the AdS/QCD dictionary formulated on the basis of the AdS/CFT correspondence. It is shown how short-distance studies performed in the framework of the AdS/QCD Soft Wall model allow one to determine unambiguously the chiral symmetry breaking function in the Hard Wall model. Especially, the different forms of the field/operator prescription are emphasized. The large-N behaviour of the Hard Wall model is then checked considering the vector and gravitational form factors of the pion in the chiral limit.

  20. Thermodynamics of Charged AdS Black Holes in Extended Phases Space via M2-branes Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chabab, M; Masmar, K

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically Ad$S_4$ black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of Raissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in $AdS_{4}\\times S^{7}$, with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results obtained by the phase transition program via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge are held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in [1] are recovered in the ...

  1. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  2. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  3. Context-Aware Protocol Engines for  Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Context-Aware Protocol Engines for Ad Hoc Networks J. J.we call a context-aware protocol engine. With a CAPE, nodesthe context-aware protocol engine (CAPE) as an instantiation

  4. Ad-nilpotent ideals of complex and real reductive groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Chuying

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we study ad-nilpotent ideals and its relations with nilpotent orbits, affine Weyl groups, sign types and hyperplane arrangements. This thesis is divided into three parts. The first and second parts deal ...

  5. Truthful resource management in wireless ad hoc networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jianfeng

    2005-11-01

    In wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), cooperation cannot be an im- plicit assumption anymore. Each profit-oriented network node has the intention to be selfish due to limited resource possession. In this dissertation, we investigate...

  6. Topping Turbines: Adding New Life to Older Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cadrecha, M.

    1984-01-01

    An existing power plant can be repowered at a modest investment cost through a topping turbine installation. Essentially, this consists of replacing the existing old, low pressure boilers with new, high pressure boilers and adding a new, high...

  7. Mobilized ad-hoc networks: A reinforcement learning approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Yu-Han

    2003-12-04

    Research in mobile ad-hoc networks has focused on situations in which nodes have no control over their movements. We investigate an important but overlooked domain in which nodes do have control over their movements. ...

  8. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  9. Fighting Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Online advertising is currently the greatest source of revenue for many Internet giants. The increased number of specialized websites and modern profiling techniques, have all contributed to an explosion of the income of ad brokers from online advertising. The single biggest threat to this growth, is however, click-fraud. Trained botnets and even individuals are hired by click-fraud specialists in order to maximize the revenue of certain users from the ads they publish on their websites, or to launch an attack between competing businesses. In this note we wish to raise the awareness of the networking research community on potential research areas within this emerging field. As an example strategy, we present Bluff ads; a class of ads that join forces in order to increase the effort level for click-fraud spammers. Bluff ads are either targeted ads, with irrelevant display text, or highly relevant display text, with irrelevant targeting information. They act as a litmus test for the legitimacy of the individual...

  10. Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYear Jan Feb MarNGPL Production,Energy Office

  11. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  12. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  13. Chaotic strings in a near Penrose limit of AdS$_5\\times T^{1,1}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuhma Asano; Daisuke Kawai; Hideki Kyono; Kentaroh Yoshida

    2015-07-17

    We study chaotic motions of a classical string in a near Penrose limit of AdS$_5\\times T^{1,1}$. It is known that chaotic solutions appear on $R\\times T^{1,1}$, depending on initial conditions. It may be interesting to ask whether the chaos persists even in Penrose limits or not. In this paper, we show that sub-leading corrections in a Penrose limit provide an unstable separatrix, so that chaotic motions are generated as a consequence of collapsed Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) tori. Our analysis is based on deriving a reduced system composed of two degrees of freedom by supposing a winding string ansatz. Then, we provide support for the existence of chaos by computing Poincare sections. In comparison to the AdS$_5\\times T^{1,1}$ case, we argue that no chaos lives in a near Penrose limit of AdS$_5\\times$S$^5$, as expected from the classical integrability of the parent system.

  14. AdS/CFT and Exclusive Processes in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley J. Brodsky; Guy F. de Teramond

    2007-09-13

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. One can use holography to map the amplitude describing the hadronic state in the fifth dimension of Anti-de Sitter space to the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable zeta which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. New relativistic light-front equations in ordinary space-time can then be derived which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess elegant algebraic structures and integrability properties. This connection between the AdS and the light-front representations allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. As specific examples we compute the pion coupling constant and study the behavior of the pion form factor in the space and time-like regions. We also determine the Dirac form factors of the proton and neutron in the space-like region.

  15. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and Fuels, 17(RECOVERY AND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Curtis M. Oldenburg Eartheffective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at

  16. Comments on Cosmic Censorship in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Liu, Xiao; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen

    2004-03-21

    Recently Hertog, Horowitz, and Maeda (HHM) (hep-th/0310054) have proposed that cosmic censorship can be violated in the AdS/CFT context. They argue that for certain initial data there is insufficient energy available to make a black hole whose horizon is big enough to cloak the singularity that forms. We have investigated this proposal in the models HHM discuss and have thus far been unable to find initial data that provably satisfy this criterion, despite our development of an improved lower bound on the size of the singular region. This is consistent with recent numerical results (hep-th/0402109). For certain initial data, the energies of our configurations are not far above the lower bound on the requisite black hole mass, and so it is possible that in the exact time development naked singularities do form. We go on to argue that the finite radius cut-off AdS_5 situation discussed by HHM displays instabilities when the full 10D theory is considered. We propose an AdS_3 example that may well be free of this instability.

  17. Comments on Cosmic Censorship in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubeny, V.

    2004-04-06

    Recently Hertog, Horowitz, and Maeda (HHM) (hep-th/0310054) have proposed that cosmic censorship can be violated in the AdS/CFT context. They argue that for certain initial data there is insufficient energy available to make a black hole whose horizon is big enough to cloak the singularity that forms. We have investigated this proposal in the models HHM discuss and have thus far been unable to find initial data that provably satisfy this criterion, despite our development of an improved lower bound on the size of the singular region. This is consistent with recent numerical results (hep-th/0402109). For certain initial data, the energies of our configurations are not far above the lower bound on the requisite black hole mass, and so it is possible that in the exact time development naked singularities do form. We go on to argue that the finite radius cut-off AdS5 situation discussed by HHM displays instabilities when the full 10D theory is considered. We propose an AdS3 example that may well be free of this instability.

  18. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-04-15

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. ADS-B benefits to general aviation and barriers to implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunzi, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) will be the basis of the future surveillance system in the US. To achieve benefit from ADS-B, aircraft have to be equipped with ADS-B avionics across all stakeholders. ...

  20. Topology Control Protocols to Conserve Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Ya; Bien, Solomon; Mori, Yutaka; Heidemann, John; Estrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Protocols to Conserve Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks YaL. Tassiulas. Energy conserving routing in wireless ad-hocAdaptive Energy Conservation Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc

  1. 1 ADS1210, 1211 24-Bit ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochmuth, Olaff

    ® 1 ADS1210, 1211 ® ADS1210 ADS1211 24-Bit ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER FEATURES q DELTA-SIGMA A/D-OFF FREQUENCY UP TO 15.6kHz q INTERNAL/EXTERNAL REFERENCE q ON CHIP SELF-CALIBRATION q ADS1211 INCLUDES 4 CHANNEL MUX DESCRIPTION The ADS1210 and ADS1211 are precision, wide dynamic range, delta-sigma analog

  2. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  3. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  4. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  5. No-carrier-added [1.sup.11 c]putrescine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Daniel W. (Baltimore, MD); Fowler, Joanna S. (Bellport, NY); Wolf, Alfred P. (Setauket, NY)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a new radiolabeled imaging agent, no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine, and to the use of this very pure material as a radiotracer with positron emission tomography for imaging brain tumors. The invention further relates to the synthesis of no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine based on the Michael addition of potassium .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide to acrylonitrile followed by reduction of the .sup.11 C-labeled dinitrile. The new method is rapid and efficient and provides radiotracer with a specific activity greater than 1.4 curies per millimol and in a purity greater than 95%.

  6. Nucleon and flavor form factors in AdS/QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors for the nucleons are related with the GPDs by sum rules. Using the sum rules we calculate the valence GPDs for $u$ and $d$ quarks in a quark model using the lightfront wavefunctions for the nucleons obtained from AdS/QCD. The flavor decompositions of the nucleon form factors are also calculated from the GPDs in this model. We show that the nucleon form factors and their flavor decompositions calculated in AdS/QCD are in agreement with experimental data.

  7. The Capacityand Energy Efficiency of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with MultipacketReception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    per-joule capacity of energy-limited wireless networks. IEEECapacity and Energy Efficiency of Wireless Ad Hoc Networksplexity, and energy efficiency in random wireless ad hoc

  8. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  9. Non-extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes in grand canonical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie-Xiong Mo; Wen-Biao Liu

    2015-03-06

    Recently, extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes has been of great interest. To provide insight from a different perspective and gain a unified phase transition picture, non-extended phase space thermodynamics of $(n+1)$-dimensional charged topological Lovelock AdS black holes is investigated detailedly in the grand canonical ensemble. Specifically, the specific heat at constant electric potential is calculated and phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble is discussed. To probe the impact of the various parameters, we utilize the control variate method and solve the phase transition condition equation numerically for the case $k=1,-1$. There are two critical points for the case $n=6,k=1$ while there is only one for other cases. For $k=0$, there exists no phase transition point. To figure out the nature of phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble, we carry out an analytic check of the analog form of Ehrenfest equations proposed by Banerjee et al. It is shown that Lovelock AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble undergo a second order phase transition. To examine the phase structure in the grand canonical ensemble, we utilize the thermodynamic geometry method and calculate both the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric. It is shown that for both analytic and graphical results that the divergence structure of the Ruppeiner scalar curvature coincides with that of the specific heat. Our research provides one more example that Ruppeiner metric serves as a wonderful tool to probe the phase structures of black holes.

  10. Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

  11. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petit, Christophe; Canestrari, Francesco; Pannunzio, Valter; Virgili, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  12. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Petit; Anne Millien; Francesco Canestrari; Valter Pannunzio; Amadeo Virgili

    2012-03-13

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  13. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  14. BRST-BV approach to massless fields adapted to AdS/CFT correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. R. Metsaev

    2015-08-31

    Using BRST-BV formulation of relativistic dynamics, arbitrary spin massless and massive field propagating in flat space and arbitrary spin massless fields propagating in AdS space are considered. For such fields, BRST-BV Lagrangians invariant under gauge transformations are obtained. The Lagrangians and gauge transformations are built in terms of traceless gauge fields and traceless gauge transformation parameters. The use of the Poincare parametrization of AdS space allows us to get simple BRST-BV Lagrangian for AdS fields. By imposing the Siegel gauge condition, we get gauge-fixed Lagrangian which leads to decoupled equations of motion for AdS fields. Such equations of motion considerably simplify the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. In the basis of conformal algebra, realization of relativistic symmetries on space of fields and antifields entering the BRST-BV formulation of AdS fields is obtained.

  15. Gravitational Lorentz Violation and Superluminality via AdS/CFT Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman Sundrum

    2008-01-03

    A weak quantum mechanical coupling is constructed permitting superluminal communication within a preferred region of a gravitating AdS_5 spacetime. This is achieved by adding a spatially non-local perturbation of a special kind to the Hamiltonian of a four-dimensional conformal field theory with a weakly-coupled AdS dual, such as maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. In particular, two issues are given careful treatment: (1) the UV-completeness of our deformed CFT, guaranteeing the existence of a ``deformed string theory'' AdS dual, and (2) the demonstration that superluminal effects can take place in AdS, both on its boundary as well as in the bulk. Exotic Lorentz-violating properties such as these may have implications for tests of General Relativity, addressing the cosmological constant problem, or probing "behind'' horizons. Our construction may give insight into the interpretation of wormhole solutions in Euclidean AdS gravity.

  16. A $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Supersymmetric $AdS_4$ Solution in M-theory with Purely Magnetic Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yolanda Lozano; Niall T. Macpherson; Jesús Montero

    2015-07-10

    We find a new $\\mathcal{N}=2$ $AdS_4$ solution in M-theory supported by purely magnetic flux via a sequence of abelian and non-abelian T-dualities. This provides the second known example in this class besides the uplift of the Pernici and Sezgin solution to 7d gauged supergravity constructed in the eighties. We compute the free energy of the solution, and show that it scales as $N^{3/2}$. It is intriguing that even though the natural holographic interpretation is in terms of M5-branes wrapped on a special Lagrangian 3-cycle, this solution does not exhibit the expected $N^3$ behavior.

  17. Institute for Software Technology Ad anced RoboticsAdvanced Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute for Software Technology Ad anced RoboticsAdvanced Robotics Human Robot Interaction Gerald Steinbauer Institute for Software Technology Gerald Steinbauer 1 Advanced Robotics ­ Human Robot Interaction #12;Institute for Software Technology Motivation lik t h b t th t· we like to have robots

  18. DISS. ETH NO. 16800 Understanding Ad hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this dissertation investigates the newly-found freedom enabled by battery-powered devices: mobility. OneDISS. ETH NO. 16800 Understanding Ad hoc Networks From Geometry to Mobility A dissertation submitted to the SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ZURICH for the degree of Doctor of Sciences presented

  19. Shipboard lighting: A.D. 400-1900 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, Kendra LeeAnne

    1999-01-01

    From A.D. 400-1900, illumination was gained by simply lighting a fibrous wick soaked in a burnable fuel. Yet, this basic technology played an integral part in the every day functioning of ships. Vessels which either sailed through the night...

  20. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly newsletter WOOD Markets 2002 - The Solid Wood