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1

Cryogenics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the future, some components of the Electric Power System will require cryogenic systems to maintain operating temperatures. The most likely contingent of technologies will be based on the phenomenon of superconductivity. Specific applications will include cables, transformers, rotating machinery, and fault current limiters. Each superconducting device installed will require some form of cryogenic support system. This Primer is intended to provide a sense of cryogenic technology, why it is needed, how ...

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Intercomparisons of Stratospheric Water Vapor Sensors: FLASH-B and NOAA/CMDL Frost-Point Hygrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of global climate rely critically on accurate water vapor measurements. In this paper, a comparison of the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) frost-point hygrometer and the Fluorescent Advanced Stratospheric ...

H. Vmel; V. Yushkov; S. Khaykin; L. Korshunov; E. Kyr; R. Kivi

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

About Cryogenics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Such secondary thermometers are calibrated against primary thermometers that utilize fundamental laws of ... Handbook of Cryogenic Engineering. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Cryogenics safety  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safety hazards associated with handling cryogenic fluids are discussed in detail. These hazards include pressure buildup when a cryogenic fluid is heated and becomes a gas, potential damage to body tissues due to surface contact, toxic risk from breathing air altered by cryogenic fluids, dangers of air solidification, and hazards of combustible cryogens such as liquified oxygen, hydrogen, or natural gas or of combustible mixtures. Safe operating procedures and emergency planning are described. (LCL)

Reider, R.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Cryogenic Technologies Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... processes and products involving cryogenic technologies. ... Develop mathematical models for cryogenic ... Assist in development of bibliographic ...

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

6

CRYOGENIC DEWAR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a dewar for storing cryogenic gase and is of the type having aii inner flask surrounded by a vacuum jacket and having a vent spout through which evaporating gas escapes. Heretofore substantial gas loss has resulted from the radiation of heat towards the flask from the warmer outer elements of the dewar. In this invention, the mask is surrounded by a thermally conducting shield which is disposed in the vacuum space between the flask and the outer elements of the dewar. The shield contacts only the vent spout, which is cooled by the evaporating gas, and thus is maintained at a temperature very close to that of the flask itself. Accordingly, heat radiated toward the flask is intercepted and conducted to the evaporating gas rather than being re-radiated towards the hask. In a liquid helium dewar of typical configniration the mention reduces the boil-off rate by approximately one-half.(AEC)

Chamberlain, W.H.; Maseck, H.E.

1964-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

7

Eden Cryogenics LLC formerly Brehon Cryogenics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cryogenics LLC formerly Brehon Cryogenics Cryogenics LLC formerly Brehon Cryogenics Jump to: navigation, search Name Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics) Place Plain City, Ohio Zip 43064 Sector Vehicles Product Will fabricate cryogenic hardware for use in alternative fueled vehicles, fueling stations, aerospace, energy, and industrial applications. References Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics) is a company located in Plain City, Ohio . References ↑ "[ Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics)]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Eden_Cryogenics_LLC_formerly_Brehon_Cryogenics&oldid=344531

8

CRYOGENIC DATA BOOK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

eng-48 CRYOGENIC DATA BOOK Dudley B. Chelton and Douglas B.purpose of the Cryogenic Data Book is to provide a condensedtheir aid in compiling this book, the authors wish to thank

Chelton, Dudley B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

10

CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.  

SciTech Connect

THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

2002-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

11

Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

CEBAF cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The CEBAF cryogenic system consists of 3 refrigeration systems: Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), and End Station Refrigerator (ESR). CHL is the main cryogenic system for CEBAF, consisting of a 4.8 kW, 2.0 K refrigerator and transfer line system to supply 2.0 K and 12 kW of 50 K shield refrigeration for the Linac cavity cryostats and 10 g/s of liquid for the end stations. This paper describes the 9-year effort to commission these systems, concentrating on CHL with the cold compressors. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of 3 K which use magnetic bearings, thereby eliminating the possibility of air leaks into the subatmospheric He.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Valve for cryogenic service  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a valve for use with a liquefied gas at cryogenic temperatures in which a pair of joined knife edges are bellows controlled to contact an indium alloy seat in an annular slot when flow is to be stopped. The sealing alloy may be renewed by heating in situ. (auth)

Worwetz, H.A.

1975-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

14

Cryogenic structural support  

SciTech Connect

A tensile support member is provided for use in a cryogenic environment. The member is in the form of a link formed of an epoxy glass laminate with at least one ply of the laminate having its fibers aligned circumferentially about the link.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Mataya, Karl F. (Lemont, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

Analysis Model Donald; Donald Greer

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

AddGlobe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AddGlobe AddGlobe Jump to: navigation, search Name AddGlobe Place San Mateo, California Zip 94402 Product AddGlobe LLC. manage emissions and act as a B2B resource in order to bring ecologically effective technologies to clients seeking investments, operational expansion, and technological enhancements. References AddGlobe[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. AddGlobe is a company located in San Mateo, California . References ↑ "[ AddGlobe]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=AddGlobe&oldid=341753" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version

17

Cryogenic treatment of gas  

SciTech Connect

Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

18

Cryogenic support system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Cryogenic support member  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic support member is comprised of a nonmetallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

1986-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Cryogenic Treatment of Metal Parts  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic treatment and its variables have been described. Results of eight engineering tests carried out on cryotreated parts have been presented. Cryogenic treatment of metal parts enhances useful properties which in turn, improves various strengths. Our tests viz. Abrasion, Torsion, Fatigue, Tensile, Shear, Hardness and Impact on Mild steel, Cast Iron, Brass and Copper show that the cryogenic treatment improved useful properties of mild steel parts appreciably but did not show promise with brass and copper parts.

Chillar, Rahul [S. P. College of Engineering, Andheri (W), Mumbai - 400 058 (India); Agrawal, S. C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005 (India)

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Experiments on Cryogenic Complex Plasma  

SciTech Connect

Experiments on a cryogenic complex plasma have been performed. Preliminary experiments include production of a plasma in a liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by a pulsed discharge. The extended production of a plasma has been realized in a vapor of liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by rf discharge. The charge of dust particles injected in such a plasma has been studied in detail.

Ishihara, O.; Sekine, W.; Kubota, J.; Uotani, N.; Chikasue, M.; Shindo, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

22

Refrigerated cryogenic envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

Loudon, John D. (Boulder, CO)

1976-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

23

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

1983-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

25

DOE Data Explorer enhancement adds more content  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

enhancement adds more content Since June of 2008, the DOE Data Explorer has been helping users find and link to DOE's vast collection of data and non-text information. The records...

26

Cryogenic Safety This course will provide basic information concerning cryogens and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

handles two cryogenic liquids, helium and nitrogen. Liquefied nitrogen has a boiling point, at atmospheric, thermal stress, air condensation, and cold embrittlement. n Identify liquid nitrogen and helium and incidents. #12;What is a cryogen? A cryogen is an extremely cold element or compound. Cryogens are liquefied

Weston, Ken

27

Experiment Hazard Class 2 - Cryogenic Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 - Cryogenic Systems 2 - Cryogenic Systems Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving the use of cryogenic systems. Experiment Hazard Control Verification Statements General requirements The use of detectors/alarms, warning signs, and adequate ventilation are recommended for areas where release of a cryogen can result in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Cryogenic systems and vessels are always insulated to reduce heat exchange and are labeled with the common name of the cryogen. Cryogenic systems are pressure protected and equipment are insptected and maintained. The use of flammable cryogens requires technical consultation. Initial consultation may be obtained from the divisional ESH Coordinator. A written emergency evacuation response plan must be available

28

NIST Posts Online Database of Cryogenic Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Cryogenic temperatures place extreme demands on materials. ... eg, thermal mapping and imaging of oceans), weather forecasting (eg, infrared ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

29

Widget:AddToAny | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Widget Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Widget:AddToAny Jump to: navigation, search This widget adds the AddToAny share button to the page. ShareSaveBookmark Retrieved...

30

ILC cryogenic systems reference design  

SciTech Connect

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Foam shell cryogenic ICF target  

SciTech Connect

A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

Darling, Dale H. (Pleasanton, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Utah Paperbox Adds Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on AddThis.com...

33

A process control system for cryogenic CNC elastomer machining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of cryogenics in manufacturing has previously received significant attention in supporting manufacturing processes. This paper explores the continued application of cryogenic manufacturing for producing personalised products. This paper ... Keywords: CNC, Cryogenic, Elastomer

V. G. Dhokia; S. T. Newman; P. Crabtree; M. P. Ansell

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Cryogenic slurry for extinguishing underground fires  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic slurry comprising a mixture of solid carbon dioxide particles suspended in liquid nitrogen is provided which is useful in extinguishing underground fires.

Chaiken, Robert F. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kim, Ann G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kociban, Andrew M. (Wheeling, WV); Slivon, Jr., Joseph P. (Tarentum, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans Salvador Aceves, Gene Berry, Francisco Espinosa, Ibo Matthews, Guillaume...

36

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Cryogens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

applicable guidance. Controls & Limits required for Self-Transporting Cryogens by Vehicle flow chart General Requirements General requirements are designed to minimize the...

37

Add new comment | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Open Data for a Clean, Secure Energy Future Open Data for a Clean, Secure Energy Future Submitted by Todd Park, David Danielson and Richard Kauffman on Fri, 07/20/2012 - 5:40pm Log in to vote 6 Freely-available data from the Federal government and other sources can be a powerful input to private sector innovation. Open data can spur entrepreneurship, empower citizens, and create jobs. As just one example, data from the US Global Positioning System (GPS) have been utilized by entrepreneurs to power navigation systems, precision crop farming tools, and other innovations that add over $90 billion in value to our economy each year and have improved the lives of Americans in many ways. The Obama Administration recently launched a series of Open Data Initiatives-in health, public safety, education, and energy. The Energy

38

Measurement Innovations Add Up to Big Savings for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement Innovations Add Up to Big Savings for Semiconductors. ... techniques for controlling radio-frequency electromagnetic energy and high ...

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cryogenic system for the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Supporting the world`s highest energy proton/antiproton collider in high energy physics research, the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system consists of a hybrid system of a Central Helium Liquefier feeding twenty-four 1 kW satellite refrigerators through a 6.5 km transfer line and supplying the liquid helium for the superconducting magnets of the accelerator and liquid nitrogen for the thermal shielding. Tevatron upgrades have been completed by 1996 and resulted in more than doubling the CHL liquefaction capacity, potential decrease of magnet operating temperatures from 4.9 K to 3.9 K and proven increase of Tevatron energy from 900 GeV to 990 GeV without losing operational stability.

Geynisman, M.G.; Norris, B.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Cogeneration Can Add To Your Profits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The predicted rapid escalation of gas and electric costs, particularly in those utility systems predominantly fired by gas, make it important for both industry and utilities to evaluate the role of cogeneration in their future plans. Industries requiring a continuous supply of steam and with fuel available at a cost not significantly higher than the utility will usually find that cogeneration with its higher fuel effectiveness can offer a significant saving in their costs of steam and powers at a return on investment above their required 'hurdle rate.' Also, cogeneration can offer important advantages to utilities, particularly those faced with the need to increase near term capacity but uncertainty as to the long term load growth. Cogeneration plants have a permit/construction period of two to three years and are rarely over 100 MW in size. To the extent sizable continuous steam loads are present in the utility system, cogeneration alleviates the uncertainty in projecting the need conventional large utility plants, adds efficient capacity in smaller increments and if jointly or wholly owned by industry reduces the capital costs to the utility. The PURPA regulations, with their procedures for calculating avoided cost, limit the benefits the utility and their customers can directly receive from industrially-owned cogeneration. They can share in the benefits if they are adequate to permit industry to receive a reasonable savings and return on their investment and a contract is negotiated to permit the utility and its customers to receive the remainder. Under the present PURPA, the utility can own up to 50% of a cogeneration plant and under this ownership arrangement, the utility and its customers can directly receive the benefits of cogeneration. When is cogeneration advantageous and what are the interactions between the industrial sites' energy requirements, the cogeneration plant configuration and its economics? Economics are the 'bottom line' in determining the potential for installing a cogeneration plant. In this paper, the performance and cost characteristics of various types of cogeneration plants, with emphasis on gas turbine plants, will be described together with their matching to the site energy requirements and the effect that these interactions together with fuel cost and electric power rates have on the economic benefits

Gerlaugh, H. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

Hendricks, C.D.

1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

Lazarus, L.J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Cryogenic Technology Development For The MEG Liquid Xenon Calorimeter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cryogenic key technologies have been developed for the muon rare decay experiment (MEG) at the Paul Scherrer Institute

Tomiyoshi Haruyama; MEG Calorimeter Group

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Management of Cryogens at CERN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CERN is a large user of industrially procured cryogens essentially liquid helium and nitrogen. Recent contracts have been placed by the Organization for the delivery of quantities up to 280tons of liquid helium over four years and up to 50000 tons of liquid nitrogen over three years. Main users are the very large cryogenic system of the LHC accelerator complex, the physics experiments using superconducting magnets and liquefied gases and all the related test facilities whether industrial or laboratory scale. With the commissioning of LHC, the need of cryogens at CERN will considerably increase and the procurement policy must be adapted accordingly. In this paper, we discuss procurement strategy for liquid helium and nitrogen, including delivery rates, distribution methods and adopted safety standards. Global turnover, on site re-liquefaction capacity, operational consumption, accidental losses, purification means and storage capacity will be described. Finally, the short to medium term evolution of the Orga...

Delikaris, D; Passardi, Giorgio; Serio, L; Tavian, L

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems Workshop Agenda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tuesday, February 15, 2011 - Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems Tuesday, February 15, 2011 - Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems Purpose: Identify R&D needs and technical pathways associated with the continued development and validation of cryo-compressed and cryo-sorption hydrogen storage technologies, highlighting those aspects common to both technologies as well as identifying their unique requirements and issues that should be addressed. 8:30 Welcome/Introductions/Workshop objectives/Recap of previous day Ned Stetson, DOE 9:00 OEM Perspective on Cryogenic H 2 Storage (20 min presentation/20 min discussion) Tobias Brunner, BMW 9:40 Performance Comparison and Cost Review (20 min presentation/20 min discussion) Rajesh Ahluwalia, ANL 10:20 Break (10 minutes) 10:30 Expert Panel Discussion (Members will each have 15 minutes for presentations)

46

Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection i...

Donald Greer Research; Donald Greer

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Modeling of cryogen leakage through composite laminates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cryogenic composites ?nd critical application in the manufacture of fuel tanks for reusable launch vehicles due to signi?cant reduction in overall structural weight of the tank. These fuel tanks contain pressurized cryogen such as hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures. Exposure to varying temperatures and mechanical loads resulting from ?ight cycle, containment of pressurized cryogen causes thermo-mechanical loading of the composite. The thermo-mechanical loading cycles combined with anisotropy of the composite and mismatch in the thermal and mechanical properties of ?bers and matrix lead to transverse matrix cracks (TMC) in each ply. TMC in adjacent plies intersect in localized regions at ply interfaces called crack junctions, which open up due to delamination on application of thermo-mechanical load. TMC and crack junctions usually form a network of leakage paths that assists leakage of cryogen through the composite. In this study, the volumetric ?ow rate of cryogen leaking through a damaged cross-ply composite with ?ve plies is determined by estimating the effective conductance of the leakage paths. For a given damage state and applied load, crack junction and TMC openings are obtained by ?nite element analysis. A computational ?uid dynamics model is ?rst used to estimate the effective conductance of a leakage path to hydrogen leakage and then a simplified analytical model is used to compute the effective conductance from individual conductances of each crack junction and TMC through a series-parallel combination. A single phase ?ow model is considered for the numerical analysis of hydrogen ?ow through TMC and crack junctions. The simulations are carried out using a commercial computational ?uid dynamics software, FLUENT. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the dependence of leak rate of hydrogen on the irregularities of the TMC geometry and TMC, crack junction openings. The simpli?ed model predictions of the effective conductance for the ?ve ply composite show good comparison with numerical simulations.

Peddiraju, Naga Venkata Satya Pravin Kumar

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Radiation Dry Bias of the Vaisala RS92 Humidity Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The comparison of simultaneous humidity measurements by the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde and by the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) launched at Alajuela, Costa Rica, during July 2005 reveals a large solar radiation dry bias of the Vaisala RS92 ...

H. Vmel; H. Selkirk; L. Miloshevich; J. Valverde-Canossa; J. Valds; E. Kyr; R. Kivi; W. Stolz; G. Peng; J. A. Diaz

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Zelipsky, Steven A. (Tinley Park, IL); Rezmer, Ronald R. (Lisle, IL); Smelser, Peter (Bruner, MO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Innovations on a Quartz Crystal Micronbalance Frost-Point Hygrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe a hygrometer based on a quartz crystal (QC) microbalance. The hygrometer is based on frost accumulation rather than adsorption. Previous designs are improved in two ways. First, a radial flow geometry makes it possible to ...

M. Kaluzhny; D. M. Murphy

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

DIII-D cryogenics control system status  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D cryogenics system provides liquid helium for various auxiliary systems at the DIII-D tokamak facility. The system described here executes control and supervision of the cryogenics plant and associated load systems which include four neutral beam injectors, superconducting magnets, and an in-vessel tokamak cryocondensation pump. The recent addition of this divertor cryopump represented a major increase in the scope of the control system and greater need for reliable and automatic operation. The pump must be precooled, cooled and regenerated in a relatively short period of time under automatic control. Since the pump is located in the tokamak primary vacuum, coordination with the machine vacuum control system and consideration for the requirements of physics operations and vessel wall conditioning are required. A programmable logic controller is the central element in the cryogenics control system and exercises direct or supervisory control over the liquefier, gas management and loads. In the time since the control system was built during 1989, additions and improvements have been made to simplify operation and support upgrades. Cryogenics system capacity has been upgraded by the purchase of a new 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, a second 400 hp helium compressor and additional gas storage. The new liquefier incorporates a controller of its own which exchanges information with the cryogenics control system. This independent controller relieved the main system of liquefier process control tasks but necessitates much finer control of the system high and low pressures. The control system upgrades and automation are discussed with emphasis on the divertor cryocondensation pump control.

Campbell, G.L.; Harris, J.J.; Schaubel, K.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production June 23, 2011 - 4:37pm Addthis Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It's always exciting when efforts to move new energy technology forward also lead to new job creation. Earlier today, Secretary Chu was invited to tour the new Amonix solar power system manufacturing plant in North Las Vegas, Nevada. Construction of the facility, which was completed in May, generated 135 construction jobs and more than 300 permanent jobs! The company was able to take advantage of a $5.9 million clean energy manufacturing tax credit to build the $18 million facility. The 214,000 sq. ft. plant manufacturers Amonix MegaModules®, part of the company's

54

Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 September 27, 2011 - 10:20am Addthis Matt Hansen reviews each team’s design drawings and construction specifications to estimate the total construction cost of its house. (Credit: Alexis Power/U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon) Matt Hansen reviews each team's design drawings and construction specifications to estimate the total construction cost of its house. (Credit: Alexis Power/U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon) Alexis Powers EDITOR'S NOTE: Originally posted on the Solar Decathlon News Blog on September 26, 2011. The big buzz word in Washington, D.C., these days is budget. In the solar village at West Potomac Park, cost savings are top of mind for the

55

Property:DSIRE/DtAdd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DtAdd DtAdd Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Date added to DSIRE. Pages using the property "DSIRE/DtAdd" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 2 2003 Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy-Down Program (Federal) + 2003-03-21 + 3 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) + 2008-03-27 + A AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) + 2009-12-14 + AEP (Central and SWEPCO) - Coolsaver A/C Tune Up (Texas) + 2009-12-14 + AEP (Central, North and SWEPCO) - Commercial Solutions Program (Texas) + 2009-12-14 + AEP Ohio (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) + 2011-01-08 + AEP Ohio (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) + 2011-01-08 + AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) + 2009-07-15 +

56

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value February 22, 2010 - 11:40am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Tanya $41,000 in home upgrades were possible through the Energy Independence Program. Tanya to pay back the money through installments on her property taxes. After she did the upgrades, Tanya's energy bills are now down 50 percent. As the real estate business rebounds, homebuilders are seeing some growth because of a new nationwide awareness of energy efficiency and the money it can save homeowners. Tanya Narath, of Santa Rosa, Calif., was already taking advantage of renewable energy and green building techniques - her home has had solar panels on its roof for years, and solar tubes draw in natural light to brighten even the darkest spaces of the home. But then Tanya had an energy

57

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces February 16, 2005 - 10:14am Addthis Will Develop, Deploy, and Validate Carbon Sequestration Options WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have joined Saskatchewan and Manitoba as Canadian partners in the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program, the centerpiece of North American efforts to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. The program, a network of federal and state agencies, as well as private sector entities, will determine the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for future carbon capture, storage, and sequestration in different areas of

58

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces February 16, 2005 - 10:14am Addthis Will Develop, Deploy, and Validate Carbon Sequestration Options WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have joined Saskatchewan and Manitoba as Canadian partners in the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program, the centerpiece of North American efforts to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. The program, a network of federal and state agencies, as well as private sector entities, will determine the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for future carbon capture, storage, and sequestration in different areas of

59

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value February 22, 2010 - 11:40am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Tanya $41,000 in home upgrades were possible through the Energy Independence Program. Tanya to pay back the money through installments on her property taxes. After she did the upgrades, Tanya's energy bills are now down 50 percent. As the real estate business rebounds, homebuilders are seeing some growth because of a new nationwide awareness of energy efficiency and the money it can save homeowners. Tanya Narath, of Santa Rosa, Calif., was already taking advantage of renewable energy and green building techniques - her home has had solar panels on its roof for years, and solar tubes draw in natural light to brighten even the darkest spaces of the home. But then Tanya had an energy

60

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production June 23, 2011 - 4:37pm Addthis Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It's always exciting when efforts to move new energy technology forward also lead to new job creation. Earlier today, Secretary Chu was invited to tour the new Amonix solar power system manufacturing plant in North Las Vegas, Nevada. Construction of the facility, which was completed in May, generated 135 construction jobs and more than 300 permanent jobs! The company was able to take advantage of a $5.9 million clean energy manufacturing tax credit to build the $18 million facility. The 214,000 sq. ft. plant manufacturers Amonix MegaModules®, part of the company's

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Portfolio Manager add properties spreadsheet | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

add properties spreadsheet add properties spreadsheet Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

62

Face equipment lighting: integrated vs. add-on  

SciTech Connect

The problems of providing lighting on face equipment are examined. In the US, some equipment manufacturers are building-in lighting systems to their machinery; others will install lighting systems as add-on or retrofitted items. The pros and cons of each method are examined and the views of manufacturers are quoted.

Scott, F.E.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Remote Sensing Tools Can Add Precision to Your Farming Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote Sensing Tools Can Add Precision to Your Farming Operation Harold Kaufman, Terry Wheeler is therefore important for the success of precision agriculture on individual farms. Remote sensing is a method.digitalglobe.com). However, the most inexpensive method of remote sensing is to shoot infrared images with a 35mm camera

Mukhtar, Saqib

64

CXXR and Add-on Packages Andrew Runnalls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

collection (i.e. missing PROTECT()/UNPROTECT()). After fixing these problems, three of the four packages (i.e. missing PROTECT()/UNPROTECT()). After fixing these problems, three of the four packagesCXXR and Add-on Packages Andrew Runnalls School of Computing, University of Kent, UK #12;Outline 1

Kent, University of

65

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: How Do They Add Up?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: How Do They Add Up? James Bushnell UC Energy Institute California is implementing a broad portfolio of regulations aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in California, calls for an overall reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. While the law

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

66

Cryogenic Technical Services Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Services Inc Services Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Cryogenic Technical Services Inc Place Longmont, Colorado Zip 805016036 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product Focused on cryogenic storage capability including hydrogen. Coordinates 40.16394°, -105.100504° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.16394,"lon":-105.100504,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

67

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Thermal Performance of Insulating Cryogenic Pin Spacers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following the proposal to introduce an actively cooled radiation screen (5-10 K) for the LHC machine, the design of the LHC cryostat foresees the need for spacers between the cold mass and the radiati on screen. The thermal impedance of the chosen material should be very high and the shape selected to withstrand the contact stress due to the displacements induced by the coll-down and warm-up transi ent. A cryogenic experiment dedicated to studying the thermal behaviour of several proposed spacers was performed at the cryogenics laboratory of CERN before choosing the one to be used for further i nvestigation on the LHC full-scale Cryostat Thermal Model [1] [2]. This paper describes a quantitative analysis leading to the choice of the spacer.

Darve, C

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Valve for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

Knapp, P.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers. 6 figs.

Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

73

Development of cryogenic instruments and equipment for SSC magnet cryogenic tests at the MTL  

SciTech Connect

The Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL) will test a considerable portion of the total SSC superconducting magnet production in order to control the manufacturing process and verify magnet performance requirements. With ten cryogenic test stands, MTL is capable of housing tests of 30 dipoles and 5 quadrupoles per month. For further understanding and improving the performance of the SSC magnets, there will be two R&D test stands for extensively instruments were allocated and installed inside the prototype and first production magnets, as well as in the feed and end cans. A data acquisition and control system is developed. A comprehensive cryogenic system (including refrigerator, cryogenic distribution box and, feed/end cans), vapor-cooled power leads, anti-cryostats (warm bore), and other associated systems, have been designed, developed and tested. This paper will briefly discuss the progress to date.

Shu, Q.S.; Coles, M.; Dorman, R.; Franclin, C.; Fuzesy, R.; Gabert, G.; Hatfield, D.; Syromyatnikov, I.; Tompkins, J.; Trekell, R.; Weisend, J.; Zolotov, A.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

(ns) Al-2024 Alloy Obtained via Cryogenic Milling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Milling Al-2024 powder of big particle size (>100 microns) in cryogenic regime resulted in nanostructured powder of 46 nm grain size after 18h. Furthermore...

75

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be used to design and optimize refrigeration cycles as wellCOMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATIONTrial Design Fixed state parameters (bar) Refrigeration

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Powder Insulation at Cryogenic Temperatures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A device to measure bulk effective thermal conductivity of powder insulation at cryogenic temperatures has been designed and tested. The design consists of two (more)

Barrios, Matthew Nicklas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on AddThis.com... Sept. 28, 2013 Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet

78

R&D ERL: Cryogenic System  

SciTech Connect

The ERL cryogenic system will supply cooling to a super-conducting RF (SCRF) gun and the 5-cell super-conducting RF cavity system that need to be held cold at 2K. The engineering of the cavity cryomodules were carried out by AES in collaboration with BNL. The 2K superfluid bath is produced by pumping on the bath using a sub-atmospheric warm compression system. The cryogenic system makes use of mainly existing equipment relocated from other facilities: a 300W 4.5K coldbox, an 45 g/s screw compressor, a 3800 liter liquid helium storage dewar, a 170 m{sup 3} warm gas storage tank, and a 40,000 liter vertical low pressure liquid nitrogen storage dewar. An existing wet expander obtained from another facility has been added to increase the plant capacity. In order to deliver the required 3 to 4 bar helium to the cryomodules while using up stored liquid capacity at low pressure, a new subcooler will be installed to function as the capacity transfer device. A 2K to 4K recovery heat exchanger is also implemented for each cryomodule to recover refrigeration below 4K, thus maximizing 2K cooling capacity with the given sub-atmospheric pump. No 4K-300K refrigeration recovery is implemented at this time of the returning sub-atmospheric cold vapor, hence the 2K load appears as a liquefaction1 load on the cryogenic plant. A separate LN2 cooling loop supplies liquid nitrogen to the superconducting gun's cathode tip.

Than, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Polyamide 66 as a Cryogenic Dielectric  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, \\eg, cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, \\etc, with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ conventional insulation materials to these new systems. However, at low temperatures, thermal contraction and loss of mechanical strength in many materials make them unsuitable for superconducting power applications. In this paper, a widely used commercial material was characterized as a potential cryogenic dielectric. The material is used in ``oven bag'' a heat-resistant polyamide (nylon) used in cooking (produced by Reynolds\\textregistered, Richmond, VA, USA). It is first characterized by Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction techniques and determined to be composed of polyamide 66 (PA66) polymer. Secondly the complex dielectric permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength of the PA66 films are investigated. The dielectric data are then compared with data reported in the literature. A comparison of dielectric strength with a widely used high-temperature superconductor electrical insulation material, polypropylene-laminated paper (PPLP\\texttrademark\\ a product of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Japan), is provided. It is observed that the statistical analysis of the PA66 films yields 1\\% failure probability at $127\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$; this value is approximately $46\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$ higher than PPLP\\texttrademark. It is concluded that PA66 may be a good candidate for cryogenic applications. Finally, a summary of dielectric properties of some of the commercial tape insulation materials and various polymers is also provided.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Low heat-leak cryogenic envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plurality of cryogenic envelope sections are joined together to form a power transmission line. Each of the sections is comprised of inner and outer tubes having multilayer metalized plastic spirally wrapped within a vacuum chamber formed between the inner and outer tubes. A refrigeration tube traverses the vacuum chamber, but exits one section and enters another through thermal standoffs for reducing heat-leak from the outer tube to the refrigeration tube. The refrigeration tube passes through a spirally wrapped shield within each section's vacuum chamber in a manner so that the refrigeration tube is in close thermal contact with the shield, but is nevertheless slideable with respect thereto.

DeHaan, James R. (Boulder, CO)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of a cryogenic heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipe operating characteristics can be used to advantage in cryogenic systems. Diode operation of the heat pipe, the ability to conduct heat in one direction only, is useful in protecting the heat load if the heat sink temperature rises above the load temperature. Because of this, the heat pipe can be made to act as a thermal switch. A screened-wick, inverted-artery, cryogenic heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested. The tests were first conducted with hydrogen and then with oxygen as the working fluid. Heat pipe performance limits were measured as a function of operating temperature, and startup from both the supercritical and the frozen state was demonstrated. The heat pipe was designed to operate as a thermal diode, and transient tests were used to determine the turndown ratio. The heat pipe test results were correlated with the Los Alamos heat pipe computer code and good agreement was obtained between the predicted and measured performance. The heat pipe was developed for spacecraft sensor cooling applications. Test results show significant performance advantages over solid conductors.

Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Runyan, J.E.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

Perea-Solano, B

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Transient Behaviour and Helium Discharge in Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) Headers Following Breakdown of Insulation Vacuum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transient Behaviour and Helium Discharge in Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) Headers Following Breakdown of Insulation Vacuum

Chorowski, M

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Help:Add a Tool or Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Help page Help page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Help:Add a Tool or Program Jump to: navigation, search Visit Form:Tool or Form:Program to upload a tool or program. Enter title and click submit. Note: When naming a tool or program, it is best practice to include the organization's acronym that created the tool. (e.g., NREL-Sample Tool) Note: If you are adding a program that is country specific, it is best to include that country in the title.(e.g.,Ghana-Sample Program on Clean Energy) Enter Title.JPG Populating the Tool or Program Form Note: Hold control to select multiple tags. Note: Tagging tools and programs correctly is important to being able to effectively query them. (e.g., If a resource assessment map is not tagged as resource assessment, it will not show up in a resource assessment

85

Thriving Tundra Bushes Add Fuel to Northern Thaw  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tundra Bushes Fuel Tundra Bushes Fuel Thaw Thriving Tundra Bushes Add Fuel to Northern Thaw Spread of taller vegetation could exacerbate warming in northern latitudes June 28, 2013 | Tags: Biological and Environmental Research (BER), Climate Research, Franklin Contact: Margie Wylie, mwylie@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 7421 Bonfils-1.jpg Left: Current deciduous shrub distribution. Right: Simulation of bare ground converted to deciduous shrubs. To enlarge, select image. (Celine Bonfils) Carbon-gobbling plants are normally allies in the fight to slow climate change, but in the frozen north, the effects of thriving vegetation may actually push temperatures higher. In a series of climate simulations performed at NERSC, a group of researchers found that the spread of bushes, taller ones especially, could exacerbate warming in northern latitudes by

86

First Experience with the LHC Cryogenic Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The LHC under commissioning at CERN will be the world's largest superconducting accelerator and therefore makes extensive use of cryogenic instruments. These instruments are installed in the tunnel and therefore have to withstand the LHC environment that imposes radiation-tolerant design and construction. Most of the instruments require individual calibration; some of them exhibit several variants as concerns measuring span; all relevant data are therefore stored in an Oracle® database. Those data are used for the various quality assurance procedures defined for installation and commissioning, as well as for generating tables used by the control system to configure automatically the input/output channels. This paper describes the commissioning of the sensors and the corresponding electronics, the first measurement results during the cool-down of one machine sector; it discusses the different encountered problems and their corresponding solutions.

Vauthier, N; Balle, Ch; Casas-Cubillos, J; Ciechanowski, M; Fernandez-Penacoba, G; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gomes, P; Jeanmonod, N; Lopez-Lorente, A; Suraci, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Dissipative Cryogenic Filters with Zero DC Resistance  

SciTech Connect

The authors designed, implemented and tested cryogenic RF filters with zero DC resistance, based on wires with a superconducting core inside a resistive sheath. The superconducting core allows low frequency currents to pass with negligible dissipation. Signals above the cutoff frequency are dissipated in the resistive part due to their small skin depth. The filters consist of twisted wire pairs shielded with copper tape. Above approximately 1 GHz, the attenuation is exponential in {radical}{omega}, as typical for skin depth based RF filters. By using additional capacitors of 10 nF per line, an attenuation of at least 45 dB above 10 MHz can be obtained. Thus, one single filter stage kept at mixing chamber temperature in a dilution refrigerator is sufficient to attenuate room temperature black body radiation to levels corresponding to 10 mK above about 10 MHz.

Bluhm, Hendrik; Moler, Kathryn A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

88

The DIII-D cryogenic system upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced diverter cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum vessel. The original cryosystem could not meet these demands. Consequently, the cryosystem was upgraded in several phases to increase capacity, improve reliability, and reduce maintenance. The majority of the original system has been replaced with superior equipment. The capacity now exists to support present as well as future demands for liquid helium at DIII-D including a hydrogen pellet injector, which is being constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Upgrades to the cryosystem include: a recently commissioned 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, two 55 g/sec helium screw compressors, a fully automated 20-valve cryogen distribution box, a high efficiency helium wet expander, and the conversion of equipment from manual or pneumatic to programmable logic controller (PLC) control. The distribution box was designed and constructed for compactness due to limited space availability. Overall system efficiency was significantly improved by replacing the existing neutral beam reliquefier Joule-Thomson valve with a reciprocating wet expander. The implementation of a PLC-based automatic control system has resulted in increased efficiency and reliability. This paper will describe the cryosystem design with emphasis on newly added equipment. In addition, performance and operational experience will be discussed.

Schaubel, K.M.; Laughon, G.J.; Campbell, G.L.; Langhorn, A.R.; Stevens, N.C.; Tupper, M.L.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Simple, robust cryogenic propellant depot for near term applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to refuel cryogenic propulsion stages on-orbit provides an innovative paradigm shift for space transportation supporting National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Exploration program as well as deep space robotic, national security ...

Christopher McLean; Shuvo Mustafi; Laurie Walls; Brian Pitchford; Mark Wollen; Jeff Schmidt

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Towards a cryogenic planar ion trap for Sr-88  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes experiments with ion traps constructed with electrodes in a single two-dimensional plane, and ion traps operated in a cryogenic environment at 77K and 4K temperatures. These two technologies address ...

Bakr, Waseem (Waseem S.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

THE USE OF MODERATELY HIGH PRESSURES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The application of moderately high pressures to work at low temperatures is described. The problems involved in the merging of these two disciplines are discussed as they relate to laboratory research as well as to large scale nuclear rocket testing facility usage. The equipment used to determine some physical properties of liquid cryogens up to 50000 lb/in./sup 2/ are also described. The methods of obtaining and applying the low temperature to the high pressure volume will be mentioned. The use of a reciprocating piston pump to pump cryogenic liquids to high pressures is described. Consideration is also given to the problems of cryogenic seals for large size vacuum jacketed cryogenic piping. Safety requirements are also mentioned. (P.C.H.)

Edeskuty, F.J.; Mills, R.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

Lokhandwala, K.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

High-resolution, cryogenic, side-entry type specimen stage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-resolution, cryogenic side-entry type specimen stage includes a copper block within which a specimen can be positioned in the electron beam of an electron microscope, one end of the copper block constituting a specimen heat exchanger, means for directing a flow of helium at cryogenic temperature into the heat exchanger, and electrical leads running from the specimen to the exterior of the microscope for four point D.C. electrical resistivity measurements.

King, Wayne E. (Woodridge, IL); Merkle, Karl L. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Data:F97c5d8a-dd97-4add-a67d-7a718288374a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d8a-dd97-4add-a67d-7a718288374a d8a-dd97-4add-a67d-7a718288374a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Northern Plains Electric Coop Effective date: 2012/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: OUTDOOR LIGHTING SERVICE-100 W HPS Metered Sector: Lighting Description: Available for year-round illumination for private residential, business, or farm yard lighting on existing Cooperative service poles where service wires can be connected either on the source or load side of the consumer's meter, at discretion of the Cooperative. Service is subject to the established rules and regulations of the Cooperative.

96

Cryogenic Storage (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cryogenic Storage (Smart Grid Project) Cryogenic Storage (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Cryogenic Storage Country United Kingdom Coordinates 55.378052°, -3.435973° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":55.378052,"lon":-3.435973,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

97

The CEBAF cryogenic system: Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility  

SciTech Connect

The CEBAF superconducting linear accelerator incorporates cryogenic refrigeration equipment at three locations within the site: the Central Helium Liquefier, located in the center of the accelerator; the experimental end station refrigerator; and the test laboratory refrigerator located in the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) adjacent to the test laboratory. The CEBAF cryogenic system will provide 2K refrigeration to the linacs of the accelerator and test laboratory and 4.5K refrigeration for the end station experimental halls. The Central Helium Liquefier and the test laboratory systems will produce 45K supercritical gaseous helium for shield refrigeration. Liquid nitrogen shields will also be incorporated in the test laboratory and end stations. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Chronis, W.C.; Arenius, D.; Kashy, D.; Keesee, M.; Rode, C.H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Design alternatives for cryogenic beryllium windows in an ICF cryostat  

SciTech Connect

We propose three backup design options for the cryogenic beryllium windows in a cryostat. The first, a beryllium flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/3 of that in the original design. The second, a fiberglass flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/2 of that in the original design and is also low cost. A third option, replacing the beryllium windows with spherical Mylar caps, would require a development program. Even though Mylar has been used previously at cryogenic temperature, this option is still considered unreliable. The near-zero ductility of beryllium at cryogenic temperature makes the reduction of peak tensile stresses particularly desirable. The orginal window design did function satisfactorily and the backup options were not needed. However, these options remain open for possible incorporation in future cryostat designs.

Pitts, J.H.; Landon, P.R.; Gerhard, M.A.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Cryogenic distribution for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams  

SciTech Connect

The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new National User Facility for nuclear science funded by the Department of Energy Office of Science and operated by Michigan State University. The FRIB accelerator linac consists of superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities operating at 2 K and SC magnets operating at 4.5 K all cooled by a large scale cryogenic refrigeration system. A major subsystem of the cryogenic system will be the distribution system whose primary components will include a distribution box, the transfer lines and the interconnect valve boxes at each cryogenic device. An overview of the conceptual design of the distribution system including engineering details, capabilities and schedule is described.

S. Jones, Dana Arenius, Adam Fila, P. Geutschow, Helmut Laumer, Matt Johnson, Cory S. Waltz, J. G. Weisend II

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

SRF Test Areas Cryogenic System Controls Graphical User Interface  

SciTech Connect

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has constructed a superconducting 1.3 GHz cavity test facility at Meson Detector Building (MDB) and a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab Building (NML). The control of these 2K cryogenic systems is accomplished by using a Synoptic graphical user interface (GUI) to interact with the underlying Fermilab Accelerator Control System. The design, testing and operational experience of employing the Synoptic client-server system for graphical representation will be discussed. Details on the Synoptic deployment to the MDB and NML cryogenic sub-systems will also be discussed. The implementation of the Synoptic as the GUI for both NML and MDB has been a success. Both facilities are currently fulfilling their individual roles in SCRF testing as a result of successful availability of the cryogenic systems. The tools available for creating Synoptic pages will continue to be developed to serve the evolving needs of users.

DeGraff, B.D.; Ganster, G.; Klebaner, A.; Petrov, A.D.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Cryogenic System for the Panda-X Dark Matter Search Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Panda-X is a liquid xenon dual-phase detector for the Dark Matter Search. The first modestly-sized module will soon be installed in the China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory in Sichuan province, P.R. China. The cryogenics system is designed to handle much larger detectors, even the final version in the ton scale. Special attention has been paid to the reliability, serviceability, and adaptability to the requirements of a growing experiment. The system is cooled by a single Iwatani PC150 Pulse Tube Refrigerator. After subtracting all thermal losses, the remaining cooling power is still 82W. The fill speed was 9 SLPM, but could be boosted by LN2 assisted cooling to 40 SLPM. For the continuous recirculation and purification through a hot getter, a heat exchanger was employed to reduce the required cooling power. The recirculation speed is limited to 35 SLPM by the gas pump. At this speed, recirculation only adds 18.5 W to the heat load of the system, corresponding to a 95.2 % efficiency of the heat exchanger.

Zhao Li; Karl Ludwig Giboni; Haowei Gong; Xiangdong Ji; Andy Tan

2012-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

102

Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N{sub 2} is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation.

Kuzay, T.M.

1990-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

103

Commissioning of the cryogenics of the LHC long straight sections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; /CERN; Darve, C.; /Fermilab; Ferlin, G.; Millet, F.; Parente, C.; /CERN; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab; Soubiran, M.; van Weelderen, R.; Wagner, U.; /CERN

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N[sub 2] is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation. 7 figs.

Kuzay, T.M.

1992-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

105

Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

Niemann, R.C.; Zelipsky, S.A.; Rezmer, R.R.; Smelser, P.

1980-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

106

T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local 7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 1, 2011 - 6:44pm Addthis PROBLEM: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges . PLATFORM: Linux Kernel 2.4.x, 2.6.x ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in the Linux Kernel. A local user may be able to obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A physically local user can connect a storage device with a specially crafted LDM partition table to trigger a buffer overflow in the ldm_frag_add() function in 'fs/partitions/ldm.c' and potentially execute arbitrary code with elevated privileges. reference LINKS: Security Tracker - Alert ID: 1025128

107

V-169: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer 9: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow Vulnerability V-169: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow Vulnerability June 3, 2013 - 12:01am Addthis PROBLEM: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow Vulnerability PLATFORM: Linux Kernel 3.0.x Linux Kernel 3.2.x Linux Kernel 3.4.x Linux Kernel 3.9.x ABSTRACT: A vulnerability has been reported in Linux Kernel. REFERENCE LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA53670 Red Hat Bugzilla - Bug 968036 CVE-2013-2850 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium DISCUSSION: The vulnerability is caused due to a boundary error within the "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" function (drivers/target/iscsi/iscsi_target_parameters.c) when parsing keys and can

108

T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local 7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 1, 2011 - 6:44pm Addthis PROBLEM: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges . PLATFORM: Linux Kernel 2.4.x, 2.6.x ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in the Linux Kernel. A local user may be able to obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A physically local user can connect a storage device with a specially crafted LDM partition table to trigger a buffer overflow in the ldm_frag_add() function in 'fs/partitions/ldm.c' and potentially execute arbitrary code with elevated privileges. reference LINKS: Security Tracker - Alert ID: 1025128

109

Validation and performance of the LHC cryogenic system through commissioning of the first sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cryogenic system [1] for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator is presently in its final phase of commissioning at nominal operating conditions. The refrigeration capacity for the LHC is produced using eight large cryogenic plants and eight 1.8 K refrigeration units installed on five cryogenic islands. Machine cryogenic equipment is installed in a 26.7-km circumference ring deep underground tunnel and are maintained at their nominal operating conditions via a distribution system consisting of transfer lines, cold interconnection boxes at each cryogenic island and a cryogenic distribution line. The functional analysis of the whole system during all operating conditions was established and validated during the first sector commissioning in order to maximize the system availability. Analysis, operating modes, main failure scenarios, results and performance of the cryogenic system are presented.

Serio, L.; Bouillot, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; /CERN; Chakravarty, A.; /Tata Inst.; Claudet, S.; /CERN; Gicquel, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Gomes, P.; /CERN; Kumar, M.; Kush, P.K.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Millet, F.; Perin, A.; /CERN /Fermilab /Tata Inst. /CERN

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Cryogenic controls for Fermilab's SRF cavities and test facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities test facility is now operational at Fermilab's Meson Detector Building (MDB). The facility is supplied cryogens from the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) located in a separate building 500-m away. The design incorporates ambient temperature pumping for super-fluid helium production, as well as three 0.6-kW at 4.5-K refrigerators, five screw compressors, a helium purifier, helium and nitrogen inventory, cryogenic distribution system, and a variety of test cryostats. To control and monitor the vastly distributed cryogenic system, a flexible scheme has been developed. Both commercial and experimental physics tools are used. APACS+{trademark}, a process automation control system from Siemens-Moore, is at the heart of the design. APACS+{trademark} allows engineers to configure an ever evolving test facility while maintaining control over the plant and distribution system. APACS+{trademark} nodes at CTF and MDB are coupled by a fiber optic network. DirectLogic205 PLC's by KOYO{reg_sign} are used as the field level interface to most I/O. The top layer of this system uses EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) as a SCADA/HMI. Utilities for graphical display, control loop setting, real time/historical plotting and alarming have been implemented by using the world-wide library of applications for EPICS. OPC client/server technology is used to bridge across each different platform. This paper presents this design and its successful implementation.

Norris, B.; Bossert, R.; Klebaner, A.; Lackey, S.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Soyars, W.; Sirotenko, V.; /Fermilab

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Cryogenics for the MuCool Test Area (MTA)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

MuCool Test Area (MTA) is a complex of buildings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which are dedicated to operate components of a cooling cell to be used for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R&D. The long-term goal of this facility is to test ionization cooling principles by operating a 25-liter liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) absorber embedded in a 5 Tesla superconducting solenoid magnet. The MTA solenoid magnet will be used with RF cavities exposed to a high intensity beam. Cryogens used at the MTA include LHe, LN{sub 2} and LH{sub 2}. The latter dictates stringent system design for hazardous locations. The cryogenic plant is a modified Tevatron refrigerator based on the Claude cycle. The implementation of an in-house refrigerator system and two 300 kilowatt screw compressors is under development. The helium refrigeration capacity is 500 W at 14 K. In addition the MTA solenoid magnet will be batch-filled with LHe every 2 days using the same cryo-plant. This paper reviews cryogenic systems used to support the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R&D programs and emphasizes the feasibility of handling cryogenic equipment at MTA in a safe manner.

Darve, Christine; Norris, Barry; Pei, Liu-Jin; /Fermilab

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE UPGRADED CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS AT THE NSCL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is a NSF-supported facility, with additional support from Michigan State University (MSU) for conducting research in nuclear and accelerator science. The facility consists of two superconducting cyclotrons and over fifty individual cryostats, each containing several superconducting magnets that are used in the beam transport system. Beginning in 1999 a major facility upgrade was started. New, larger magnets were added, increasing the total 4.5 K loads, necessitating an increase of the cryogenic capacity. A helium plant (nominal 1750-Watt at 4.5 K) was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines where it had been operating as a pure liquefier since the early 1980's. It was refurbished for the NSCL with extensive support from the cryogenics group at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory. The new cryogenic system came online early in 2001. The cold-mass is relatively high in relation to the installed capacity, presenting challenges during cool downs. Reliability over the last five years has been greater than 99%. An overview of the last seven years of operations of our cryogenic systems is presented that includes normal operations, testing of new equipment, noteworthy breakdowns, routine maintenance, and system reliability.

McCartney, A. H.; Laumer, H. L.; Jones, S. A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824 (United States)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

113

Dynamic Cryogenic Seals to Support Fueling of Fusion Tokomaks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) / s Chemical Process Equipment 10-1 to 1 Torque Converter 10-3 to 10-4 Beverage Can End 10-5 to 10-7 IC Package of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Introduction / Motivation Sealing failures cost billions of dollars temperatures but not while being rotated at cryogenic temperatures. The estimated leak rate agrees

Collins, Gary S.

114

Ferritic Fe-Mn alloy for cryogenic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ferritic, nickel-free alloy steel composition, suitable for cryogenic applications, which consists essentially of about 10-13% manganese, 0.002-0.01% boron, 0.1-0.5% titanium, 0-0.05% aluminum, and the remainder iron and incidental impurities normally associated therewith.

Hwang, Sun-Keun (Rockypoint, NY); Morris, Jr., John W. (Berkeley, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Structured SiN membranes as platform for cryogenic bolometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cryogenic bolometers detect radiation by measuring the temperature increase in an appropriate absorber. To achieve sufficient detector sensitivity, we place the bolometer on a SiN membrane. Thermal coupling is further decreased by patterning the membrane ... Keywords: Bolometer, Microtechnology, Silicon nitride membranes

Solveig Anders; Torsten May; Viatcheslav Zakosarenko; Michael Starkloff; Gabriel Zieger; Hans-Georg Meyer

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Cryogenic & Gas System Piping Pressure Tests (A Collection of PT Permits)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This engineering note is a collection of pipe pressure testing documents for various sections of piping for the D-Zero cryogenic and gas systems. High pressure piping must conform with FESHM chapter 5031.1. Piping lines with ratings greater than 150 psig have a pressure test done before the line is put into service. These tests require the use of pressure testing permits. It is my intent that all pressure piping over which my group has responsibility conforms to the chapter. This includes the liquid argon and liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogenic systems. It also includes the high pressure air system, and the high pressure gas piping of the WAMUS and MDT gas systems. This is not an all inclusive compilation of test documentation. Some piping tests have their own engineering note. Other piping section test permits are included in separate safety review documents. So if it isn't here, that doesn't mean that it wasn't tested. D-Zero has a back up air supply system to add reliability to air compressor systems. The system includes high pressure piping which requires a review per FESHM 5031.1. The core system consists of a pressurized tube trailer, supply piping into the building and a pressure reducing regulator tied into the air compressor system discharge piping. Air flows from the trailer if the air compressor discharge pressure drops below the regulator setting. The tube trailer is periodically pumped back up to approximately 2000 psig. A high pressure compressor housed in one of the exterior buildings is used for that purpose. The system was previously documented, tested and reviewed for Run I, except for the recent addition of piping to and from the high pressure compressor. The following documents are provided for review of the system: (1) Instrument air flow schematic, drg. 3740.000-ME-273995 rev. H; (2) Component list for air system; (3) Pressure testing permit for high pressure piping; (4) Documentation from Run I contained in D-Zero Engineering note 3740.214-EN-268, John Urbin 11120/90; (5) Pressure test procedure; (6) Schematic for pressure test; and (7) List of component pressure ratings. The goal of this independent review is to: (1) Reviewer makes recommendation to the Division/Section Safety Officer to approve the testing permit; and (2) Reviewer is satisfied the FESHM 5031 is met, and recommends to the division head that approval to operate be granted.

Rucinski, Russell A.; /Fermilab

2002-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

117

Add your e-prints to the E-print Network -- Energy, science, and technology  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Add E-prints Add E-prints We invite you to submit your e-prints to the network. Having your e-prints in the network increases awareness of them and promotes the dissemination of your information to a broader audience. We do not add all submitted e-prints to our collection, and we cannot make any predictions or guarantees about when or if they will appear. See "What are the criteria for inclusion in the E-print Network?" Please enter your full URL, including the http:// prefix. For example: http://www.osti.gov/eprints/. You may also add comments or keywords that describe the content of your page. These are used only for our information and do not affect how your page is indexed or used. Label ID URL (required): Title (required): E-mail address (required): Your Name:

118

Rajesh Maingi adds a new strategic dimension to fusion and plasma...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rajesh Maingi adds a new strategic dimension to fusion and plasma physics research By John Greenwald March 14, 2013 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One Rajesh Maingi (Photo...

119

Marshall County REMC- Geothermal and Add-on Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Marshall County REMC provides a rebate for its residential customers for the purchase and installation of an add-on heat pump and/or a geothermal heat pump. Customers can receive $300 for the...

120

Add your e-prints to the E-print Network -- Energy, science,...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Add E-prints We invite you to submit your e-prints to the network. Having your e-prints in the network increases awareness of them and promotes the dissemination of your...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cryogenic expansion joint for large superconducting magnet structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An expansion joint is provided that accommodates dimensional changes occurring during the cooldown and warm-up of large cryogenic devices such as superconducting magnet coils. Flattened tubes containing a refrigerant such as gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) are inserted into expansion spaces in the structure. The gaseous N.sub.2 is circulated under pressure and aids in the cooldown process while providing its primary function of accommodating differential thermal contraction and expansion in the structure. After lower temperatures are reached and the greater part of the contraction has occured, the N.sub.2 liquefies then solidifies to provide a completely rigid structure at the cryogenic operating temperatures of the device.

Brown, Robert L. (Kingston, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Control System for the Cryogenics in the LHC Tunnel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider makes extensive use of superconductors, in magnets for bending and focusing the particles, and in RF cavities for accelerating them, which are operated at 1.9 K and 4.5 K. The process automation for the cryogenic distribution around the accelerator circumference is based on 16 Programmable Logic Controllers, each running 250 control loops, 500 alarms and interlocks, and a phase sequencer. Spread along 27 km and under ionizing radiation, 15 000 cryogenic sensors and actuators are accessed through industrial field networks. We describe the main hardware and software components of the control system, their deployment and commissioning, together with the project organization, challenges faced, and solutions found.

Gomes, P; Antoniotti, F; Avramidou, R; Balle, Ch; Blanco-Viuela, E; Carminati, Ch; Casas-Cubillos, J; Ciechanowski, M; Dragoneas, A; Dubert, P; Fampris, X; Fluder, C; Fortescue, E; Gaj, W; Gousiou, E; Jeanmonod, N; Jod?owski, P; Karagiannis, F; Klisch, M; Lpez, A; Macuda, P; Malinowski, P; Molina, E; Paiva, S; Patsouli, A; Penacoba, G; Sosin, M; Soubiran, M; Suraci, A; Tovar, A; Vauthier, N; Wolak, T; Zwalinski, L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold  

SciTech Connect

Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that enabled the development of superconducting applications at temperatures from 4 to 77 K are identified. Included are advancements in the components used up to the present state-of-the-art in refrigeration systems design. Viewpoints as both an equipment supplier and the end-user with regard to the equipment design and operations will be presented. Some of the present and future challenges in these areas will be outlined. Most of the materials in this paper are a collection of the historical materials applicable to these areas of interest.

Venkatarao Ganni, James Fesmire

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu.sub.2 S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors.

Hirayama, Chikara (Murrysville, PA); Wagner, George R. (Murrysville, PA)

1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

125

Apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel contained within the microballoon. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Methods and apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Cryogenics Safety Review of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ATLAS detector at CERN to be installed at 90 m depth in a 50,000 m3 underground cavern is of unprecedented size and complexity. This is reflected in the helium and nitrogen cryogenic systems required respectively by the magnets (three large superconducting toroids and the central solenoid with 1.6 GJ stored energy) and by the argon calorimeters containing 82 m3 of liquid which can be drained into two 50 m3 dewars in case of emergency. Further coolants of 11m3 of liquid helium and 15 m3 of liquid nitrogen are stored underground. The potential hazards of the large quantities of cryogens in underground areas require specific attention. Design, construction and quality assurance strictly follow applicable safety rules and the cryogenic process and controls are conceived to actively cope with a number of faults. In severe cases of accidental coolant loss (helium, nitrogen) or argon, detection systems produce alarms which result in the activation of emergency gas extraction. Reviews with international experts...

Haug, F

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

Minati, Kurt F. (Northport, NY); Morgan, Gerry H. (Patchogue, NY); McNerney, Andrew J. (Shoreham, NY); Schauer, Felix (Upton, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

1982-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

130

Failing Drop CO2 Deposition (Desublimation) Heat Exchanger for the Cryogenic Carbon Capture Process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cryogenic carbon capture removes CO2 and other pollutants from flue and waste stream gases produced from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, natural (more)

James, David William

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF WISE/NEOWISE 3-BAND CRYOGENIC AND POST-CRYOGENIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 13511 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) that were observed during the 3-Band Cryo phase of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; after the outer cryogen tank was exhausted) and as part of the NEOWISE Post-Cryo Survey (after the inner cryogen tank was exhausted). With a reduced or complete loss of sensitivity in the two long wavelength channels of WISE, the uncertainty in our fitted diameters and albedos is increased to {approx}20% for diameter and {approx}40% for albedo. Diameter fits using only the 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m channels are shown to be dependent on the literature optical H absolute magnitudes. These data allow us to increase the number of size estimates for large MBAs which have been identified as members of dynamical families. We present thermal fits for 14 asteroids previously identified as the parents of a dynamical family that were not observed during the fully cryogenic mission.

Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cabrera, M. S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., MS 321-520, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, C., E-mail: Joseph.Masiero@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Science.gov Adds NSDL to Collection | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Adds NSDL to Collection Adds NSDL to Collection NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Cathey Daniels, (865) 576-9539 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 2, 2006 Science.gov Adds NSDL to Collection Oak Ridge, TN -Science.gov has added the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) to its collection. Patrons can now search more than 28 science databases and over 1,800 science Web sites at Science.gov, plus the 1.1 million records of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education resources at NSDL, with just one click. The NSDL was created by the National Science Foundation to provide access to exemplary resources for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and research. NSDL is designed primarily for K-16 educators. Science.gov, hosted by the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical

133

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings October 27, 2011 - 11:01am Addthis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program When most people go to the car dealership, they take a hard look at the vehicle's window sticker. But that initial price doesn't tell the whole story. By showing only the up-front cost, the sticker price leaves out

134

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings October 27, 2011 - 11:01am Addthis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program When most people go to the car dealership, they take a hard look at the vehicle's window sticker. But that initial price doesn't tell the whole story. By showing only the up-front cost, the sticker price leaves out

135

Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids August 30, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Allison’s bus hybrid drive unit for transit buses can be found in 164 cities around the world. The company will use similar technology in the commercial truck hybrid system. | Photo courtesy of Allison Transmission Allison's bus hybrid drive unit for transit buses can be found in 164 cities around the world. The company will use similar technology in the commercial truck hybrid system. | Photo courtesy of Allison Transmission Lindsay Gsell Allison Transmission uses $62.8 million in Recovery Act funding for commercial truck hybrid system Project will create or retain close to 100 manufacturing-related jobs in Indiana Hybrid systems could reduce diesel consumption by 35 percent in

136

Baseline Configuration of the Cryogenic System for the International Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the main constraints and boundary conditions and describes the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider (ILC) cryogenic system. The cryogenic layout, architecture and the cooling principle are presented. The paper addresses a plan for study and development required to demonstrate and improve the performance, to reduce cost and to attain the desired reliability.

Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; Parma, V.; Riddone, G.; Serio, L.; Tavian, L.; Vullierme, B.; van Weelderen, R.; /CERN; Chorowski, M.; /Wroclaw Tech. U.; Ganni, R.; Rode, C.; /Jefferson Lab; Klebaner, A.; Peterson, T.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Rousset, B.; /Grenoble, CEN; Weisend, J.; /SLAC

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

137

First results from cryogenic target implosions on OMEGAa... C. Stoeckl,b)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ignition Facility NIF W. J. Hogan, E. I. Moses, B. E. Warner et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 2001 . Polymer. These initial results are encouraging for future cryogenic implosions on OMEGA and the NIF. © 2002 American design for the National Ignition Facility NIF 1 is a thick cryogenic DT-ice layer enclosed in a thin CH

138

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM ON DIII-D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK-B135 The cryogenic facility that is part of the DIII-D tokamak system supplies liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to the superconducting magnets used for electron cyclotron heating, the D{sub 2} pellet injection system, cryopumps in the DIII-D vessel, and cryopanels in the neutral beam injection system. The liquid helium is liquefied on site using a Sulzer liquefier that has a 150 l/h liquefaction rate. Control of the cryogenic facility at DIII-D was initially accomplished through the use of three different programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Recently, two of those three PLCs, a Sattcon PLC controlling the Sulzer liquefier and a Westinghouse PLC, were removed and all their control logic was merged into the remaining PLC, a Siemens T1555. This replacement was originally undertaken because the removed PLCs were obsolete and unsupported. However, there have been additional benefits from the replacement. The replacement of the RS-232 serial links between the graphical user interface and the PLCs with a high speed Ethernet link allows for real-time display and historical trending of nearly all the cryosystem's data. this has greatly increased the ability to troubleshoot problems with the system, and has permitted optimization of the cryogenic system's performance because of the increased system integration. To move the control logic of the Sattcon control loops into the T1555, an extensive modification of the basic PID control was required. These modifications allow for better control of the control loops and are now being incorporated in other control loops in the system.

HOLTROP,K.L; ANDERSON,P.M; MAUZEY,P.S

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005 3823 Design of a Superhigh-Speed Cryogenic Permanent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Speed Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Liping Zheng1, Thomas X. Wu1, Dipjyoti Acharya2, Kalpathy B and simulation of a superhigh-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) that operates in the cryogenic Terms--Cryogenics, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), superhigh speed, V/f control. I

Wu, Shin-Tson

140

Performance of the MFTF magnet cryogenic power leads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cryogenic power lead system for the MFTF superconducting magnets has been acceptance tested and operated with the magnets. This system, which includes 5-m-long superconducting buses, 1.5-m-long vapor-cooled transition leads, external warm buses, and a cryostack, can conduct up to 6000 A (dc) and operate adiabatically for long periods. We present both design details and performance data; our MFTF version is an example of a reliable lead system for large superconducting magnets contained in a much larger vacuum vessel.

VanSant, J.H.

1983-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Novel Approaches and Alternative Cryogens for Cooling a Superconducting Cable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been a pioneer in the development of a long-distance superconducting dc cable, which is described in EPRI report 1020458. There is now worldwide interest in the technology, much of which is based on EPRIs concept. This report extends one aspect of the EPRI design to improve performance and reduce costs. It addresses the issue of using liquid air as the cryogenic fluid that is used to cool the cable. The use of air instead of liquid nitrogen eliminates the potential hazard of oxygen ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

143

Quality Assurance of LHC Cryogenic Instrumentation during Installation and Commissioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The operation and monitoring of the LHC requires a cryogenic instrumentation system of an unprecedented size (800 instrumentation crates, holding 15000 sensors and actuators), with strict constraints on temperature measurement uncertainty and radiation hardness for all sensors and actuators. This paper presents the applied procedures of quality assurance and the specific hard- & software tools used to meet and track the mentioned requirements during its lifetime (fabrication, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance); within the given constraints of time schedule, accessibility and coordination with other teams.

Lopez Lorente, A; Casas-Cubillos, J; Fortescue, E; Gomes, P; Jeanmonod, N; Peacoba, G; Vauthier, N

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

FABRICATION OF WINDOW SADDLES FOR NIF CRYOGENIC HOHLRAUMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK-B135 A planar diagnostic viewing port attached to the cylindrical wall of the NIF cryogenic hohlraum requires a saddle-like transition piece. While the basic design of this window saddle is straightforward, its fabrication is not, given the scale and precision of the component. They solved the problem through the use of a two segment copper mandrel to electroform the gold window saddle. The segments were micro-machined using a combination of single-point diamond turning and single point diamond milling. These processes as well as the electroplating conditions, final machining and mandrel removal are described in this paper.

GIRALDEZ,E; KAAE,J.L

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Analysis of hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic high pressure storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LIQ) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH2). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

Aceves, S. M.; Berry, G. D.

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electrical Insulation Paper and Its Physical Properties at Cryogenic Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paper is widely used in various engineering applications due to its physical properties and ease of manufacture. As a result paper has been selected or designed as an electrical insulation material for parts and components in high voltage technology. In the current study we select a paper employed in conventional transformers as the electrical insulation material. The potential of this paper is investigated at cryogenic temperatures to determine its physical properties for high temperature superconducting power applications. Dielectric measurements were performed using impedance spectroscopy at a constant frequency. Dielectric breakdown tests were performed on samples at 77 K using a liquid nitrogen bath.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered in the integration of refinery off-gas streams with other olefins process.

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome  

SciTech Connect

ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang (Harvard-Med); (Ottawa Hosp.); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (CH-Boston); (Tsinghua); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

149

ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

ATLAS magnet common cryogenic, vacuum, electrical and control systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The superconducting Magnet System for the ATLAS detector at the LHC at CERN comprises a Barrel Toroid, two End Cap Toroids and a Central Solenoid with overall dimensions of 20 m diameter by 26 m length and a stored energy of 1.6 GJ. Common proximity cryogenic and electrical systems for the toroids are implemented. The Cryogenic System provides the cooling power for the 3 toroid magnets considered as a single cold mass (600 tons) and for the CS. The 21 kA toroid and the 8 kA solenoid electrical circuits comprise both a switch-mode power supply, two circuit breakers, water cooled bus bars, He cooled current leads and the diode resistor ramp-down unit. The Vacuum System consists of a group of primary rotary pumps and sets of high vacuum diffusion pumps connected to each individual cryostat. The Magnet Safety System guarantees the magnet protection and human safety through slow and fast dump treatment. The Magnet Control System ensures control, regulation and monitoring of the operation of the magnets. The update...

Miele, P; Delruelle, N; Geich-Gimbel, C; Haug, F; Olesen, G; Pengo, R; Sbrissa, E; Tyrvainen, H; ten Kate, H H J

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this coordinated research program is to obtain the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal, methane separation for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell/Cities Service Hydrogasification processes. The program is divided into nine subtasks with each subtask studying the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced. Progress reports of 8 subtasks are presented. The following are some of the highlights. Subtask 1 - Heat and material balance and equipment sizing was completed for the cryogenic methane separation. The overall material balance is presented in a table. Subtask 2 - Preliminary designs for MEA and DEA gas removal systems were established. Subtasks 3 to 5 - Economic evaluation is in proress. Subtask 6 - The SNG product compressor train was simulated for the case where sufficient SNG fuel is withdrawn from the product compressors to fire the dryer reactivation heater. Subtask 7 - Acid gas removal and cryogenic separation equipment was resized to accommodate Exxon's request for a two-train plant design. Subtask 8 - The Benfield and Selexol systems will be evaluated for acid gas removal.

Klosek, J.

1981-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

152

The Cryogenic System for the SLAC E158 Experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

E158 is a fixed target experiment at SLAC in which high energy (up to 48 GeV) polarized electrons are scattered off the unpolarized electrons in a 1.5 m long liquid hydrogen target. The total volume of liquid hydrogen in the system is 55 l. The beam can deposit as much as 700 W into the liquid hydrogen. Among the requirements for the system are: that density fluctuations in the liquid hydrogen be kept to a minimum, that the target can be moved out of the beam line while cold and replaced to within 2 mm and that the target survive lifetime radiation doses of up to 1 x 10{sup 6} GY. The cryogenic system for the experiment consists of the target itself, the cryostat containing the target, a refurbished CTI 4000 refrigerator providing more than 1 kW of cooling at 20 K and associated transfer lines and valve boxes. This paper discusses the requirements, design, construction, testing and operation of the cryogenic system. The unique features of the design associated with hydrogen safety and the high radiation field in which the target resides are also covered.

Weisend, John G

2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

153

Thermal Infrared Exposure of Cryogenic Indirect Drive ICF Targets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets at the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be protected from thermal infrared radiation by a cold shroud. As the shroud is removed just before the laser pulse, infrared radiation will heat and possibly degrade the symmetry of the solid hydrogen fuel layer. A lumped component mathematical model has been constructed to calculate how long an indirect drive target can be exposed to thermal radiation before the fuel layer degrades. The allowed exposure time sets the maximum shroud removal time and therefore has important implications for the design of the cryogenic shroud systems. The model predicts that the maximum exposure time is approximately 0.18 s for plastic capsules inside hohlraums with transparent laser entrance holes. By covering the laser entrance holes with a partially reflective coating, the exposure time can be increased to approximately 1 s. The exposure time can be increased to about 2 s by using beryllium capsules. Several other design concepts could increase the exposure time even further. Lengthening of the allowed exposure time to 1 s or longer could allow a significant cost savings for the shroud system.

London, R A; Moody, J D; Sanchez, J J; Sater, J D; Haid, B J; Bittner, D N

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

APPROACHING CRYOGENIC GE PERFORMANCE WITH PELTIER COOLED CDTE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new class of hand-held, portable spectrometers based on large area (lcm2) CdTe detectors of thickness up to 3mm has been demonstrated to produce energy resolution of between 0.3 and 0.5% FWHM at 662 keV. The system uses a charge loss correction circuit for improved efficiency, and detector temperature stabilization to ensure consistent operation of the detector during field measurements over a wide range of ambient temperature. The system can operate continuously for up to 8hrs on rechargeable batteries. The signal output from the charge loss corrector is compatible with most analog and digital spectroscopy amplifiers and multi channel analyzers. Using a detector measuring 11.2 by 9.1 by 2.13 mm3, we have recently been able to obtain the first wide-range plutonium gamma-ray isotopic analysis with other than a cryogenically cooled germanium spectrometer. The CdTe spectrometer is capable of measuring small plutonium reference samples in about one hour, covering the range from low to high burnup. The isotopic analysis software used to obtain these results was FRAM, Version 4 from LANL. The new spectrometer is expected to be useful for low-grade assay, as well as for some in-situ plutonium gamma-ray isotopics in lieu of cryogenically cooled Ge.

Khusainov, A. K. (A. Kh.); Iwanczyk, J. S. (Jan S.); Patt, B. E. (Bradley E.); Prirogov, A. M. (Alexandre M.); Vo, Duc T.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [INC-DTCI-ICSI Rm. Valcea, str.Uzinei, Nr.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

157

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

158

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

do I add open data requirements into my government contract? do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

159

NETL: News Release - DOE, Tampa Electric Sign Agreement to add Intelligent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE, Tampa Electric Sign Agreement to Add 'Intelligent' Computer System to Florida Power Plant DOE, Tampa Electric Sign Agreement to Add 'Intelligent' Computer System to Florida Power Plant Latest Effort to Apply 'Neural Networks' To Upgrade Power Plant Performance - Tampa Electric's Big Bend Power Plant - Tampa Electric's Big Bend Power Plant in Florida will soon use artificial intelligence to keep its boilers clean and reduce air pollutants. Photo: Tampa Electric Co TAMPA, FL -The U.S. Department of Energy has signed an agreement with Tampa Electric Power Company to demonstrate how advances in 21st century computer technology can make a vintage-1970s coal-fired power plant run cleaner and more efficiently. The agreement calls for engineers to install a new "neural network-driven" computer system in one of the boiler units at the Big Bend Station near

160

Data:1921696d-9e4b-4add-8993-2843952245ee | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9e4b-4add-8993-2843952245ee 9e4b-4add-8993-2843952245ee No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Farmers Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2006/08/08 End date if known: Rate name: Rate MSL- Municiple Street Lighting (175 W additional unit same pole) Sector: Lighting Description: To lighting service required by the municipality for streets, alleys and other public ways. Not applicable to temporally, resale, shared or seasonal service. Source or reference: https://cas.sharepoint.illinoisstate.edu/grants/Sunshot/Lists/DATA%20ENTRY%20Rates%20Collected/Attachments/283/Farmers%20Electric%20Coop%20Corp%20AR%20Rates.PDF

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

162

Data:A66ecbde-6930-450b-adde-9581403850fb | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ecbde-6930-450b-adde-9581403850fb ecbde-6930-450b-adde-9581403850fb No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Cuming County Public Pwr Dist Effective date: 2011/12/14 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lighting Unmetered Lights 250W HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: Ilinois State University Rate binder # 10 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2

163

Pressurized Items and Cryogens Assessment plan - Developed By NNSA/Nevada Site Office Facility Representative Division  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pressurized Systems and Cryogens Pressurized Systems and Cryogens Performance Objective: Assure personnel health and safety through regularly scheduled inspections and maintenance on pressure vessels and equipment, compressed gases and gas cylinders, vacuum equipment and systems, hydraulics, and cryogenic materials and systems. Performance Criteria: BN inspects, operates and safely stores unmodified compressed-gas or liquid cylinders approved by the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the appropriate regulators. BN inspects, operates and maintains refrigeration systems that comply with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes, and applicable Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standards. BN inspects, operates and maintains pressure systems that operate at an

164

Performance characterization of photonic links in cryogenic environments for advanced signal processing applications. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low temperature experiments have been conducted to characterize the performance of high speed photodetectors and LiNbO{sub 3} optical modulators in cryogenic environments down to 4.2 K. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes fabricated from GaAs and InGaAs have been characterized. Results demonstrate that both the responsivity and bandwidth depend on temperature. Specific modulator parameters quantified at cryogenic temperatures include bandwidth, V{pi} (half wave voltage), optical loss and package stability. The successful operation of MSM photodiodes and LiNbO{sub 3} modulators at cryogenic temperatures enables a high sensitivity fiber optic approach to superconducting circuit interfaces.

McCammon, K.; Morse, J.; Masquelier, D.; McConaghey, C.; Garrett, H.; Hugenberg, K.; Lowry, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Track, E.; Bunz, L. [HYPRES, Inc., Elmsford, NY (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Medical, Dental & Vision Add/Drop Form Please return to: Postdoc Benefits Office, 3160 Porter Drive, Suite 250, Palo Alto, CA 94304-8443 or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Medical, Dental & Vision Add/Drop Form Please return to: Postdoc Benefits Office, 3160 Porter Drive Same Add Drop Medical EPO Medical PPO Dental PPO VSP Vision Postdoctoral Scholar Add Drop Medical EPO Medical PPO Dental PPO VSP Vision Spouse Domestic Partner Son Daughter Add Drop Medical EPO Medical PPO

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

166

Medical, Dental & Vision Add/Drop Form Please return to: Postdoc Benefits Office, 320 Panama Street, Bambi Modular, Stanford, CA 94305-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Medical, Dental & Vision Add/Drop Form Please return to: Postdoc Benefits Office, 320 Panama Street Same Add Drop Medical EPO Medical PPO Dental PPO VSP Vision Postdoctoral Scholar Add Drop Medical EPO Medical PPO Dental PPO VSP Vision Spouse Domestic Partner Son Daughter Add Drop Medical EPO Medical PPO

Kay, Mark A.

167

Performance prediction of cryogenically cooled silicon crystal monochromator  

SciTech Connect

To predict the performance of the cryogenically cooled silicon crystal, intensive studies have been carried out to sort out the influences of various parameters, such as heat load power and power distribution, cooling coefficient, and beam size. The thermal slope error of the crystal is calculated by finite element modeling. Quadratic law was applied to calculate the rocking-curve width. Heat load tests were also performed with a channel-cut silicon monochromator on beamline ID09 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The silicon crystal is indirectly cooled from the sides by liquid nitrogen. Measured rocking-curve widths are compared with those calculated by finite element modeling. When we include the broadening from the intrinsic rocking-curve width and mounting strain, the calculated rocking-curve width versus heat load is in excellent agreement with experiment.

Zhang Lin; Wulff, Michael; Eybert, Laurent [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Lee, Wah-Keat [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

A High Reliability Gas-driven Helium Cryogenic Centrifugal Compressor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A helium cryogenic compressor was developed and tested in real conditions in 1996. The achieved objective was to compress 0.018 kg/s Helium at 4 K @ 1000 Pa (10 mbar) up to 3000 Pa (30 mbar). This project was an opportunity to develop and test an interesting new concept in view of future needs. The main features of this new specific technology are described. Particular attention is paid to the gas bearing supported rotor and to the pneumatic driver. Trade off between existing technologies and the present work are presented with special stress on the bearing system and the driver. The advantages are discussed, essentially focused on life time and high reliability without maintenance as well as non pollution characteristic. Practical operational modes are also described together with the experimental performances of the compressor. The article concludes with a brief outlook of future work.

Bonneton, M; Gistau-Baguer, Guy M; Turcat, F; Viennot, P

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Cryogenic sample exchange NMR probe for magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a cryogenic sample exchange system that dramatically improves the efficiency of magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments by reducing the time required to change samples and by ...

Barnes, Alexander B.

170

Heat-transfer dynamics during cryogen spray cooling of substrate at different initial temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aguilar G 2004 Radial heat transfer dynamics during cryogenof droplet dynamics and heat transfer in spray cooling Exp.S0031-9155(04)84030-2 Heat-transfer dynamics during cryogen

Jia, W; Aguilar, G; Wang, G X; Nelson, J S

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Ten-Inch Manipulator-Based Neutron Temporal Diagnostic for Cryogenic Experiments on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the neutron emission from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions provide important information about target performance that can be compared directly with numerical models. For ''warm'' target experiments on LLE's OMEGA the neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD), originally developed at LLNL, is used to measure the neutron burn history with high resolution and timing accuracy. Due to the standoff required by the cryogenic target handling system, NTD is mechanically incompatible with cryogenic target experiments. This presentation describes a new cryogenic- compatible neutron temporal diagnostic (cryoNTD), which has been designed for LLE's standard ten-inch-manipulator (TIM) diagnostic inserters. First experimental results of the performance of the cryoNTD compared to NTD on warm direct-drive implosions and on cryogenic implosions will be presented.

Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Lerche, R.A.; Griffith, R.L.; Sorce, C.

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

172

Old stacker/reclaimer compensates for poorly performing add-on unit  

SciTech Connect

When a plant's continued operation unexpectedly depends heavily on a single large component, maintenance and engineering groups must focus on a maintenance philosophy aimed at highest reliability and maintainability. This became the case at Tampa Electric Co.'s Big Bend station after an add-on stacker/reclaimer failed to perform as originally expected. The result was that the old stacker/reclaimer, slated for an easier life of shared work and respite periods for repair and maintenance, had to be kept at high availability to cover for the new machine. This article describes the computerized maintenance program used and other problems overcome in relying on the old system.

Salmon, W.W. (Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The feasibility and application of multilayer vacuum insulation for cryogenic hydrogen storage / Hodgman J.H.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A need was identified to test multilayer vacuum super insulation (MLVSI) used in cryogenic applications for hydrogen storage. The study focuses on the application of (more)

Hodgman, Jacobus Henry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nitrogen, liquid helium, liquid argon) can lead to serious workplace injuries due to hazards related, students and visitors. Definition · A cryogenic liquid is defined as a liquefied gas that is stored or used and Technology) as being below 93.15 K (-180C). · Common examples: nitrogen, argon, neon, helium

Chan, Hue Sun

175

Data:6451ae67-1924-4e48-8add-837b53187618 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Data:6451ae67-1924-4e48-8add-837b53187618 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our...

176

A liquid helium cryogenic system design for the GEM magnet  

SciTech Connect

The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Gammas, Electrons, Muons (GEM) magnet is a large superconducting solenoid with a total mass of 1.05 {times} 10{sup 6} kg and a stored energy of 2.5 G. A cryogenic system to cool and to maintain the GEM magnet to liquid helium temperature is described. The system is designed to operate effectively under a variety of operating conditions, including cooldown/warm-up, steady state operations, and quench. Primary cooling during steady-state operation is based on natural circulation thermosiphon flow through cooling tubes in the solenoid support bobbin. Additional cooling loops are included for lead and joint cooling and conductor stabilization. A helium refrigerator/liquefier rated at 2 kill and 20 g/s will be specified to meet the refrigeration requirements. Cooldown of the magnet from 300 K to liquid nitrogen temperatures is accomplished using a counterflow helium-to-liquid-nitrogen heat exchanger independent of the helium refrigerator. The system incorporates provisions for maintenance access during accelerator beam operation.

Deis, G.; Warren, R.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Richied, D.E.; Martovetsky, N.N.; Krupczak, J.J.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Pace, J.R.; Collins, C.A. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL  

SciTech Connect

A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars. The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.

Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.; Grau, M.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tallerico, T.; McIntyre, G.; Lederle, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

178

Mobile remote surveillance system for the CERN LHC cryogenic system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis documents the research, planning and partial implementation of a remote surveillance system for use in the CERN LHC machine tunnel. The system is planned to provide surveillance of the cryogenic system in the LHC, eliminating the need for the personnel to go personally to look at a piece of possible faulty equipment. For this project, the complete system is planned. The system will be controlled via an Ethernet connection. This is fed into a 400V power line as a powerline communication signal, and picked up by the surveillance system. Then it is decoded into an Ethernet signal again, and sent to a camera with an on board web server. The power is transported by the same powered rail as used for communication, so that the system can take power and communication along the whole tunnel. The thesis describes the goals of the system and explains the requirements it needs to meet. Several solutions, especially technologies for communication, are considered, and details about them are described. A solutio...

Torbjrn, Houge

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The role of superconductivity and cryogenics in the neutrinofactory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proposed neutrino factory will produce a defined beam of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a storage ring[1,2,3]. The storage ring will be oriented so that the neutrinos can be detected at one or more detectors several thousand kilometers from the storage ring. This report presents an overview of the proposed neutrino factory and its subsystems that use cryogenics. Superconducting magnets will be used in the following ways in the neutrino factory; (1) the outsert solenoid for the 20 T pion capture system, (2) the decay channel where pions decay to muons, (3) the muon phase rotation system, (4) the muon cooling system, (5) focusing during the first stage of muon acceleration, (6) bending and focusing magnets in the re-circulating linac accelerator and (7) bending and focusing magnets in the muon storage ring where the neutrino beams are generated. Low temperature superconducting RF cavities will be used to accelerate the muons from about 200 MeV to 20 GeV. The muon cooling system uses liquid hydrogen absorbers at 20 K to reduce the emittance of the muon beam before it is accelerated to full energy.

Green, M.A.; Black, E.L.; Gupta, R.C.; Iarocci, M.A.; Lebedev,V.; Miller, J.R.; Palmer, R.B.; Padamsee, H.S.; Parker, B.L.; Prestemon,S.; Weggel, R.J.

2001-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

180

Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C. [National Biological Service, Lafayette, LA (United States); Knaus, R.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Analysis of the Thermal Loads on the KSTAR Cryogenic System  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale helium refrigeration system is one of the key components for the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device. In the design of the refrigeration system, an estimation of the thermal loads on the cold mass is an important issue according to the operation scenario. The cold mass of the KSTAR device is about 250 tons including 30 superconducting (SC) coils and the magnet structure. In addition to the static thermal loads, pulsed thermal loads to the refrigeration system have been considered in the operation stage. The main pulsed thermal loads on magnet system are AC losses in the SC coils and eddy current losses in the magnet structure that depend on the magnetic field variation rate. The nuclear radiation loss due to plasma pulse operation is also considered. The designed cooling capacity of the refrigeration system is estimated to be about 9 kW at 4.5 K isothermal. In this paper, calculation of the various kinds of thermal loads on KSTAR cryogenic system and design of the large-scale helium refrigeration system are presented.

Kim, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.; Kim, W.C.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, S.B.; Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H.; Cho, K.W.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Yusung-Ku, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

182

Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For bodies spaced in vacuum at distances shorter than the wavelength of the thermal radiation, radiative heat transfer substantially increases due to the contribution of evanescent electromagnetic waves. Experimental data on heat transfer in near-field regime are scarce. We have designed a cryogenic apparatus for the study of heat transfer over microscopic distances between metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Using a mechanical positioning system, a planeparallel gap between the samples, concentric disks, each 35 mm in diameter, is set and varied from 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 3} {mu}m. The heat transferred from the hot (10 - 100 K) to the cold sample ({approx}5 K) sinks into a liquid helium bath through a thermal resistor, serving as a heat flux meter. Transferred heat power within {approx}2 nW/cm{sup 2} and {approx}30 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} is derived from the temperature drop along the thermal resistor. For tungsten samples, the distance of the near-field effect onset was inversely proportional to temperature and the heat power increase was observed up to three orders of magnitude greater than the power of far-field radiative heat transfer.

Kralik, T.; Hanzelka, P.; Musilova, V.; Srnka, A.; Zobac, M. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Kralovopolska 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Welding stainless and 9% nickel steel cryogenic vessels  

SciTech Connect

Gases are often more efficiently stored and shipped as liquids at cryogenic temperatures. Pure gases commonly stored below liquefaction temperatures include oxygen {minus}297 F ({minus}183 C), argon {minus}302 f ({minus}186 C), nitrogen {minus}320 F ({minus}196 C), hydrogen {minus}423 F ({minus}253 C) and helium {minus}452 F ({minus}269 C). Natural gas is also transported and frequently stored as liquefied natural gas (LNG) at temperatures below {minus}261 F ({minus}163 C). Storage tanks for the pure gases are generally shop fabricated in sizes that can be shipped by conventional carriers. Smaller LNG vessels for over-the-road and railroad fuel applications are also shop-fabricated. Shown in a figure is a rail-mounted tank designed to supply liquefied natural gas to locomotives. Another example of a tank installation is also shown. LNG terminal storage tanks are generally field-erected vessels fabricated from 9% nickel steel in sizes of 50,000 to 100,000 m{sup 3} (315,000 to 630,000 bbls). This article focuses on welding practices for shop-fabricated vessels and equipment.

Avery, R.E. [Nickel Development Inst., Londonderry, NH (United States); Parsons, D. [Parsons (David), Hampstead, NH (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A New Cryogenic Sample Manipulator For SRC's Scienta 2002 System  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the first bench tests of a sample manipulator which was recently designed at SRC for the Scienta 2002 User system. The manipulator concept utilizes the 10 deg. angular window of the Scienta in the horizontal plane (angle dispersion) by rotating the sample normal around the vertical axis while angular scans along the vertical axis (energy dispersion) are continuous within {+-}30 deg. relative to the electron lens by rotating the sample around the horizontal axis. With this concept it is possible to precisely map the entire two-dimensional k-space of a crystal by means of stitching together 10 deg. wide stripes centered +15 deg. to -50 deg. relative to the sample normal. Three degrees of translational freedom allow positioning the sample surface at the focal point of the analyzer. Two degrees of rotational freedom are available at this position for manipulating the sample. Samples are mounted to a standard holder and transferred to the manipulator via a load-lock system attached to a prep chamber. The manipulator is configured with a cryogenic cold head, an electrical heater, and a temperature sensor permitting continuous closed-loop operation for 20-380 K.

Gundelach, Chad T.; Fisher, Mike V.; Hoechst, Hartmut [Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States)

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

185

Questions and Answers - How many neutrons can you add to an atom without it  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is it possible for an element to emitmore than one kind of radiation? Is it possible for an element to emit<br>more than one kind of radiation? Previous Question (Is it possible for an element to emit more than one kind of radiation?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Are nitrogen, arsenic, and tantalum radioactive?) Are nitrogen, arsenic, andtantalum radioactive? How many neutrons can you add to an atom without it getting unbalanced? The number of neutrons that an atom can carry is dependent on what it is. Some will become unstable with only one extra or one less neutron while others can hold or lose many extra. It varies from atom to atom and also within atoms. Take a look at a Periodic Table. The atomic number is the number of protons in that atom. If you change the number of protons the atom becomes

186

Laboratory adds a sixth R&D 100 award to its 2009 count  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D 100 awards R&D 100 awards Laboratory adds a sixth R&D 100 award to its 2009 count This year's awards bring the Los Alamos total to 113 since the Laboratory first entered the competition in 1978. November 4, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact Communications Office

187

Questions and Answers - Why is it (in detail) that the more coils you add  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I am creating an electromagnetfor my science fair project. I am creating an electromagnet<br>for my science fair project. Previous Question (I am creating an electromagnet for my science fair project.) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Which jobs use electromagnets?) Which jobs use electromagnets? Why is it (in detail) that the more coils you add to an electromagnet, the stronger its magnetic field is? If I go into detail, I will soon reach a point at which I can't do the math! But the answer to your question is simpler than you might think. First, picture the straight piece of wire that your magnet is made of before it's wrapped up in coils. Now, if you run a current through it, is it a magnet? The answer is "Yes." This is because (repeat after me): any electric charge in motion creates a magnetic field. The magnetic field

188

NETL: News Release - Energy Department Adds More Cutting-Edge Projects to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

October 3, 2001 October 3, 2001 Energy Department Adds More Cutting-Edge Projects to Improve Tomorrow's Gas Pipelines MORGANTOWN, WV - Every day in the United States an average of 55 billion cubic feet of natural gas moves through more than1.2 million miles of underground pipe and thousands of compressor stations to virtually every home and nearly 5 million businesses across the country. For the most part, this flow of natural gas is uneventful - in fact, America's pipeline system is unequaled in its efficiency and safety. But the current gas infrastructure is aging and leaks or breakages can occur. Moreover, as the Nation's consumption of natural gas increases, at least 300,000 miles of new distribution and transmission pipelines will have to be built by 2015.

189

Add Java extensions to your wiki: Java applets can bring dynamic functionality to your wiki pages  

SciTech Connect

Virtually everyone familiar with todays world wide web has encountered the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia many times. What you may not know is that Wikipedia is driven by an excellent open-source product called MediaWiki which is available to anyone for free. This has led to a proliferation of wiki sites devoted to just about any topic one can imagine. Users of a wiki can add content -- all that is required of them is that they type in their additions into their web browsers using the simple markup language called wikitext. Even better, the developers of wikitext made it extensible. With a little server-side development of your own, you can add your own custom syntax. Users aware of your extensions can then utilize them on their wiki pages with a few simple keystrokes. These extensions can be custom decorations, formatting, web applications, and even instances of the venerable old Java applet. One example of a Java applet extension is the Jmol extension (REF), used to embed a 3-D molecular viewer. This article will walk you through the deployment of a fairly elaborate applet via a MediaWiki extension. By no means exhaustive -- an entire book would be required for that -- it will demonstrate how to give the applet resize handles using using a little Javascript and CSS coding and some popular Javascript libraries. It even describes how a user may customize the extension somewhat using a wiki template. Finally, it explains a rudimentary persistence mechanism which allows applets to save data directly to the wiki pages on which they reside.

Scarberry, Randall E.

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

190

How cold can you get in space? Quantum Physics at cryogenic temperatures in space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although it is often believed that the coldness of space is ideally suited for performing measurements at cryogenic temperatures, this must be regarded with caution for two reasons: Firstly, the sensitive instrument must be completely shielded from the strong solar radiation and therefore, e.g. either be placed inside a satellite or externally on the satellite's shaded side. Secondly, any platform hosting such an experiment in space generally provides an environment close to room temperature for the accommodated equipment. To obtain cryogenic temperatures without active cooling, one must isolate the instrument from radiative and conductive heat exchange with the platform as well as possible. We investigate the limits of this passive cooling method in the context of a recently proposed experiment to observe the decoherence of quantum superpositions of massive objects. The analyses and conclusions are applicable to a host of similar experimental designs requiring a cryogenic environment in space.

Gerald Hechenblaikner; Fabian Hufgard; Johannes Burkhardt; Nikolai Kiesel; Ulrich Johann; Markus Aspelmeyer; Rainer Kaltenbaek

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

191

Instrumentation, Field Network And Process Automation for the LHC Cryogenic Line Tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the cryogenic control system and associated instrumentation of the test facility for 3 pre-series units of the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line. For each unit, the process automation is based on a Programmable Logic Con-troller implementing more than 30 closed control loops and handling alarms, in-terlocks and overall process management. More than 160 sensors and actuators are distributed over 150 m on a Profibus DP/PA network. Parameterization, cali-bration and diagnosis are remotely available through the bus. Considering the diversity, amount and geographical distribution of the instru-mentation involved, this is a representative approach to the cryogenic control system for CERN's next accelerator.

Bager, T; Bertrand, G; Casas-Cubillos, J; Gomes, P; Parente, C; Riddone, G; Suraci, A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Properties and Processes for Cryogenic Refrigeration R. Radebaugh, P. Bradley, M. Lewis (838), J. Gary, and A. O'Gallagher (ITL)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties and Processes for Cryogenic Refrigeration R. Radebaugh, P. Bradley, M. Lewis (838), J to characterize losses within cryocoolers and models need to be developed to optimize the design of such systems. Material properties at cryogenic temperatures also are needed by industry for the design of cryogenic

Magee, Joseph W.

193

Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL  

SciTech Connect

A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m{sup 3} storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

2005-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Design of a scanning gate microscope in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on our design of a scanning gate microscope housed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 15 mK. The recent increase in efficiency of pulse tube cryocoolers has made cryogen-free systems popular in recent years. However, this new style of cryostat presents challenges for performing scanning probe measurements, mainly as a result of the vibrations introduced by the cryocooler. We demonstrate scanning with root-mean-square vibrations of 0.8 nm at 3 K and 2.1 nm at 15 mK in a 1 kHz bandwidth with our design.

Pelliccione, Matthew; Bartel, John; Keller, Andrew; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The Integration Of The LHC Cryogenics Control System Data Into The CERN Layout Database  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Colliders Cryogenic Control System makes extensive use of several databases to manage data appertaining to over 34,000 cryogenic instrumentation channels. This data is essential for populating the software of the PLCs which are responsible for maintaining the LHC at the appropriate temperature. In order to reduce the number of data sources and the overall complexity of the system, the databases have been rationalised and the automatic tool, that extracts data for the control software, has been simplified. This paper describes the main improvements that have been made and considers the success of the project.

Fortescue-Beck, E; Gomes, P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Numerical analysis of the heat transfer for packing design of cryogenic gate valve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The packing, among the components comprising the gate valve, is used to sustain the airtightness and the study on change of shape or pattern has been carried out to maximize the functions, but the study on changing the location or the size of the packing ... Keywords: cryogenic, heat transfer, liquefied natural gas, numerical analysis, packing

Si Pom Kim; Rock Won Jeon; Il Ju Hwang; Jae Hoon Lee; Won Heaop Shin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Operational modes and control philosophy of the SSCL Magnet Test Lab. (MTL) cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The MTL`s function is to test prototype and industrially manufactured magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). The cryogenic system of the MTL has a main refrigeration system consisting of a two-stage compression system, a refrigerator/liquefier coldbox, a liquid helium dewar, warm gas storage, and a regeneration skid. The MTL cryogenic system also includes the following auxiliary equipment: two cleaning, cooling, warmup and purification (CCWP) coldbox modules with a regeneration skid for the charcoal beds, two CCWP compressors, a dehydration skid with its own regeneration system, a pump box, a refrigeration recovery unit, and five distribution boxes. At any given time, the refrigeration system has the capacity to simultaneously test at least six magnets under normally required testing conditions. Every magnet will undergo cleaning, cooldown, and filling prior to general testing, conditioning, quench testing, and other experiments. At the completion of general testing, etc., the magnet must be emptied prior to warming it up to ambient temperature. Furthermore, conditioning, training, and testing of the magnets can be carried out at different temperatures between 4.5 K and 2.5 K. The cryogenic system is designed to test multiple magnets, not all of which are necessarily in the same preparational or operational stage. This paper describes the different operational modes and the behavior and control of the total cryogenic system during multiple magnet tests.

Ganni, V.; Than, R.; Thirumaleshwar, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM OF TESLA S. Wolff, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM OF TESLA S. Wolff, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany for the TESLA collaboration Abstract TESLA, a 33 km long 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy superconducting linear collider The 33 km long e+ e- linear collider TESLA (Tera eV Energy Superconductiong Linear Accelerator) with 500

200

Fault Detection and Isolation of a Cryogenic Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber Using a Parity Space Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

his paper presents a parity space (PS) approach for fault detection and isolation (FDI) of a cryogenic rocket engine combustion chamber. Nominal and non-nominal simulation data for three engine set points have been provided. The PS approach uses three ... Keywords: Fault Detection, Fault Isolation, Fault Diagnosis, Parity Space, Rocket Engine

Paul van Gelder; Andr Bos

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Cryogenic DT and D2 targets for inertial confinement fusiona... T. C. Sangster,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Facility NIF W. J. Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 2001 are based on a spherical ablator containing most of the critical fabrication tolerances for ignition on the NIF. At the University of Rochester required for ignition on the NIF. At LLE, these cryogenic DT and D2 capsules are being imploded

202

Exergoeconomic optimization of the cryogenic cycles used in the pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased consumption of natural resources and energy needs has led to development of new energy conversion technologies and concerns for environmental impacts as a result of emissions. Thermoeconomy is more broadly a science of saving natural resources ... Keywords: cryogenic systems, exergoeconomic analyze, optimal investment cost

Sorin Gherghinescu; Alexandru Dobrovicescu; Eugenia Vasilescu

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Experimental Studies of Convection Effects in a Cryogenic NIF Ignition Target  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We describe experiments which investigate convection effects on hydrogen ice layers in a transparent CH capsule suspended with a fill-tube. These experiments validate simulations which show that unmitigated convection from the hohlraum fill gas can produce significant distortions to the cryogenic hydrogen ice layer. Experimental results show good agreement with thermal simulations which include conduction and convection.

Moody, J D; Sanchez, J J; Bittner, D N; Giedt, W H; London, R L; Sater, J D; Burmann, J A; Jones, R L

2003-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

204

Development of a cryogenic induction motor for use with a superconducting magnetic bearing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of a cryogenic induction motor for use with a superconducting magnetic bearing Tomotake of a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). Both the motor and the SMB are operated at liquid He temperatures. We give Keywords: Astrophysical polarimeter; Induction motor; Superconducting magnetic bearings 1. Introduction

Oxley, Paul

205

Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system.

Zhang, Burt X. (Lancaster, TX); Ganni, Venkatarao (Degoto, TX); Stifle, Kirk E. (Lancaster, TX)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is disclosed for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system. 8 figs.

Zhang, B.X.; Ganni, V.; Stifle, K.E.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

100-W Q-switched Cryogenically Cooled Yb:YAG Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work describes a cryogenic, electro-optically Q-switched Yb:YAG laser that generates 114-W average TEM[subscript 00] power with 47% optical-to-optical efficiency. Pulse repetition frequency is 5 kHz, pulse duration ...

Hybl, John D.

208

Design and testing of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system at Fermilab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is constructing a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab building. The facility will be used for testing and validating cryomodule designs as well as support systems. For the initial phase of the project, a single Type III plus 1.3 GHz cryomodule will be cooled and tested using a single Tevatron style standalone refrigerator. Subsequent phases involve testing as many as two full RF units consisting of up to six 1.3 GHz cryomodules with the addition of a new cryogenic plant. The cryogenic infrastructure consists of the refrigerator system, cryogenic distribution system as well as an ambient temperature pumping system to achieve 2 K operations with supporting purification systems. A discussion of the available capacity for the various phases versus the proposed heat loads is included as well as commissioning results and testing schedule. This paper describes the plans, status and challenges of this initial phase of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system.

Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; DeGraff, B.D.; Leibfritz, J.; /Fermilab

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the National Ignition Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments with equimolar deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fuel have been performed on the National Ignition Facility. These experiments use 0.17 mg of fuel with the potential for ignition and significant fusion yield conditions. The thermonuclear fuel has been fielded as a cryogenic layer on the inside of a spherical plastic capsule that is mounted in the center of a cylindrical gold hohlraum. Heating the hohlraum with 192 laser beams for a total laser energy of 1.6 MJ produces a soft x-ray field with 300 eV temperature. The ablation pressure produced by the radiation field compresses the initially 2.2-mm diameter capsule by a factor of 30 to a spherical dense fuel shell that surrounds a central hot-spot plasma of 50 {mu}m diameter. While an extensive set of x-ray and neutron diagnostics has been applied to characterize hot spot formation from the x-ray emission and 14.1 MeV deuterium-tritium primary fusion neutrons, thermonuclear fuel assembly is studied by measuring the down-scattered neutrons with energies in the range of 10 to 12 MeV. X-ray and neutron imaging of the compressed core and fuel indicate a fuel thickness of (14 {+-} 3) {mu}m, which combined with magnetic recoil spectrometer measurements of the fuel areal density of (1 {+-} 0.09) g cm{sup -2} result in fuel densities approaching 600 g cm{sup -3}. The fuel surrounds a hot-spot plasma with average ion temperatures of (3.5 {+-} 0.1) keV that is measured with neutron time of flight spectra. The hot-spot plasma produces a total fusion neutron yield of 10{sup 15} that is measured with the magnetic recoil spectrometer and nuclear activation diagnostics that indicate a 14.1 MeV yield of (7.5{+-}0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} which is 70% to 75% of the total fusion yield due to the high areal density. Gamma ray measurements provide the duration of nuclear activity of (170 {+-} 30) ps. These indirect-drive implosions result in the highest areal densities and neutron yields achieved on laser facilities to date. This achievement is the result of the first hohlraum and capsule tuning experiments where the stagnation pressures have been systematically increased by more than a factor of 10 by fielding low-entropy implosions through the control of radiation symmetry, small hot electron production, and proper shock timing. The stagnation pressure is above 100 Gbars resulting in high Lawson-type confinement parameters of P{tau} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10 atm s. Comparisons with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations indicate that the pressure is within a factor of three required for reaching ignition and high yield. This will be the focus of future higher-velocity implosions that will employ additional optimizations of hohlraum, capsule and laser pulse shape conditions.

Glenzer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Alger, E. T.; Berger, R. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bradley, D. K.; Burkhart, S. C.; Burr, R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Castro, C.; Choate, C.; Clark, D. S.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; DiNicola, P.; DiNicola, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the first use of a beta-eliminating cut based on a maximum-likelihood characterization described above.

Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ASTEROIDS ESTIMATED FROM THE WISE 3-BAND DATA AND NEOWISE POST-CRYOGENIC SURVEY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhancements to the science data processing pipeline of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, collectively known as NEOWISE, resulted in the detection of >158,000 minor planets in four infrared wavelengths during the fully cryogenic portion of the mission. Following the depletion of its cryogen, NASA's Planetary Science Directorate funded a four-month extension to complete the survey of the inner edge of the Main Asteroid Belt and to detect and discover near-Earth objects (NEOs). This extended survey phase, known as the NEOWISE Post-Cryogenic Survey, resulted in the detection of {approx}6500 large Main Belt asteroids and 86 NEOs in its 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m channels. During the Post-Cryogenic Survey, NEOWISE discovered and detected a number of asteroids co-orbital with the Earth and Mars, including the first known Earth Trojan. We present preliminary thermal fits for these and other NEOs detected during the 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-Cryogenic Surveys.

Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Nugent, C. R. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Tholen, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Data:2a0bdae9-8320-4794-adde-ad3cbe147351 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bdae9-8320-4794-adde-ad3cbe147351 bdae9-8320-4794-adde-ad3cbe147351 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Wahoo, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial Large General Service (Single Phase) Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: http://www.wahoo.ne.us/content_subcat.asp?SubCategoryID=88&CategoryID=125&ContentID=68 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V):

213

Data:789add43-c49c-4629-ad6f-5e867fa282db | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add43-c49c-4629-ad6f-5e867fa282db add43-c49c-4629-ad6f-5e867fa282db No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Black Earth, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 1999/08/01 End date if known: Rate name: Ms-1 Outdoor Lighting Service: 150W HPS(Ornamental) Sector: Lighting Description: Application: This schedule will be applied to municipal street lighting. The utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Fixed Monthly Charge includes Commitment to Community Rider: $1.33 per customer per month. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly.

214

Data:Ac94956d-2b15-4590-8add-3f718005a413 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6d-2b15-4590-8add-3f718005a413 6d-2b15-4590-8add-3f718005a413 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Northeast Nebraska P P D Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rural Residential Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: http://www.nnppd.com/billing/rates/ Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

215

Data:0944af53-b9a9-4942-83a7-851991add082 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b9a9-4942-83a7-851991add082 b9a9-4942-83a7-851991add082 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Miami-Cass County Rural E M C Effective date: 2011/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Single Phase Sector: Residential Description: The Miami-Cass County Rural Electric Membership Corporation (REMC) shall charge and collect for residential electric service on the following bases of availability, application, character of service, monthly rate, minimum charge, purchased power cost adjustment clause, and tax adjustment. AVAILABILITY: This schedule is available to any member of the REMC located within the territory served by Miami-Cass County Rural Electric Membership Corporation.

216

Data:39ca18f4-adde-4162-adbf-49c715c9fbe5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f4-adde-4162-adbf-49c715c9fbe5 f4-adde-4162-adbf-49c715c9fbe5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bristol Virginia Utilities Effective date: 2013/08/01 End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Lighting - Metal Halide Flood - 400 Watt - Transition Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: www.bvu-optinet.com/data_elements/Electric_Rates.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring:

217

Data:22865059-40ab-4e38-add7-9ca276368573 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-40ab-4e38-add7-9ca276368573 -40ab-4e38-add7-9ca276368573 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Ameren Illinois Company Effective date: 2010/11/19 End date if known: Rate name: DS-3 and BGS-3 Zone 2 - General Delivery Service 600V to 15kV Sector: Industrial Description: Availability: Service under this Rate is available for any eligible Non-Residential Customer within the territory served by Company that has demand metering installed and a maximum monthly Demand equal to or greater than 150 kilowatts (kW) but less than 1,000 kW as qualified in the Delivery Service Rate Reassignment section.

218

Characterization of liquefied natural gas tanker steel from cryogenic to fire temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel source in the U.S. has prompted a study to improve our capability to predict cascading damage to LNG tankers from cryogenic spills and subsequent fire. To support this large modeling and simulation effort, a suite of experiments were conducted on two tanker steels, ABS Grade A steel and ABS Grade EH steel. A thorough and complete understanding of the mechanical behavior of the tanker steels was developed that was heretofore unavailable for the span of temperatures of interest encompassing cryogenic to fire temperatures. This was accomplished by conducting several types of experiments, including tension, notched tension and Charpy impact tests at fourteen temperatures over the range of -191 C to 800 C. Several custom fixtures and special techniques were developed for testing at the various temperatures. The experimental techniques developed and the resulting data will be presented, along with a complete description of the material behavior over the temperature span.

Dempsey, J. Franklin (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wellman, Gerald William (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Kalan, Robert J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

A microkelvin cryogen-free experimental platform with integrated noise thermometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report experimental demonstration of the feasibility of reaching temperatures below 1 mK using cryogen-free technology. Our prototype system comprises an adiabatic nuclear demagnetisation stage, based on hyperfine-enhanced nuclear magnetic cooling, integrated with a commercial cryogen-free dilution refrigerator and 8 T superconducting magnet. Thermometry was provided by a current-sensing noise thermometer. The minimum temperature achieved at the experimental platform was 600 {\\mu}K. The platform remained below 1 mK for over 24 hours, indicating a total residual heat-leak into the experimental stage of 5 nW. We discuss straightforward improvements to the design of the current prototype that are expected to lead to enhanced performance. This opens the way to widening the accessibility of temperatures in the microkelvin regime, of potential importance in the application of strongly correlated electron states in nanodevices to quantum computing.

Batey, Graham; Cuthbert, Michael; Matthews, Anthony; Saunders, John; Shibahara, Aya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Energy Efficiency of large Cryogenic Systems: the LHC Case and Beyond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research infrastructures for high-energy and nuclear physics, nuclear fusion and production of high magnetic fields are increasingly based on applied superconductivity and associated cryogenics in their quest for scientific breakthroughs at affordable capital and operation costs, a condition for their acceptance and sustained funding by society. The thermodynamic penalty for operating at low temperature makes energy efficiency a key requirement for their large cryogenic systems, from conceptual design to procurement, construction and operation. Meeting this requirement takes a combined approach on several fronts in parallel: management of heat loads and sizing of cooling duties, distribution of cooling power matching the needs of the superconducting devices, efficient production of refrigeration, optimal control resting on precise instrumentation and diagnostics, as well as a targeted industrial procurement policy. The case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is presented. Potential improvements for fu...

Claudet, S; Ferlin, G; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

The Control System for the Cryogenics in the LHC Tunnel [First Experience and Improvements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was commissioned at CERN and started operation with beams in 2008. Several months of operation in nominal cryogenic conditions have triggered an optimisation of the process functional analysis. This lead to a few revisions of the control logic, which were realised on-the-fly. During the 2008-09 shut-down, and in order to enhance the safety, availability and operability of the LHC cryogenics, a major rebuild of the logic and several hardware modifications were implemented. The databases, containing instruments and controls in-formation, are being rationalized; the automatic tool, that extracts data for the control software, is being simplified. This paper describes the main improvements and sug-gests perspectives of further developments.

Gomes, P; Casas, J; Fluder, C; Fortescue, E; Le Roux, P; Penacoba, G; Pezzetti, M; Soubiran, M; Tovar, A; Zwalinski, L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

EVALUATION OF SILICON DIODES AS IN-SITU CRYOGENIC FIELD EMISSION DETECTORS FOR SRF CAVITY DEVELOPMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Measurement of /sup 85/Kr concentrations in air using a cryogenic sampling technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to detect moderate concentrations (down to approximately 370 Bq/m/sup 3/ under actual field conditions) of /sup 85/Kr in air has been developed. This method employs a cryogenic sampler for collection of the air sample of interest and a Ge(Li) spectroscopy system to determine the concentration of /sup 85/Kr by detection of the 514-keV gamma photon. Data from experiments are presented.

Owens, M.E.; Berven, B.A.; Perdue, P.T.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

High Precision CTE-Measurement of SiC-100 for Cryogenic Space-Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of high precision measurements of the thermal expansion of the sintered SiC, SiC-100, intended for use in cryogenic space-telescopes, in which minimization of thermal deformation of the mirror is critical and precise information of the thermal expansion is needed for the telescope design. The temperature range of the measurements extends from room temperature down to $\\sim$ 10 K. Three samples, #1, #2, and #3 were manufactured from blocks of SiC produced in different lots. The thermal expansion of the samples was measured with a cryogenic dilatometer, consisting of a laser interferometer, a cryostat, and a mechanical cooler. The typical thermal expansion curve is presented using the 8th order polynomial of the temperature. For the three samples, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), $\\bar{\\alpha}_{#1}$, $\\bar{\\alpha}_{#2}$, and $\\bar{\\alpha}_{#3}$ were derived for temperatures between 293 K and 10 K. The average and the dispersion (1 $\\sigma$ rms) of these three CTEs are 0.816 and 0.002 ($\\times 10^{-6}$/K), respectively. No significant difference was detected in the CTE of the three samples from the different lots. Neither inhomogeneity nor anisotropy of the CTE was observed. Based on the obtained CTE dispersion, we performed an finite-element-method (FEM) analysis of the thermal deformation of a 3.5 m diameter cryogenic mirror made of six SiC-100 segments. It was shown that the present CTE measurement has a sufficient accuracy well enough for the design of the 3.5 m cryogenic infrared telescope mission, the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA).

K. Enya; N. Yamada; T. Onaka; T. Nakagawa; H. Kaneda; M. Hirabayashi; Y. Toulemont; D. Castel; Y. Kanai; N. Fujishiro

2007-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

Mirror thermal noise in laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors operating at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mirror thermal noise is and will remain one of the main limitations to the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors based on laser interferometers. We report about projected mirror thermal noise due to losses in the mirror coatings and substrates. The evaluation includes all kind of thermal noises presently known. Several of the envisaged substrate and coating materials are considered. The results for mirrors operated at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature are reported.

Janyce Franc; Nazario Morgado; Raffaele Flaminio; Ronny Nawrodt; Iain Martin; Liam Cunningham; Alan Cumming; Sheila Rowan; James Hough

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ultra-stable cryogenic optical resonators for tests of fundamental physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the design and first measurement results for an ultra-stable cryogenically cooled optical sapphire resonator system with a potential relative frequency stability better than 3x10^-17. This level of oscillator stability allows for more precise tests of Einstein's theories of relativity and thus could help to find first hints of "new physics". We will give some details on a projected experiment to test Lorentz invariance that will utilize these cavities.

Nagel, M; Dringshoff, K; Schikora, S; Kovalchuk, E V; Peters, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Cryogenic sub-system for the 56 MHz SRF storage cavity for RHIC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 56 MHz Superconducting RF Storage Cavity is being constructed for the RHIC collider. This cavity is a quarter wave resonator that will be operated in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The cavity requires an extremely quiet environment to maintain its operating frequency. The cavity, besides being engineered for a mechanically quiet system, also requires a quiet cryogenic system. The helium is taken from RHIC's main helium supply header at 3.5 atm, 5.3K at a phase separator tank. The boil-off is sent back to the RHIC refrigeration system to recover the cooling. To acoustically separate the RHIC helium supply and return lines, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger condenses the helium vapor generated in the RF cavity bath. A system description and operating parameters are given about the cryogen delivery system. The 56 MHz superconducting storage RF cavity project is making progress. The cryogenic system design is in its final stage. The helium supply lines have been tapped into the RHIC helium distribution lines. The plate-and-fin heat exchanger design is near completion and specification will be sent out for bid soon. The cold helium vapor heating system design will start soon as well. A booster compressor specification is underway. The first phase separator and transfer line design work is near completion and will be sent out for bid soon.

Huang, Y.; Than, R.; Orfin, P.; Lederle, D.; Tallerico, T.; Masi L.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

228

Cryogenic system design of 11 GEV/C super high momentum spectrometer superconducting magnets at Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect

The design of the cryogenic system for the 11 GeV/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented. A description of the cryogenic control reservoir and the cryogenic transfer line is given. Details of the cryogenic control reservoirs, cryogenic transfer lines, and pressure piping are summarized. Code compliance is ensured through following the requirements of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and Pressure Piping Code. An elastic-plastic-analysis-based combined safety factor approach is proposed to meet the low stress requirement of ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 so that Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact testing can be avoided through analysis. Material toughness requirements in ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 are adopted as CVN impact testing rules of stainless steel 304 piping at 4.2 K and 77 K. A formula-based combined safety factor approach for pressure piping is also proposed to check whether the impact testing can be avoided due to low stress. Analysis and calculation have shown that no CVN impact testing of base metal and heat affected zones is required for the helium reservoir, nitrogen reservoir, and their relevant piping. Total heat loads to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are studied also. The total heat load to LHe for SHMS is estimated to be 137 W, and the total load to LN2 is calculated to be 420 W.

Eric Sun, Paul Brindza, Steven Lassister, Mike Fowler

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Data:66498add-6265-466d-892a-b3fba65a8172 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add-6265-466d-892a-b3fba65a8172 add-6265-466d-892a-b3fba65a8172 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Menasha, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/04/06 End date if known: Rate name: Gs-2 General Service Single Phase Optional Time-of-Day 8am-8pm Sector: Commercial Description: This rate schedule is optional to all Gs-1, General Service customers. This rate will be available to both single-phase and three-phase customers including commercial, institutional, government and other Gs-1 customers. The monthly Maximum Measured Demand of customers served on this rate shall not exceed 50 kilowatts for three or more months in a consecutive 12-month period.

230

Verifying Mirror Technology for NGST with a Space-Qualified, Cryogenic 3.5 M Mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lightweighting and surface accuracy targeted for NGST's 8 m primary mirror has been demonstrated in a 0.5 m prototype. Now a second, 2 m prototype weighing 40 kg in total is being fabricated at the University of Arizona under the NGST NMSD program. It will be tested in cryogenic operation in spring 1999. A third, advanced mirror system demonstrator (AMSD) is needed, the full size of an NGST segment, for flight qualification, including launch survival and extremely high reliability. The 3.5 m mirror, 1/6 the weight of HST's primary, would be made with a 2 mm thick glass face-sheet attached by adjustable screws to a carbon composite support. It would be figured as a fast telescope primary, and fully tested cryogenically to verify closed loop figure stability with simulated infrared starlight. If started in early 1999, this could be completed in 2001. Construction of the NGST mirror panels could then be undertaken on the basis of proven technology, and in time for a 2007 launch. With a diameter of 3.5 m and a weight of only 140 kg, the mirror could be incorporated into a telescope and launched to a high orbit by the Shuttle or number of other vehicles. Such a space mission would complement those already planned for scaled down tests of the unfolding of the NGST mirror segments (NEXUS) and the sunshade (ISIS). Much would be learned by running the mirror at cryogenic temperature, with a new infrared array to make preliminary observations in the 2 - 4 microns dark sky window, and a CCD to check optical image quality. This mission would be independent of the NGST, but would lay the scientific groundwork for the much more powerful telescope, as well as giving practical experience of mirror operation.

Roger Angel; Jim Burge

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

231

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample.

Gonczy, John D. (Oaklawn, IL); Markley, Finley W. (St. Charles, IL); McCaw, William R. (Burr Ridge, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Temperature Profile of IR Blocking Windows Used in Cryogenic X-Ray Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometers are typically operated with thin IR blocking windows to reduce radiative heating of the detector while allowing good x-ray transmission. We have estimated the temperature profile of these IR blocking windows under typical operating conditions. We show that the temperature in the center of the window is raised due to radiation from the higher temperature stages. This can increase the infrared photon flux onto the detector, thereby increasing the IR noise and decreasing the cryostat hold time. The increased window temperature constrains the maximum window size and the number of windows required. We discuss the consequences for IR blocking window design.

Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; Labov, S.E.

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

Cryogenic design of the liquid helium experiment ``critical dynamics in microgravity``  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although many well controlled experiments have been conducted to measure the static properties of systems near criticality, few experiments have explored the transport properties in systems driven far away from equilibrium as a phase transition occurs. The cryogenic design of an experiment to study the dynamic aspect of critical phenomena is reported here. Measurements of the thermal gradient across the superfluid (He II) -- normal fluid (He I) interface in helium under microgravity conditions will be performed as a heat flux holds the system away from equilibrium. New technologies are under development for this experiment, which is in the definition phase for a space shuttle flight.

Moeur, W.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adriaans, M.J.; Boyd, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strayer, D.M. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Duncan, R.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Compact cryogenic source of periodic hydrogen and argon droplet beams for relativistic laser-plasma generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a cryogenic source of periodic streams of micrometer-sized hydrogen and argon droplets as ideal mass-limited target systems for fundamental intense laser-driven plasma applications. The highly compact design combined with a high temporal and spatial droplet stability makes our injector ideally suited for experiments using state-of-the-art high-power lasers in which a precise synchronization between the laser pulses and the droplets is mandatory. We show this by irradiating argon droplets with multi-terawatt pulses.

Fraga, R. A. Costa; Kalinin, A.; Kuehnel, M.; Schottelius, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hochhaus, D. C.; Neumayer, P. [EMMI Extreme Matter Institute and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Polz, J. [Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Kaluza, M. C. [Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Froebelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Grisenti, R. E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

236

Pages that link to "Data:86bfaa0f-8db1-4ef0-ae2d-3ae68533add8...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f0-ae2d-3ae68533add8: View (previous 50 | next 50) (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500) City of Seattle, Washington (Utility Company) ( links) View (previous 50 | next 50) (20 | 50 |...

237

Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipes for the Cooling of Small Particle Detectors at CERN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The loop heat pipe (LHP) is among the most effective heat transfer elements. Its principle is based on a continuous evaporation/condensation process and its passive nature does not require any mechanical devices such as pumps to circulate the cooling agent. Instead a porous wick structure in the evaporator provides the capillary pumping forces to drive the fluid [1]. Cryogenic LHP are investigated as potential candidates for the cooling of future small-scale particle detectors and upgrades of existing ones. A large spectrum of cryogenic temperatures can be covered by choosing appropriate working fluids. For high luminosity upgrades of existing experiments installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) (TOTEM) and planned ones (FP420) [2-3] being in the design phase, radiation-hard solutions are studied with noble gases as working fluids to limit the radiolysis effect on molecules detrimental to the functioning of the LHP. The installation compactness requirement of experiments such as the CAST frame-store CCD d...

Pereira, H; Silva, P; Wu, J; Koettig, T; 10.1063/1.3422264

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Progress on the MICE Liquid Absorber Cooling and CryogenicDistribution System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the progress made on the design of the cryogenic cooling system for the liquid absorber for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The absorber consists of a 20.7-liter vessel that contains liquid hydrogen (1.48 kg at 20.3 K) or liquid helium (2.59 kg at 4.2 K). The liquid cryogen vessel is located within the warm bore of the focusing magnet for the MICE. The purpose of the magnet is to provide a low beam beta region within the absorber. For safety reasons, the vacuum vessel for the hydrogen absorber is separated from the vacuum vessel for the superconducting magnet and the vacuum that surrounds the RF cavities or the detector. The absorber thin windows separate the liquid in the absorber from the absorber vacuum. The absorber vacuum vessel also has thin windows that separate the absorber vacuum space from adjacent vacuum spaces. Because the muon beam in MICE is of low intensity, there is no beam heating in the absorber. The absorber can use a single 4 K cooler to cool either liquid helium or liquid hydrogen within the absorber.

Green, M.A.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Drumm, P.; Ivanyushenkov,Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Lau, W.W.; Yang, S.Q.

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

239

The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, f...

Parente, C; Munday, A; Wiggins, P

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Cryogenic ion implantation near amorphization threshold dose for halo/extension junction improvement in sub-30 nm device technologies  

SciTech Connect

We report on junction advantages of cryogenic ion implantation with medium current implanters. We propose a methodical approach on maximizing cryogenic effects on junction characteristics near the amorphization threshold doses that are typically used for halo implants for sub-30 nm technologies. BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant at a dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2} does not amorphize silicon at room temperature. When implanted at -100 Degree-Sign C, it forms a 30 - 35 nm thick amorphous layer. The cryogenic BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant significantly reduces the depth of the boron distribution, both as-implanted and after anneals, which improves short channel rolloff characteristics. It also creates a shallower n{sup +}-p junction by steepening profiles of arsenic that is subsequently implanted in the surface region. We demonstrate effects of implant sequences, germanium preamorphization, indium and carbon co-implants for extension/halo process integration. When applied to sequences such as Ge+As+C+In+BF{sub 2}{sup +}, the cryogenic implants at -100 Degree-Sign C enable removal of Ge preamorphization, and form more active n{sup +}-p junctions and steeper B and In halo profiles than sequences at room temperature.

Park, Hugh; Todorov, Stan; Colombeau, Benjamin; Rodier, Dennis; Kouzminov, Dimitry; Zou Wei; Guo Baonian; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Decker-Lucke, Kurt [Applied Materials, Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

130-W picosecond green laser based on a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG amplifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

130-W average-power picosecond green laser pulses at 514.5 nm are generated from a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG laser. A second-harmonic conversion efficiency of 54% is achieved with a 15-mm-long noncritically ...

Hong, Kyung-Han

242

A New Compact Cryogenic Air Sampler and Its Application in Stratospheric Greenhouse Gas Observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To collect stratospheric air samples for greenhouse gas measurements, a compact cryogenic air sampler has been developed using a cooling device called the JouleThomson (JT) minicooler. The JT minicooler can produce liquefied neon within 5 s ...

Shinji Morimoto; Takashi Yamanouchi; Hideyuki Honda; Issei Iijima; Tetsuya Yoshida; Shuji Aoki; Takakiyo Nakazawa; Shigeyuki Ishidoya; Satoshi Sugawara

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Click to add title  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transmission Congestion Bob Bradish Managing Director, Transmission Planning & Business Development American Electric Power U.S. Department of Energy National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshop December 6, 2011 2 American Electric Power 5.2 million customers in 11 states ~18,000 employees Largest distributor of electricity in the U.S. - 215,800 miles Largest transmission owner - 39,000 miles 2 nd largest generator - 39,000 MW Operations in 3 RTOs - PJM, SPP, & ERCOT 3 Value of 2009 Study * The study conclusions were appropriate - Identified historical congestion - Overly broad, missed some areas - Type I and Type II areas are generally accurate but could be improved - especially Type I - Limited ability to address emerging issues 4 Changing "State of Congestion"

244

REFPROP AddIns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Optional Units, Optional Prop1, Optional Prop2), butane, butane.fld, 106-97-8, n-butane, 134.895-575 K, 69 MPa, R402A, R125/Propane/R22, ...

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

245

Click to add title  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

equipment for routine operations * Generation interconnection queue - Large potential source of generation lacking adequate transmission capacity * Capacity market congestion -...

246

About Cryogenics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... It is used to treat cancers and abnormalities of the skin, cervix, uterus, prostate gland, and liver. Bibliography. Scurlock, Ralph G., ed. (1993). ...

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Cryogenic Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... compressed into high-pressure tanks and shipped ... hydrogen/oxygen space vehicle; storage of hydrogen ... the formulation of LNG safety procedures. ...

2001-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

248

Design and operating experience of the cryogenic system of the U. S. SCMS as incorporated into the bypass loop of the U-25 MHD generator facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design features and accumulated operating experience, from a cryogenics point of view, of the United States Superconducting Magnet System (U.S. SCMS) are presented. The principal cryogenic system design parameters are enumerated. Details of the cryogenic aspects of magnetic system commissioning, standby mode, and operation with MHD generators are discussed. Included are system operation, problems encountered and corrective actions taken, and measured operating parameters which include liquid helium boiloff, cryostat pressure and level versus time, etc. The aspects of the transition between operation in the laboratory and in an MHD plant are elaborated.

Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; McWilliams, D.A.; Borden, R.; Streeter, M.H.; Wickson, R.; Smelser, P.; Privalov, N.P.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Development and Modeling for the ITER Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

The ITER vacuum system requires a roughing pump system that can pump the exhaust gas from the torus cryopumps to the tritium exhaust processing plant. The gas will have a high tritium content and therefore conventional vacuum pumps are not suitable. A pump called a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed for the roughing system to pump from ~500 Pa to 10 Pa at flow rates of 200 Pa-m3/ s. A unique feature of this pump is that is allows any helium in the gas to flow through the pump where it is sent to the detritiation system before exhausting to atmosphere. A small scale prototype of the CVC is being tested for heat transfer characteristics and compared to modeling results to ensure reliable operation of the full scale CVC. Keywords- ITER; vacuum; fuel cycle

Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Edgemon, Timothy D [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL; Kersevan, R. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [General Atomics, San Diego; Pearce, R.J.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Low Mode Control of Cryogenic ICF Fuel Layers Using Infrared Heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Infrared heating has been demonstrated as an effective technique to smooth solid hydrogen layers inside transparent cryogenic inertial confinement fusion capsules. Control of the first two Legendre modes of the fuel thickness perturbations using two infrared beams injected into a hohlraum was predicted by modeling and experimentally demonstrated. In the current work, we use coupled ray tracing and heat transfer simulations to explore a wider range of control of long scale length asymmetries. We demonstrate several scenarios to control the first four Legendre modes in the fuel layer using four beams. With such a system, it appears possible to smooth both short and long scale length fuel thickness variations in transparent indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets.

London, R A; Kozioziemski, B J; Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Bittner, D N

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

251

Demonstration of an ultracold micro-optomechanical oscillator in a cryogenic cavity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preparing and manipulating quantum states of mechanical resonators is a highly interdisciplinary undertaking that now receives enormous interest for its far-reaching potential in fundamental and applied science. Up to now, only nanoscale mechanical devices achieved operation close to the quantum regime. We report a new micro-optomechanical resonator that is laser cooled to a level of 30 thermal quanta. This is equivalent to the best nanomechanical devices, however, with a mass more than four orders of magnitude larger (43 ng versus 1 pg) and at more than two orders of magnitude higher environment temperature (5 K versus 30 mK). Despite the large laser-added cooling factor of 4,000 and the cryogenic environment, our cooling performance is not limited by residual absorption effects. These results pave the way for the preparation of 100-um scale objects in the quantum regime. Possible applications range from quantum-limited optomechanical sensing devices to macroscopic tests of quantum physics.

Simon Groeblacher; Jared B. Hertzberg; Michael R. Vanner; Garrett D. Cole; Sylvain Gigan; K. C. Schwab; Markus Aspelmeyer

2009-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

252

Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

253

Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where charact...

Farsi, Alessandro; Marino, Francesco; Marin, Francesco

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Helium Recovery in the LHC Cryogenic System following Magnet Resistive Transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A resistive transition (quench) of the Large Hadron Collider magnets provokes the expulsion of helium from the magnet cryostats to the helium recovery system. A high-volume, vacuum-insulated recovery line connected to several uninsulated medium-pressure gas storage tanks, forms the main constituents of the system. Besides a dedicated hardware configuration, helium recovery also implies specific procedures that should follow a quench, in order to conserve the discharged helium and possibly make use of its refrigeration capability. The amount of energy transferred after a quench from the magnets to the helium leaving the cold mass has been estimated on the basis of experimental data. Based on these data, the helium thermodynamic state in the recovery system is calculated using a lumped parameter approach. The LHC magnet quenches are classified ina parametric way from their cryogenic consequences and procedures that should follow the quench are proposed.

Chorowski, M; Serio, L; Tavian, L; Wagner, U; Van Weelderen, R

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Development of a Navigator and Imaging Techniques for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project contributes to the detection of flaws in the germanium detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Specifically, after imaging the detector surface with a precise imaging and measuring device, they developed software to stitch the resulting images together, applying any necessary rotations, offsets, and averaging, to produce a smooth image of the whole detector that can be used to detect flaws on the surface of the detector. These images were also tiled appropriately for the Google Maps API to use as a navigation tool, allowing viewers to smoothly zoom and pan across the detector surface. Automated defect identification can now be implemented, increasing the scalability of the germanium detector fabrication.

Wilen, Chris; /Carleton Coll. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

First Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan Underground Lab  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the first results from a search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Four Ge and two Si detectors were operated for 52.6 live days, providing 19.4 kg-d of Ge net exposure after cuts for recoil energies between 10-100 keV. A blind analysis was performed using only calibration data to define the energy threshold and selection criteria for nuclear-recoil candidates. These data set the world's lowest exclusion limits on the coherent WIMP-nucleon scalar cross-section for all WIMP masses above 15 GeV, ruling out a significant range of neutralino supersymmetric models. The minimum of the limit curve at the 90% C.L. is 4 x 10^{-43} cm^2 at a WIMP mass of 60 GeV.

Akerib, D S; Armel-Funkhouser, M S; Attisha, M J; Baudis, L; Bauer, D A; Beaty, J; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Callahan, D; Castle, J P; Chang, C L; Choate, R; Crisler, M B; Cushman, P; Dixon, R; Dragowsky, M R; Driscoll, D D; Duong, L; Emes, J; Ferril, R; Filippini, J; Gaitskell, R J; Haldeman, M; Hale, D; Holmgren, D; Huber, M E; Johnson, B; Johnson, W; Kamat, S; Kozlovsky, M; Kula, L; Kyre, S; Lambin, B; Lu, A; Mahapatra, R; Manalaysay, A G; Mandic, V; May, J; McDonald, R; Merkel, B; Meunier, P; Mirabolfathi, N; Morrison, S; Nelson, H; Nelson, R; Novak, L; Ogburn, R W; Orr, S; Perera, T A; Perillo-Isaac, M C; Ramberg, E; Rau, W; Reisetter, A; Ross, R R; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Savage, C; Schmitt, R L; Schnee, R W; Seitz, D N; Serfass, B; Smith, A; Smith, G; Spadafora, A L; Sundqvist, K; Thompson, J P F; Tomada, A; Wang, G; Williams, J; Yellin, S; Young, B A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

A gamma- and X-ray detector for cryogenic, high magnetic field applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As part of an experiment to measure the spectrum of photons emitted in beta-decay of the free neutron, we developed and operated a detector consisting of 12 bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The detector was operated near liquid nitrogen temperature in the bore of a superconducting magnet and registered photons with energies from 5 keV to 1000 keV. To enlarge the detection range, we also directly detected soft X-rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV with three large area APDs. The construction and operation of the detector is presented, as well as information on operation of APDs at cryogenic temperatures.

Cooper, R L; Bales, M J; Bass, C D; Beise, E J; Breuer, H; Byrne, J; Chupp, T E; Coakley, K J; Dewey, M S; Fu, C; Gentile, T R; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; O'Neill, B; Pulliam, K; Thompson, A K; Wietfeldt, F E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

Stable five axes cryogenic photoemission manipulator without a differentially pumped rotary feedthrough  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the design and construction of an ultrahigh vacuum compatible cryogenic manipulator for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Unlike designs that have been used so far, our design allows five motions (three translational and two angular) without a differentially pumped rotary feedthrough. The design greatly reduces the sample motion upon rotation, which is crucial in automatic data acquisition over a large area in the momentum space. The constructed manipulator shows smooth motions in vacuum and the lowest temperature it could reach is about 8 K at the sample position. Angular reproducibilities are found to be about 0.02 deg. for both of the angular motions. The wobbling motion from the rotation around the vertical rotation axis is found to be virtually nonexistent (less than 0.1 mm)

Kim, Bum Joon; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Cho, Deok-Yong; Kim, Myongjin; Oh, S.-J.; Kim, Changyoung [School of Physics and Center for Strongly Correlated Materials Research, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Center for Strongly Correlated Materials Research, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Center for Strongly Correlated Materials Research, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Application of cryogenic spectroscopy to the determination of impurity concentration in coal gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of small molecules are soluble at low-to-moderate concentrations in the ir-transparent liquefied rare gases. As part of an effort to develop methods to measure concentrations of minor constituents in product gases from coal gasifiers, we have measured the infrared spectral absorbance of solutions produced by sampling cryogenically a mixture of gases and dissolving the sample in liquid xenon. Observations thus far include CO/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, and H/sub 2/ as major constituents and NO/sub 2/, NO, NH/sub 3/, N/sub 2/O, SO/sub 2/, and COS as minor constituents in the mixture. For low concentrations in the cold solutions, solute absorption bands are narrow, with widths at half-maximum absorbance of 1 to 10 cm/sup -1/ compared with approx. 30 to 100 cm/sup -1/ for the gas phase. The band-narrowing enhances peak absorbance and reduces spectral overlapping for easier analysis of complex mixtures. In the sampling, we remove most CO and CH/sub 4/, so that only the CO/sub 2/ interferes with the spectrum of minor constituents. In the spectra we can distinguish bands of N/sub 2/O, SO/sub 2/, COS, and NO/sub 2/ (as N/sub 2/O/sub 4/) and estimate concentrations. The sensitivity and accuracy of the cryogenic solution technique for gas analysis are not yet established; however, detection of approx. 10 ppM appears possible with a half-inch absorption cell.

Holland, R.F.; Quigley, G.P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The TORE SUPRA Cryogenic System Behaviour During Long Plasma Discharges with a High Injected Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After the CIEL project completion including the upgrade of the plasma facing components and the water cooling system, the superconducting Tore Supra Tokamak achieved a world record of injected energy (1.1 GJ), during long duration (6 min) plasma discharges, which was enabled by the upgrade of the transfer system capacities, but also by the steady state toroidal field. The Tore Supra cryogenic refrigerator enables the toroidal field coils to be operated at nominal current along the full daily plasma operation shift. It has capacities of 300 W at 1.8 K, 750 W at 4.5 K and 30 kW at 80 K and was operated with a high reliability for more than 16 years. After a brief recall on the cryogenic refrigeration of the toroidal superconducting magnet, the distribution of the heat loads at the various levels of temperature (in standby mode 150W at 1.8 K and 200W at 4.5 K) is presented. The inventory of the calculated static and variable heat loads deposited within each part of toroidal field coils and thermal shields, is given with the factors of dependence. This analysis identifies and quantifies the major magnetic disturbances like a disruption (about 12 kJ onto the coils and 300 kJ onto the thick casings) which generate additional heat loads for the refrigerator.The measurements associated with the He II saturated bath pumping system, and the supercritical helium loop cooling the thick casings, allow us to verify thereafter the behaviour of the cryo-refrigerator during the long duration discharges, and the compliance with the theoretical model.The conclusions bring results also applicable to the cyoplant of future plant like ITER which will operate with long duration discharges.

Henry, D.; Hertout, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Duchateau, J. L.; Reynaud, P. [Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Association, Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

262

This book adds an important nuance to the traditional historiographical assumption that trade in the Early Modern period was mostly conducted between family and those of the same  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This book adds an important nuance to the traditional historiographical assumption that trade group. Rather, it is the assertion of this book, that there were very real and quite important trade relationships between merchants of different groups, and the book uses a case study of the Sephardim

van den Brink, Jeroen

263

Gmail & Calenda Lab Google Labs are experimental features that you can add to Gmail and Google Calendar to customize and enhance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gmail & Calenda Lab Abo Lab Google Labs are experimental features that you can add to Gmail and Google Calendar to customize and enhance your inbox and calendar. To help you get started, we've put or Google Calendar, click Se ing > Lab . 2. For each lab you want to use, click Enable. If you want to stop

Hu, Jie

264

EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Cryogenic NMR and Advanced Electronic Structure Theory as a Unique EMSL Capability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Temperature dependence of the on-resonance portion Temperature dependence of the on-resonance portion of the 55 Mn-NMR spectrum of a Mn(IV,IV) dimer acquired at 9.4 T. EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Cryogenic NMR and Advanced Electronic Structure Theory as a Unique EMSL Capability for Complex Systems: Application to the Photosynthetic Energy Conversion Systems Project start date: April 1, 2010 EMSL Lead Investigator: Ping Yang Molecular Science Computing Group, EMSL, PNNL Co-investigator: Andrew S. Lipton Cell Biology & Biochemistry, FCSD, PNNL Collaborator: K.V. Lakshmi Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate a unique capability to be enabled at EMSL-the integration of leading-edge cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements and advanced electronic

265

Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

Ma, T.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dixit, S.; Doeppner, T.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Springer, P. T.; Suter, L.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Conduction Effect of Thermal Radiation in a Metal Shield Pipe in a Cryostat for a Cryogenic Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large heat load caused by thermal radiation through a metal shield pipe was observed in a cooling test of a cryostat for a prototype of a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector. The heat load was approximately 1000 times larger than the value calculated by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We studied this phenomenon by simulation and experiment and found that it was caused by the conduction of thermal radiation in a metal shield pipe.

Takayuki Tomaru; Masao Tokunari; Kazuaki Kuroda; Takashi Uchiyama; Akira Okutomi; Masatake Ohashi; Hiroyuki Kirihara; Nobuhiro Kimura; Yoshio Saito; Nobuaki Sato; Takakazu Shintomi; Toshikazu Suzuki; Tomiyoshi Haruyama; Shinji Miyoki; Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Akira Yamamoto

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

267

Imaging of High-Energy X-Ray Emission from Cryogenic Thermonuclear Fuel Implosions on the NIF  

SciTech Connect

Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide spectrally resolved time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered targets. Using bremsstrahlung assumptions, the measured absolute x-ray brightness allows for the inference of electron temperature, electron density, hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure. Current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) seek to indirectly drive a spherical implosion, compressing and igniting a deuterium-tritium fuel. This DT fuel capsule is cryogenically prepared as a solid ice layer surrounded by a low-Z ablator material. Ignition will occur when the hot spot approaches sufficient temperature ({approx}3-4 keV) and {rho}R ({approx}0.3 g/cm{sup 2}) such that alpha deposition can further heat the hot spot and generate a self-sustaining burn wave. During the implosion, the fuel mass becomes hot enough to emit large amounts of x-ray radiation, the spectra and spatial variation of which contains key information that can be used to evaluate the implosion performance. The Ross filter diagnostic employs differential filtering to provide spectrally resolved, time-integrated, absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered targets.

Ma, T

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo Techniques as Relevant to Cryogenic, Phonon and Ionization Readout of CDMS Radiation-Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

S. W. Leman

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

269

Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.

Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); RIKEN Harima Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikaduki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Predictive process simulation of cryogenic implants for leading edge transistor design  

SciTech Connect

Two cryogenic implant TCAD-modules have been developed: (i) A continuum-based compact model targeted towards a TCAD production environment calibrated against an extensive data-set for all common dopants. Ion-specific calibration parameters related to damage generation and dynamic annealing were used and resulted in excellent fits to the calibration data-set. (ii) A Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model including the full time dependence of ion-exposure that a particular spot on the wafer experiences, as well as the resulting temperature vs. time profile of this spot. It was calibrated by adjusting damage generation and dynamic annealing parameters. The kMC simulations clearly demonstrate the importance of the time-structure of the beam for the amorphization process: Assuming an average dose-rate does not capture all of the physics and may lead to incorrect conclusions. The model enables optimization of the amorphization process through tool parameters such as scan speed or beam height.

Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Zographos, Nikolas; Park, Hugh; Colombeau, Benjamin; Parrill, Thomas; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Borges, Ricardo; Gull, Ronald; Erokhin, Yuri [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States); Synopsys Switzerland LLC, Thurgauerstrasse 40, 8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States); Synopsys Inc., 1101 Slater Road, Durham, NC 27703 (United States); Synopsys Switzerland LLC, Thurgauerstrasse 40, 8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

271

First Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment at the Deep Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to search for dark matter in the form of the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). For this purpose, CDMS uses detectors based on crystals of Ge and Si, operated at the temperature of 20 mK, and providing a two-fold signature of an interaction: the ionization and the athermal phonon signals. The two signals, along with the passive and active shielding of the experimental setup, and with the underground experimental sites, allow very effective suppression and rejection of different types of backgrounds. This dissertation presents the commissioning and the results of the first WIMP-search run performed by the CDMS collaboration at the deep underground site at the Soudan mine in Minnesota. We develop different methods of suppressing the dominant background due to the electron-recoil events taking place at the detector surface and we apply these algorithms to the data set. These results place the world's most sensitive limits on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent elastic-scattering cross-section. Finally, they examine the compatibility of the supersymmetric WIMP-models with the direct-detection experiments (such as CDMS) and discuss the implications of the new CDMS result on these models.

Mandic, Vuk; /UC, Berkeley

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Microscopic surface structure of C/SiC composite mirrors for space cryogenic telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the microscopic surface structure of carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirrors that have been improved for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and other cooled telescopes. The C/SiC composite consists of carbon fiber, silicon carbide, and residual silicon. Specific microscopic structures are found on the surface of the bare C/SiC mirrors after polishing. These structures are considered to be caused by the different hardness of those materials. The roughness obtained for the bare mirrors is 20 nm rms for flat surfaces and 100 nm rms for curved surfaces. It was confirmed that a SiSiC slurry coating is effective in reducing the roughness to 2 nm rms. The scattering properties of the mirrors were measured at room temperature and also at 95 K. No significant change was found in the scattering properties through cooling, which suggests that the microscopic surface structure is stable with changes in temperature down to cryogenic values. The C/SiC mirror with the SiSiC slurry coating is a promising candidate for the SPICA telescope.

Keigo Enya; Takao Nakagawa; Hidehiro Kaneda; Takashi Onaka; Tuyoshi Ozaki; Masami Kume

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

273

Microscopic surface structure of C/SiC composite mirrors for space cryogenic telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the microscopic surface structure of carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirrors that have been improved for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and other cooled telescopes. The C/SiC composite consists of carbon fiber, silicon carbide, and residual silicon. Specific microscopic structures are found on the surface of the bare C/SiC mirrors after polishing. These structures are considered to be caused by the different hardness of those materials. The roughness obtained for the bare mirrors is 20 nm rms for flat surfaces and 100 nm rms for curved surfaces. It was confirmed that a SiSiC slurry coating is effective in reducing the roughness to 2 nm rms. The scattering properties of the mirrors were measured at room temperature and also at 95 K. No significant change was found in the scattering properties through cooling, which suggests that the microscopic surface structure is stable with changes in temperature down to cryogenic values. The C/SiC ...

Enya, Keigo; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Ozaki, Tuyoshi; Kume, Masami

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

A high-resolution integrated model of the National Ignition Campaign cryogenic layered experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60. Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. Although by design the model is able to reproduce the 1D in-flight implosion parameters and low-mode asymmetries, it is not able to accurately predict the measured and inferred stagnation properties and levels of mix. In particular, the measured yields were 15%-40% of the calculated yields, and the inferred stagnation pressure is about 3 times lower than simulated.

Jones, O. S.; Cerjan, C. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Springer, P. T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. M.; Doppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Dzentitis, E. G.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-399, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); and others

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

Duncan, R.V.

1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand at tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0.1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation. For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc. The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0.1 Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Demonstration of ``regulatory`` process controls on the TSTA cryogenic distillation system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to the nature of its fusion reaction, most of the DT used to fuel the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will exit unreacted. This effluent will be purified by the fuel cleanup system so that the isotope separation system (ISS) will be fed only hydrogen isotopes and possibly some helium. The ISS will separate this feed into streams nominally composed of He/H2/HD, D2, DT, and T2. These products will be recycled through appropriate fueling systems back to the fusion reactor or returned to storage. The ISS will have to respond properly to feed conditions which change rapidly. Feed changes will propagate quickly through the entire cascade. It is apparent that an automatic control system will be required to respond to these changes and maintain product quality. It is convenient to divide such a distillation control system into `regulatory` controls and composition controls. The `regulatory` controls include liquid levels, flowrates, reboiler heats, and pressure. A system of regulatory controls has been devised and installed on the four-column cascade of cryogenic columns at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tritium-compatible ISS is designed for approximately 1/10 the ITER flowrate and is dedicated to fusion fuel studies. Details of the TSTA ISS have been published previously.

Willms, R.S.; Sherman, R.H.; Cole, S.P.; Riggs, J.B.; Okuno, K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Data:1b2efb80-964b-4853-add3-c2cf5221b66f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

efb80-964b-4853-add3-c2cf5221b66f efb80-964b-4853-add3-c2cf5221b66f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Algoma Utility Comm Effective date: 2008/05/28 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Service Single-Phase Sector: Residential Description: This rate will be applied to residential single-phase customers for ordinary household purposes. Single-phase motors may not exceed 5 horsepower individual-rated capacity without utility permission. Rg-1 Residential Service $1.00 per customer per month Source or reference: http://www.algomautilities.com/media/Electric_Rate_Tariff_Sheets.pdf

280

Data:07f78f8f-a33a-4414-add9-cd8d2c7ac364 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f8f-a33a-4414-add9-cd8d2c7ac364 f8f-a33a-4414-add9-cd8d2c7ac364 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Randolph Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: L23 - 40 FT CLASS 5 Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABILITY This schedule is available to individual members located on the Cooperative's distribution system. Mercury vapor lights are only available at existing locations. RATE - MONTHLY All night outdoor lighting service using overhead conductors and the Cooperative's standard lighting package equipment mounted on 30-foot Class 6, treated pine poles.

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281

Data:12cff366-0022-4784-a9d9-16b7a430add2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cff366-0022-4784-a9d9-16b7a430add2 cff366-0022-4784-a9d9-16b7a430add2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: New York Power Authority Effective date: 2013/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: SC 91 TOD Sector: Industrial Description: New York City Customers Source or reference: http://www.nypa.gov/about/documents.htm Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

282

Data:92c2add1-3784-4ee6-960d-c05f4ffe0301 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add1-3784-4ee6-960d-c05f4ffe0301 add1-3784-4ee6-960d-c05f4ffe0301 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Kit Carson Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2011/09/22 End date if known: Rate name: Optional Time-Of-Use, Irrigation (Firm) Power Service Sector: Industrial Description: Applicable to all irrigation consumers within the Utility's service area, subject to the execution of a service contract. Source or reference: www.kitcarson.com Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months):

283

Data:B4671c18-8c9d-4671-ac83-5396add6541a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

71c18-8c9d-4671-ac83-5396add6541a 71c18-8c9d-4671-ac83-5396add6541a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Blanchester, Ohio (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Sector: Residential Description: This rate is available to all single family residential units, apartment units, and churches at 120-240 volts, single phase, alternating current at 60 cycles. Source or reference: Binder #5B (Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh):

284

Data:C7b061e6-b81a-4820-b908-4a59d3add450 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e6-b81a-4820-b908-4a59d3add450 e6-b81a-4820-b908-4a59d3add450 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Springfield, Oregon (Utility Company) Effective date: 2013/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street Lighting 150 W HPS Opt. 1 L-1 Sector: Lighting Description: Option 1 refers to a Customer owned and installed fixture. The fixed monthly charge covers energy, operation and fixture maintenance fees. Possible Additional Fees include: Transfer of a street light, mast arm, overhead conductor, and conductor support to a new pole, and make necessary electrical connection: $175 each.

285

Data:Eab7f012-1032-4c00-8161-f2add7a7c3aa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Eab7f012-1032-4c00-8161-f2add7a7c3aa Eab7f012-1032-4c00-8161-f2add7a7c3aa No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Borough of Pitcairn, Pennsylvania (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: All-Electric Homes Sector: Residential Description: Available on an optional basis for year round domestic service through one meter to individual residential customers whose principal energy requirements for lighting, the operation of all major appliances including air conditioning equipment, water heating, and heating of all dwelling space in the home are furnished by electric service delivered by the Utility.

286

Data:B6e54752-e770-462e-a511-ad019add2fa8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4752-e770-462e-a511-ad019add2fa8 4752-e770-462e-a511-ad019add2fa8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Electrical Dist No3 Pinal Cnty Effective date: 2011/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: RATE NO. 01 RESIDENTIAL SERVICE-Overhead Service Sector: Residential Description: Applicability: To residential use only in single private residences or apartments for lighting, appliances domestic single-phase power with no motor over 5HP, heating and cooling served through one meter. Monthly minimum bill: $30.00 Source or reference: http://www.ed3online.org/view/70 Source Parent: Comments

287

Data:386d21c2-2f42-446c-9eb7-22403f926add | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c2-2f42-446c-9eb7-22403f926add c2-2f42-446c-9eb7-22403f926add No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Farmers' Electric Coop, Inc (New Mexico) Effective date: 2010/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Small Commercial Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate Binder#8 (Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

288

Data:Cb2d96ad-d16b-4cc8-b1eb-1f06e653de8f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ad-d16b-4cc8-b1eb-1f06e653de8f ad-d16b-4cc8-b1eb-1f06e653de8f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Farmers' Electric Coop, Inc (New Mexico) Effective date: 2010/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Livestock/Non-Dom Wel Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate Binder#8 (Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

289

Data:83be13c0-5016-4add-881b-ba3063dd1c7a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3c0-5016-4add-881b-ba3063dd1c7a 3c0-5016-4add-881b-ba3063dd1c7a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bangor Hydro-Electric Co Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: High-Pressure Sodium- 250 watts Sector: Lighting Description: Service under this rate is available for street and area lighting service installations, maintenance and use of energy, and traffic control lighting service provided the customer furnishes the equipment. Customers taking service under this rate schedule are responsible for paying both Distribution Service and Stranded Cost. bundled TD&S monthly rate included

290

Data:2add8eb1-dcb1-4c1f-9bca-ce3f2117c0f5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add8eb1-dcb1-4c1f-9bca-ce3f2117c0f5 add8eb1-dcb1-4c1f-9bca-ce3f2117c0f5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Central Electric Membership Corporation Effective date: 2009/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: SUBDIVISION STREET LIGHTING Sodium Vapor, Enclosed w/pole-4 consumers Sector: Lighting Description: 9,500 Lumens, 100 W, 1 light per 4 consumers. Availability - Available to individual consumers, in all territory served by the Cooperative, for purposes of residential subdivision street lighting from dusk to dawn. Service under this schedule is subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations.

291

Data:43aa53c1-df2e-4ed8-add8-644adbb6aae2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-df2e-4ed8-add8-644adbb6aae2 -df2e-4ed8-add8-644adbb6aae2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Chanute, Kansas (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Residential Single Phase Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: http://www.chanute.org/Business/Utilities/electric.htm Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

292

GAO-04-611 Nuclear Waste: Absence of Key Management Reforms on Hanford's Cleanup Project Adds to Challenges of Achieving Cost and Schedule Goals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Committee on Government Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives June 2004 NUCLEAR WASTE Absence of Key Management Reforms on Hanford's Cleanup Project Adds to Challenges of Achieving Cost and Schedule Goals GAO-04-611 www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-04-611. To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on the link above. For more information, contact Robin M. Nazzaro at (202) 512-3841 or nazzaror@gao.gov. Highlights of GAO-04-611, a report to the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives June 2004 NUCLEAR WASTE Absence of Key Management Reforms on Hanford's Cleanup Project Adds to Challenges of Achieving Cost and Schedule Goals DOE's initial approach called for treating 10 percent of the site's high-level waste by 2018 and for operating the plant until treatment was completed in

293

Data:8b3f1d11-9cac-4987-9771-e293b749add4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-9cac-4987-9771-e293b749add4 -9cac-4987-9771-e293b749add4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Entergy Gulf States Louisiana LLC Effective date: 2011/10/28 End date if known: Rate name: 2 Area Lighting - Security light HPS - 250W Sector: Lighting Description: This rate is applicable under the regular terms and conditions of the company in areas designated by company where facilities of adequate capacity and suitable voltage are available. Source or reference: http://www.entergy-louisiana.com/content/price/tariffs/egsi/egsila_als.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW)

294

Data:05b3932a-87d3-4729-89f5-209a57add0f5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

87d3-4729-89f5-209a57add0f5 87d3-4729-89f5-209a57add0f5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Nolin Rural Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lights: Directional Floodlight 400 Watt HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: www.nolinrecc.com Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

295

Data:F6575add-8cbe-41e6-8ef9-5dec938eaa47 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add-8cbe-41e6-8ef9-5dec938eaa47 add-8cbe-41e6-8ef9-5dec938eaa47 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: East Central Oklahoma Elec Coop Inc Effective date: 1995/12/01 End date if known: Rate name: High Load Factor Industrial Power Service Sector: Industrial Description: Available for industrial power services to: (a) Loads of 5,000 kW or more per month actual demand (or contract minimum demand), and (b) Loads to be located within the Cooperative's area, receiving service from a wholesale meter point, subject to the established rules and regulations of the Cooperative. Monthly Rate:

296

Data:D7964dbe-4a06-4933-a709-e46a3d7c0add | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4dbe-4a06-4933-a709-e46a3d7c0add 4dbe-4a06-4933-a709-e46a3d7c0add No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Coulee Dam, Washington (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Electric Rate Sector: Description: General electric rate for all applications. Source or reference: http://www.eatonville-wa.gov/billing Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

297

Data:531adde6-66b3-4895-93d3-0774cb5066a2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

adde6-66b3-4895-93d3-0774cb5066a2 adde6-66b3-4895-93d3-0774cb5066a2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Lompoc, California (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Domestic Service- Space Heating Sector: Residential Description: Residential customers with electric space heating as the principal source of home heating will be charged the Tier 2 Energy Rate for kilowatt usage from 326 to 1500 KWh during the seven (7) months of November through May, inclusive. A minimum charge of $3.97 is applied to this rate. Source or reference: ISU Documentation

298

Data:D6ced60e-2b93-4182-8add-404cb880552f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ced60e-2b93-4182-8add-404cb880552f ced60e-2b93-4182-8add-404cb880552f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Davenport, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/11/11 End date if known: Rate name: Directional Lighting MV 1000 W Unmetered Sector: Lighting Description: Area/directional lighting of farmyards, backyards, patios, parking lots, storage yards, trailer courts, industrial sites, schools churches, apartments, businesses and many other applications where lighting is needed for identification, merchandising, environment, aesthetics, safety, security, protection or convenience.

299

Data:5ee868e4-34ac-41fb-a1c8-992add91539f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-34ac-41fb-a1c8-992add91539f -34ac-41fb-a1c8-992add91539f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Dakota Valley Elec Coop Inc Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: General Service Rural Multi-Phase under 150-kW Sector: Commercial Description: This rate is applicable for all "V" phase and three-phase loads with peak kW demand of 150-kW or less, and meeting all other Cooperatives requirements and policies. Transformer Capacity Charge $1.00 charge for each additional kVA over 30 less demand and energy usage for the month. Source or reference: www.dakotavalley.com

300

Performance of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load silicon crystal monochromators with porous media augmentation  

SciTech Connect

The performance of two Si crystal x-ray monochromators internally cooled with liquid nitrogen was tested on the F2-wiggler beamline at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Both crystals were (111)-oriented blocks of rectangular cross section having identical dimensions. Seven 6.4-mm-diameter coolant channels were drilled through the crystals along the beam direction. In one of the crystals, porous Cu mesh inserts were bonded into the channels to enhance the heat transfer. The channels of the second crystal were left as drilled. Symmetric, double-crystal rocking curves were recorded simultaneously for both the first and third order reflections at 8 and 24 keV. The power load on the cooled crystal was adjusted by varying the horizontal beam size using slits. The measured Si(333) rocking curve of the unenhanced crystal at 24 keV at low power was 1.9 arcsec FWHM. The theoretical width is 0.63 arcsec. The difference is due to residual fabrication and mounting strain. For a maximum incident power of 601 W and an average power density of about 10 W/MM{sup 2}, the rocking curve was 2.7 arcsec. The rocking curve for the enhanced crystal at low power was 2.4 arcsec. At a maximum incident power of 1803 W and an average power density of about 19 W/mm{sup 2} the rocking curve width was 2.2 arcsec FWHM. The use of porous mesh augmentation is a simple, but very effective, means to improve the performance of cryogenically cooled Si monochromators exposed to high power x-ray beams.

Rogers, C.S.; Mills, D.M.; Assoufid, L.; Graber, T.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information  

SciTech Connect

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gen-sheng; /Case Western Reserve U.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A Study of Cooling Time Reduction of Interferometric Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Detectors Using a High-Emissivity Coating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

Sakakibara, Y; Suzuki, T; Yamamoto, K; Chen, D; Koike, S; Tokoku, C; Uchiyama, T; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A Study of Cooling Time Reduction of Interferometric Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Detectors Using a High-Emissivity Coating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

Y. Sakakibara; N. Kimura; T. Suzuki; K. Yamamoto; D. Chen; S. Koike; C. Tokoku; T. Uchiyama; M. Ohashi; K. Kuroda

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

304

Dielectric properties of PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ferroelectric ceramics at cryogenic temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex dielectric permittivity measurements in PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ceramics were performed in a frequency and temperature range of 1 kHz-1 MHz and from 15 to 900 K, respectively. The results revealed two dielectric anomalies showing typical characteristics of relaxor ferroelectric materials at cryogenic temperatures. Comparison with other tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure-type materials suggests the existence of successive phase transitions, which until now were not reported. The observed low temperature dielectric behaviors seem to be due to intrinsic physical characteristics related to the TTB structure.

Guerra, J. de los S; Venet, M.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.; Guerrero, F. [Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, CEP 13565-905, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo 15385000 (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

305

Experimental results of hydrogen distillation at the low power cryogenic column for the production of deuterium depleted hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Deuterium Removal Unit (DRU) has been designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (PNPI) to produce isotopically pure hydrogen with deuterium content less than 1 ppm. The cryogenic distillation column of 2.2 cm inner diameter and 155 cm packing height is the main element of the DRU. Column performances at different hydrogen distillation operating modes have been measured. The height equivalent to theoretical plate (HETP) for the column is 2.2 cm and almost constant over a wide range of vapour flow rates. Deuterium depleted hydrogen with a deuterium content of less than 0.1 ppm was produced in required quantity. (authors)

Alekseev, I.; Fedorchenko, O.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.; Vznuzdaev, M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Interlinked Test Results for Fusion Fuel Processing and Blanket Tritium Recovery Systems Using Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulated fuel processing (cryogenic distillation columns and a palladium diffuser) and CMSB (cryogenic molecular sieve bed) systems were linked together, and were operated. The validity of the CMSB was discussed through this experiment as an integrated system for the recovery of blanket tritium. A gas stream of hydrogen isotopes and He was supplied to the CMSB as the He sweep gas in blanket of a fusion reactor. After the breakthrough of tritium was observed, regeneration of the CMSB was carried out by evacuating and heating. The hydrogen isotopes were finally recovered by the diffuser. At first, only He gas was sent by the evacuating. The hydrogen isotopes gas was then rapidly released by the heating. The system worked well against the above drastic change of conditions. The amount of hydrogen isotopes gas finally recovered by the diffuser was in good agreement with that adsorbed by the CMSB. The dynamic behaviors (breakthrough and regeneration) of the system were explained well by a set of basic codes.

Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Uzawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Data:3c97911d-298a-4add-8a74-cf800d392ae7 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c97911d-298a-4add-8a74-cf800d392ae7 c97911d-298a-4add-8a74-cf800d392ae7 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Powder River Energy Corporation Effective date: 2011/01/10 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power Transmission-Coal Bed Methane (LPT-CBM) Sector: Industrial Description: Applicability: Applicable to Coal Bed Methane customers requiring 1000kVA or more of capacity who take delivery of electric service at the Cooperative's transmission voltage(69kV) metered at one point of delivery and who have entered into a Special Contract for Service. This rate is not applicable to compression loads with individual motors of 1000HP or greater. The Special Contract for Service is a contract that contains a minimum term and identifies rates and terms for conditions for service.

308

Data:8fc4349a-dd6a-489d-8949-e51929c67f6d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fc4349a-dd6a-489d-8949-e51929c67f6d fc4349a-dd6a-489d-8949-e51929c67f6d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of River Falls, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/03/26 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0662 per kilowatt-hour.

309

Data:4cd68add-1a7b-4a03-91c4-173bc5a0bc62 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8add-1a7b-4a03-91c4-173bc5a0bc62 8add-1a7b-4a03-91c4-173bc5a0bc62 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Altamaha Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2011/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: School Service- SCH-1 Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

310

Data:4e644d58-eec6-47cb-adde-0fbac1a98ba6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

44d58-eec6-47cb-adde-0fbac1a98ba6 44d58-eec6-47cb-adde-0fbac1a98ba6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Rice Lake Utilities Effective date: 2011/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rg-1 Residential Service Single Phase Sector: Residential Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positiv¬e or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0773 per kilowatt-hour.

311

Data:2169deda-5c6d-4ca2-81ad-d33bfcc29793 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

deda-5c6d-4ca2-81ad-d33bfcc29793 deda-5c6d-4ca2-81ad-d33bfcc29793 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of New Richmond, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-2 Large Power Time-of-Day Service Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0710 per kilowatt-hour.

312

Data:98add391-4e6f-4f56-b9bc-578c4232cd8c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add391-4e6f-4f56-b9bc-578c4232cd8c add391-4e6f-4f56-b9bc-578c4232cd8c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Indiana Michigan Power Co (Indiana) Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: ECLS - 200 watt HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Availability of Service. Available for streetlighting service to municipalities, counties, and other governmental subdivisions. The rates are applicable to new streetlights installed after April 6, 1981, and to 50,000 lumen high pressure sodium streetlights installed before that date. Only the lamps set forth below are available for such new service. Service rendered hereunder is predicated upon the execution by the customer of an agreement specifying the type, minimum number, and location of lamps to be served.

313

Data:85d5a66c-6dd7-4cb1-af80-6485d73add51 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a66c-6dd7-4cb1-af80-6485d73add51 a66c-6dd7-4cb1-af80-6485d73add51 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Cotton Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2010/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: IndustrialTime -Of- Use Service-Single Phase Sector: Industrial Description: * Available for industrial customers up to 50 kVA of transformer capacity Subject to power cost adjustment and tax adjustment on-Peak period is June 20 through September 9, from 4p.m to 8p.m Source or reference: ISU Documentation Rate Binder Kelly # 4 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW):

314

Data:Add8ae53-e3ff-46da-992b-2df56a5053bb | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Add8ae53-e3ff-46da-992b-2df56a5053bb Add8ae53-e3ff-46da-992b-2df56a5053bb No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Ludlow, Vermont (Utility Company) Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: 12 Multiple Tenancy Single Phase CT Metering Sector: Residential Description: Single phase or three phase electric service through a single meter for a multiple tenancy. Single phase CT metering. Source or reference: ISU Documentation (DOE Sharepoint) Source Parent: Comments $116.96 plus $11.61 per connected unit. Fixed monthly charge includes the first connected unit (116.96 + 11.61 = 128.57). Additional connected unit charges must be added by hand.

315

Data:E86141ad-d75c-4ba2-86ba-1728c505ac62 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6141ad-d75c-4ba2-86ba-1728c505ac62 6141ad-d75c-4ba2-86ba-1728c505ac62 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Butler Rural El Coop Assn, Inc Effective date: 2009/08/01 End date if known: Rate name: General Service Earth-Coupled Heat Pump Service(Experimental Rider-Medium Commercial) Sector: Commercial Description: This experimental rate schedule rider is applicable to commercial and industrial services billed in accordance with the Cooperative's General Service Small, General Service Medium or General Service Large rate schedules, where the Consumer permanently installs and uses an earth-coupled heat pump as the major source of heating and cooling of the facility. For this rider to be effective, the Consumer must inform the Cooperative in writing of the equipment installation and receive approval by the Cooperative for the installation. The Cooperative may require a visual inspection of the installation prior to its approval. This optional rider has been designed to be experimental in nature. Any kWh or kW levels, or corresponding rates will be subject to review and possible modifications as more accurate usage and cost data become available.

316

Data:C581c31f-7cf2-47ad-b0e7-7e59adde7fce | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1f-7cf2-47ad-b0e7-7e59adde7fce 1f-7cf2-47ad-b0e7-7e59adde7fce No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC (MKEC) Effective date: 2010/01/14 End date if known: Rate name: Interruptible Industrial Service Sector: Industrial Description: In all rate areas, with the cooperative reserving the right to remove this rate schedule or modify it in any manner. Source or reference: Rate Binder #6, Illinois State University. Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months):

317

Data:Cc3f18ad-d000-42a8-bd7b-b09fe2262dd9 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f18ad-d000-42a8-bd7b-b09fe2262dd9 f18ad-d000-42a8-bd7b-b09fe2262dd9 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Central Electric Coop Inc Effective date: 2011/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: AGRICULTURAL IRRIGATION Sector: Commercial Description: Applicable to all agricultural irrigation pumping applications in excess of 10 horsepower of member's aggregate load. Source or reference: http://www.cec-co.com/custserv/energy_info/rates/sch_c1.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months):

318

Data:1e1dba06-f5bd-4860-b42a-dd3781dd577e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dba06-f5bd-4860-b42a-dd3781dd577e dba06-f5bd-4860-b42a-dd3781dd577e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Dover, Delaware (Utility Company) Effective date: 2008/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rate F2: Water Pump 2 Service, Contracted Rate, up to 50 HP Motor(s) Sector: Commercial Description: "AVAILABILITY: This rate is available throughout the City of Dover electric service area by contract only. Contract terms will be for a minimum of ten (10) years. Service will be available for water pumps used for emergency fire fighting purposes and related equipment. Service will be supplied through one (1) meter. HP determination will be the total hp of all motors."

319

Data:933c52ef-b6f8-4f57-b276-6f5f0add5bdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c52ef-b6f8-4f57-b276-6f5f0add5bdf c52ef-b6f8-4f57-b276-6f5f0add5bdf No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Snohomish County PUD No 1 Effective date: 2002/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: 100 WATT STREET LIGHTING SERVICE Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http://www.snopud.com/Site/Content/Documents/rates/streetlighting_rates010105.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring:

320

Data:F8beffb5-847a-4ec4-add9-ff314f7f0b7a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

beffb5-847a-4ec4-add9-ff314f7f0b7a beffb5-847a-4ec4-add9-ff314f7f0b7a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Adel, Georgia (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Extra Large power Service Sector: Industrial Description: This Rate is applicable to all commercial or industrial electric service which is delivered or compensated to one standard voltage and where the following criteria are met: 1. Billing demand for the current month and the preceding 11 months must be greater than or equal to 5000 KW. 2.In the event that billing demand becomes permanently less than 5000 KW, the customer may switch the appropriate tariff.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Data:4ac4719c-52f7-4dda-add9-46e6d8ce71e2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c-52f7-4dda-add9-46e6d8ce71e2 c-52f7-4dda-add9-46e6d8ce71e2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Clarksdale Public Utilities Effective date: 2011/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Lyon-Governmental Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Seasonal/Monthly Demand Charge Structures

322

Data:A79f252a-add2-4353-962c-4b6f83cb3f22 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f252a-add2-4353-962c-4b6f83cb3f22 f252a-add2-4353-962c-4b6f83cb3f22 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Northeastern Rural E M C Effective date: 2004/02/27 End date if known: Rate name: Rental Lighting: RL-14 MH Flood 250W Sector: Lighting Description: I. AVAILABILITY This schedule is available to any customer of Northeastern REMC (Northeastern) for continuous year round service for outdoor lighting where 120-volt service exists ahead of the meter loop. II. CHARACTER OF SERVICE Dusk-to-dawn lighting service will be furnished, using photoelectric controlled equipment, mast arm, light luminaire and bulb installed on an existing pole. Maintenance of the complete assembly and the cost of its electrical operation are included in this service. Except as provided for herein, any additional investment required for the sole purpose of providing this service shall require a contribution by the customer equal to the actual investment cost.

323

Data:0ca54c8e-187e-43dc-9add-0d87d58065e5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ca54c8e-187e-43dc-9add-0d87d58065e5 ca54c8e-187e-43dc-9add-0d87d58065e5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Entergy Gulf States Louisiana LLC Effective date: 2005/09/28 End date if known: Rate name: 2 GS - TOD general service time of use (transmission 230kV voltage) Sector: Commercial Description: This rate is applicable on a voluntary basis under the regular terms and conditions of the company to customers having the appropriate metering and who contract for not less than 5 kW or not more than 4000 kW of electric service to be used for general lighting and power. Source or reference: http://www.entergy-louisiana.com/content/price/tariffs/egsi/egsila_gs-tod.pdf

324

Data:86bfaa0f-8db1-4ef0-ae2d-3ae68533add8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bfaa0f-8db1-4ef0-ae2d-3ae68533add8 bfaa0f-8db1-4ef0-ae2d-3ae68533add8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Seattle, Washington (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: SCHEDULE SMT-SMALL GENERAL SERVICE Sector: Commercial Description: SCHEDULE SMT is for small standard general service provided to Tukwila customers whose maximum demand is less than 50 kW. Minimum Charge: 28.00¢ per meter per day Discounts: Transformer losses in kWh - 1756 + .53285 x kW + .00002 x kW2+ .00527 x kWh Transformer investment - $0.26 per kW of monthly maximum demand

325

Data:2cac15b8-fb54-4701-8a31-18a7f4543add | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5b8-fb54-4701-8a31-18a7f4543add 5b8-fb54-4701-8a31-18a7f4543add No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southern Indiana Gas & Elec Co Effective date: 2011/05/03 End date if known: Rate name: ED - Economic Development Sector: Commercial Description: * applicable to any new Non-Residential Customer who establishes initial permanent service in a new or existing establishment, and to any existing Non-Residential Customer who expands an existing establishment, who: 1. Receives service under Rate DGS, LP, or HLF, 2. Makes application to Company for service under this Rider, 3. Has applied for and received economic development assistance from State or local government or other public agency,

326

Data:D7d31f7a-caa3-440e-a989-ec07a39add1f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d31f7a-caa3-440e-a989-ec07a39add1f d31f7a-caa3-440e-a989-ec07a39add1f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Argyle, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2008/05/29 End date if known: Rate name: Ms-1 Overhead 250 W HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Application: This schedule will be applied to municipal street lighting. The utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Note: MV = Mercury Vapor HPS = High Pressure Sodium Fixed Monthly Charge includes Commitment to Community Rider: $1.34 per customer per month Source or reference: http://psc.wi.gov/apps40/tariffs/viewfile.aspx?type=electric&id=230

327

Data:Effd3d32-add8-4d2f-858b-8c1311bc5a06 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Effd3d32-add8-4d2f-858b-8c1311bc5a06 Effd3d32-add8-4d2f-858b-8c1311bc5a06 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Elroy, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/01/22 End date if known: Rate name: Gs-1 General Service Three Phase Sector: Commercial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0510 per kilowatt-hour.

328

Data:4a5d0af9-f0df-446f-9b6a-add2725e1d39 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

af9-f0df-446f-9b6a-add2725e1d39 af9-f0df-446f-9b6a-add2725e1d39 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Ameren Illinois Company Effective date: 2010/11/19 End date if known: Rate name: DS-2 Zone 1 - Small General Delivery Service 600V or Less Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABILITY Service under this Rate is available for any eligible Non-Residential Customer within the territory served by Company that meets the following criteria: Customers served under this Rate shall have a maximum monthly Demand of less than 150 kilowatts (kW) as qualified in the Delivery Service Rate Reassignment section. A Customer without a demand meter installed, but with an average usage of less than 1,200 kWh per day during each monthly billing period will be normally assumed to have a maximum monthly Demand of less than 150 kW. Where Customer's average daily usage is 1,200 kWh per day or more in any monthly billing period, Company may install a demand meter at Company's expense to determine if Customer remains eligible for service under this Rate.

329

Data:9203c91f-7d51-486f-a398-add8a8014cd6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f-7d51-486f-a398-add8a8014cd6 f-7d51-486f-a398-add8a8014cd6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Ameren Illinois Company Effective date: 2010/11/19 End date if known: Rate name: DS-2 Zone 3 - Small General Delivery Service 600V or Less Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABILITY Service under this Rate is available for any eligible Non-Residential Customer within the territory served by Company that meets the following criteria: Customers served under this Rate shall have a maximum monthly Demand of less than 150 kilowatts (kW) as qualified in the Delivery Service Rate Reassignment section. A Customer without a demand meter installed, but with an average usage of less than 1,200 kWh per day during each monthly billing period will be normally assumed to have a maximum monthly Demand of less than 150 kW. Where Customer's average daily usage is 1,200 kWh per day or more in any monthly billing period, Company may install a demand meter at Company's expense to determine if Customer remains eligible for service under this Rate.

330

Data:16e8ff5a-7c0f-4d7c-add4-ed98afefee2f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e8ff5a-7c0f-4d7c-add4-ed98afefee2f e8ff5a-7c0f-4d7c-add4-ed98afefee2f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Firelands Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/23 End date if known: Rate name: SINGLE PHASE GENERAL SERVICE (Most Recent) Sector: Commercial Description: This schedule is available throughout the Cooperative's entire service area subject to the established Rules and Regulations of the Cooperative. This schedule is applicable to single phase consumers requiring up to and including 100 kVA of installed transformer capacity. Larger service capacities are available under the Large Single Phase, Small and Large Three Phase General Service schedule or under a special contract schedule. CHARACTER AND TYPE OF SERVICE: Single phase, 60 hertz, at available secondary 120/240 nominal voltage.

331

Data:2e7822ba-4add-44e3-b31c-642c2f591a0a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

22ba-4add-44e3-b31c-642c2f591a0a 22ba-4add-44e3-b31c-642c2f591a0a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Wisconsin Power & Light Co Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Cg-2 (Time of Day) Sector: Commercial Description: Any new customer whose measured demands are estimated to be greater than 75 kW or whose annual energy usage is estimated to exceed 250,000 kWh will be required to be served on the Cg-2 TOD rate schedule. This rate is not applicable to customers with maximum demands that are estimated to exceed 200 kW. Source or reference: http://www.alliantenergy.com/wcm/groups/wcm_internet/@int/@tariff/documents/document/015731.pdf#page=34

332

Data:3eb1713b-97a2-4add-ad35-e477f0393958 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b-97a2-4add-ad35-e477f0393958 b-97a2-4add-ad35-e477f0393958 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Imperial Irrigation District Effective date: 1994/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: SCHEDULE AL OUTDOOR AREA LIGHTING SERVICE-HIGH-PRESSURE SODIUM VAPOR 100W Sector: Lighting Description: APPLICABILITY Applicable to service for outdoor area lighting service in areas other than public streets, roads and highways, furnished from dusk to dawn where this service can be supplied from existing secondary overhead facilities of the District of suitable voltage. Applicable to District-owned outdoor area lighting equipment mounted on District-owned poles, or customer-owned supports acceptable to the District and accessible by personnel boom truck. Monthly Usage: 47kWh

333

Tropospheric Comparisons of Vaisala Radiosondes and Balloon-Borne Frost-Point and Lyman-? Hygrometers during the LAUTLOS-WAVVAP Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of all types of Vaisala radiosondes and two types of Snow White chilled-mirror hygrosondes was assessed in an intensive in situ comparison with reference hygrometers. Fourteen nighttime reference comparisons were performed to ...

T. M. Suortti; R. Kivi; A. Kats; V. Yushkov; N. Kmpfer; U. Leiterer; L. M. Miloshevich; R. Neuber; A. Paukkunen; P. Ruppert; H. Vmel

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Status of Cryogenic System for Spallation Neutron Source's Superconducting Radiofrequency Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Lab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is building an independent cryogenic system for its Superconducting Radiofrequency Test Facility (SRFTF). The scope of the system is to support the SNS cryomodule test and cavity test at 2-K (using vacuum pump) and 4.5K for the maintenance purpose and Power Upgrade Project of SNS, and to provide the part of the cooling power needed to backup the current CHL to keep Linac at 4.5-K during CHL maintenance period in the future. The system is constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is to construct an independent 4K helium refrigeration system with helium Dewar and distribution box as load interface. It is schedule to be commissioned in 2013. Here we report the concept design of the system and the status of the first phase of this project.

Xu, Ting [ORNL; Casagrande, Fabio [ORNL; Ganni, Venkatarao [ORNL; Knudsen, Peter N [ORNL; Strong, William Herb [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Data:75aae5fb-c797-4add-b31e-e74010ca4f9d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aae5fb-c797-4add-b31e-e74010ca4f9d aae5fb-c797-4add-b31e-e74010ca4f9d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Connecticut Light & Power Co Effective date: 2013/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rate 27 - Small Time-Of-Day General Electric Service (Bundled Service Primary Discount Facilities Ownership) Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABLE for the entire electrical requirements at a single service location measured through one metering installation where the customer's maximum demand is less than 350 kW. Notwithstanding the applicability provisions of other rates, this rate is also available to fullrequirements customers that (i) prior to March 1, 1992, had a maximum monthly 30-minute demand in excess of 350 kW; (ii) had a maximum monthly 30-minute demand in the twelve billing periods prior to March 1, 1992, that equaled or exceeded twice the average of the customer's maximum monthly 30-minute demands during the same billing periods; (iii) as of March 1, 1992, had established, and had a reasonable expectation of continuing, a seasonal pattern of electrical usage approximating that established during the twelve billing periods prior to March 1, 1992; and (iv) had not discontinued taking service under this rate or Rate 30 after March 1, 1992.

336

click here to add title  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the of the Igneous Consequences Peer Review Panel Prepared for: Bechtel SAIC Company LLC Las Vegas, Nevada Prepared by: Emmanuel Detournay, Larry G. Mastin, J.R. Anthony Pearson, Allan M. Rubin and Frank J. Spera April 2003 The Panel is working under contract to Bechtel SAIC Company LLC, for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the U.S. Department of Energy TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS _______________________________________I CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ____________________________ 1 1.1 BACKGROUND _________________________________________________ 1 1.2 PANEL MEMBERSHIP __________________________________________ 1 1.3 TERMS OF REFERENCE AND GENERAL APPROACH _____________ 3 1.4 PRINCIPAL ISSUES AND SCOPE OF REPORT _____________________ 4 1.5 NATURE AND CONTENT OF THE REPORT

337

Data:2b58a9bc-4710-4add-a58e-84c45ea02f53 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a9bc-4710-4add-a58e-84c45ea02f53 a9bc-4710-4add-a58e-84c45ea02f53 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: PUD No 1 of Chelan County Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: IRRIGATION SERVICE Single Phase Sector: Commercial Description: Schedule 5 AVAILABILITY: This schedule applies to seasonal irrigation pumping power during the months of May through September of each year. After the September billing, any incidental use in any single permanent pumping installation, including lighting essential to the pumping operation will be billed on the first irrigation bill of the following season. For such lighting service, the customer will furnish the transformer and other necessary equipment. CHARACTER OF SERVICE: Service to be furnished under this schedule may be either single phase, three phase or four wire three phase, 60-cycle alternating current at available phase and voltage. METERING: In order to obtain service under this schedule, the irrigation pumping customer must provide proper service entrance facilities permitting the installation of metering equipment to record the energy used. DETERMINATION OF LOAD: 1. Demand Charges and Basic Charge on single motor pumping installations and multiple motor pumping installations of a total of 10 hp or less shall be based on not less than the rated nameplate capacity of the motor(s). 2. Demand Charges and Basic Charge on multiple motor pumping installations with a total namepleate capacity of 10 hp or greater shall be by demand meter. 3. Installations of less than 1 hp will be billed as 1 hp installations. 4. The KW demand read obtained from the demand meter will be multiplied by a factor of 1.34 to show the peak horsepower capacity used during the billing period.

338

Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

Beck, Douglas S.

2003-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

First test of a cryogenic scintillation module with a CaWO4 scintillator and a low-temperature photomultiplier down to 6 K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future cryogenic experiments searching for rare events require reliable, efficient and robust techniques for the detection of photons at temperatures well below that to which low-temperature photomultipliers (PMT) were characterised. Motivated by this we investigated the feasibility of a low-temperature PMT for the detection of scintillation from crystalline scintillators at T = 6 K. The scintillation module was composed of a CaWO4 scintillator and a low-temperature PMT D745B from ET Enterprises. The PMT responsivity was studied at T=290, 77 and 6 K using gamma-quanta from 241Am (60 keV) and 57Co (122 and 136 keV) sources. We have shown that the low-temperature PMT retains its single photon counting ability even at cryogenic temperatures. At T = 6 K, the response of the PMT decreases to 51 +- 13 % and 27 +- 6 % when assessed in photon counting and pulse height mode, respectively. Due to the light yield increase of the CaWO4 scintillating crystal the overall responsivity of the scintillation modules CaWO4+PMT is 94 +- 15 % (photon counting) and 48 +- 8 % (pulse height) when cooling to T = 6 K. The dark count rate was found to be 20 s-1. The energy resolution of the module remains similar to that measured at room temperature using either detection mode. It is concluded that commercially available low-temperature PMT are well suited for detection of scintillation light at cryogenic temperatures.

H. Kraus; V. B. Mikhailik

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

340

Use of a cryogenic sampler to measure radioactive gas concentrations in the main off-gas system at a high-flux isotope reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for measuring gamma-emitting radioactive gases in air has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This method combines a cryogenic air-sample collector with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectroscopy system. This methodology was developed to overcome the inherently difficult collection and detection of radioactive noble gases. The cryogenic air-sampling system and associated HPGe detector has been used to measure the concentration of radioactive gases in the primary coolant main off-gas system at ONRL's High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This paper provides: (1) a description of the cryogenic sampler, the radionuclide detection technique, and a discussion of the effectiveness of sampling and detection of gamma-emitting noble gases; (2) a brief description of HFIR and its associated closed high off-gas system; and (3) quantification of gamma-emitting gases present in the off-gas of the HFIR primary core coolant (e.g. radioisotopes of argon, xenon, and krypton).

Berven, B.A.; Perdue, P.T.; Kark, J.B.; Gibson, M.O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Data:8ab4273d-a0cc-483f-a8ad-de0c9ce9d10c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Data Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Data:8ab4273d-a0cc-483f-a8ad-de0c9ce9d10c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Rochester Gas & Electric Corp Effective date: 2013/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: SERVICE CLASSIFICATION NO. 8 LARGE GENERAL SERVICE - TIME-OF-USE RATE RSS (Non-Retail) Substation Sector: Industrial Description: APPLICABLE TO USE OF SERVICE FOR: All purposes, in Entire Territory, by any customer with a basic demand of not less than 300 kilowatts during any three of the previous 12 months, provided, however, that whenever the monthly basic demand has been 200 kW or less for 12 consecutive months, the customer thereafter will be billed under another appropriate service classification. Flat rate Adjustments = SBC+RPS+MFC+TCV

342

Cryogenic aspects of the experience in operating the U-25 superconducting MHD magnet in conjunction with the MHD generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to facilitate the rapid development of MHD technology for the generation of electrical energy, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. are jointly conducting research within the framework of the Program of Scientific and Technical Cooperation. The Institute for High Temperature (IVTAN) of the U.S.S.R. has designed and fabricated a special MHD facility which uses as its base much of the equipment of the existing U-25 Facility. The new MHD fow train consisting of a combustor, magnet, channel, and diffuser is named U-25B. The U.S. has provided a superconducting magnet system for the U-25B MHD Facility. As a result of these joint efforts, a unique and broad range of experimental test conditions similar to those that will exist in operation of commercial MHD generators has been created. The United States Superconducting Magnet System (U.S. SCMS) was designed, fabricated, and delivered to the U-25B Facility by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy. The following description focuses on the cryogenic-related aspects of the magnet system commissioning and operation in the U.S.S.R.

Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Smith, R.P.; McWilliams, D.A.; Borden, R.; Streeter, M.H.; Wickson, R.; Privalov, N.P.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A SUPERCRITICAL HELIUM-COOLED CRYOGENIC VISCOUS COMPRESSOR PROTOTYPE FOR THE ITER VACUUM SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the vacuum system for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscouscompressor (CVC) is being developed to collect hydrogenic exhaust gases from the toruscryopumps and compress them to a high enough pressure by regeneration for pumping tothe tritium reprocessing facility. Helium impurities that are a byproduct of the fusionreactions pass through the CVC and are pumped by conventional vacuum pumps andexhausted to the atmosphere. Before the development of a full-scale CVC, a representative,small-scale test prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. With cooling provided bycold helium gas, hydrogen gas was introduced into the central column of the test prototypepump at flow rates between 0.001 g/s and 0.008 g/s. Based on the temperatures and flowrates of the cold helium gas, different percentages of hydrogen gas were frozen to the column surface wall as the hydrogen gas flow rate increased. Results from the measured temperatures and pressures will form a benchmark that will be used to judge future heattransfer enhancements to the prototype CVC and to develop a computational fluid dynamicmodel that will help develop design parameters for the full-scale CVC.

Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Edgemon, Timothy D [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL; Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; Pearce, R.J.H. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Kersevan, R. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Time-dependent hydrogen and helium pressure profiles in a long, cryogenically cooled tube, pumped at periodic intervals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many particle accelerators and colliders throughout the world make use of superconducting magnets to focus highly relativistic beams. These magnets are cooled to [approximately]4.2[degree]K For practical reasons, the beam pipes, encircled by the magnets, also operate at these cryogenic temperatures. This paper presents a theoretical model for determining pressure profiles, in space and time, stemming from either hydrogen or helium gas leak into the cold-bore tube with appendage pumps located at periodic intervals. It is shown that a wave-like pressure gradient propagates from the leak source at a rate which is dependent on the leak magnitude, gas species, speed and location of appendage pumps, and the geometry and effective roughness of the cold-bore tube. Steady-state, linear pressure gradients eventually equilibrate between the appendage pumps in a magnitude commensurate with both the adsorption isotherm of the species and mass flow in the beam pipe. Results are given for a variety of conditions relevant to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider being constructed at Brookhaven, and a general procedure, with expressions, is provided for the making of similar calculations in other installations.

Hobson, J.P. (National Vacuum Technologies, Inc., Ontario (Canada)); Welch, K.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Cryogenic Material Properties Database Cryogenic Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... properties. These include the Handbook on Materials for Superconducting Machinery and the LNG Materials & Fluids. Neither ...

2000-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

346

SBIR Grant: ????????No-Vibration Agile Cryogenic Optical Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

Optical refrigeration is currently the only all-solid-state cryocooling technology that has been demonstrated. Optical cryocoolers are devices that use laser light to cool small crystal or glass cooling elements. The cooling element absorbs the laser light and reradiates it at higher energy, an example of anti-Stokes fluorescence. The dif-ference between the energy of the outgoing and incoming light comes from the thermal energy of the cooling element, which in turn becomes colder. Entitled ???????¢????????????????No-Vibration Agile Cryocoolers using Optical Refrigeration,???????¢??????????????? this Phase I proposal directly addressed the continued development of the optical refrigerator components necessary to transition this scientific breakthrough into National Nu-clear Security Administration (NNSA) sensor applications in line with the objectives of topic 50b. ThermoDynamic Films LLC (TDF), in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), cooled an optical-refrigerator cooling element comprised of an ytterbium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb:YLF) crystal from room tempera-ture to 123 K with about 2% efficiency. This is the world record in optical refrigera-tion and an important step toward revolutionizing cryogenic systems for sensor ap-plications. During this period, they also designed and analyzed the crucial elements of a prototype optical refrigerator including the thermal link that connects the cool-ing element with the load.

Epstein, Richard

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

347

Cryogenic separation of CO{sub 2} from the fluegas of conventional coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere is under study because such emissions are believed to contribute to undesired global warming via the greenhouse effect. Several conceptual processes for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power-plant flue gas are listed, with an emphasis on refrigeration and compression as a promising process to compete with amine absorption. At conditions that are industrially achievable (temperature of 170 K and pressure of 5 bar), CO{sub 2} forms a nearly pure solid on cooling from an impure mixed vapor. This study relies on this freezing and purification process to remove 90% or more of the CO{sub 2} from flue gas. Thermal and mechanical integration are used in the conceptual flow sheet to achieve better efficiency. A computerized process simulator, Aspen Plus with Model Manager{reg_sign}, is used to rigorously calculate the material and energy balances for the conceptual process. Key parameters are regressed from the component physical properties of the flue gas and used by the computer in the Peng-Robinson equation of state to quantify the required phase changes of CO{sub 2} solid between vapor and liquid states. Results of process evaluation are given over a range of operating conditions: pressures from 2 to 25 bar and temperatures from 150 to 220 K. This CO{sub 2} separation is shown to be technically feasible by using relatively simple and compact heat-exchange and compression equipment, with an energy requirement of 0.54 kWh/kg CO{sub 2}, even without optimization. For comparison, the energy used by state-of-the-art amine absorption is 0.43 kWh/kg. In spite of the 25% higher energy requirement for a cryogenic separation plant, the expectation is that it should have a 4% lower cost per tonne of avoided CO{sub 2} because it is estimated to require a much lower capital investment than amine absorption.

Brockmeier, N.F.; Jody, B.J.; Wolsky, A.M.; Daniels, E.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

flow_measurements_cryogenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A dynamic weighing system is used to measure ... using liquid nitrogen at flow rates of 1 ... For volumetric flow rate measurement, the uncertainty in fluid ...

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

350

Cryogenic Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: SES is developing a process to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants by desublimation - the conversion of a gas to a solid. Capturing CO2 as a solid and delivering it as a liquid avoids the large energy cost of CO2 gas compression. SES capture technology facilitates the prudent use of available energy resources. Coal is our most abundant energy resource and is an excellent fuel for baseline power production. SES capture technology can capture 99% of the CO2 emissions in addition to a wide range of other pollutants more efficiently and at lower costs than existing capture technologies. SES capture technology can be readily added to our existing energy infrastructure.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Cryogenic Flow Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... It is anticipated that LNG (liquefied natural gas) will have an expanding role as an alternative fuel, and NIST is able to provide assistance in ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

352

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

Crunkleton, J.A.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

Cryogenic Technologies Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Microcryocooler for Terahertz Detectors NIST and the University of Colorado have been funded since April, 2006, by DARPA to develop a ...

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

355

Data:6595f8c7-3add-4c84-8ee8-5a9c1d840cb6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f8c7-3add-4c84-8ee8-5a9c1d840cb6 f8c7-3add-4c84-8ee8-5a9c1d840cb6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: United Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation Rate Sector: Commercial Description: *Available to single-phase and three-phase irrigation services which are unable or unwilling to eliminate their kW load from the Cooperative's system during the Cooperative's peak times. Subject to the established rules and regulations of the Cooperative. Billing Demand: Year 1 = Horsepower rating of all connected motor loads. Thereafter = Actual peak demand set in previous twelve (12) months. If service has not been connected in the past twelve (12) months, demand may be determined as per year one (1) method.

356

Data:Da3223a8-9c4e-439c-b7ad-d33a3e55a916 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Da3223a8-9c4e-439c-b7ad-d33a3e55a916 Da3223a8-9c4e-439c-b7ad-d33a3e55a916 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Northern States Power Co - Wisconsin Effective date: 2011/01/15 End date if known: Rate name: Experimental Advanced Renewable Energy Purchase Service-Biomass/Biogas Energy Systems (Tier 1: 800 kW less than 200amps) Sector: Description: Effective In All territories served by the Company. Definition: Distributed generation facilities are electricity generators owned by the customer, located R close to the point of energy consumption, and small in scale, usually no more than the existing load of the customer. Availability The advanced renewable energy tariff is available to retail customers who own small distributed generation facilities that are powered by a renewable resource and placed in initial service after January 1, 2012, or who executed an advanced renewable energy contract prior to January 1, 2012. maximum size project per customer is: * Biomass/Biogas: * Tier 1: 800 kW * Tier 2: 2 MW * Tier 3 5 MW (Community-based Projects Only) Generators rated 100 kW or less and delivering electric energy at less than 200 amps.$ 6.40/mo.

357

Development of A Cryogenic Drift Cell Spectrometer and Methods for Improving the Analytical Figures of Merit for Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cryogenic (325-80 K) ion mobility-mass spectrometer was designed and constructed in order to improve the analytical figures-of-merit for the chemical analysis of small mass analytes using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. The instrument incorporates an electron ionization source, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a uniform field drift cell spectrometer encased in a cryogenic envelope, and an orthogonal geometry time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The analytical benefits of low temperature ion mobility are discussed in terms of enhanced separation ability, ion selectivity and sensitivity. The distinction between resolving power and resolution for ion mobility is also discussed. Detailed experimental designs and rationales are provided for each instrument component. Tuning and calibration data and methods are also provided for the technique. Proof-of-concept experiments for an array of analytes including rare gases (argon, krypton, xenon), hydrocarbons (acetone, ethylene glycol, methanol), and halides (carbon tetrachloride) are provided in order to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of the instrument for obtaining analytically useful information. Trendline partitioning of small analyte ions based on chemical composition is demonstrated as a novel chemical analysis method. The utility of mobility-mass analysis for mass selected ions is also demonstrated, particularly for probing the ion chemistry which occurs in the drift tube for small mass ions. As a final demonstration of the separation abilities of the instrument, the electronic states of chromium and titanium (ground and excited) are separated with low temperature. The transition metal electronic state separations demonstrated here are at the highest resolution ever obtained for ion mobility methods. The electronic conformational mass isomers of methanol (conventional and distonic) are also partially separated at low temperature. Various drift gases (helium, neon, and argon) are explored for the methanol system in order to probe stronger ion-neutral interaction potentials and effectuate higher resolution separations of the two isomeric ions. Finally, two versatile ion source designs and a method for axially focusing ions at low pressure (1-10 torr) using electrostatic fields is presented along with some preliminary work on the ion sources.

May, Jody C.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

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ARM Radiosonde Humidity Measurements and Proposed Corrections ARM Radiosonde Humidity Measurements and Proposed Corrections Based On AWEX Radiosonde Intercomparisons Miloshevich, L.M.(a), Lesht, B.M.(b), and Voemel, H.(c), National Center for Atmospheric Research (a), Argonne National Laboratory (b), NOAA/CMDL (c) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting ARM radiosonde relative humidity (RH) measurements are widely used in numerical modeling, remote sensor validation, and radiative transfer calculations, yet their accuracy as a function of temperature and RH has not been adequately quantified. During the AIRS Water vapor EXperiment (AWEX) at the SGP site in November 2003, 34 launches of multiple radiosondes on the same balloon were conducted, including 12 soundings from the University of Colorado's Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH). The

359

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Introducing: Project Open Data Introducing: Project Open Data Submitted by Anonymous on Tue, 05/21/2013 - 12:13pm Log in to vote 1 Originally posted on the White House blog by Todd Park and Steven VanRoekel on May 16, 2013 at 09:46 AM EDT Technology evolves rapidly, and it can be challenging for policy and its implementation to evolve at the same pace. Last week, President Obama launched the Administration's new Open Data Policy and Executive Order aimed at ensuring that data released by the government will be as accessible and useful as possible. To make sure this tech-focused policy can keep up with the speed of innovation, we created Project Open Data. Project Open Data is an online, public repository intended to foster collaboration and promote the continual improvement of the Open Data

360

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Energy Powerball Energy Powerball Submitted by Peter Tseronis on Tue, 07/17/2012 - 3:26pm Log in to vote 7 We love the lottery. By some estimates, ticket sales are close to $50 billion per year in the US alone. That means the average American spends over $150 per year on lottery tickets. Earlier this year, when the Mega Millions lottery became the world's largest jackpot of all time, its 1-in-176,000,000 chances of winning were slightly worse than the chances of becoming the President of the United States (1 in 150,000,000). No matter how low the odds, the thrill of potentially using a small investment to nab a huge payday is infectious. The record-setting Mega Millions jackpot was already huge at $350 million on March 27th. Then the buzz really caught on and by the next day, it was

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

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Welcome! Welcome! Submitted by Data.gov Administrator on Thu, 04/12/2012 - 6:16pm Log in to vote 6 Welcome to Safety.Data.Gov, a one-stop-shop for government safety data, bringing unprecedented value and transparency to this important topic.Safety.Data.Gov will provide valuable resources on government, business, and citizen safety services. Currently, safety information is domain-specific, which makes developing models using data from all around government difficult and less readily accessible. For example, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) publishes incident reports on pipeline accidents, but the ability to find and study this information in conjunction with workplace incidents, crime, and other data to develop a predictive model currently requires digging across many

362

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Interested in Open Energy Data? Watch the Energy Datapalooza Live! Interested in Open Energy Data? Watch the Energy Datapalooza Live! Submitted by Matthew Loveless on Fri, 09/28/2012 - 5:28pm Log in to vote 14 On Monday, October 1st, more than 150 entrepreneurs, software developers, energy experts and policy makers are coming together for the first annual Energy Datapalooza. We'll be highlighting innovators that are using freely available data from the government and other sources to build products, services and apps that advance a secure and clean energy future. As a part of the Energy Data Initiative, the Datapalooza will also feature new datasets, application programming interfaces (APIs), and opportunities from the Energy Department, the Environmental Protection Agency and a number of private sector partners. No matter where you are,

363

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Open Government Data Spurs Entrepreneurship and Jobs Open Government Data Spurs Entrepreneurship and Jobs Submitted by Anonymous on Thu, 04/11/2013 - 11:54pm Log in to vote 0 Freely available data from the US Government is an important national resource, serving as fuel for entrepreneurship, innovation, scientific discovery, and other public benefits. In the 1970s, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration made weather data widely available. In the 1980s, the Federal Government opened up access to data from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, which were previously for military use only. These two decisions created a big positive effect in the lives of everyday Americans-just ask anyone who has recently viewed a weather report or obtained driving directions on a mobile phone. What's more,

364

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Mon, 08062012 - 5:51pm Log in to vote 6 Co-Author: Steve Young How do Americans save money and protect the environment at the same time? Millions of us gain those benefits when...

365

Add ENERGY STAR to Your Course Catalog  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

good for the bottom line-ENERGY STAR labeled office buildings cost 50 cents less per square foot to operate and have higher occupancy rates and increased asset value. Thirty...

366

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Web Tool for Planning Green Projects Web Tool for Planning Green Projects Submitted by Kevin Kampschroer on Wed, 08/08/2012 - 2:23pm Log in to vote 6 Sustainable Facilities Tool helps plan green projects Imagine your agency or private business is considering a small renovation project that is supposed to be green but you are not a "sustainability expert." What would you need to know before starting the project? How would you plan something like this using sustainable building models? What about comparing green products to fit your building project? When do you need to hire an expert? GSA's popular online Sustainable Facilities Tool - SFTool.gov - does all of these things, a one-stop web tool to meet all sustainability planning, designing, and procurement needs. Its purpose is to simplify, for

367

Add DOE logo at top-center  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Designation of National Interest Electric Transmission Bottlenecks (NIETB) Designation of National Interest Electric Transmission Bottlenecks (NIETB) Summary of Comments 01/31/2005 General............................................................................................................................................ 1 DOE Role in an NIETB Process..................................................................................................... 2 Nomination and the Identification of Bottlenecks .......................................................................... 3 Designation of Bottlenecks ............................................................................................................. 3 Suggested Criteria for Designation.................................................................................................

368

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Education Datapalooza Education Datapalooza Submitted by Sally Bourrie on Tue, 10/16/2012 - 12:47pm Log in to vote 6 The White House and the U.S. Department of Education held the first ever "Education Datapalooza" on October 9, 2012. The event highlighed innovators and entrepreneurs who are using freely available data to build products, services, and apps with the potential to advance educational achievement. US Chief Technology Officer & Assistant to the President @todd_park opens the day at #datapalooza! #opendata jasonhoekstra Inspiring #edtech talks @whitehouse around #opendata, many companies implementing #mydata for edu data portability jasonhoekstra 7 days ago ReplyRetweetFavorite CarriSchneider Craig Carroll of @RezolveGroup at White House Datapalooza event #opendata

369

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Celebrating Innovation and Open Data at the Energy Datapalooza Celebrating Innovation and Open Data at the Energy Datapalooza Submitted by Ian Kalin on Fri, 09/28/2012 - 2:01pm Log in to vote 7 Celebrating Innovation and Open Data at the Energy DatapaloozaBy Ian Kalin, Presidential Innovation FellowDozens of the nation's leading entrepreneurs and innovators gathered at the White House today to celebrate new products, mobile phone applications, and services that lower energy costs, improve energy efficiency and protect the environment. The event - "Energy Datapalooza" - was the first annual showcase for the Energy Data Initiative, which was launched by the Administration earlier this year to liberate data as a fuel of innovation while rigorously protecting privacy. The common thread throughout all the new products

370

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Obama Administration drives release of car safety data, unveils new NHTSA Obama Administration drives release of car safety data, unveils new NHTSA SaferCar app for iOS Submitted by Anonymous on Thu, 03/21/2013 - 11:31am Log in to vote 6 By US Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood and US Chief Technology Officer Todd Park This article is cross-posted on the Office of Science and Technology Policy blog. Dual-portraits This morning, we're proud to join the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in announcing a "SaferCar" app for iPhones, iPad, and iPod Touch devices. This new app puts the power of NHTSA's tremendous volume of vehicle safety data, including real-time vehicle safety information from NHTSA's SaferCar.gov site, at the fingertips of American consumers. NHTSA's SaferCar app allows users to search its 5-Star Safety Ratings for

371

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Administration Safety Data Initiative Challenges App Developers Administration Safety Data Initiative Challenges App Developers Submitted by Ray LaHood on Thu, 05/17/2012 - 10:16am Log in to vote 6 Co-Author: Todd Park Safety is the number one priority at the US Department of Transportation (DOT), so National Transportation Week is the perfect time for DOT to help launch the Obama Administration's critical Safety Data Initiative--an historic effort to make government data relating to every aspect of safety, from transportation crime to consumer products much more accessible, and to stimulate the development of innovative apps and services fueled by those data.We know that helping Americans gain access to practical information can help them make smarter, safer choices. So, coordinated by DOT, this new collaborative effort involving Federal agencies and members of the public

372

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Obama Administration Releases Historic Open Data Rules to Enhance Obama Administration Releases Historic Open Data Rules to Enhance Government Efficiency and Fuel Economic Growth Submitted by Anonymous on Thu, 05/09/2013 - 11:55am Log in to vote 0 The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, For Immediate Release The Obama Administration today took groundbreaking new steps to make information generated and stored by the Federal Government more open and accessible to innovators and the public, to fuel entrepreneurship and economic growth while increasing government transparency and efficiency. Today's actions-including an Executive Order signed by the President and an Open Data Policy released by the Office of Management and Budget and the Office of Science and Technology Policy-declare that information is a valuable national asset whose value is multiplied when it is made

373

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Improving our digital services to better serve you Improving our digital services to better serve you Submitted by Anonymous on Wed, 05/29/2013 - 12:00am Log in to vote 0 Throughout this past year, the National Archives and Federal agencies have been working to implement the Digital Government Strategy by improving digital services to better serve you. We've worked toward specific milestones that improve access to government information and we launched Archives.gov/digitalstrategy to report on our progress. We sought your ideas for improvement in August and now you can see our progress toward making availablemobile apps and web APIs. Mobile: We've mobile optimized FederalRegister.gov, released a mobile site for Presidential Documents, and a mobile app called "To the Brink: JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis," which makes available photos,

374

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Using 21st Century Technology to Solve Age-Old Problems Using 21st Century Technology to Solve Age-Old Problems Submitted by Anonymous on Thu, 04/18/2013 - 1:40pm Log in to vote 0 Posted by Dr. Catherine Woteki USDA Chief Scientist, on April 15, 2013 at 1:58 PM For years, we believed that food was the most powerful commodity to combating food insecurity in the developing world. But with a more intricate challenge than ever before, particularly in the developing world, data and information about food insecurity and agricultural research are proving to be almost as valuable in this fight. Later this month, here in Washington, the G-8 and World Bank will host agricultural leaders from around the world at the G-8 International Conference on Open Data for Agriculture. The two-day event will bring the G-8 together with private and public research entities, as well as with

375

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Consumer.Data.Gov is Live! Consumer.Data.Gov is Live! Submitted by Data.gov Administrator on Mon, 02/11/2013 - 10:29am Log in to vote 6 Posted by Sophie Raseman and Nick Sinai Today, the Obama Administration launched the Smart Disclosure Data Community at Consumer.Data.gov, an important step to empower Americans with the data and tools they need to make more informed choices in the marketplace. "Smart disclosure" is the act of making potentially useful data more readily available-both to consumers directly and to innovators who can use it to build tools that help consumers make smart decisions. Federal agencies have already taken steps to promote smart disclosure by unleashing their data to support creation of a range of new apps, websites, and services-including product comparison websites, mobile shopping apps, and

376

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success. We hosted 21 participants who built apps and visualizations based on the new API for We the People -- the White House petition system. The White House development team...

377

Add new comment | Data.gov  

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on government data. Anyone with development skills and a little creativity can use an API to tap into an agency's data and repackage it as a useful smartphone app or other tool....

378

Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility  

SciTech Connect

Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Add new comment | Data.gov  

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businesses and spurs innovation. We're building on work already under way - such as the Green Button initiative, where utilities and service providers serving more than 30...

380

Add new comment | Data.gov  

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station data for biodiesel, natural gas, propane, electric, hydrogen and ethanol. The DOE Green Energy API, offering data from research and development conducted by the Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Add new comment | Data.gov  

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to share their data with a third-party provider. Related efforts such as, Blue Button and Green Button, are part of a movement to empower consumers with their own data in an...

382

Add new comment | Data.gov  

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the Judges' Prize and MyCarma, headquartered in Troy, Michigan, the Popular Choice prize. Green Button Gamer, based in Boston, Massachusetts, won the Safety Innovation award and...

383

Add new comment | Data.gov  

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yourself, please check out the Energy Data Initiative collaboration platform on OpenEI. Presidential Innovation Fellow Ian Kalin is Director of the Energy Data Initiative at...

384

How factoring in humidity adds value  

SciTech Connect

Humidity plays a major role in health, comfort, and production. This article is a brief overview of the technologies available and a detailed explanation of how to calculate humidification loads. The problems caused by dry air vary from one building to another and from one area to another. But basically, there are three major problem types: static electricity, poor moisture stability, health and comfort problems. In today's business offices, static electricity can disrupt operations and increase operating costs. In printing facilities, low humidity causes poor ink registration. Also, sheets of paper stick together and jam machines, wasting time and paper. In computer rooms and data processing areas, dry air leads to static electric discharges that cause circuit board failure, dust buildup on heads, and storage tape breakage. Moisture stability impacts industrial processes and the materials they use. In many cases, product and material deterioration is directly related to moisture fluctuations and lack of humidity control. Books, antiques, paper, wood and wood products, and fruits and vegetables are a few items that can be ruined by low or changing humidity. The health impact of low humidity shows up in dry nasal and thread membranes, dry and itchy skin, and irritated eyes. For employees, this means greater susceptibility to colds and other viral infections. The results is higher absenteeism when humidity is low, which translates into lost productivity and profits.

Berlin, G. (Nortec Industries, Inc., Ogdensburg, NY (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Add new comment | Data.gov  

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software to improve how building energy assessments are conducted. The company's iPad tool, FIELD, is used by national energy services firms on federal, state and institutional...

386

Smart grid adds value to solar photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This panel session examines the challenges and opportunities of integrating large scale solar photovoltaic units into the electric power grid. As large solar PV projects (hundreds of MW) come online, their output variation due to weather changes will ...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Exxon's CCS leadership adds to Green props  

SciTech Connect

There are good reasons to separate and capture the CO2 which is found mixed with natural gas and pump it underground. It increases recovery from depleted oil fields.

NONE

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Rockies flood projects add to production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nine new polymer waterfloods in the Rockies in the past year shows that tertiary recovery needn't be impeded by a $29/bbl oil price, so long as costs are held to a minimum. The uncertain fate faced by several expensive carbon dioxide pilots - even though recoveries have been or promise to be at or well above predictions - points up the overwhelming importance of keeping costs down.

Gill, D.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan  

SciTech Connect

Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single, combined analysis, with sensitivity to lower-energy interactions, careful control of data quality and stability, and further development of techniques for reconstructing event location and rejecting near-surface interactions from beta decays. They also present a revision to the previously published Run 119 analysis, a demonstration of the feasibility of a low-threshold (1 or 2 keV) analysis of Soudan data, and a review of the literature on charge generation and quenching relevant to the ionization signal.

Ogburn, Reuben Walter, IV; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

THE TPC MAGNET CRYOGENIC SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

does not include the gas usage for the electrical leads (seeusage the most probable value applies. The point is that lead gas

Green, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Cryogenic Optimization for Cavity Systems  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator systems are being built with superconducting Nb cavities at 350, 500, 1500 and 2860 MHz; in addition cavities previously have been built at 1000 MHz. Cavity heat loads are a strong function of frequency and operating temperature, varying by more than an order of magnitude.

Claus Rode; Dieter Proch

1989-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

392

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system,the absorber. The heat exchanger pipes (used for absorberextended surface. The heat exchanger built into the absorber

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

THE TPC MAGNET CRYOGENIC SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dewar with its heat exchanger. From the very beginning, thehelium to liouid nitrogen heat exchanger attached to it.This heat exchanger is an important part of the cool-down

Green, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connected to the cooler and condenser through a liquid feedmixed with liquid) to a condenser attached to the coolervacuum failure. Tube to Condenser Magnet Coil Magnet Mandrel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

396

THE TPC MAGNET CRYOGENIC SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oewar The Conditioner Heat Exchangers c. Heat and Massdewar with its heat exchanger. From the very beginning, theto liouid nitrogen heat exchanger attached to it. This heat

Green, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

through a gravity feed heat pipe that insures that thethe absorber. The heat exchanger pipes (used for absorber

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning MOKE microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast `white light' supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of t...

Henn, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

G&T adds versatile load management system  

SciTech Connect

Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.

Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Good Timing: NIST/CU Collaboration Adds Timing Capability ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... With the added capability to track the timing of dynamic biochemical reactions, cell ... to measure sensor signals at two points in time at a rate of up to ...

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Microsoft Word - PonderosaSub_TransformerAdd_CX.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Amy Freel - TEP TPP 1 Amy Freel - TEP TPP 1 Proposed Action: Ponderosa 500-230 kilovolt (kV) Transformer Addition Budget Information: 00276365 Task 03 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.6 "Additions/modifications to electric power transmission facilities within previously developed Facility area..." Location: Prineville, Crook County, Oregon Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: The proposed project includes modification of existing substation equipment, installation of a new 500-230-kV transformer, and an eight acre expansion northwest of the existing yard. The yard expansion is to facilitate the addition of a new 230-kV 2-bay breaker-and-a-half bus, four bays and the new transformer. A new control

402

How to Add Your Own Reading Comprehension Passage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adding Your Own Reading Comprehension Passage Adding Your Own Reading Comprehension Passage Please follow these instructions for submitting a reading comprehension passage: Use a text editor or word processor to create your reading comprehension passage. Since Jefferson Lab is a basic physics research facility, passages that incorporate some aspect of science are preferred over passages that do not. Make certain that your passage is accessible to a general audience. While you are creating this passage primarily for your classes' benefit, realize that anyone on the internet will be able to view it. The passage should make sense to anyone, not just to those in your class. Check your passage for: Factual accuracy Correct spelling Correct punctuation Proper grammar Once you have your passage, place brackets ([]) around the words you

403

Specs add confidence in use of wet welding. [Underwater welding  

SciTech Connect

Underwater wet welding can now be utilized with the same confidence as dry welding, provided certain guidelines are followed. A new electrode is discussed that has been delivering exceptionally high quality welds by a diving firm in Houston. With the issuance of the American Welding Society's specifications (ANS/LAWS D3.6-83) much of the confusion surrounding underwater welding should be eliminated. The new specifications establish the levels of quality for underwater welding and gives everyone in the business a common language.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

DOE Data Explorer enhancement adds more content | OSTI, US Dept...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network Information Bridge LEDP National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator Science Conference...

405

New natural gas pipeline capacity adds service into Florida ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration based on BENTEK Energy, LLC Note: Daily natural gas flow data and daily pipeline capacity derived from Florida's Gas ...

406

New natural gas pipeline capacity adds service into Florida ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The lack of natural gas storage in Florida, as well as limited areas of gas production, makes the State dependent on two main supply pipelines for most of its natural ...

407

GreenTouch Consortium Passes 50-Member Milestone, Adds Seven...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

initiative dedicated to dramatically improving the energy efficiency of information and communications technology (ICT) networks by a factor of 1,000, today announced that seven...

408

Does HR add value? : diverse perspectives on human capital management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The human resources (HR) function has evolved significantly over the past several decades. It has grown in maturity and influence while simultaneously enduring great criticism from employees and managers. Meanwhile, ...

Eckman, Jeffrey M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Recovery Act Workers Add Time Capsule Before Sealing Reactor...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Capsule Before Sealing Reactor for Hundreds of Years More Documents & Publications Audit Report: OAS-M-06-06 Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions...

410

Add Nanotubes and StirWith the Right Force  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... amount of force applied while mixing carbon nanotube suspensions influences the way the tiny cylinders ultimately disperse and orient themselves. ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

411

NIST's Speedy Ions Could Add Zip to Quantum Computers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... think their zippy ions may be useful in future quantum computers. ... are not affected, which is important for a quantum computer, where information ...

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Effective, Controlled Method to Add Sulfur into Molten Steel to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

D8: Study of Rack and Chord Assembly Formability for Jack-up Platforms ... Zone of Zr-Ti Microalloyed High-strength High-toughness Offshore Structural Steels.

413

How can we compare or add up our energy consumption?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy in Brief article on the use of energy conversion factors to compare energy usage from different fuels.

Information Center

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

414

NREL: News Feature - NREL Adds Eyes, Brains to Occupancy Detection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

level (sedentary or active), and it communicates this information with building automation systems via standard protocols. Credit: Dennis Schroeder It's a gnawing frustration...

415

OEM Perspective on Cryogenic H2 Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

compressed compressed Hydrogen Storage. Tobias Brunner February 15 th , 2011, Washington D.C. BMW Hydrogen. Hydrogen Storage Workshop. BMW EfficientDynamics Less emissions. More driving pleasure. BMW Hydrogen Washington DC 02/15/2011 Page 2 BMW Hydrogen Technology Strategy. Advancement of key components. Source: BMW Advanced key components Next vehicle & infrastructure Hydrogen 7 small series LH 2 Storage  Capacity   Safety   Boil-off loss   Pressure supply   Complexity   Infrastructure  Technology leap storage & drive train Efficient long-range mobility:  Zero Emission  Focus on vehicles with high energy demand.  Range > 500 km (6-8 kg H 2 )  Fast refueling (< 4 min / 6 kg)  Optimized safety oriented vehicle package & component

416

EPRI Cryogenic O&M Workshop: Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electric substation of the future will likely incorporate technologies vastly different from those that have been traditionally installed over the last half century. Already, both solid-state switching devices and superconductors are making their debut in transmission and distribution substations. Superconductors promise to revolutionize power delivery. These materials have almost zero resistance to current flow and can carry considerably more current than equivalent wires made of copper or aluminum....

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

A portable cryoplunger for onsite intact cryogenic ...  

KENNETH H. DOWNING, 1DAVID M. LARSON, ROSEANN CSENCSITS,1 AND JILLIAN F. BANFIELD3,4 ... large surface to volume ratio means that evaporation can be ...

418

Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements with Data Retrieved from ECMWF Analyses during the POLINAT Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the POLINAT (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) experiment, water vapor content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board the DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fr Luft-und-Raumfahrt) Falcon ...

Jolle Ovarlez; Peter van Velthoven

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Cryogenic power transmission technology: cryogenic dielectrics. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1975  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, April 1 to June 30, 1975, ac dielectric breakdown and partial discharge measurements were carried out on several new polyolefin films immersed in liquid helium at atmospheric pressure. The average breakdown strengths ranged from 135 to 220 MV/m, and were close to the breakdown strengths for the other materials already tested. Analysis of the partial discharge inception voltages for all of the materials tested so far shows that the major determinant of partial discharge inception is the breakdown voltage of the helium layer in series with the film. In other experiments on Valeron polyethylene with both film and electrodes completely encapsulated by epoxy, breakdown occurred with no observable partial discharge. The partial discharge sensitivity was the same as used for the unencapsulated film experiments. The breakdown strength with encapsulation was slightly higher than without. The temperature was varied from 4.2 to 300$sup 0$K, but no influence on the breakdown strength was observed. Breakdown tests with ac voltage were carried out on liquid helium between ASTM electrodes. The peak breakdown voltages measured on the first run were somewhat lower than the previously measured dc voltages. After repolishing the electrodes, another run in which both dc and ac breakdown voltages were taken showed good agreement. However, the voltages were now about 30 percent higher than those of the first run, and were close to the ASTM standard for C-10 oil. It is suspected that contamination in the helium is responsible for the variable results. (auth)

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Recovery Act Workers Add Time Capsule Before Sealing Reactor for Hundreds of Years  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July 30, 2011 July 30, 2011 AIKEN, S.C. - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work- ers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) placed a time capsule with a cache of timely news items inside a former nuclear reactor this week before sealing the 300,000-square foot facility shut for hundreds of years to allow radioactivity to naturally decay. The capsule, about the size of a five-gallon bucket, contained photos of DOE Secretary Steven Chu and President Obama, as well as an the site's strategic plan and an interactive CD on its history. Recovery Act team members also signed an aerial photo of the nearly six-decade-old P Reactor, and included it in the capsule. About 60 people gathered to watch DOE-Savannah River Man- ager Dr. David Moody, and Marc Sharpe, a senior reactor op-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, January--June 1995. Supplement 4, Add.3: An update  

SciTech Connect

Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1995, through June 30, 1995. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

Stephan, P.M. [ed.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Fuel combustion adds to anxiety over CO/sub 2/ buildup  

SciTech Connect

In the past 20 y, the annual rate of increase of atmosphreic carbon dioxide has grown sharply because of increased fossil fuel combustion. Most scientists agree that CO/sub 2/ buildup in the atmosphere is causing a greenhouse effect, slowly warming the earth's climate. Large-scale production of synthetic fuels that could be combusted without releasing CO/sub 2/ is examined as a possible solution. 31 references, 1 figure.

Sleeper, D.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Click here to add title Prepared for Company, March 15, 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Day Pitney LLP Day Pitney LLP ENERGY STORAGE EXPLORING THE BUSINESS LINK OPPORTUNITY: TRANSMISSION & CLEAN ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE WEST FEBRUARY 7-8 2012 Presented by: Michael A. Stosser Page 2 | 2/7/2011: Transmission & Clean Energy Development in the West Energy Storage  What is Energy Storage?  Energy storage is like a frozen pizza  It is a resource with a capacity of one MW or greater, which is capable of storing energy and may qualify as a mode to supply Ancillary Services. The energy resource can both withdraw energy and inject energy. Page 3 | 2/7/2011: Transmission & Clean Energy Development in the West Integration of Renewable Energy Sources  Benefits of storage for renewable energy sources:  Reduce plant capital costs

424

T/g upgrade adds 15 MW, extends unit life. [Turbogenerator  

SciTech Connect

This article describes turbogenerator upgrade at Maine Yankee's PWR. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co.'s excellent experience in the upgrading and uprating of the two low-pressure (l-p) steam turbines at its only generating unit - an 865-MW, three-loop pressurized-water reactor installed in 1972 - has motivated the utility to also contract for replacement of both the high-pressure (h-p) steam path and the generator. ABB Power Generation Inc., North Brunswick, NJ, which retrofitted the l-p steam-path components, will handle the other two projects as well.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Add me to your mailing list for future information about energy management courses.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, gas, electricity and steam) and familiarize yourself with an overview of LEED. Explore optimization and distribution and those pertaining to gas production, transmission and distribution. You will also survey indoor

California at Davis, University of

426

NETL: News Release - DOE Adds Two More Projects to Boost Gas...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new technologies that can increase natural gas production from low-permeability, or "tight," reservoirs. The new projects - to be carried out by Advanced Resources...

427

A real options analysis of Olympic Village development : how design flexibility adds value  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis applies past research on real options - a right, but not an obligation to take some action on a real asset in the future - to a very specific type of real estate development related to Olympic Village development. ...

Martinson, Robert J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Who should I add as a "friend"?: a study of friend recommendations using proximity and homophily  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We receive many recommendations of friends in online social networks such as Facebook and LinkedIn. These friend recommendations are based usually on common friends or similar profile such as having the same interest or coming from the same company, ... Keywords: encounters, friend recommendations, homophily, proximity

Alvin Chin; Bin Xu; Hao Wang

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

CERN/LHCC 2007-009 CMS TDR 8.2-Add1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, USA S Abdullin35 , M A Afaq7 , M Albrow, G Apollinari, M Atac, W Badgett, J A Bakken, B Baldin, L] such as the for- mation of strangelets and cold dark-matter (WIMP) clumps, relic magnetic fields, primordial black = g2 Nc 1) SU(Nc) gauge theories in terms of a weakly-coupled dual gravity theory. Recent applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Technical report for the generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can b e dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Export Email Add to MyF1000 Food security implications of global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jobs, revenue, and food, particularly in poor countries. But could we do better? Answering -- in currencies of biomass, food energy, and revenues. The analysis found that 16-31% of world fish stocks

Dunne, Jennifer

432

2 1999-00 Annual Schedule of Classes Deadline to add classes moves to third week  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Fall and Spring quarters and $4,313 is charged in Winter Quarter. An additional increase of $353 per vary 6.00 Transcript--additional services/fees Same-day Processing Service (per addressee) Special for additional information about holds. Students with a valid e-mail address established in URSA receive monthly

Grether, Gregory

433

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Add a Product to Quote...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Thallium Thorium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium...

434

Masking and Dual-rail Logic Don't Add Up Patrick Schaumont1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-consumption pattern and can be exploited in power analysis attacks. Third, the loading imbalance of dual-rail circuits is that the circuit switches between two complementary states with a different power profile. Earlier work has shown that the mask-bit value can be estimated from the power con- sumption profile, and that masked logic remains

Schaumont, Patrick

435

Regional Climate Models Add Value to Global Model Data: A Review and Selected Examples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important challenge in current climate modeling is to realistically describe small-scale weather statistics, such as topographic precipitation and coastal wind patterns, or regional phenomena like polar lows. Global climate models simulate atmospheric ...

Frauke Feser; Burkhardt Rockel; Hans von Storch; Jrg Winterfeldt; Matthias Zahn

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Available Technologies: Portable Cryo-plunger for Cryogenic ...  

A Berkeley Lab team led by Luis R. Comolli has developed the Portable Cryo-Plunger, a lightweight, portable flash-freezing apparatus that can safely preserve ...

437

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the assumed electrical energy cost is $0.04 per kWh.cost (the cost is given in US$ per kWh at 80.4°K) andThe cost of nitrogen refrigeration given in $ per kWh at

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Cryogenic Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier for Astronomical Infrared Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a new capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) that can be operated at 2 K, and have good performance as readout circuits of astronomical far-infrared array detectors. The circuit design of the present CTIA consists of silicon p-MOSFETs and other passive elements. The process is a standard Bi-CMOS process with 0.5$mu$m design rule. The open-loop gain of the CTIA is more than 300, resulting in good integration performance. The output voltage swing of the CTIA was 270 mV. The power consumption for each CTIA is less than 10$mu$W. The noise at the output showed a$1/rm f$noise spectrum of 4$mu$V/$surdhbox Hz$at 1 Hz. The performance of this CTIA nearly fulfills the requirements for the far-infrared array detectors onboard ASTRO-F, Japanese infrared astronomical satellite to be launched in 2005.

Hirohisa Nagata; Hiroshi Shibai; Takanori Hirao; Toyoki Watabe; Manabu Noda; Yasunori Hibi; Mitsunobu Kawada; Takao Nakagawa

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Rev. 1, November 1999 EXCELLENCE IN MAGNETICS AND CRYOGENICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the instrument to AMI facilities as described in the Troubleshooting section of this manual. WARNING

McCombe, Bruce D.

440

Characterization of Single Barrier Microrefrigerators at Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

re?ectance; TEC: thermal electric cooling. structure InGaAs/for die level thermal management and for cooling/temperatureregime (maximum cooling) at 295 K. (e, f) Thermal image and

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Cryogenic Tests of the g-2 Superconducting Solenoid Magnet System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Snydstrup and T. Tallerico, Brookhaven National LaboratoryBerkeley Laboratory and at Brookhaven National LaboratoryMuon g-2 Design Report." Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Jia, L.X.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Cryogenic Adsorption of Hydrogen Isotopes over Nano-Structured Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detritiation and Isotope Separation / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology (Part 2)

X. Xiao; L. K. Heung

443

Electro-mechanical heat switch for cryogenic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat switch includes two symmetric jaws. Each jaw is comprised of a link connected at a translatable joint to a flexible arm. Each arm rotates about a fixed pivot, and has an articulated end including a thermal contact pad connected to a heat sink. The links are joined together at a translatable main joint. To close the heat switch, a closing solenoid is actuated and forces the main joint to an over-center position. This movement rotates the arms about their pivots, respectively, forces each of them into a stressed configuration, and forces the thermal contact pads towards each other and into compressive contact with a cold finger. The closing solenoid is then deactivated. The heat switch remains closed due to a restoring force generated by the stressed configuration of each arm, until actuation of an opening solenoid returns the main joint to its starting open-switch position.

van den Berg, Marcel L. (Oakland, CA); Batteux, Jan D. (Hayward, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Rocket-borne, low gravity cryogenic heat transfer experiment  

SciTech Connect

From AIAA/NSA/ASTM/IES 7th space simulation conference; Los Angeles, Calif11nia, USA (12 Nov 1973). In order to obtain steady state data on nucleate boiling heat transfer to liquid helium in a nearly zero gravity environment a rocket-borne experiment was designed, built and successfully flown. A description of the apparatus and flight is presented along with preliminary results. (auth)

Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Taylor, J.F.

1974-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Fabrication of Window Saddles for NIF Cryogenic Hohlraums (A24505)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proc. Of 15th Target Fabrication Specialists Meeting, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, 2003; To Be Published In Fusion Science And Technology15th Target Fabrication Specialists Meeting Gleneden Beach Oregon, US, 2003999609730

Giraldez, E.

2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

446

Standard and Experimental Approach for Advanced Controls in Cryogenics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world's largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Its business is fundamental physics, finding out what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the world's largest and most complex scientific instruments are used to study the basic constituents of matter, the fundamental particles. By studying what happens when these particles collide, physicists learn about the laws of Nature. The instruments used at CERN are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and more powerful particle accelerator ever built. It is a circular particle accelerator with a circumference of 27 km, located about 100 m underground, used by physicists to study the smallest known particles, the fundamental building ...

Pezzetti, Marco; Chadli, Mohammed

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Cryogenic Homogenization and Sampling of Heterogeneous Multi-Phase Feedstock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogeneous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77K (-196 C). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample maybe maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

Doyle, Glenn M.; Ideker, Virgene D.; Siegwarth, James D.

1999-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

448

Thermal Transpiration Behavior of Hydrogen Isotopes in Cryogenic Pump System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tritium, Safety, and Environment / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 1)

Kenji Kotoh; Masashi Kawahara; Keisuke Kimura; Kazuhiko Kudo

449

Thermal Management of Onboard Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan: (A) System Weight and Volume (C) Efficiency (E) ChargingDischarging Rates (J) Thermal Management Technical Targets In this project, studies are being conducted to develop...

450

Cryogen free superconducting splittable quadrupole magnet for linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A new superconducting quadrupole magnet for linear accelerators was fabricated at Fermilab. The magnet is designed to work inside a cryomodule in the space between SCRF cavities. SCRF cavities must be installed inside a very clean room adding issues to the magnet design, and fabrication. The designed magnet has a splittable along the vertical plane configuration and could be installed outside of the clean room around the beam pipe previously connected to neighboring cavities. For more convenient assembly and replacement a 'superferric' magnet configuration with four racetrack type coils was chosen. The magnet does not have a helium vessel and is conductively cooled from the cryomodule LHe supply pipe and a helium gas return pipe. The quadrupole generates 36 T integrated magnetic field gradient, has 600 mm effective length, and the peak gradient is 54 T/m. In this paper the quadrupole magnetic, mechanical, and thermal designs are presented, along with the magnet fabrication overview and first test results.

Kashikhin, V.S.; Andreev, N.; Kerby, J.; Orlov, Y.; Solyak, N.; Tartaglia, M.; Velev, G.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Cryogenic deformation of high temperature superconductive composite structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in a process of preparing a composite high temperature oxide superconductive wire is provided and involves conducting at least one cross-sectional reduction step in the processing preparation of the wire at sub-ambient temperatures.

Roberts, Peter R. (Groton, MA); Michels, William (Brookline, MA); Bingert, John F. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

453

Cryogenic, compressed, and liquid hydrogen fuel storage in vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the viable energy carrier of future energy and transportation systems due to its clean emissions, light weight, and abundance. Its extremely low volumetric density, however, presents significant challenges to ...

Reyes, Allan B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Resolution and Polarization Distribution in Cryogenic DNP/MAS Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This contribution addresses four potential misconceptions associated with high-resolution dynamic nuclear polarization/magic angle spinning (DNP/MAS) experiments. First, spectral resolution is not generally compromised at ...

Barnes, Alexander

455

Cryogenic Carbon Capture using a Desublimating Spray Tower.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Global warming is becoming ever increasing concern in our society. As such the likelihood of a carbon tax in the US is becoming increasingly likely. (more)

Nielson, Bradley J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Characterization of Single Barrier Microrefrigerators at Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. 2. Sandia National Laboratories,Research Corporation program. Sandia is a multiprogramlaboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Phonon Quasidiffusion in Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Large Germanium Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We present results on quasidiffusion studies in large, 3 inch diameter, 1 inch thick [100] high purity germanium crystals, cooled to 50 mK in the vacuum of a dilution refrigerator, and exposed with 59.5 keV gamma-rays from an Am-241 calibration source. We compare data obtained in two different detector types, with different phonon sensor area coverage, with results from a Monte Carlo. The Monte Carlo includes phonon quasidiffusion and the generation of phonons created by charge carriers as they are drifted across the detector by ionization readout channels.

Leman, S.W.; /MIT, MKI; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; McCarthy, K.A.; /MIT, MKI; Pyle, M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Resch, R.; /SLAC; Sadoulet, B.; Sundqvist, K.M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Brink, P.L.; Cherry, M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; /SLAC; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; /MIT, MKI; Mirabolfathi, N.; Serfass, B.; /UC, Berkeley; Tomada, A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

458

Recent Results and Future Prospects Cryogenic Dark Matter Search  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Really Cool Detectors: ZIPs Qinner Qouter A B D C Rbias Ibias SQUID array Phonon D Rfeedback Vqbias 1 µ-mediated Qouter Qinner z y x @50 mK #12;CDMS - UCSC Seminar Richard Schnee Really Cool Detectors: ZIPs Qinner two towers of 6 detectors each in 2003 "Tower 1" same 4 Ge (1 kg) and 2 Si (0.2 kg) ZIPs run

California at Santa Cruz, University of

459

Cryogenic Tests of the g-2 Superconducting Solenoid Magnet System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, High EnergyOffice of High Energy and Nuclear Physics. High Energy

Jia, L.X.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

The role of superconductivity and cryogenics in the neutrino factory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton N Y 11973, USA d. Jefferson Lab,Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton N Y 11973, U S A d. Jefferson Lab,

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

A Cryogenic RF Material Testing Facility at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed an X-band SRF testing system using a high-Q copper cavity with an interchangeable flat bottom for the testing of different materials. By measuring the Q of the cavity, the system is capable to characterize the quenching magnetic field of the superconducting samples at different power level and temperature, as well as the surface resistivity. This paper presents the most recent development of the system and testing results.

Guo, Jiquan; Martin, David; Tantawi, Sami; Yoneda, Charles; /SLAC

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

462

Trapping ultracold gases near cryogenic materials with rapid reconfigurability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a novel atom chip trapping system that allows the placement and high-resolution imaging of ultracold atoms within microns from any exchange with minimal experimental downtime. The sample is not connected to the atom chip, allowing rapid exchange without perturbing the atom chip or laser cooling apparatus. Exchange of the sample and retrapping of atoms has been performed within a week turnaround, limited only by chamber baking. Moreover, the decoupling of sample and atom chip provides the ability to independently tune the sample temperature and its position with respect to the trapped ultracold gas, which itself may remain in the focus of a high-resolution imaging system. As a first demonstration of this new system, we have confined a 700-nK cloud of 8x10^4 87Rb atoms within 100 um of a gold-mirrored 100-um-thick silicon substrate. The substrate was cooled to 35 K without use of a heat shield, while the atom chip, 120 um away, remained at room temperature. Atoms may be imaged and retrapped every 16 s, allowing rapid data collection.

Matthew A. Naides; Richard W. Turner; Ruby A. Lai; Jack M. DiSciacca; Benjamin L. Lev

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

463

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLOne Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLcondensers, surface heat exchangers, surface condensers,

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Cryogenic Tank Analysis Program...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

state of a tank fluid based on quasi steady-state solutions of the first law of thermodynamics for a closed, isothermal system. Purpose Calculate boiloff rates and pressure rise...

465

CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

466

Removing gaseous contaminants in {sup 3}He by cryogenic stripping  

SciTech Connect

The Tritium Operations Group at LLNL, Tritium Facility has recently developed a {sup 3}He recovery system to remove argon, xenon, neon, hydrogen, and all other contaminants from the {sup 3}He stream in an Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) experimental apparatus. In this paper the authors will describe in detail the background information, technical requirements, the design approach, and the results of their experimental tests. The authors believe this gas purification system may have other applications as it provides at a reasonable cost an efficient method for purification of gaseous helium.

Benapfl, M.; Biltoft, P.; Coombs, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Tritium Operations Group

1995-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

467

Adsorption of Hydrogen Isotopes on Various Adsorbents at Cryogenic Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tritium, Safety, and Environment / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 1)

Kenzo Munakata; Toshiharu Takeishi; Shunsaku Kajii; Takaaki Wajima; Yoshinori Kawamura

468

Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a [open quotes]wire drawing[close quotes] process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er[sub 3]Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er[sub 3]Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures.

Hendricks, J.B.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

469

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wells, fossil fuel burners, wet cooling towers, anddry cooling towers. Fluid properties are calculated usingthe water entering the cooling tower. Given the system state

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Effects of cryogenic equal channel angular deformation on copper 101  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Grain size in polycrystalline metallic materials significantly influences physical and mechanical properties. At room temperature, large grain size is generally associated with low strength, hardness and ductility. Fine grained microstructures show an increase in strength due to a larger grain boundary surface area per unit volume. One way to obtain fine grained microstructures is through cold working and recrystallization of the material. In this study, oxygen-free high-conductivity copper 101 was cold worked by being subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) at room temperature (23 C) and at -196 C under liquid nitrogen. Cold working was imparted by equal channel angular deformation (ECAD). Before extrusions were performed, a special ECAD tool was designed and built, which was capable of operating under the high loads resulting from forcing a billet through the die at -196 C. Hardness, tensile strength, electrical resistivity and annealing experiments were performed following deformation along with optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe changes in properties and grain morphology.

Horan, Christopher Sean

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Neutral Beam Cryogenics Operator | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Join Our Mailing List A Collaborative National Center for Fusion & Plasma Research Search form Search Search Home About Overview Learn More Visiting PPPL History...

472

Senate Bill No. 73 An act to amend Section 25415 of, and to add Chapter 5 (commencing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

public buildings and facilities, as well as job training and workforce development and public-private

473

Senate Bill No. 34 An act to add Sections 2069, 2099, and 2099.5 to the Fish and Game  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2010.] legislative counsel's digest SB 34, Padilla. Energy: solar thermal and photovoltaic powerplants and photovoltaic powerplants in the planning area of the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, as defined solar thermal and photovoltaic powerplants in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan planning

474

DID J. P. MORGANS MEN ADD VALUE? An Economists Perspective on Financial Capitalism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pre-WWI period saw the heyday of financial capitalismthe dominance of investment bankers in their dealings with firm managersin the United States. This form of organization had costs: it created conflicts of interest that investment bankers could exploit for their own profit. It also had benefits: investment banker representation on boards allowed bankers to quickly replace managers whose performance was unsatisfactory and signal to ultimate investors that a company was well managed and sound. In 191112 the presence on ones board of directors of a partner in J.P. Morgan and Co. added about 30 percent to common stock equity value, and about 15 percent to the total market value of the firm. Sat, Aug 12, 1995 1 J. Bradford De Long

J. Bradford; De Long; J. Bradford; De Long

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Global wind energy market report. Wind energy industry grows at steady pace, adds over 8,000 MW in 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cumulative global wind energy generating capacity topped 39,000 megawatts (MW) by the end of 2003. New equipment totally over 8,000 MW in capacity was installed worldwide during the year. The report, updated annually, provides information on the status of the wind energy market throughout the world and gives details on various regions. A listing of new and cumulative installed capacity by country and by region is included as an appendix.

anon.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Assembly of High-Areal-Density Deuterium-Tritium Fuel from Indirectly Driven Cryogenic Implosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility has been used to compress deuterium-tritium to an average areal density of ~1.00.1??g?cm[superscript -2], which is 67% of the ignition requirement. These conditions were obtained using 192 ...

Casey, Daniel Thomas

477

CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

Schwenterly, S W [ORNL; Pleva, Ed [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Ha, Tam T [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

NERC GUIDANCE ON SAFE USE OF CRYOGENICS Version 1.7 Date: December 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be necessary when using, storing, and transporting low temperature liquefied or solidified gases (commonly produced from a gas that can be liquefied, and in some cases solidified, by the application of pressure within a research environment, with associated boiling points at atmospheric pressure, are Nitrogen (-196

Edinburgh, University of

479

Test of constancy of speed of light with rotating cryogenic optical resonators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A test of Lorentz invariance for electromagnetic waves was performed by comparing the resonance frequencies of two optical resonators as a function of orientation in space. In terms of the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl theory, we obtain $\\beta-\\delta-1/2=(+0.5\\pm 3\\pm 0.7) E-10$, a ten-fold improvement compared to the previous best results. We also set a first upper limit for a so far unknown parameter of the Standard Model Extension test theory, $|(\\tilde{\\kappa}_{e-})^{ZZ}| < 2\\cdot E-14$.

P. Antonini; M. Okhapkin; E. Gkl; S. Schiller

2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

480

Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Cryogenic Conduction Cooling Test of Removable Panel Mock-Up for ITER Cryostat Thermal Shield  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ITER / Proceedings of the Twentieth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE-2012) (Part 1), Nashville, Tennessee, August 27-31, 2012

K. Nam et al.

482

Characterization of lithium niobate electro-optic modulators at cryogenic temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the operation of lithium niobate electro-optic waveguide modulators at temperatures down to 15{degrees}K. Commercial and laboratory fiber pigtailed devices have successfully been cooled without any increases in insertion loss from temperature induced stresses in device packaging. Three x-cut devices exhibited a linear increase in V{pi} voltage of 8%{plus_minus}1% when cooled from room temperature to {approximately} 20{degree}K. The broadband frequency response improved at lower temperature. A velocity-matched experimental modular has shown increased bandwidth when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Morse, J.; McCammon, K.; McConaghy, C.; Masquelier, D.; Garrett, H.; Lowry, M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Micron-Scaled Defects on Cryogenic Targets: An Assessment of Condensate Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Selected papers from 20th Target Fabrication Meeting, May 20-24, 2012, Santa Fe, NM, Guest Editor: Robert C. Cook

W. T. Shmayda; D. R. Harding; V. A. Versteeg; C. Kingsley; M. Hallgren; S. J. Loucks

484

Cryogenic studies for the proposed CERN large hadron electron collider (LHEC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The LHeC (Large Hadron electron Collider) is a proposed future colliding beam facility for lepton-nucleon scattering particle physics at CERN. A new 60 GeV electron accelerator will be added to the existing 27 km circumference 7 TeV LHC for collisions of electrons with protons and heavy ions. Two basic design options are being pursued. The first is a circular accelerator housed in the existing LHC tunnel which is referred to as the "Ring-Ring" version. Low field normal conducting magnets guide the particle beam while superconducting (SC) RF cavities cooled to 2 K are installed at two opposite locations at the LHC tunnel to accelerate the beams. For this version in addition a 10 GeV re-circulating SC injector will be installed. In total four refrigerators with cooling capacities between 1.2 kW and 3 kW @ 4.5 K are needed. The second option

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Numerical and experimental studies of IFE target layering in a cryogenic fluidized bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the target surface for NIF (National Ignition Facility)Max size Isolated defect NIF point design spec GDP chips,on the target surface for NIF (National Ignition Facility)

Boehm, Kurt Julian

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486