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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Cryogenic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

\\?kr?-?-?je-nik\\ adj...(1896) Pertaining to very low temperatures, usually temperatures below about –150°C (123 K). Evaluations of plastics at cryogenic temperatures are conducted for potential space applications...

Jan W. Gooch

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cryogenic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

\\¦kr?-?-¦je-nik\\ (1896) adj.... Pertaining to very low temperatures, usually temperatures below about ?150°C (123?K). Evaluations of plastics at cryogenic temperatures are conducted for potential space applicatio...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Cryogenic safety  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic safety ... Examines the properties of cryogenic fluids and hazards associated with their use and storage. ...

Eric W. Spencer

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Cryogenic Cables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic Cables ... power underground with superconducting cables at cryogenic temperatures. ... Already, cryogenic cooling of existing cables has been proposed to decrease ohmic resistance and thereby increase powercarrying capacities by as much as 10 times. ...

1969-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

5

Cryogenic Finishing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n...Process by which a material is cryogenically tempered (deep freezing below ?300°F). Cryogenic finishing relieves stress in the substrate, thus...

Jan W. Gooch

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

cryogenic texture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

cryogenic texture ? Kryostruktur, Gefrierstruktur, Kältestruktur f, Froststruktur [z.B. von gefrorenem Boden

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Cryogenic Fabric  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distinct soil micromorphology is produced due to the effects of freezing and thawing processes and is termed as cryogenic fabric. Layers, lenses, and streaks of segregation ice are typical elements of the cryogenic

P. Pradeep Kumar

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Cryogenic exciter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

9

CRYOGENIC DATA BOOK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contract No. W -7405-eng-48 CRYOGENIC DATA BOOK Dudley B.Bureau of Standards Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory BouldeIncreased activities in Cryogenic Engineering have brought

Chelton, Dudley B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Cryogenic Aquiclude  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aquiclude can be defined as layer of rock that has almost no porosity and does not allow the flow of water. Cryogenic aquiclude can be considered as layer of...

P. Pradeep Kumar

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

12

Cryogenic process reclaims scrap tires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic process reclaims scrap tires ... A new facility in Indiana will be taking a different approach: cryogenic recycling. ...

1982-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Cryogenic homogenization of biological tissues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic homogenization of biological tissues ... Thermal (roasting and heating in a microwave oven), mechanical (milling and cryogenic grinding), and enzymatic ... ...

Rolf Zeisler; John K. Langland; Sally H. Harrison

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Eden Cryogenics LLC formerly Brehon Cryogenics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cryogenics LLC formerly Brehon Cryogenics Cryogenics LLC formerly Brehon Cryogenics Jump to: navigation, search Name Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics) Place Plain City, Ohio Zip 43064 Sector Vehicles Product Will fabricate cryogenic hardware for use in alternative fueled vehicles, fueling stations, aerospace, energy, and industrial applications. References Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics) is a company located in Plain City, Ohio . References ↑ "[ Eden Cryogenics, LLC. (formerly Brehon Cryogenics)]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Eden_Cryogenics_LLC_formerly_Brehon_Cryogenics&oldid=344531

15

Cryogenic Insulation Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modern technology in military and commercial applications of cryogenic liquids requires low-loss or no-loss storage and transportation systems. The cryogenic engineer is faced with the necessity of designing cryo...

S. T. Stoy

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

MagLab Audio Dictionary: Cryogenics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cryogenics? Now Playing: What's Cryogenics? Enable Javascript and Flash to stream the Magnet Minute Steve Van Sciver Associated Links Cryogenics for English Majors Cryogenics...

17

Cryogenic System Revised June 1994  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 9. Cryogenic System Revised June 1994 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Heat Loads and Refrigeration Duties -- 175 -- #12; 176 Cryogenic System #12; Cryogenic System 177 9.3. Two Phase Helium Cooling 9.4. The Refrigerator and Control #12; 178 Cryogenic System 9.5. Cryogen Delivery and Control 9.6. Three Cooling

Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

18

THE TPC MAGNET CRYOGENIC SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Division THE TPC MAGNET CRYOGENIC SYSTEM M.A. Green, W.A.LBL-10552 THE TPC MAGNET CRYOGENIC SYSTEM M. A. Green, W. A.systems. no 9. R. B. Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, D. Van

Green, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Mag Lab Tour: Cryogenics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

research and development program are to study the fundamental fluid dynamics and heat transfer of low temperature liquids, apply cryogenic cooling technology to large-scale...

20

Cryogenic optical refrigeration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We review the field of laser cooling of solids, focusing our attention on the recent advances in cryogenic cooling of an ytterbium-doped fluoride crystal...

Seletskiy, Denis V; Hehlen, Markus P; Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Add astronomy to your letters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...August 2002 news News Add astronomy to your letters Now you can post...2002 Vol 43 NEWS Common cause for astronomy and geophysics With this issue of...the UK. This is the companion to Astronomy in the UK, published in 2000; together......

Sue Bowler

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Resonant cryogenic chopper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe the design, construction, and performance of a resonant cryogenic chopper that operates at 4.2 K. The chopper is mechanically and thermally robust; it can occult a 2.54-cm...

Page, Lyman A; Cheng, Edward S; Meyer, Stephan S

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

AddGlobe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AddGlobe AddGlobe Jump to: navigation, search Name AddGlobe Place San Mateo, California Zip 94402 Product AddGlobe LLC. manage emissions and act as a B2B resource in order to bring ecologically effective technologies to clients seeking investments, operational expansion, and technological enhancements. References AddGlobe[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. AddGlobe is a company located in San Mateo, California . References ↑ "[ AddGlobe]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=AddGlobe&oldid=341753" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version

24

CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F. [Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division BP15, ZI Les Engenieres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C. [Consultants, Grenoble (France)

2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to obtain high magnetic fields in a short period undulator, superconductive undulators have been actively investigated in recent years. In this paper, however, we propose a new approach, the cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU) design, using permanent magnets at the cryogenic temperature of liquid nitrogen or higher. This cryogenic scheme can be easily adapted to currently existing in-vacuum undulators and it improves the magnetic field performance by 30%–50%. Unlike superconductive undulators operating around the liquid helium temperature, there is no big technological difficulty such as the thermal budget problem. In addition, existing field correction techniques are applicable to the CPMUs. Since there is no quench in the CPMUs, the operation of the CPMUs has the same reliability as conventional permanent magnet undulators.

Toru Hara; Takashi Tanaka; Hideo Kitamura; Teruhiko Bizen; Xavier Maréchal; Takamitsu Seike; Tsutomu Kohda; Yutaka Matsuura

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

26

Cryogenic Ion Chemistry and Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic Ion Chemistry and Spectroscopy ... His research focuses on developing and applying cryogenic ion processing for the characterization of hydrogen bonding motifs in macromolecules and activated organometallic catalysts. ... In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. ...

Arron B. Wolk; Christopher M. Leavitt; Etienne Garand; Mark A. Johnson

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

27

Cryogenic structural support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tensile support member is provided for use in a cryogenic environment. The member is in the form of a link formed of an epoxy glass laminate with at least one ply of the laminate having its fibers aligned circumferentially about the link.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Mataya, Karl F. (Lemont, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

High Power Cryogenic Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

Gregory Smith

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

CAU_529_ADD_F.book  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada October 2013 DOENV--1000-REV. 1-ADD Controlled Copy No.: Revision No.: 1...

30

LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES Faced with the challenge of...

31

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

Brindza, Paul Daniel (Yorktown, VA); Wines, Robin Renee (Norfolk, VA); Takacs, James Joseph (Hayes, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Cryogenic treatment of gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

33

Cryogenic heat engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A classroom demonstration is described which illustrates how a cryogenic fluid liquid nitrogen can be used to run an open?cycle engine and do work. A brief analysis on the utility of liquid nitrogen for doing work shows some surprising results in comparison with lead/acid batteries. The specific energy (the work per unit mass) is found to be higher for liquid nitrogen while the energy cost is found to be about an order of magnitude lower.

C. A. Ordonez

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Experiments on Cryogenic Complex Plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments on a cryogenic complex plasma have been performed. Preliminary experiments include production of a plasma in a liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by a pulsed discharge. The extended production of a plasma has been realized in a vapor of liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by rf discharge. The charge of dust particles injected in such a plasma has been studied in detail.

Ishihara, O.; Sekine, W.; Kubota, J.; Uotani, N.; Chikasue, M.; Shindo, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

35

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Frank Trang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials by Frank Trang B.S., University of California entitled: Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials written by Frank Trang has been approved.D., Electrical Engineering) Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials Thesis directed by Professor

Popovic, Zoya

36

Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics ... It is the purpose of this paper to review current areas of research in cryogenic calorimetry. ...

Edgar F. Westrum Jr.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cryogenic Safety This course will provide basic information concerning cryogens and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic Safety Training #12;This course will provide basic information concerning cryogens including cryogen, critical point, critical temperature, vacuum jacket, pressure relief device, dewar as the primary cryogens used at the NHMFL. n Explain the pressure hazards associated with contained cryogenic

McQuade, D. Tyler

40

Characterization of Single Barrier Microrefrigerators at Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microrefrigerators at Cryogenic Temperatures X. WANG, 1,3 Y.Microrefrigerators at Cryogenic Temperatures Fig. 6. Three-ionic cooling devices at cryogenic temperatures is reported.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Cryogenic characterization of Josephson junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic characterization is a crucial part of understanding the behavior of low-temperature quantum electronics. Reliable device testing provides the feedback to fabrication process development, facilitating the rapid ...

Brown, Keith Andrew

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Microsoft Word - cryogenic safety sheet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

shirt, or arm protection Pants should be cuff-less and not be tucked into shoes or boots. Closed toed shoes. No sandals or flip-flops. Handling of Cryogenic Fluids and...

43

Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits April 8,...

44

Local Energy Alliance Program Adds Green Appraisal Capabilities...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Energy Alliance Program Adds Green Appraisal Capabilities to its Energy Efficiency Services Local Energy Alliance Program Adds Green Appraisal Capabilities to its Energy...

45

Chemistry Add-In for Word  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Chemistry Add-In for Word is an Open Source program that allows chemists to create, edit and manipulate chemistry (labels and 2D structures) in the Word environment. the on-screen representation is backed by semantic data in Chemical Markup...

Townsend, Joseph A

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

46

Experiment Hazard Class 2 - Cryogenic Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 - Cryogenic Systems 2 - Cryogenic Systems Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving the use of cryogenic systems. Experiment Hazard Control Verification Statements General requirements The use of detectors/alarms, warning signs, and adequate ventilation are recommended for areas where release of a cryogen can result in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Cryogenic systems and vessels are always insulated to reduce heat exchange and are labeled with the common name of the cryogen. Cryogenic systems are pressure protected and equipment are insptected and maintained. The use of flammable cryogens requires technical consultation. Initial consultation may be obtained from the divisional ESH Coordinator. A written emergency evacuation response plan must be available

47

Modeling of cryogen leakage through composite laminates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic composites ?nd critical application in the manufacture of fuel tanks for reusable launch vehicles due to signi?cant reduction in overall structural weight of the tank. These fuel tanks contain pressurized cryogen...

Peddiraju, Naga Venkata Satya Pravin Kumar

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

48

Cryogenic technology boosts linear accelerator capability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic technology boosts linear accelerator capability ... Two critical properties of matter at cryogenic temperatures—superconductivity and superfluidity—should open the way for a major advance in electron linear accelerator capability. ...

1968-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

49

Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a Single TTF / FEL - Cryomodule Test Bench TESLA Report No for the test of single TTF/FEL-cryomodules is proposed. The general equipment and the layout of the cryogenic the necessity of experimental investigations of fault conditions for TESLA cryogenic components in line

50

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Utah Paperbox Adds Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Paperbox Adds Workplace Charging to Boost Sustainability on AddThis.com...

51

GTP Adds Meeting on the National Geothermal Data System Project...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Adds Meeting on the National Geothermal Data System Project to Peer Review GTP Adds Meeting on the National Geothermal Data System Project to Peer Review May 10, 2010 - 2:41pm...

52

Add new comment | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Open Data for a Clean, Secure Energy Future Open Data for a Clean, Secure Energy Future Submitted by Todd Park, David Danielson and Richard Kauffman on Fri, 07/20/2012 - 5:40pm Log in to vote 6 Freely-available data from the Federal government and other sources can be a powerful input to private sector innovation. Open data can spur entrepreneurship, empower citizens, and create jobs. As just one example, data from the US Global Positioning System (GPS) have been utilized by entrepreneurs to power navigation systems, precision crop farming tools, and other innovations that add over $90 billion in value to our economy each year and have improved the lives of Americans in many ways. The Obama Administration recently launched a series of Open Data Initiatives-in health, public safety, education, and energy. The Energy

53

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCMAG-SIO The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems With76SF0009S. The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems WithAbstract- The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical

Green, Michael A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

CRYOGENIC VACUUM PUMPING AT THE LBL 88-INCH CYCLOTRON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRYOGENIC VACUUM PUMPING AT THE LBL 88-INCH CYCLOTRON D.R. A. Gotigh Abstract A cryogenic vacuum pimping panel hasIt was decided to use a cryogenic pumping panel and a 20°K

Elo, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original Motivation for broad international program on cryogenic particle detectors was neutrino physics and dark

California at Berkeley, University of

56

Cryogenic wavefront correction using membrane deformable mirrors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro-machined membrane deformable mirrors (MMDMs) are being evaluated for their suitability as wavefront correctors at cryogenic temperatures. Presented here are experimental...

Dyson, Harold; Sharples, Ray; Dipper, N; Vdovin, Gleb

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Cryogenic slurry for extinguishing underground fires  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic slurry comprising a mixture of solid carbon dioxide particles suspended in liquid nitrogen is provided which is useful in extinguishing underground fires.

Chaiken, Robert F. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kim, Ann G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kociban, Andrew M. (Wheeling, WV); Slivon, Jr., Joseph P. (Tarentum, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Van Sciver receives international award for cryogenics research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tsukuba, Japan, presented the award to Van Sciver on July 22 during the International Cryogenic Engineering Conference-International Cryogenic Materials Conference in Wroclaw,...

59

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive Layer Assisted Deposition. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive...

60

Cryogenic Magnet Could Open New Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Now that its cryogenic superconducting magnet is commercially available (C&EN, Jan. 15, page 43), Westinghouse Electric expects the magnet to open up new areas of high-field magnet research with possible use in magnetohydrodynamics, thermonuclear fusion, and cryogenic devices. ...

1962-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

62

Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1 Governance & Policies Effective: October 1997 Administrative Policy DROP/ADD POLICY Approved: October 1997 Revised: 2002; 2004; June 8, 2011 Deans' Council. There is no automatic drop policy for nonattendance. PASSHE universities are expected to adhere to the System

Hardy, Christopher R.

63

Cryogenic neutron protein crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article highlights routine methods and the benefits of collecting cryogenic macromolecular neutron diffraction data.

Coates, L.

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

64

A cryogenic receiver for EPR R. Narkowicz a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cryogenic receiver for EPR R. Narkowicz a, , H. Ogata b , E. Reijerse b , D. Suter a a Department: Cryogenic receiver Planar microresonators Signal-to-noise ratio Sensitivity a b s t r a c t Cryogenic probes capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor

Suter, Dieter

65

Progress on the CUORE Cryogenic System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We give here an update on the CUORE cryogenic system. It consists of a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by five pulse tubes and one high-power specially designed dilution refrigerator built by Leiden Cryogenics. The cryostat design has been completed and it is presently under construction. The site at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is ready for the installation of the cryostat which is expected to begin by the end of 2009. We discuss here the preliminary results obtained on the performance of the mechanical cryorefrigerators. We also present a measurement of the residual heat leak of the copper which has been selected for the cryostat fabrication.

Martinez, M.; Arnaboldi, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca /INFN Sez. Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Alessandria, F. [INFN Sez. Milano (Italy); Barucci, M. [INFN Sez. Firenze (Italy); Bucci, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Frossati, G. [Leiden Cryogenics (Netherlands); De Waard, A. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University (Netherlands); Woodcraft, A. [SUPA, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

Nanosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser is modernised to increase its average and peak power. The master oscillator unit of the laser is considerably modified so that the pulse duration decreases to several nanoseconds with the same pulse energy. A cryogenic disk laser head with a flow-through cooling system is developed. Based on two such laser heads, a new main amplifier is assembled according to an active multipass cell scheme. The total small-signal gain of cryogenic cascades is ~108.

E A Perevezentsev; I B Mukhin; I I Kuznetsov; O L Vadimova; O V Palashov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES Michael C. Heaven, 1the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivationperturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information

Heaven, Michael C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Prediction and Visualization of Temperature Histories in Optically-Irradiated Cryogenic Tissues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Optically-Irradiated Cryogenic Tissues A Dissertationin Optically-Irradiated Cryogenic Tissues by Adam B. Sladeregions of tissue from cryogenic damage through gentle laser

Slade, Adam Broadbent

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

HgCdTe superlattices for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration Daryoosh Vashaee a?merit ?ZT max ? 3? at cryogenic temperatures. Calculationstemperature, 1–6 for cryogenic refrigeration the situation

Vashaee, D; Shakouri, A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

CONSEQUENCES OF THE RE-TRANSFORMATION OF PRECIPITATED ADSTENITE IN FERRITIC CRYOGENIC STEELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUSTENITE IN FERRITIC CRYOGENIC STEELS J. W. Morris, Jr. ,AUSTENITE IN FERRITIC CRYOGENIC STEELS By J. W. Morris,Austcnite in Ferritic Cryogenic Steels J. W. Morris, Jr. ,*

Morris Jr., J.W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

Wu, Genfa (Yorktown, VA); Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Hayes, VA)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

72

Cryogenic xenon droplets for advanced lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cryogenic xenon droplet production system for use in anadvanced laser plasma source for x-ray lithography has been designed, fabricated, and tested at ORNL. The droplet generator is based on proven (ink jet printer) drop-on-demand.

Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

CRAD, Pressurized Systems and Cryogens Assessment Plan  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Assure personnel health and safety through regularly scheduled inspections and maintenance on pressure vessels and equipment, compressed gases and gas cylinders, vacuum equipment and systems, hydraulics, and cryogenic materials and systems.

74

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Cryogenic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mn(IV,IV) dimer acquired at 9.4 T. EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Cryogenic NMR and Advanced Electronic Structure Theory as a Unique EMSL Capability for Complex...

76

NC-JRA-005_Cryogenic_Work  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5CryogenicWork.doc Page 1 of 3 Rev. 1 5162011 Name(s) of Risk Team Members: L. Davis, D. Elling, R. Sabatini Point Value Parameter 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency (B)

77

Cryogenic Electron Beam Induced Chemical Etching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic cooling is used to enable efficient, gas-mediated electron beam induced etching (EBIE) in cases where the etch rate is negligible at room and elevated substrate temperatures. The process is demonstrated using nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) as the ...

Aiden A. Martin; Milos Toth

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Cryogenic Foam Insulations: Polyurethane and Polystyrene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased use of cryogenic temperatures in the recent past may be credited in large part to military and aerospace endeavors. However, the impending energy shortage, advanced surgical techniques, refrigeration of...

L. L. Sparks

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

Hendricks, C.D.

1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

80

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NREL: News Feature - NREL Uses Industry Best Practices to Add...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NREL Uses Industry Best Practices to Add Partners July 28, 2014 Photo of a man and woman in hard hats inside NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility. Enlarge image Thanks...

82

Approximate Dynamic Programming with Affine ADDs Scott Sanner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approximate Dynamic Programming with Affine ADDs Scott Sanner NICTA and ANU Canberra, Australia and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2010), van der Hoek, Kaminka, Lespérance, Luck and Sen (eds.), May, 10­14, 2010

Sanner, Scott

83

Flight Performance of the AKARI Cryogenic System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the flight performance of the cryogenic system of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, which was successfully launched on 2006 February 21 (UT). AKARI carries a 68.5 cm telescope together with two focal plane instruments, Infrared Cameras (IRC) and Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS), all of which are cooled down to cryogenic temperature to achieve superior sensitivity. The AKARI cryogenic system is a unique hybrid system, which consists of cryogen (liquid helium) and mechanical coolers (2-stage Stirling coolers). With the help of the mechanical coolers, 179 L (26.0 kg) of super-fluid liquid helium can keep the instruments cryogenically cooled for more than 500 days. The on-orbit performance of the AKARI cryogenics is consistent with the design and pre-flight test, and the boil-off gas flow rate is as small as 0.32 mg/s. We observed the increase of the major axis of the AKARI orbit, which can be explained by the thrust due to thermal pressure of vented helium gas.

Takao Nakagawa; Keigo Enya; Masayuki Hirabayashi; Hidehiro Kaneda; Tsuneo Kii; Yoshiyuki Kimura; Toshio Matsumoto; Hiroshi Murakami; Masahide Murakami; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Masanao Narita; Akira Ohnishi; Shoji Tsunematsu; Seiji Yoshida

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

84

Magnetic and Cryogenic Design of the MICE Coupling Solenoid Magnet System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note 234 Magnetic and Cryogenic Design of the MICE CouplingField,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 53, p 1299, AIP

Wang, Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Status of the ESS cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

Weisend II, J. G.; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

88

Advanced Devices for Cryogenic Thermal Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes six advanced cryogenic thermal management devices/subsystems developed by Swales Aerospace for ground/space?based applications of interest to NASA DoD and the commercial sector. The devices/subsystems described herein include the following: (a) a differential thermal expansion cryogenic thermal switch (DTE?CTSW) constructed with high purity aluminum end?pieces and an Ultem support rod for the 6 K Mid?Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); (b) a quad?redundant DTE?CTSW assembly for the 35 K science instruments (NIRCam NIRSpec and FGS) mounted on the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM); (c) a cryogenic diode heat pipe (CDHP) thermal switching system using methane as the working fluid for the 100 K CRISM hyperspectral mapping instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO); and (d) three additional devices/subsystems developed during the AFRL?sponsored CRYOTOOL program which include a dual DTE?CTSW/dual cryocooler test bed a miniaturized neon cryogenic loop heat pipe (mini?CLHP) and an across gimbal cryogenic thermal transport system (GCTTS). For the first three devices/subsystems mentioned above this paper describes key aspects of the development efforts including concept definition design fabrication and testing. For the latter three this paper provides brief overview descriptions as key details are provided in a related paper.

D. Bugby; C. Stouffer; J. Garzon; M. Beres; A. Gilchrist

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic Electron Microscopy Hemant D. Tagare-dimensional structure of macromolecules. A more modern method is cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-em), which

Duncan, James S.

90

Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate Foams in External Tank Cryogenic Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

External tanks of the spacecrafts need not only efficient, but also safe cryogenic insulation materials and the issues of their development ... , polyurethane (PUR) or polyisocyanurate (PIR) foams’ cryogenic insulation

U. Stirna; I. Beverte; V. Yakushin; U. Cabulis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Cryogenic neutron moderator on mesitylene pellets for IBR-2 reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic neutron moderator on mesitylene pellets for IBR-2 reactor Anan'ev V., Belyakov A mesitylene receiver 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 8 HeHe #12;Cryogenic transport pipeline for moderators of 2-3 and 7- 10 of the IBR-2M cryogenic moderator 1 2 3 5 4 1 ­ camera-imitator of cryogenic moderator, 2 ­thermal exchanger

Titov, Anatoly

92

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value February 22, 2010 - 11:40am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Tanya $41,000 in home upgrades were possible through the Energy Independence Program. Tanya to pay back the money through installments on her property taxes. After she did the upgrades, Tanya's energy bills are now down 50 percent. As the real estate business rebounds, homebuilders are seeing some growth because of a new nationwide awareness of energy efficiency and the money it can save homeowners. Tanya Narath, of Santa Rosa, Calif., was already taking advantage of renewable energy and green building techniques - her home has had solar panels on its roof for years, and solar tubes draw in natural light to brighten even the darkest spaces of the home. But then Tanya had an energy

93

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces February 16, 2005 - 10:14am Addthis Will Develop, Deploy, and Validate Carbon Sequestration Options WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have joined Saskatchewan and Manitoba as Canadian partners in the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program, the centerpiece of North American efforts to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. The program, a network of federal and state agencies, as well as private sector entities, will determine the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for future carbon capture, storage, and sequestration in different areas of

94

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces February 16, 2005 - 10:14am Addthis Will Develop, Deploy, and Validate Carbon Sequestration Options WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have joined Saskatchewan and Manitoba as Canadian partners in the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program, the centerpiece of North American efforts to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. The program, a network of federal and state agencies, as well as private sector entities, will determine the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for future carbon capture, storage, and sequestration in different areas of

95

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value Home Retrofits Save Money, Add Value February 22, 2010 - 11:40am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Tanya $41,000 in home upgrades were possible through the Energy Independence Program. Tanya to pay back the money through installments on her property taxes. After she did the upgrades, Tanya's energy bills are now down 50 percent. As the real estate business rebounds, homebuilders are seeing some growth because of a new nationwide awareness of energy efficiency and the money it can save homeowners. Tanya Narath, of Santa Rosa, Calif., was already taking advantage of renewable energy and green building techniques - her home has had solar panels on its roof for years, and solar tubes draw in natural light to brighten even the darkest spaces of the home. But then Tanya had an energy

96

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production June 23, 2011 - 4:37pm Addthis Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It's always exciting when efforts to move new energy technology forward also lead to new job creation. Earlier today, Secretary Chu was invited to tour the new Amonix solar power system manufacturing plant in North Las Vegas, Nevada. Construction of the facility, which was completed in May, generated 135 construction jobs and more than 300 permanent jobs! The company was able to take advantage of a $5.9 million clean energy manufacturing tax credit to build the $18 million facility. The 214,000 sq. ft. plant manufacturers Amonix MegaModules®, part of the company's

97

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production June 23, 2011 - 4:37pm Addthis Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It's always exciting when efforts to move new energy technology forward also lead to new job creation. Earlier today, Secretary Chu was invited to tour the new Amonix solar power system manufacturing plant in North Las Vegas, Nevada. Construction of the facility, which was completed in May, generated 135 construction jobs and more than 300 permanent jobs! The company was able to take advantage of a $5.9 million clean energy manufacturing tax credit to build the $18 million facility. The 214,000 sq. ft. plant manufacturers Amonix MegaModules®, part of the company's

98

Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 Affordability Contest Adds New Dimension to Solar Decathlon 2011 September 27, 2011 - 10:20am Addthis Matt Hansen reviews each team’s design drawings and construction specifications to estimate the total construction cost of its house. (Credit: Alexis Power/U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon) Matt Hansen reviews each team's design drawings and construction specifications to estimate the total construction cost of its house. (Credit: Alexis Power/U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon) Alexis Powers EDITOR'S NOTE: Originally posted on the Solar Decathlon News Blog on September 26, 2011. The big buzz word in Washington, D.C., these days is budget. In the solar village at West Potomac Park, cost savings are top of mind for the

99

Property:DSIRE/DtAdd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DtAdd DtAdd Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Date added to DSIRE. Pages using the property "DSIRE/DtAdd" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 2 2003 Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy-Down Program (Federal) + 2003-03-21 + 3 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) + 2008-03-27 + A AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) + 2009-12-14 + AEP (Central and SWEPCO) - Coolsaver A/C Tune Up (Texas) + 2009-12-14 + AEP (Central, North and SWEPCO) - Commercial Solutions Program (Texas) + 2009-12-14 + AEP Ohio (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) + 2011-01-08 + AEP Ohio (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) + 2011-01-08 + AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) + 2009-07-15 +

100

Portfolio Manager add properties spreadsheet | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

add properties spreadsheet add properties spreadsheet Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems Workshop Agenda  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tuesday, February 15, 2011 - Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems Tuesday, February 15, 2011 - Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems Purpose: Identify R&D needs and technical pathways associated with the continued development and validation of cryo-compressed and cryo-sorption hydrogen storage technologies, highlighting those aspects common to both technologies as well as identifying their unique requirements and issues that should be addressed. 8:30 Welcome/Introductions/Workshop objectives/Recap of previous day Ned Stetson, DOE 9:00 OEM Perspective on Cryogenic H 2 Storage (20 min presentation/20 min discussion) Tobias Brunner, BMW 9:40 Performance Comparison and Cost Review (20 min presentation/20 min discussion) Rajesh Ahluwalia, ANL 10:20 Break (10 minutes) 10:30 Expert Panel Discussion (Members will each have 15 minutes for presentations)

102

Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (review)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

A. Buzulutskov

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

103

TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic System Roger Bennett and Yury Ivanyushenkov CCLRC "SPECIFICATION" of the cryogenic cycle is: 1. Initial fill of the magnet cryostat slowly over many hours -12 at CERN, December 2004, drawn by Peter Titus #12;Design and Costing of the Cryogenic System 1. The input

McDonald, Kirk

104

ccsd00003303, Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ccsd­00003303, version 1 ­ 17 Nov 2004 Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic Detectors cryogenic experiments currently provide the best sensitivity, by nearly one order of magnitude, to WIMP of cryogenic exper- iments promises two orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity over the next few years

105

138 Industrial Productivity Spinoff 2009 Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

138 Industrial Productivity Spinoff 2009 Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids originating propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 °F) is crucial for space) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support

106

Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields by Ramesh Gopalan A.B. (University: Chair Date Date Date University of California at Berkeley 1998 #12;Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields Copyright 1998 by Ramesh Gopalan #12;1 Abstract Studies of Cryogenic Electron

Fajans, Joel

107

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N), powder insulation, and foam insulation, are used in the cryogenic storage vessels. Among CP823, Advances in Cjyogenie Engineering: Transactions of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC, Vol. 51, edited by J. G

Chang, Ho-Myung

108

Cryogenic Tests of the g-2 Superconducting Solenoid Magnet System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HAG 525 LBL-37S02 CRYOGENIC TESTS OF THE g-2 SUPERCONDUCTINGDE-AC03-76SF00098. LBL-37502 CRYOGENIC TESTS OF THE g-2This report describes a cryogenic test of the two 15.1 meter

Jia, L.X.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems Executive Summary Cryogenic systems providing 100-1000 watts of cooling power at 65-80 K are required) and operate more efficiently (30+% of Carnot) and reliably than present day off the shelf cryogenic systems

110

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea) and J. P. Eisenstein Condensed Matter contained in a cryogenic environment. Cyclotron emission from a two-dimensional electron gas 2DEG heated microwave to optical frequencies.2 In this article an all-cryogenic spectrometer is presented that bypasses

Eisenstein, Jim

111

Cryogenic Chiral Chromatography for Rapid Resolution of Drug Candidates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic Chiral Chromatography for Rapid Resolution of Drug Candidates ... The chromatographic resolution of three racemates is presented at temperature areas extending to the cryogenic area, down to ?25 °C. ... Although none of the studied compounds could be completely separated at room temperature, a baseline separation was achieved at cryogenic temperatures. ...

Martti Alkio; Olli Aaltonen; Harri Setälä

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

112

Dynamic Cryogenic Seals to Support Fueling of Fusion Tokomaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic Cryogenic Seals to Support Fueling of Fusion Tokomaks U. Naranjo and J. W. Leachman School in damaged products every year. Sealing at cryogenic temperatures is a substantially more difficult task than extruder in development at the WSU HYPER laboratory. The purpose of a cryogenic dynamic polymer seal

Collins, Gary S.

113

THE SNS CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM: EXPERIENCES IN COLLABORATION [1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WEAP013 THE SNS CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM: EXPERIENCES IN COLLABORATION [1] W. H. Strong, P. A. Gurd Abstract The cryogenic system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed by Jefferson Laboratory, and software tools. The cryogenic system is the first SNS system to be developed using SNS standards

114

Optical links for cryogenic focal plane array Alan R. Johnston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical links for cryogenic focal plane array readout Alan R. Johnston Duncan T. H. Liu, MEMBER@jplopto.jpl.nasa.gov 1 Introduction Optical instruments employing cryogenic focal plane arrays must minimize power dissipation on the focal plane. Because cooler power efficiency is low at cryogenic temperatures, reduction

Fossum, Eric R.

115

Continuous Cryogenic He-3 Adsorption Pump Harry Charalambous, David Schuster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuous Cryogenic He-3 Adsorption Pump Harry Charalambous, David Schuster 8/22/14 Abstract of the Pulse Tube Refrigerator as an Efficient and Reliable Cryocooler. Web. http://www.cryogenics and Technology. Development of the Pulse Tube Refrigerator as an Efficient and Reliable Cryocooler. Web. http://www.cryogenics

Lombardi, John R.

116

The first cryogenic dark matter experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental search for dark matter particle candidates using cryogenic detectors requires a low radioactive background environment. The authors discuss the status of a cryogenic dark matter experiment to be performed in the Stanford Underground Facility. The detectors will be cooled in a specially designed cryostat connected to a modified side access Oxford 400 dilution refrigerator. Details of the cryostat design and its operating performance are presented. The effectiveness of the multi-level shield surrounding the cryostat, as well as the background levels expected to be achieved in the pilot experiment are discussed. Finally, the limits which can be set on dark matter candidates with such an experiment are discussed.

Barnes, P.D.; Aubourg, E.; Akerib, D.S.; Cummings, A.; Lange, A.E.; Margulies, S.; Sadoulet, B.; Shutt, T.; Stockwell, W.; White, S.; Young, B.A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Da Silva, A. (Univ. of British Columbia, BC (Canada)); Bauer, D.; Borden, D.; Caldwell, D.O.; Gray, M.; Hale, D.; Lu, A.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)); Cabrera, B.; Chugg, B.; Dougherty, B.L.; Irwin, K.D.; Penn, M.J. (Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)); Emes, J.; Smith, A.; Smith, G.; Taylor, J.; Wolgast, C.; Haller, E.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Pritychenko, B.V.; Pomansky, A.A. (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Ross, R.R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

NASA/SP2009566-ADD Human Exploration of Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NASA/SP­2009­566-ADD Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Addendum Mars Architecture Steering Group NASA Headquarters Bret G. Drake, editor NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas July 2009 #12;THE NASA STI PROGRAM OFFICE . . . IN PROFILE Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated

Waliser, Duane E.

118

Lab Burger Adds Sizzle to Bid for Research Funds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...message is that it is doable," says Gabor Forgacs, who is trying to build bigger pieces of meat from muscle cells using 3D printing technology at the University of Missouri, Columbia. "This is no longer a strange idea," adds Cor van der Weele...

Kai Kupferschmidt

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

119

An introductory tutorial on JastAdd attribute grammars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

JastAdd is an open-source system for generating compilers and other language-based tools. Its declarative specification language is based on reference attribute grammars and object-orientation. This allows tools to be implemented as composable extensible ... Keywords: attribute grammars, language-based tools, object-oriented model, reference attributes

Görel Hedin

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

CRYOGENIC AND VACUUM TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE LOW-ENERGY ELECTROSTATIC CRYOGENIC STORAGE RING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cryogenic and vacuum concepts for the electrostatic Cryogenic ion Storage Ring (CSR), under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, is presented. The ring will operate in a broad temperature range from 2 to 300 K and is required to be bakeable up to 600 K. Extremely high vacuum and low temperatures are necessary to achieve long lifetimes of the molecular ions stored in the ring so that the ions will have enough time to cool by radiation to their vibrational and rotational ground states. To test cryogenic and vacuum technological aspects of the CSR, a prototype is being built and will be connected to the commercial cryogenic refrigerator recently installed, including a specialized 2-K connection system. The first results and the status of current work with the prototype are also presented.

Orlov, D. A.; Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Sieber, T.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg, 69029 Germany (Germany); Rappaport, M. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Wireless Cryogenic Quartz Thermometer and Application to Cryogenic Temperature Control Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high quality synthetic single crystal quartz resonator mounted in a casing of 3 mm diameter with 8 mm length has been developed for the cryogenic temperature sensor covering with the wide range ... . A wirele...

K. Agatsuma; F. Uchiyama; K. Tukamoto; S. Ishigami…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Zelipsky, Steven A. (Tinley Park, IL); Rezmer, Ronald R. (Lisle, IL); Smelser, Peter (Bruner, MO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Cryogenic Filters for RFI Mitigation in Radioastronomy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RFI mitigation in Radioastronomy can be achieved adopting cryogenic filters in appropriate typologies. A study has been conducted in L, C and X band with the evaluation of the filter architecture in copper, with theoretical estimation, computer simulations, prototypes realization, laboratory measurements. Such work has been preliminary to the realization of HTS samples with the purpose of a similar complete characterization approach.

G. Tuccari; A. Caddemi; S. Barbarino; G. Nicotra; F. Consoli; F. Schilliro; F. Catalfamo

2005-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

124

Cryogenic structural materials for superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews research in the United States and Japan on structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets are used for magnetic fusion energy devices and for accelerators that are used in particle-physics research. The cryogenic structural materials that we review are used for magnet cases and support structures. We expect increased materials requirements in the future.

Dalder, E.N.C.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

1985-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

125

Development of a Modelica Compiler Using JastAdd  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes experiences from implementing key parts of a compiler for Modelica, an object-oriented language supporting declarative modeling and simulation of complex physical systems. Our implementation uses the attribute-grammar based tool JastAdd. In particular, we discuss the implementation of Modelica name analysis which is highly context-dependent, type analysis which is based on structural subtyping, and flattening which is a fundamental part of the Modelica compilation process.of so called modifications, Modelica.

Johan Åkesson; Torbjörn Ekman; Görel Hedin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on AddThis.com... Sept. 28, 2013 Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet

127

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Cryogenic Technical Services Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Services Inc Services Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Cryogenic Technical Services Inc Place Longmont, Colorado Zip 805016036 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product Focused on cryogenic storage capability including hydrogen. Coordinates 40.16394°, -105.100504° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.16394,"lon":-105.100504,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

129

Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

Qiu, Y. N. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China); Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 (China); Zhang, P. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology, WH430074 (China); Wang, G. P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cryogenic properties of optomechanical silica microcavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the optical and mechanical properties of high-Q fused silica microtoroidal resonators at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.6 K). A thermally induced optical multistability is observed and theoretically described; it serves to characterize quantitatively the static heating induced by light absorption. Moreover the influence of structural defect states in glass on the toroid mechanical properties is observed and the resulting implications of cavity optomechanical systems on the study of mechanical dissipation discussed.

Olivier Arcizet; Rémi Rivière; Albert Schliesser; Tobias J. Kippenberg

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

131

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

PRESSURE OSCILLATION IN RHIC CRYOGENIC SYSTEM.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HORIZONTAL BEAM VIBRATION AROUND 10HZ IN THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC) HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AND THE POSSIBLE SOURCES TO CAUSE THIS VIBRATION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED. TO DETERMINE THE HETIUM PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS AS A POSSIBLE PRIMARY VIBRATION SOURCE, HELIUM PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS WERE CARRIED OUT IN THE FIVE CRYOGENIC TRANSFER LINES AT 2 VALVE BOXES AND 6 LEAD PORTS AT 2 TRIPLET CRYOSTAT FOR BOTH MAGNET RINGS. ADDITIONALLY, COLD MA...

JIA,L.MONTAG,C.TALLERICO,T.HIRZEL,W.NICOLETTI,A.

2003-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

133

Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

Keville, R.F.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

134

Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative cryogenic experiment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chapter 9. Cryogenic System Revised June 1994 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Heat Loads and Refrigeration... Duties -- 175 -- 12; 176 Cryogenic System 12; Cryogenic System 177 9.3. Two...

136

THE DEVELOPMENT OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS Glen T.U. C. Berkeley, "The Cryogenic Properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS Glen T.

Haddick, Glen T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

NICKEL-FREE Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti ALLOY STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O. 2Ti ALLOY STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS S'. Hwang, S.0.2Ti ALLOY STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS by S. Hwang, S.was investigated for cryogenic applications. The systematic

Hwang, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Numerical and experimental studies of IFE target layering in a cryogenic fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

layer in reactor-size cryogenic inertial fusion targets”.Harding et al. , “Forming cryogenic targets for direct-drivea solid fuel layer inside a cryogenic target for inertial

Boehm, Kurt Julian

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 March 2009 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory In University workplaces, the storage, handling and dispensing of cryogenic liquids (e.g. liquid-up. Appropriate controls must be implemented wherever cryogenics are in use. This standard outlines some general

Chan, Hue Sun

140

Commissioning the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LHC machine, composed of eight sectors with superconducting magnets and accelerating cavities, requires a complex cryogenic system providing high cooling capacities (18 kW equivalent at 4.5 K and 2.4 W at 1.8 K per sector produced in large cold boxes and distributed via 3.3-km cryogenic transfer lines). After individual reception tests of the cryogenic subsystems (cryogen storages, refrigerators, cryogenic transfer lines and distribution boxes) performed since 2000, the commissioning of the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector has been under way since November 2006. After a brief introduction to the LHC cryogenic system and its specificities, the commissioning is reported detailing the preparation phase (pressure and leak tests, circuit conditioning and flushing), the cool-down sequences including the handling of cryogenic fluids, the magnet powering phase and finally the warm-up. Preliminary conclusions on the commissioning of the first LHC sector will be drawn with the review of the critical points already solved or still pending. The last part of the paper reports on the first operational experience of the LHC cryogenic system in the perspective of the commissioning of the remaining LHC sectors and the beam injection test.

Millet, F.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Perin, A.; Riddone, G.; Serio, L.; Soubiran, M.; Tavian, L.; /CERN; Ronayette, L.; /GHMFL, Grenoble; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Cryogenic metal mesh bandpass filters for submillimeter astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bandpass filter of the double-halfwave design has been developed for use in submillimeter astronomy. The filter is rugged, easily tunable, easy to construct, and cryogenically...

Dragovan, Mark

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Very low noise cryogenic receivers and measurement electronics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this thesis was to develop very low noise cryogenic receivers and related high accuracy measurement setups to validate the operation of the… (more)

Sjöman, Pekka

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

New Cryogenic Apparatus for FT-IR Spectroscopic Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, being an effective technique in improving the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, is utilized in our group....

Kang, Ning; Xu, Yizhuang; Ferraro, J R; Li, Weihong; Weng, Shifu; Xu, Duanfu; Wu, Jinguang; Soloway, R D; Xu, Guangxian

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A Mystery at Cryogenic Temperatures | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Mystery at Cryogenic Temperatures Scientists have discovered a fascinating secret about praseodymium aluminide. When PrAl2 is cooled, its crystal structure changes from high...

145

New Simulation Tool Could Help Add More Solar to the Nation¹s...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Simulation Tool Could Help Add More Solar to the Nations Electric Grid New Simulation Tool Could Help Add More Solar to the Nations Electric Grid April 17, 2014 - 11:26am...

146

Large Cryogenic Infrastructure for LHC Superconducting Magnet and Cryogenic Component Tests: Layout, Commissioning and Operational Experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The largest cryogenic test facility at CERN, located at Zone 18, is used to validate and to test all main components working at cryogenic temperature in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) before final installation in the machine tunnel. In total about 1300 main dipoles, 400 main quadrupoles, 5 RF-modules, eight 1.8 K refrigeration units will be tested in the coming years.The test facility has been improved and upgraded over the last few years and the first 18 kW refrigerator for the LHC machine has been added to boost the cryogenic capacity for the area via a 25,000 liter liquid helium dewar. The existing 6 kW refrigerator, used for the LHC Test String experiments, will also be employed to commission LHC cryogenic components.We report on the design and layout of the test facility as well as the commissioning and the first 10,000 hours operational experience of the test facility and the 18 kW LHC refrigerator.

Calzas, C.; Chanat, D.; Knoops, S.; Sanmarti, M.; Serio, L. [Accelerator Technology Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

147

Cryogenic Photolysis of Activated Bleomycin to Ferric Bleomycin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic Photolysis of Activated Bleomycin to Ferric Bleomycin ... X-band EPR (9.52 GHz) was measured with an ER-200 IBM Bruker X-band spectrometer equipped with a standard TE102 EPR cavity and an LTR-3 Helitran system (APD Cryogenics, Allentown, PA) that controlled temperature in the 6?50 K range. ...

Richard M. Burger; Oleg M. Usov; Vladimir M. Grigoryants; Charles P. Scholes

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Polyamide 66 as a Cryogenic Dielectric  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, \\eg, cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, \\etc, with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ conventional insulation materials to these new systems. However, at low temperatures, thermal contraction and loss of mechanical strength in many materials make them unsuitable for superconducting power applications. In this paper, a widely used commercial material was characterized as a potential cryogenic dielectric. The material is used in ``oven bag'' a heat-resistant polyamide (nylon) used in cooking (produced by Reynolds\\textregistered, Richmond, VA, USA). It is first characterized by Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction techniques and determined to be composed of polyamide 66 (PA66) polymer. Secondly the complex dielectric permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength of the PA66 films are investigated. The dielectric data are then compared with data reported in the literature. A comparison of dielectric strength with a widely used high-temperature superconductor electrical insulation material, polypropylene-laminated paper (PPLP\\texttrademark\\ a product of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Japan), is provided. It is observed that the statistical analysis of the PA66 films yields 1\\% failure probability at $127\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$; this value is approximately $46\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$ higher than PPLP\\texttrademark. It is concluded that PA66 may be a good candidate for cryogenic applications. Finally, a summary of dielectric properties of some of the commercial tape insulation materials and various polymers is also provided.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Thriving Tundra Bushes Add Fuel to Northern Thaw  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tundra Bushes Fuel Tundra Bushes Fuel Thaw Thriving Tundra Bushes Add Fuel to Northern Thaw Spread of taller vegetation could exacerbate warming in northern latitudes June 28, 2013 | Tags: Biological and Environmental Research (BER), Climate Research, Franklin Contact: Margie Wylie, mwylie@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 7421 Bonfils-1.jpg Left: Current deciduous shrub distribution. Right: Simulation of bare ground converted to deciduous shrubs. To enlarge, select image. (Celine Bonfils) Carbon-gobbling plants are normally allies in the fight to slow climate change, but in the frozen north, the effects of thriving vegetation may actually push temperatures higher. In a series of climate simulations performed at NERSC, a group of researchers found that the spread of bushes, taller ones especially, could exacerbate warming in northern latitudes by

150

Help:Add a Tool or Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Help page Help page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Help:Add a Tool or Program Jump to: navigation, search Visit Form:Tool or Form:Program to upload a tool or program. Enter title and click submit. Note: When naming a tool or program, it is best practice to include the organization's acronym that created the tool. (e.g., NREL-Sample Tool) Note: If you are adding a program that is country specific, it is best to include that country in the title.(e.g.,Ghana-Sample Program on Clean Energy) Enter Title.JPG Populating the Tool or Program Form Note: Hold control to select multiple tags. Note: Tagging tools and programs correctly is important to being able to effectively query them. (e.g., If a resource assessment map is not tagged as resource assessment, it will not show up in a resource assessment

151

Cryogenic properties of optomechanical silica microcavities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the study of the optical and mechanical properties of high-Q fused silica microtoroidal resonators at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.6 K). A thermally induced optical multistability is observed and theoretically described, originating from the reverse thermally induced optical frequency shift. Moreover the influence of structural defect states (two level fluctuators) on their mechanical properties is observed and probed at an unprecedentedly achieved low phonon number. The resulting implications for cavity optomechanics and studies of mechanical decoherence are also discussed.

O. Arcizet; R. Rivière; A. Schliesser; G. Anetsberger; T. J. Kippenberg

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

152

Compact RF resonator for cryogenic ion traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the investigation and implementation of a lumped-component, radio-frequency resonator used in a cryogenic vacuum environment to drive an ion trap. The resonator was required to achieve the voltages necessary to trap (about 100 V), while dissipating as little power as possible (< 250 mW). Ultimately a voltage gain of 100 was measured at 5.7 K. Single calcium ions were confined in a trap driven by this device, providing proof of successful resonator operation at low temperature.

D. Gandolfi; M. Niedermayr; M. Kumph; M. Brownnutt; R. Blatt

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

Cryogenic system for ITER CS model coil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 5-kW/4.5-K helium refrigerator has been developed, which will be used for the test of ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil that is under fabrication by an international collaboration under the framework of the ITER Engineering Design Activity. Its acceptance test was recently finished and its specified refrigeration power of 5 kW with a surplus liquefaction rate of 114 1/h was demonstrated. A major feature of the refrigerator is that newly developed components, such as helium compressor and turbo-expander, are adopted in its simple refrigeration process in order that the results will be transferred to the ITER helium cryogenic system.

Kato, T.; Hamada, K.; Kawano, K.; Hiyama, T. [JAERI, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Nada-machi, Nada-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd [Applied Materials-Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

155

Performance of scintillation materials at cryogenic temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An increasing number of applications of scintillators at low temperatures, particularly in cryogenic experiments searching for rare events, has motivated the investigation of scintillation properties of materials over a wide temperature range. This paper provides an overview of the latest results on the study of luminescence, absorption and scintillation properties of materials selected for rare event searches so far. These include CaWO4, ZnWO4, CdWO4, MgWO4, CaMoO4, CdMoO4, Bi4Ge3O12, CaF2, MgF2, ZnSe and AL2O3-Ti. We discuss the progress achieved in research and development of these scintillators, both in material preparation and in the understanding of scintillation mechanisms, as well as the underlying physics. To understand the origin of the performance limitation of self-activated scintillators we employed a semi-empirical model of conversion of high energy radiation into light and made appropriate provision for effects of temperature and energy transfer. We conclude that the low-temperature value of the light yield of some modern scintillators, namely CaWO4, CdWO4 and Bi4Ge3O12, is close to the theoretical limit. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of different materials with emphasis on their application as cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors (CPSD) in rare event search experiments.

V. B. Mikhailik; H. Kraus

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

156

Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lightweight cryogenic telescope on board the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F, which

Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takao; Enya, Keigo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Ryoji; Ezaki, Tatsuhiko; Numao, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Cryogenic Mechanical Behavior of Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic Mechanical Behavior of Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) ... (3) Though tensile strength and Young’s modulus usually increase as temperature is decreased, at cryogenic temperatures—that is, temperatures like those of liquid nitrogen (75 K) and liquid helium (4 K)—most polymers, even elastomers, become so brittle and fragile that they can be elongated no more than 3% before breaking. ... (4) This would mean that all polymers would be glassy because the high elasticity based on entropy elasticity is diminished at cryogenic temperatures, which tends to limit the usage of polymeric materials. ...

Takashi Nishino; Tai’ichi Okamoto; Hiroshi Sakurai

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

158

Changes Made on a 2.7-m Long Superconducting Solenoid Magnet Cryogenic System that allowed the Magnet to be kept Cold using 4 K Pulse Tube Cooler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Cooler,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 57, pp 581 -Solenoid Magnet Cryogenic System that allowed the Magnet toof the International Cryogenic Engineering Conference 22,

Green, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Investigation of the reaction of OH and CO to form H and CO? by photoelectron-photofragment coincidence spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion beam trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion beam trap A dissertationspectroscopy in a cryogenic ion beam trap by Christopherof the inclusion of a cryogenic ion beam trap, and its

Johnson, Christopher Joseph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Dissipative Cryogenic Filters with Zero DC Resistance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors designed, implemented and tested cryogenic RF filters with zero DC resistance, based on wires with a superconducting core inside a resistive sheath. The superconducting core allows low frequency currents to pass with negligible dissipation. Signals above the cutoff frequency are dissipated in the resistive part due to their small skin depth. The filters consist of twisted wire pairs shielded with copper tape. Above approximately 1 GHz, the attenuation is exponential in {radical}{omega}, as typical for skin depth based RF filters. By using additional capacitors of 10 nF per line, an attenuation of at least 45 dB above 10 MHz can be obtained. Thus, one single filter stage kept at mixing chamber temperature in a dilution refrigerator is sufficient to attenuate room temperature black body radiation to levels corresponding to 10 mK above about 10 MHz.

Bluhm, Hendrik; Moler, Kathryn A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

On a cryogenic noble gas ion catcher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-situ purification of the gas used as stopping medium in a noble gas ion catcher by operating the device at low temperatures of 60 to 150 K was investigated. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a 223Ra source served as energetic probes. The combined ion survival and transport efficiencies for 219Rn ions saturated below about 90 K, reaching 28.7(17) % in helium, 22.1(13) % in neon, and 17.0(10) % in argon. These values may well reflect the charge exchange and stripping cross sections during the slowing down of the ions, and thus represent a fundamental upper limit for the efficiency of noble gas ion catcher devices. We suggest the cryogenic noble gas ion catcher as a technically simpler alternative to the ultra-high purity noble gas ion catcher operating at room temperature.

P. Dendooven; S. Purushothaman; K. Gloos

2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

162

Cryogenic heat exchanger with turbulent flows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid–solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N2 and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of various parameters which characterize the heat exchanger (efficiency, number of transfer units, heat exchange coefficient, etc) as a function of the mass flow rate of the gas to be cooled. An analysis of the Nu–Re diagram is also presented. All experiments were conducted with N2 gas. The scope of this tool is readily extended to research purposes.

Jay Amrit; Christelle Douay; Francis Dubois; Gérard Defresne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Innovative technology summary report: Cryogenic drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental drilling is used to conduct site investigations and to install monitoring and remediation wells. Employing conventional drilling techniques to conduct environmental investigations in unconsolidated soils can result in borehole collapse and may also lead to cross-contamination of aquifers and soil formations. For investigations in certain geologic conditions, there are currently no viable conventional drilling techniques available. Cryogenic drilling improves upon conventional air rotary drilling by replacing ambient air with cold nitrogen (either liquid or gas) as the circulating medium. The cold nitrogen gas stream freezes moisture in the ground surrounding the hole. The frozen zone prevents the collapse of the hole and prevents the movement of groundwater or contaminants through and along the hole. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Behaviour of {sup 222}Rn at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behaviour of radon in a cryogenic environment is still not well known. Therefore, measured radon emanation rates at room temperature cannot be translated directly to cryogenic conditions. In this work we present a table-top experiment that provides a direct way of determining the behaviour of {sup 222}Rn in cryogenic argon and helium at liquid argon temperature. We observe an increased emanation rate of {sup 222}Rn atoms to liquid argon compared to the rate observed to helium at room temperature. We also find that {sup 222}Rn atoms stick to cold metal surfaces when emanated to helium at liquid argon temperature but partly distribute in the liquid when emanated to cryogenic argon. Concluding, we give possible interpretations of the observations.

Lindemann, Sebastian; Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Zuzel, Grzegorz [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

165

Cryogenic fluid level sensors multiplexed by frequency-shifted interferometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a liquid level sensing system for cryogenic fluids based on an array of aluminum-coated fiber Bragg gratings written in high-attenuation fibers (HAFs) interrogated by...

Ye, Fei; Chen, Tong; Xu, Di; Chen, Kevin P; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cryogenic optical testing of sandwich-type silicon carbide mirrors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental cryogenic performance of 160-mm-diameter silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, one of which, a 700-mm-diameter mirror, is to be used as a primary mirror of the Japanese...

Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Murakami, Hiroshi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Cryogenic far-infrared Fabry–Perot étalon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A small cryogenic Fabry–Perot étalon was fabricated for the far-infrared region. This design used freestanding metal meshes for the reflecting elements. Using a combination of...

Peterson, D B; Pickett, H M

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered...

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

169

Laser Shearographic Testing of Foam Insulation on Cryogenic Fuel Tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Centaur is a high-energy rocket used as a second stage to the Atlas launch vehicle. The Centaur is cryogenically fueled, using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and requires insulation to prevent fuel boi...

Douglas D. Burleigh; James E. Engel…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Data:F97c5d8a-dd97-4add-a67d-7a718288374a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d8a-dd97-4add-a67d-7a718288374a d8a-dd97-4add-a67d-7a718288374a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Northern Plains Electric Coop Effective date: 2012/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: OUTDOOR LIGHTING SERVICE-100 W HPS Metered Sector: Lighting Description: Available for year-round illumination for private residential, business, or farm yard lighting on existing Cooperative service poles where service wires can be connected either on the source or load side of the consumer's meter, at discretion of the Cooperative. Service is subject to the established rules and regulations of the Cooperative.

171

Review of Dark Matter Direct Detection Using Cryogenic Detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct detection of the Universe's Dark Matter is one of the key questions in particle astrophysics. Cryogenic based detectors offer advantages in low radioactive backgrounds, target mass, sensitivity to the small energy depositions and rejection of possible background sources. I will summarize the main experimental approaches, including both cryogenic crystal and liquid targets and the options pursued for their signal readout. Recent advances from around the world and prospects for future proposed experiments will be discussed.

Brink, P.L.; /SLAC

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

172

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

V-169: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer 9: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow Vulnerability V-169: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow Vulnerability June 3, 2013 - 12:01am Addthis PROBLEM: Linux Kernel "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" Buffer Overflow Vulnerability PLATFORM: Linux Kernel 3.0.x Linux Kernel 3.2.x Linux Kernel 3.4.x Linux Kernel 3.9.x ABSTRACT: A vulnerability has been reported in Linux Kernel. REFERENCE LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA53670 Red Hat Bugzilla - Bug 968036 CVE-2013-2850 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium DISCUSSION: The vulnerability is caused due to a boundary error within the "iscsi_add_notunderstood_response()" function (drivers/target/iscsi/iscsi_target_parameters.c) when parsing keys and can

174

T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local 7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 1, 2011 - 6:44pm Addthis PROBLEM: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges . PLATFORM: Linux Kernel 2.4.x, 2.6.x ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in the Linux Kernel. A local user may be able to obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A physically local user can connect a storage device with a specially crafted LDM partition table to trigger a buffer overflow in the ldm_frag_add() function in 'fs/partitions/ldm.c' and potentially execute arbitrary code with elevated privileges. reference LINKS: Security Tracker - Alert ID: 1025128

175

T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local 7: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 1, 2011 - 6:44pm Addthis PROBLEM: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges . PLATFORM: Linux Kernel 2.4.x, 2.6.x ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in the Linux Kernel. A local user may be able to obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A physically local user can connect a storage device with a specially crafted LDM partition table to trigger a buffer overflow in the ldm_frag_add() function in 'fs/partitions/ldm.c' and potentially execute arbitrary code with elevated privileges. reference LINKS: Security Tracker - Alert ID: 1025128

176

Cryogenic search for fractionally charged particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experiment was performed to test the hypothesis of cryogenic trapping of fractionally charged particles, suggested as a possible explanation for the results of LaRue, Fairbank, Hebard, and Phillips at Stanford. A Nb-filament source was built, which could be cooled to 4.2°K and rapidly heated to several hundred °K. The source was operated in the terminal of a 700-kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and energy spectra of positively charged particles emerging from the filament were measured under a variety of operating conditions. No events above a background of 10-2 counts/sec were found in the energy regions where one might have expected several hundred particles of charge +13e or +23e as the source was heated. A mass range from 10 MeV/c2 to 100 GeV/c2 was covered in the experiment. Although negative results are rarely unambiguous, our findings exclude one class of hypotheses which might have explained the apparent fractional charges of the Stanford experiments.

W. Kutschera; J. P. Schiffer; D. Frekers; W. Henning; M. Paul; K. W. Shepard; C. D. Curtis; C. W. Schmidt

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from the 36'000 ton cold mass, immersed in some 400 m3 static pressurised superfluid helium. The LHC also makes use of supercritical helium for non-isothermal cooling of the beam screens which intercept most of the dynamic heat loads at higher temperature. Although not used in normal operation, liquid nitrogen will provide the source of refrigeration for precooling the machine. Refrigeration for the LHC is produced in eight large refrigerators, each with an equivalent capacity of about 18 kW at 4.5 K, completed by 1.8 K refrigeration units making use of several stages of hydrodynamic cold compressors. T...

Lebrun, P

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from the 36000 ton cold mass, immersed in some 400 m/sup 3/ static pressurised superfluid helium. The LHC also makes use of supercritical helium for nonisothermal cooling of the beam screens which intercept most of the dynamic heat loads at higher temperature. Although not used in normal operation, liquid nitrogen will provide the source of refrigeration for precooling the machine. Refrigeration for the LHC is produced in eight large refrigerators, each with an equivalent capacity of about 18 kW at 4.5 K, completed by 1.8 K refrigeration units making use of several stages of hydrodynamic cold compressor...

Lebrun, P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Production and Innovative Applications of Cryogenic Solid Pellets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For over two decades Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing cryogenic pellet injectors for fueling hot, magnetic fusion plasmas. Cryogenic solid pellets of all three hydrogen isotopes have been produced in a size range of 1- to 10-mm diameter and accelerated to speeds from <100 to {approx}3000 m/s. The pellets have been formed discretely by cryocondensation in gun barrels and also by extrusion of cryogenic solids at mass flow rates up to {approx}0.26 g/s and production rates up to ten pellets per second. The pellets traverse the hot plasma in a fraction of a millisecond and continuously ablate, providing fresh hydrogenic fuel to the interior of the plasma. From this initial application, uses of this technology have expanded to include (1) cryogenic xenon drops or solids for use as a debris-less target in a laser plasma source of X-rays for advanced lithography systems, (2) solid argon and carbon dioxide pellets for surface cleaning or decontamination, and (3) methane pellets in a liquid hydrogen bath for use as an innovative moderator of cold neutrons. Methods of production and acceleration/transport of these cryogenic solids will be described, and examples will be given of their use in prototype systems.

Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR INCREASING THE TEMPERATURE RANGE OF A CRYOGENIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deuterium gas into pellets, the injector is cooled to 10 K with a cryogenic helium refrigerator.a Pellets over- coming the constant cooling provided by the cryogenic refrigerator. Motivated by the desire

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cryogenic, high power, near diffraction limited, Yb:YAG slab laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic slab laser that is suitable for scaling to high power, while taking full advantage of the improved thermo-optical and thermo-mechanical properties of Yb:YAG at cryogenic...

Ganija, Miftar; Ottaway, David; Veitch, Peter; Munch, Jesper

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Cryogenic Storage (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cryogenic Storage (Smart Grid Project) Cryogenic Storage (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Cryogenic Storage Country United Kingdom Coordinates 55.378052°, -3.435973° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":55.378052,"lon":-3.435973,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

183

Materials for cold neutron sources: Cryogenic and irradiation effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials for the construction of cold neutron sources must satisfy a range of demands. The cryogenic temperature and irradiation create a severe environment. Candidate materials are identified and existing cold sources are briefly surveyed to determine which materials may be used. Aluminum- and magnesium-based alloys are the preferred materials. Existing data for the effects of cryogenic temperature and near-ambient irradiation on the mechanical properties of these alloys are briefly reviewed, and the very limited information on the effects of cryogenic irradiation are outlined. Generating mechanical property data under cold source operating conditions is a daunting prospect. It is clear that the cold source material will be degraded by neutron irradiation, and so the cold source must be designed as a brittle vessel. The continued effective operation of many different cold sources at a number of reactors makes it clear that this can be accomplished. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tab.

Alexander, D.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Cryogenic Ion Trapping Systems with Surface-Electrode Traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present two simple cryogenic RF ion trap systems in which cryogenic temperatures and ultra high vacuum pressures can be reached in as little as 12 hours. The ion traps are operated either in a liquid helium bath cryostat or in a low vibration closed cycle cryostat. The fast turn around time and availability of buffer gas cooling made the systems ideal for testing surface-electrode ion traps. The vibration amplitude of the closed cycled cryostat was found to be below 106 nm. We evaluated the systems by loading surface-electrode ion traps with $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions using laser ablation, which is compatible with the cryogenic environment. Using Doppler cooling we observed small ion crystals in which optically resolved ions have a trapped lifetime over 2500 minutes.

P. B. Antohi; D. Schuster; G. M. Akselrod; J. Labaziewicz; Y. Ge; Z. Lin; W. S. Bakr; I. L. Chuang

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

185

Self-contained cryogenic gas sampling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for obtaining a whole gas sample, composed of: a sample vessel having an inlet for receiving a gas sample; a controllable valve mounted for controllably opening and closing the inlet; a valve control coupled to the valve for opening and closing the valve at selected times; a portable power source connected for supplying operating power to the valve control; and a cryogenic coolant in thermal communication with the vessel for cooling the interior of the vessel to cryogenic temperatures. A method of obtaining an air sample using the apparatus described above, by: placing the apparatus at a location at which the sample is to be obtained; operating the valve control to open the valve at a selected time and close the valve at a selected subsequent time; and between the selected times maintaining the vessel at a cryogenic temperature by heat exchange with the coolant.

McManus, Gary J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Motes, Billy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bird, Susan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

SRF Test Areas Cryogenic System Controls Graphical User Interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has constructed a superconducting 1.3 GHz cavity test facility at Meson Detector Building (MDB) and a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab Building (NML). The control of these 2K cryogenic systems is accomplished by using a Synoptic graphical user interface (GUI) to interact with the underlying Fermilab Accelerator Control System. The design, testing and operational experience of employing the Synoptic client-server system for graphical representation will be discussed. Details on the Synoptic deployment to the MDB and NML cryogenic sub-systems will also be discussed. The implementation of the Synoptic as the GUI for both NML and MDB has been a success. Both facilities are currently fulfilling their individual roles in SCRF testing as a result of successful availability of the cryogenic systems. The tools available for creating Synoptic pages will continue to be developed to serve the evolving needs of users.

DeGraff, B.D.; Ganster, G.; Klebaner, A.; Petrov, A.D.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

187

Large Cryogenics Systems at 1.8 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenics is now widely present in large accelerator projects using applied superconductivity. Economical considerations permanently require an increase of the performance of superconducting devices. One way to do this consists to lower their operating temperature and to cool them with superfluid helium. For this purpose, large cryogenic systems at 1.8 K producing refrigeration capacity in the kW range have to be developed and implemented. These cryogenic systems require large pumping capacity at very low pressure based on integral cold compression or mixed cold-warm compression. This paper describes and compares the different cooling methods with saturated or pressurised superfluid helium, gives the present status of the available process machinery with their practical performance, and reviews the different thermodynamical cycles for producing refrigeration below 2 K, with emphasis on their operational compliance.

Tavian, L

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Self-contained cryogenic gas sampling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for obtaining a whole gas sample, is composed of: a sample vessel having an inlet for receiving a gas sample; a controllable valve mounted for controllably opening and closing the inlet; a valve control coupled to the valve for opening and closing the valve at selected times; a portable power source connected for supplying operating power to the valve control; and a cryogenic coolant in thermal communication with the vessel for cooling the interior of the vessel to cryogenic temperatures. A method is described for obtaining an air sample using the apparatus described above, by: placing the apparatus at a location at which the sample is to be obtained; operating the valve control to open the valve at a selected time and close the valve at a selected subsequent time; and between the selected times maintaining the vessel at a cryogenic temperature by heat exchange with the coolant. 3 figs.

McManus, G.J.; Motes, B.G.; Bird, S.K.; Kotter, D.K.

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

189

Compact infrared cryogenic wafer-level camera: design and experimental validation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compact infrared cryogenic wafer-level camera: design and experimental validation Florence de la; posted 12 January 2012 (Doc. ID 158765); published 5 March 2012 We present a compact infrared cryogenic, the concept is compatible with both cryogenic constraints and wafer- level fabrication. The design strategy

Boyer, Edmond

190

ccsd-00003303,version1-17Nov2004 Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ccsd-00003303,version1-17Nov2004 Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic Detectors Gabriel of supersymmetric models compatible with accelerator constraints. Three cryogenic experiments currently provide far less severe than other present techniques, the next generation of cryogenic exper- iments promises

Boyer, Edmond

191

Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport in microstructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport A compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for operation in the small volume of high-field magnets is described-temperature optical microscope, elec- tromagnet and cryogenic cell with cold finger to measure continuous-wave cw

van der Wal, Caspar H.

192

Direct-drive, cryogenic target implosions on OMEGAa... F. J. Marshall,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct-drive, cryogenic target implosions on OMEGAa... F. J. Marshall,b R. S. Craxton, J. A; accepted 24 January 2005; published online 7 April 2005 Direct-drive spherical implosions of cryogenic, D2 deuterated polymer shells are permeation filled with D2 gas and cooled to the triple point 18.7 K . Cryogenic

193

Theoretical and experimental analysis of droplet diameter, temperature, and evaporation rate evolution in cryogenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

evolution in cryogenic sprays G. Aguilar a,b,*, B. Majaron b,d , W. Verkruysse b , Y. Zhou c , J.S. Nelson a 27 June 2000; received in revised form 17 November 2000 Abstract Cryogenic sprays are used eciency, a detailed characterization and understanding of cryogen spray formation is required. Various

Aguilar, Guillermo

194

Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials Ranjan Singh,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials Ranjan Singh,1,2 Zhen Tian,1 terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The operation of metamaterials at cryogenic temperatures is anticipated we investigate the behavior of terahertz planar MM at cryogenic temperatures. It is shown that thin

Oklahoma State University

195

Cryogenic Probe Station for On-Wafer Characterization of Electrical Devices Damon Russell,1, a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic Probe Station for On-Wafer Characterization of Electrical Devices Damon Russell,1, a mobility transistors (HEMTs) remain the lowest noise temperature devices for use in cryogenic microwave such as silicon, and as a result the yield of low noise InP devices, especially at cryogenic tempera- tures

Weinreb, Sander

196

Simulation and Cryogenic Experiments of Natural Convection for the Titan Montgolfiere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation and Cryogenic Experiments of Natural Convection for the Titan Montgolfiere Yuri Feldman for prediction of the buoyancy of single- and double- walled balloons in a cryogenic environment such as Titan at cryogenic conditions. The predicted buoyancy and temperature fields compare favorably with experiments

Dabiri, John O.

197

Cryogenic focal plane flatness measurement with optical zone slope Jerry Edelstein1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic focal plane flatness measurement with optical zone slope tracking Jerry Edelstein1 to determine the surface flatness of a cryogenic sensor array developed for the JDEM mission. Large focal such as JDEM, WFIRST, or EUCLID must operate at cryogenic temperatures while maintaining focal plane flatness

California at Berkeley, University of

198

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

Chang, Ho-Myung

199

Experimental Cryogenic Modeling and Noise of SiGe HBTs Joseph C. Bardin and Sander Weinreb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental Cryogenic Modeling and Noise of SiGe HBTs Joseph C. Bardin and Sander Weinreb contender for extremely low noise, cryogenically cooled amplifiers. This paper begins with a procedureGe), cryogenic, low noise amplifier (LNA), noise parameters, transistor modeling. I. INTRODUCTION Very low

Weinreb, Sander

200

A high-performance cryogenic amplifier based on a radio-frequency single electron transistor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-performance cryogenic amplifier based on a radio-frequency single electron transistor K, Sweden Received 23 May 2002; accepted 24 October 2002 We demonstrate a high-performance cryogenic-chip integrability, make it a good candidate for a general-purpose cryogenic amplifier for high impedance sources. We

Segall, Ken

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids This document describes the principal hazards and appropriate safety procedures associated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

92 Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids This document describes the principal hazards and appropriate safety procedures associated with three cryogenic liquids that are commonly used in the College: liquid N2, He and O2.. The safe handling of cryogenic liquids involves understanding the unique properties

Cohen, Ronald C.

202

Cryogenic resonant microwave cavity searches for hidden sector photons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hidden sector photon is a weakly interacting hypothetical particle with sub-eV mass that kinetically mixes with the photon. We describe a microwave frequency light shining through a wall experiment where a cryogenic resonant microwave cavity is used to try and detect photons that have passed through an impenetrable barrier, a process only possible via mixing with hidden sector photons. For a hidden sector photon mass of 53 $\\mu$eV we limit the hidden photon kinetic mixing parameter $\\chi cryogenic detector cavity to place new limits on the kinetic mixing parameter for hidden sector photons as a form of cold dark matter.

Parker, Stephen R; Povey, Rhys G; Tobar, Michael E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Cryogenic resonant microwave cavity searches for hidden sector photons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hidden sector photon is a weakly interacting hypothetical particle with sub-eV mass that kinetically mixes with the photon. We describe a microwave frequency light shining through a wall experiment where a cryogenic resonant microwave cavity is used to try and detect photons that have passed through an impenetrable barrier, a process only possible via mixing with hidden sector photons. For a hidden sector photon mass of 53 $\\mu$eV we limit the hidden photon kinetic mixing parameter $\\chi cryogenic detector cavity to place new limits on the kinetic mixing parameter for hidden sector photons as a form of cold dark matter.

Stephen R. Parker; John G. Hartnett; Rhys G. Povey; Michael E. Tobar

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

204

Cryogenic resonant microwave cavity searches for hidden sector photons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hidden sector photon is a weakly interacting hypothetical particle with sub-eV mass that kinetically mixes with the photon. We describe a microwave frequency light shining through a wall experiment, where a cryogenic resonant microwave cavity is used to try and detect photons that have passed through an impenetrable barrier, a process only possible via mixing with hidden sector photons. For a hidden sector photon mass of 53???eV, we limit the hidden photon kinetic mixing parameter ?cryogenic detector cavity to place new limits on the kinetic mixing parameter for hidden sector photons as a form of cold dark matter.

Stephen R. Parker; John G. Hartnett; Rhys G. Povey; Michael E. Tobar

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

205

Vapor cooled current lead for cryogenic electrical equipment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method are provided for conducting electric current to cryogenic electrical equipment devices. A combination of inner and outer tubes together form a plurality of hollow composite tubes housed in a sheath. Top and bottom block mounting means are fitted to hold the composite tubes and are affixed to the ends of the sheath. This combination forms a current lead. The current lead is attached to a cryogenic device housing a fluid coolant which moves through the current lead, cooling the current lead as the fluid travels.

Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Solid–Liquid–Vapor Equilibrium Models for Cryogenic Biogas Upgrading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cryogenic upgrading processes involving dry ice formation, accurate predictions of solid–liquid, solid–vapor, and solid–liquid–vapor equilibria are fundamental for a correct design of the heat exchanger surface in order to achieve the desired biomethane purity. ... Moreover, the liquefied biogas production process, particularly interesting for cryogenic upgrading processes due to the low temperature of the obtained biomethane, requires an accurate knowledge of carbon dioxide solubility in liquid methane to avoid solid deposition. ... For some applications demanding a high energy content gas, namely vehicle fuels and injection in the natural gas grid, the biogas has to be upgraded into biomethane. ...

Mauro Riva; Marco Campestrini; Joseph Toubassy; Denis Clodic; Paolo Stringari

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

207

Add your e-prints to the E-print Network -- Energy, science, and technology  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Add E-prints Add E-prints We invite you to submit your e-prints to the network. Having your e-prints in the network increases awareness of them and promotes the dissemination of your information to a broader audience. We do not add all submitted e-prints to our collection, and we cannot make any predictions or guarantees about when or if they will appear. See "What are the criteria for inclusion in the E-print Network?" Please enter your full URL, including the http:// prefix. For example: http://www.osti.gov/eprints/. You may also add comments or keywords that describe the content of your page. These are used only for our information and do not affect how your page is indexed or used. Label ID URL (required): Title (required): E-mail address (required): Your Name:

208

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Benchmark Revisions Add Employment to Nevada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistics. The Nevada Coincident EmploymentCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Benchmark Revisions Add Employment to Nevada The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using

Ahmad, Sajjad

209

Marshall County REMC- Geothermal and Add-on Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Marshall County REMC provides a rebate for its residential customers for the purchase and installation of an add-on heat pump and/or a geothermal heat pump. Customers can receive $300 for the...

210

Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

Niemann, R.C.; Zelipsky, S.A.; Rezmer, R.R.; Smelser, P.

1980-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

211

Development of a cryogenic system for the VIRUS array of 150 spectrographs for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of a cryogenic system for the VIRUS array of 150 spectrographs for the Hobby spectrograph contains a CCD detector that must be cryogenically cooled, presenting an interesting cryogenic connector, built from a modified cryogenic bayonet, that is used to quickly detach a single spectrograph

212

Cryogenic Formations of Passive Margins, Ice Shelves and Continental Slopes · Cryogenic Formations of Active Margins and the Regions Composed of Oceanic Crust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main types of sedimentogenesis appearing under different combinations of environmental factors, composition and properties of sedimentary matter along with sedimentary rock basins, cryogenic facies and the ma...

Prof. Alexander P. Lisitzin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Validation and performance of the LHC cryogenic system through commissioning of the first sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cryogenic system [1] for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator is presently in its final phase of commissioning at nominal operating conditions. The refrigeration capacity for the LHC is produced using eight large cryogenic plants and eight 1.8 K refrigeration units installed on five cryogenic islands. Machine cryogenic equipment is installed in a 26.7-km circumference ring deep underground tunnel and are maintained at their nominal operating conditions via a distribution system consisting of transfer lines, cold interconnection boxes at each cryogenic island and a cryogenic distribution line. The functional analysis of the whole system during all operating conditions was established and validated during the first sector commissioning in order to maximize the system availability. Analysis, operating modes, main failure scenarios, results and performance of the cryogenic system are presented.

Serio, L.; Bouillot, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; /CERN; Chakravarty, A.; /Tata Inst.; Claudet, S.; /CERN; Gicquel, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Gomes, P.; /CERN; Kumar, M.; Kush, P.K.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Millet, F.; Perin, A.; /CERN /Fermilab /Tata Inst. /CERN

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Cryogenics for the MuCool Test Area (MTA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MuCool Test Area (MTA) is a complex of buildings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which are dedicated to operate components of a cooling cell to be used for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R and D. The long-term goal of this facility is to test ionization cooling principles by operating a 25-liter liquid hydrogen (LH2) absorber embedded in a 5 Tesla superconducting solenoid magnet. The MTA solenoid magnet will be used with RF cavities exposed to a high intensity beam. Cryogens used at the MTA include LHe, LN2 and LH2. The latter dictates stringent system design for hazardous locations. The cryogenic plant is a modified Tevatron refrigerator based on the Claude cycle. The implementation of an in-house refrigerator system and two 300 kilowatt screw compressors is under development. The helium refrigeration capacity is 500 W at 14 K. In addition the MTA solenoid magnet will be batch-filled with LHe every 2 days using the same cryo-plant. This paper reviews cryogenic systems used to support the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R and D programs and emphasizes the feasibility of handling cryogenic equipment at MTA in a safe manner.

Darve, Christine; Norris, Barry; Pei, Liujin [Fermilab, Cryogenics department, MS347 Batavia, Illinois, 60510 (United States)

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

215

CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR CONTINUOUS ULTRAHIGH HYDROGEN PURIFICATION IN CIRCULATION MODE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR CONTINUOUS ULTRAHIGH HYDROGEN PURIFICATION IN CIRCULATION MODE A. Vasilyev1, the total level of all contaminants (water, nitrogen, oxygen etc.) has to be lower than 0.01 ppm. Hydrogen preparation by commercial purification units, such as palladium filters, could give a good initial level

Kammel, Peter

216

Cryogenic controls for Fermilab's SRF cavities and test facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities test facility is now operational at Fermilab's Meson Detector Building (MDB). The facility is supplied cryogens from the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) located in a separate building 500-m away. The design incorporates ambient temperature pumping for super-fluid helium production, as well as three 0.6-kW at 4.5-K refrigerators, five screw compressors, a helium purifier, helium and nitrogen inventory, cryogenic distribution system, and a variety of test cryostats. To control and monitor the vastly distributed cryogenic system, a flexible scheme has been developed. Both commercial and experimental physics tools are used. APACS+{trademark}, a process automation control system from Siemens-Moore, is at the heart of the design. APACS+{trademark} allows engineers to configure an ever evolving test facility while maintaining control over the plant and distribution system. APACS+{trademark} nodes at CTF and MDB are coupled by a fiber optic network. DirectLogic205 PLC's by KOYO{reg_sign} are used as the field level interface to most I/O. The top layer of this system uses EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) as a SCADA/HMI. Utilities for graphical display, control loop setting, real time/historical plotting and alarming have been implemented by using the world-wide library of applications for EPICS. OPC client/server technology is used to bridge across each different platform. This paper presents this design and its successful implementation.

Norris, B.; Bossert, R.; Klebaner, A.; Lackey, S.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Soyars, W.; Sirotenko, V.; /Fermilab

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Distribution for Space Exploration Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SBIR SBIR 46 47 I Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Distribution for Space Exploration Applications program, Creare will develop an advanced, high efficiency turbine optimized for a high-capacity cryocooler. The advanced turbine will enable a landmark reduction in cryocooler input power and overall cooling system mass

218

Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Detector Fabrication Process and Recent Improvements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dedicated facility has been commissioned for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU). The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods/equipment and tuning of process parameters.

Andrew Jastram; Rusty Harris; Rupak Mahapatra; James Phillips; Mark Platt; Kunj Prasad; Joel Sander; Sriteja Upadhyayula

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE UPGRADED CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS AT THE NSCL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is a NSF-supported facility, with additional support from Michigan State University (MSU) for conducting research in nuclear and accelerator science. The facility consists of two superconducting cyclotrons and over fifty individual cryostats, each containing several superconducting magnets that are used in the beam transport system. Beginning in 1999 a major facility upgrade was started. New, larger magnets were added, increasing the total 4.5 K loads, necessitating an increase of the cryogenic capacity. A helium plant (nominal 1750-Watt at 4.5 K) was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines where it had been operating as a pure liquefier since the early 1980's. It was refurbished for the NSCL with extensive support from the cryogenics group at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory. The new cryogenic system came online early in 2001. The cold-mass is relatively high in relation to the installed capacity, presenting challenges during cool downs. Reliability over the last five years has been greater than 99%. An overview of the last seven years of operations of our cryogenic systems is presented that includes normal operations, testing of new equipment, noteworthy breakdowns, routine maintenance, and system reliability.

McCartney, A. H.; Laumer, H. L.; Jones, S. A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824 (United States)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Detector Fabrication Process and Recent Improvements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dedicated facility has been commissioned for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU). The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods/equipment and tuning of process parameters.

Jastram, Andrew; Mahapatra, Rupak; Phillips, James; Platt, Mark; Prasad, Kunj; Sander, Joel; Upadhyayula, Sriteja

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings October 27, 2011 - 11:01am Addthis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program When most people go to the car dealership, they take a hard look at the vehicle's window sticker. But that initial price doesn't tell the whole story. By showing only the up-front cost, the sticker price leaves out

222

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings Vehicle Cost Calculator Helps You Add Up the Savings October 27, 2011 - 11:01am Addthis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program When most people go to the car dealership, they take a hard look at the vehicle's window sticker. But that initial price doesn't tell the whole story. By showing only the up-front cost, the sticker price leaves out

223

Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids Company Adds Commercial Trucks to List of Hybrids August 30, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Allison’s bus hybrid drive unit for transit buses can be found in 164 cities around the world. The company will use similar technology in the commercial truck hybrid system. | Photo courtesy of Allison Transmission Allison's bus hybrid drive unit for transit buses can be found in 164 cities around the world. The company will use similar technology in the commercial truck hybrid system. | Photo courtesy of Allison Transmission Lindsay Gsell Allison Transmission uses $62.8 million in Recovery Act funding for commercial truck hybrid system Project will create or retain close to 100 manufacturing-related jobs in Indiana Hybrid systems could reduce diesel consumption by 35 percent in

224

Science.gov Adds NSDL to Collection | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Adds NSDL to Collection Adds NSDL to Collection NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Cathey Daniels, (865) 576-9539 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 2, 2006 Science.gov Adds NSDL to Collection Oak Ridge, TN -Science.gov has added the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) to its collection. Patrons can now search more than 28 science databases and over 1,800 science Web sites at Science.gov, plus the 1.1 million records of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education resources at NSDL, with just one click. The NSDL was created by the National Science Foundation to provide access to exemplary resources for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and research. NSDL is designed primarily for K-16 educators. Science.gov, hosted by the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical

225

Chapter Four - Cryogenic Insulation Systems for LNG Industries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The market for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is growing faster than any other market for energy resources. Since LNG is normally carried by ship at -163°C, the functional requirements of a ship carrying LNG include cryogenic reliability due to thermal cyclic stresses and high thermal insulation performance for safe and efficient transportation of LNG. In order to guarantee the LNG cold temperature around -160°C, high-quality insulation installation in accordance with strict specifications is essential. Cryogenic insulation restricts the inflow of atmospheric heat into the pipe or process equipment, keeping the liquid cold and allowing it to retain its form. This chapter covers fundamentals for thermal insulation for various thermal insulation materials in LNG industries.

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Operational Experience with a Cryogenic Axial-Centrifugal Compressor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires large refrigeration capacity at 1.8 K. Compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures is therefore inevitable. Together with subcontractors, Linde Kryotechnik has developed a prototype machine. This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating at ambient temperature. Integrated in a test facility for superconducting magnets the machine has been commissioned without major problems and successfully gone through the acceptance test in autumn 1995. Subsequent steps were initiated to improve efficiency of this prototype. This paper describes operating experience gained so far and reports on measured performance prior to and after constructional modifications.

Decker, L; Löhlein, K; Purtschert, W; Ziegler, B L; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Brunovsky, I; Tucek, L

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Fermilab CMTF cryogenic distribution remote control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) is able to provide the necessary test bed for measuring the performance of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities in a cryomodule (CM). The CMTF have seven 300 KW screw compressors, two liquid helium refrigerators, and two Cryomodule Test Stands (CMTS). CMTS1 is designed for 1.3 GHz cryomodule operating in a pulsed mode (PM) and CMTS2 is for cryomodule operating in Half-Wave (HW) and Continuous Wave (CW) mode. Based on the design requirement, each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in distant locations. Therefore choosing Siemens Process Control System 7-400, DL205 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET are the ideal choices for CMTF cryogenic distribution real-time remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time remote control systems.

Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

Optimization of light collection from crystal scintillators for cryogenic experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High light collection efficiency is an important requirement in any application of scintillation detectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility for improving this parameter in cryogenic scintillation bolometers, which can be considered as a promising detectors in experiments investigating neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter. Energy resolutions and relative pulse amplitudes of scintillation detectors using ZnWO4 scintillation crystals of different shapes (cylinder 20 mm in dimater by 20 mm and hexagonal prism with diagonal 20 mm and height 20 mm), reflector materials and shapes, optical contact and surface properties (polished and diffused) were measured at room temperature. Propagation of optical photons in these experimental conditions was simulated using Geant4 and ZEMAX codes. The results of the simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other and with direct measurements of the crystals. This could be applied to optimize the geometry of scintillation detectors used in the cryogenic experiments.

F. A. Danevich; R. V. Kobychev; V. V. Kobychev; H. Kraus; V. B. Mikhailik; V. M. Mokina

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

230

Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Liquid Argon Cryogenic Detector Calibration by Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for calibration of cryogenic liquid argon detector response to recoils with certain energy -8.2 keV - is proposed. The method utilizes a process of inelastic scattering of monoenergetic neutrons produced by fusion DD neutron generator. Features of kinematics of inelastic scattering cause sufficient (forty times) increase in count rate of useful events relative to traditional scheme exploited elastic scattering with the same recoil energy and compatible energy resolution. The benefits of the proposed scheme of calibration most well implemented with the use of tagged neutron generator as a neutron source that allows to eliminate background originated from casual coincidence of signals on cryogenic detector and additional detector of scattered neutrons.

Polosatkin, Sergey; Dolgov, Alexander

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

Weiss, Kevin L [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL; NG, Joseph D [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Liquid Argon Cryogenic Detector Calibration by Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for calibration of cryogenic liquid argon detector response to recoils with certain energy -8.2 keV - is proposed. The method utilizes a process of inelastic scattering of monoenergetic neutrons produced by fusion DD neutron generator. Features of kinematics of inelastic scattering cause sufficient (forty times) increase in count rate of useful events relative to traditional scheme exploited elastic scattering with the same recoil energy and compatible energy resolution. The benefits of the proposed scheme of calibration most well implemented with the use of tagged neutron generator as a neutron source that allows to eliminate background originated from casual coincidence of signals on cryogenic detector and additional detector of scattered neutrons.

Sergey Polosatkin; Evgeny Grishnyaev; Alexander Dolgov

2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

Short-lived Rn-222 daughters in cryogenic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper a detection method of ? emitters from {sup 222}Rn decay chain, present in cryogenic liquids, using bare Si-PIN diodes immersed in the liquids is presented. Properties of ionized {sup 222}Rn daughters deduced from conducted measurements are outlined. Life-time of positive ions was found to be of the order of 10 s, and nonzero content of electronegative ions was observed.

Pelczar, Krzysztof; Frodyma, Nikodem; Wójcik, Marcin [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)] [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu.sub.2 S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors.

Hirayama, Chikara (Murrysville, PA); Wagner, George R. (Murrysville, PA)

1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

236

Apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel contained within the microballoon. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Methods and apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Spray-on foam insulations for launch vehicle cryogenic tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) has been developed for use on the cryogenic tanks of space launch vehicles beginning in the 1960s with the Apollo program. The use of SOFI was further developed for the Space Shuttle program. The External Tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle, consisting of a forward liquid oxygen tank in line with an aft liquid hydrogen tank, requires thermal insulation over its outer surface to prevent ice formation and avoid in-flight damage to the ceramic tile thermal protection system on the adjacent Orbiter. The insulation also provides system control and stability throughout the lengthy process of cooldown, loading, and replenishing the tank. There are two main types of SOFI used on the ET: acreage (with the rind) and closeout (machined surface). The thermal performance of the seemingly simple SOFI system is a complex array of many variables starting with the large temperature difference of 200–260 K through the typical 25-mm thickness. Environmental factors include air temperature and humidity, wind speed, solar exposure, and aging or weathering history. Additional factors include manufacturing details, launch processing operations, and number of cryogenic thermal cycles. The study of the cryogenic thermal performance of SOFI under large temperature differentials is the subject of this article. The amount of moisture taken into the foam during the cold soak phase, termed Cryogenic Moisture Uptake, must also be considered. The heat leakage rates through these foams were measured under representative conditions using laboratory standard liquid nitrogen boiloff apparatus. Test articles included baseline, aged, and weathered specimens. Testing was performed over the entire pressure range from high vacuum to ambient pressure. Values for apparent thermal conductivity and heat flux were calculated and compared with prior data. As the prior data of record was obtained for small temperature differentials on non-weathered foams, analysis of the different methods is provided. Recent advancements and applications of SOFI systems on future launch vehicles and spacecraft are also addressed.

J.E. Fesmire; B.E. Coffman; B.J. Meneghelli; K.W. Heckle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Field test of liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic power cable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic cable, 66 kV, 100 MVA, 30 m was constructed and tested with loads simulating actual operating loads from October 1970 to December 1971. The successful operation of the cable makes us hopeful it can be used for large capacity transmission. Our test line is composed of aluminium stranded hollow conductor, liquid-nitrogen impregnated polyethylene paper electrical insulation, and polyurethane foam thermal insulation.

H. Nagano; M. Fukasawa; S. Kuma; K. Sugiyama

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Application of cryogenic grinding to achieve homogenization of transuranic wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE/RFFO) and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado. Researchers on this project have developed a method for cryogenic grinding of mixed wastes to homogenize and, thereby, to acquire a representative sample of the materials. There are approximately 220,000 waste drums owned by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)-50,000 at RFETS and 170,000 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The cost of sampling the heterogeneous distribution of waste in each drum is prohibitive. In an attempt to produce a homogeneous mixture of waste that would reduce greatly the cost of sampling, researchers at NIST and RFETS are developing a cryogenic grinder. The Los Alamos work herein described addresses the implementation issues of the task. The first issue was to ascertain whether samples of the {open_quotes}small particle{close_quotes} mixtures of materials present in the waste drums at RFETS were representative of actual drum contents. Second, it was necessary to determine at what temperature the grinding operation must be performed in order to minimize or to eliminate the release of volatile organic compounds present in the waste. Last, it was essential to evaluate any effect the liquid cryogen might have on the structural integrity and ventilation capacity of the glovebox system. Results of this study showed that representative samples could be and had been obtained, that some release of organics occurred below freezing because of sublimation, and that operation of the cryogenic grinding equipment inside the glovebox was feasible.

Atkins, W.H.; Hill, D.D.; Lucero, M.E.; Jaramillo, L.; Martinez, H.E. [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Draft 04/05/09 A new high-background-rejection dark matter Ge cryogenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Draft 04/05/09 A new high-background-rejection dark matter Ge cryogenic detector The EDELWEISS of a cryogenic germanium detector for dark matter search is presented, taking advantage of the coplanar grid in the EURECA project of a one-ton cryogenic detector mass. PACS numbers: 07.57.Kp; 07.85.Nc; 72.20.Jv; 95.35.+d

Boyer, Edmond

243

Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

Minati, Kurt F. (Northport, NY); Morgan, Gerry H. (Patchogue, NY); McNerney, Andrew J. (Shoreham, NY); Schauer, Felix (Upton, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Benchmark Revisions Add Employment to Nevada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Benchmark Revisions Add Employment to Nevada The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using

Ahmad, Sajjad

245

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports Shifu Yuan/drop ports. © 2007 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060 multi-port wavelength selective switches using liquid crystal devices. Micro-Electro-Mechanical System

Bowers, John

246

NASA/SP2009-566-ADD2 Human Exploration of Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NASA/SP­2009-566-ADD2 Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Addendum #2 Bret G. Drake and Kevin D. Watts, editors NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas March 2014 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement

Waliser, Duane E.

247

Type II Transformation -Regeneration 2 Media -1 Liter Solution Substance []stock/MW Final Add ( )  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Type II Transformation - Regeneration 2 Media - 1 Liter Solution Substance []stock/MW Final Add. bialaphos stock 10mg/ml 1mg/L 100ul/L Pour into 100x25mm Petri dishes in hood. 1L=30 plates. Dry plates lids

Raizada, Manish N.

248

Managing energy in a network of reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show how to improve the energy consumption in an all optical ring network based on reconfigurable optical add and drop multiplexers (ROADM in the following). The analysis is based on numerical analysis of discrete time Markov chains and some heuristics to design an efficient network configuration. We also present a software tool built to perform this performance analysis.

Jean-Michel Fourneau; Nora Izri; Dominique Verchère

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Abstract--Although wireless microsensors can add performance-enhancing and energy-saving intelligence to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

receiver coils, however, capture a small fraction of the magnetic energy available, so coupling factors (k more power. Resonant-based bridges [8] invest energy for this purpose, except conversion efficiencyAbstract--Although wireless microsensors can add performance-enhancing and energy

Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

250

Implementation of a Modelica compiler using JastAdd attribute grammars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have implemented a compiler for key parts of Modelica, an object-oriented language supporting equation-based modeling and simulation of complex physical systems. The compiler is extensible, to support experiments with emerging tools for physical models. ... Keywords: Compiler construction, JastAdd, Modelica, Reference attributed grammars

Johan kesson; Torbjörn Ekman; Görel Hedin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Failing Drop CO2 Deposition (Desublimation) Heat Exchanger for the Cryogenic Carbon Capture Process.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Cryogenic carbon capture removes CO2 and other pollutants from flue and waste stream gases produced from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, natural… (more)

James, David William

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Optimisation of deep cryogenic treatment for 100cr6 bearing steel using the grey taguchi technique; -.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Deep Cryogenic treatment is a supplementary process to the conventional heat treatment for enhancing the mechanical properties of steels 100Cr6 bearing steel is widely used… (more)

Sri Siva, R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Cryogenic-cooled Yb:YAG amplifier for ns-pulses obtaining high optical efficiencies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a diode-pumped cryogenic cooled Yb:YAG amplifier for ns-pulses reaching a diode-to-laser efficiency of up to 46%.

Körner, Jörg; Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hein, Joachim; Kahle, Martin; Löser, Markus; Siebold, Mathias

254

Cryogenic Faraday isolator with a disk-shaped magneto-optical element  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic Faraday isolator with disc-shaped magneto-optical element is described. Depolarization of laser radiation caused by transverse inhomogeneity of Verdet constant has been...

Zheleznov, Dmitry S; Starobor, Aleksey V; Palashov, Oleg V; Khazanov, Efim A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Cryogenic radiometry: the problem of hydrogen condensation in detectors operated at temperatures below 4 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic radiometers employing a detector at liquid helium temperatures have demonstrated a much improved accuracy over those operating at room temperature. It is recommended that...

Quinn, T J; Martin, J E

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Cryogenic Performance of Double-Fused 1.5-m Vertical Cavity Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The low-temperature performance of vertical cavity lasers (VCL's) is of interest for high-speed data transmission from superconducting and cryogenic semiconductor circuits. Our...

Zhang, Y M; Piprek, J; Margalit, N; Anzlowar, M; Bowers, J

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Laser ignition of a cryogenic thruster using a miniaturised Nd:YAG laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted to assess the feasibility of implementing laser ignition in cryogenic reaction and control and orbital manouvering thrusters. A experimental...

Manfletti, Chiara; Kroupa, Gerhard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced pilot-scale cryogenic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pilot-scale cryogenic Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Conventional and advanced thermonuclear ignition in inertial confinement fusion Riccardo Betti Summary: Conventional and...

259

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF WISE/NEOWISE 3-BAND CRYOGENIC AND POST-CRYOGENIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 13511 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) that were observed during the 3-Band Cryo phase of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; after the outer cryogen tank was exhausted) and as part of the NEOWISE Post-Cryo Survey (after the inner cryogen tank was exhausted). With a reduced or complete loss of sensitivity in the two long wavelength channels of WISE, the uncertainty in our fitted diameters and albedos is increased to {approx}20% for diameter and {approx}40% for albedo. Diameter fits using only the 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m channels are shown to be dependent on the literature optical H absolute magnitudes. These data allow us to increase the number of size estimates for large MBAs which have been identified as members of dynamical families. We present thermal fits for 14 asteroids previously identified as the parents of a dynamical family that were not observed during the fully cryogenic mission.

Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cabrera, M. S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., MS 321-520, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, C., E-mail: Joseph.Masiero@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NCTS. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan (PEP) for NCTS has been initiated, and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National Ignition Facility is a multi-megajoule laser facility being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the Department of Energy (DOE). Its primary mission is to support the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) by performing experiments studying weapons physics, including fusion ignition. NIF also supports the missions of weapons effects, inertial fusion energy, and basic science in high-energy-density physics. NIF will be operated by LLNL under contract to the University of California (UC) as a national user facility. NIF is a low-hazard, radiological facility, and its operation will meet all applicable federal, state, and local Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) requirements. The NCTS Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope, cost, and schedule. The NIF Director controls the NIF Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan. Overall scope content and execution schedules for the High Energy Density Physics Campaign (SSP Campaign 10) are currently undergoing rebaselining and will be brought into alignment with resources expected to be available throughout the NNSA Future Years National Security Plan (FYNSP). The revised schedule for delivering this system will be decided at the national level, based on experiment campaign requirement dates that will be derived through this process. The current milestone date for achieving indirect-drive ignition on the NIF is December 2010. Maintaining this milestone requires that the cryogenic systems be complete and available for fielding experiments early enough that the planned experimental campaigns leading up to ignition can be carried out. The capability of performing non-ignition cryogenic experiments is currently required by March 2006, when the NIF's first cluster of beams is operational. Plans for cryogenic and non-cryogenic experiments on the NIF are contained in NNSA's Campaign 10 Program Plans for Ignition (MTE 10.1) and High Energy Density Sciences (MTE 10.2). As described in this document, the NCTS Program Manager is responsible for managing NIF Cryogenic Target Systems development, engineering, and deployment. Through the NIF Director, the NCTS Program Manager will put in place an appropriate Program Execution Plan (draft attached) at a later time consistent with the maturing and funding these efforts. The PEP will describe management methods for carrying out these activities.

Warner, B

2002-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Cryogenic opal-A deposition from Yellowstone hot springs Alan Channing a,, Ian B. Butler b,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Unconsolidated cryogenic opal-A sediment accumulates in and below water-ice where it is locked until spring thaw describe cryogenic silica precipitation that produces unconsolidated opal-A sedi- ment within and beneath

262

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1 and Vadim N. Smelyanskiy2 temperature stratification effects driven by natural convec- tion in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has liquid and ullage spaces. Temperature and ve- locity boundary layers at the tank walls are taken

Daigle, Matthew

263

Performance of cryogenic charge readout electronics with the ARGONTUBE LAr TPC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARGONTUBE is a liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) with an electron drift length of up to 5 m equipped with cryogenic charge-sensitive preamplifiers. In this work, we present results on its performance including a comparison of the new cryogenic charge-sensitive preamplifiers with the previously used room-temperature-operated charge preamplifiers.

Ereditato, A; Janos, S; Kreslo, I; Luethi, M; von Rohr, C Rudolf; Schenk, M; Strauss, T; Weber, M S; Zeller, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Environmental Effects on the Formation of the Primary and Secondary Ozonides of Ethylene at Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at Cryogenic Temperatures U. Samuni, R. Fraenkel, Y. Haas,*, R. Fajgar, and J. Pola Contribution from-deposited in a cryogenic matrix of argon at 15-26 K and of CO2 at 12-20 K. In the argon matrix, no perceptible reaction

Haas, Yehuda

265

Performance of cryogenic charge readout electronics with the ARGONTUBE LAr TPC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARGONTUBE is a liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) with an electron drift length of up to 5 m equipped with cryogenic charge-sensitive preamplifiers. In this work, we present results on its performance including a comparison of the new cryogenic charge-sensitive preamplifiers with the previously used room-temperature-operated charge preamplifiers.

A. Ereditato; D. Goeldi; S. Janos; I. Kreslo; M. Luethi; C. Rudolf von Rohr; M. Schenk; T. Strauss; M. S. Weber; M. Zeller

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

266

Cryogenic etching of nano-scale silicon trenches with resist masks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic silicon etching using SF"6-O"2 at the sub-50 nm scale has been developed for nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-photonics systems where high aspect ratio trenches are desired. It was found that the SF"6-O"2 chemistry at cryogenic ... Keywords: Electron beam lithography, Nano-imprint lithography, Nano-scale pattern transfer, Nanofabrication, Plasma etching

Y. Wu; D. L. Olynick; A. Goodyear; C. Peroz; S. Dhuey; X. Liang; S. Cabrini

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

do I add open data requirements into my government contract? do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

268

NETL: News Release - DOE, Tampa Electric Sign Agreement to add Intelligent  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE, Tampa Electric Sign Agreement to Add 'Intelligent' Computer System to Florida Power Plant DOE, Tampa Electric Sign Agreement to Add 'Intelligent' Computer System to Florida Power Plant Latest Effort to Apply 'Neural Networks' To Upgrade Power Plant Performance - Tampa Electric's Big Bend Power Plant - Tampa Electric's Big Bend Power Plant in Florida will soon use artificial intelligence to keep its boilers clean and reduce air pollutants. Photo: Tampa Electric Co TAMPA, FL -The U.S. Department of Energy has signed an agreement with Tampa Electric Power Company to demonstrate how advances in 21st century computer technology can make a vintage-1970s coal-fired power plant run cleaner and more efficiently. The agreement calls for engineers to install a new "neural network-driven" computer system in one of the boiler units at the Big Bend Station near

269

Data:1921696d-9e4b-4add-8993-2843952245ee | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9e4b-4add-8993-2843952245ee 9e4b-4add-8993-2843952245ee No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Farmers Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2006/08/08 End date if known: Rate name: Rate MSL- Municiple Street Lighting (175 W additional unit same pole) Sector: Lighting Description: To lighting service required by the municipality for streets, alleys and other public ways. Not applicable to temporally, resale, shared or seasonal service. Source or reference: https://cas.sharepoint.illinoisstate.edu/grants/Sunshot/Lists/DATA%20ENTRY%20Rates%20Collected/Attachments/283/Farmers%20Electric%20Coop%20Corp%20AR%20Rates.PDF

270

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

271

Data:A66ecbde-6930-450b-adde-9581403850fb | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ecbde-6930-450b-adde-9581403850fb ecbde-6930-450b-adde-9581403850fb No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Cuming County Public Pwr Dist Effective date: 2011/12/14 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lighting Unmetered Lights 250W HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: Ilinois State University Rate binder # 10 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2

272

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

273

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? How do I add open data requirements into my government contract? Home > Groups > Energy Data Initiative (EDI) Submitted by Ianjkalin on 13 February, 2013 - 18:33 3 answers Points: 0 For those looking to advance open data guidelines at the Request for Proposal (RFP) stage, see also these contractual terms from a recent Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)for maintenance of the DSIRE.org platform: "To maximize the public benefit of this financial assistance, all data must be fully accessible and downloadable, through a newly developed data feed or through existing infrastructure through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Open Energy Information (OpenEI) project . OpenEI currently hosts most of the existing data, generated by DSIRE, in

274

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM ON DIII-D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 The cryogenic facility that is part of the DIII-D tokamak system supplies liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to the superconducting magnets used for electron cyclotron heating, the D{sub 2} pellet injection system, cryopumps in the DIII-D vessel, and cryopanels in the neutral beam injection system. The liquid helium is liquefied on site using a Sulzer liquefier that has a 150 l/h liquefaction rate. Control of the cryogenic facility at DIII-D was initially accomplished through the use of three different programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Recently, two of those three PLCs, a Sattcon PLC controlling the Sulzer liquefier and a Westinghouse PLC, were removed and all their control logic was merged into the remaining PLC, a Siemens T1555. This replacement was originally undertaken because the removed PLCs were obsolete and unsupported. However, there have been additional benefits from the replacement. The replacement of the RS-232 serial links between the graphical user interface and the PLCs with a high speed Ethernet link allows for real-time display and historical trending of nearly all the cryosystem's data. this has greatly increased the ability to troubleshoot problems with the system, and has permitted optimization of the cryogenic system's performance because of the increased system integration. To move the control logic of the Sattcon control loops into the T1555, an extensive modification of the basic PID control was required. These modifications allow for better control of the control loops and are now being incorporated in other control loops in the system.

HOLTROP,K.L; ANDERSON,P.M; MAUZEY,P.S

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Tips for Key Maps / Inset Maps How Do I Add a Key Maps or Inset Maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tips for Key Maps / Inset Maps How Do I Add a Key Maps or Inset Maps You need a new data frame o the properties/look of the extent rectangle Tips Index Map o Should be a simplified version of the map o Should cover at least 5X the area of the main map o Should have its own scale/coordinates/title o Main coverage

Brownstone, Rob

276

A bit-serial floating point multiply/add architecture for signal processing applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Add . . . . . . . . . . 5 I I I . DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . ~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 8 State of the Art e . 8 The Floating Point Format. . . . ~ . ~ ~ . 14 The Bit-Serial Architectures . . . . . . . 19 Pipelined Architecture for a Serial Data Path... Point Muit'Iplier Block Diagram 12 3. General Sequentiaf Multiplier Block Diagram . 13 4. Bit-Serfal Multiplier Block Diagram 15 5. IEEE 32-bit Floating Point Format. . . . . . 17 6. Reduced Floating Point Format 18 7. The Bit-Serial Architecture...

Williams, Bertrand Jeffery

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

277

Role of Hot-Electron Preheating in the Compression of Direct-Drive Imploding Targets with Cryogenic D2 Ablators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of Hot-Electron Preheating in the Compression of Direct-Drive Imploding Targets with Cryogenic cryogenic D2 targets on the 60- beam, 351-nm OMEGA laser with intensities ranging from 3 1014 to 1 1015 W cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) shells imploded with a total energy up to 1.5 MJ. To achieve a gain of 40

278

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 461 (2001) 150154 Review on the development of cryogenic silicon detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of cryogenic silicon detectors L. Casagrandea, *, M.C. Abreub , W.H. Bellc , P. Berglundd , W. de Boere , K on the performance of heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures. The results discussed here show that cryogenic operation indeed represents a reliable method to increase the radiation

Zavrtanik, Marko

279

CRYOGENIC CATHODOLUMINESCENCE FROM CuxAg1-xInSe2 THIN FILMS Angel R. Aquino  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRYOGENIC CATHODOLUMINESCENCE FROM CuxAg1-xInSe2 THIN FILMS Angel R. Aquino 1 , Angus A. Rockett 1 deposited by a hybrid magnetron sputtering/evaporation process over a range of x values. Cryogenic for solar cell applications. Here we present results of the first cryogenic CL experiments with spectral

Rockett, Angus

280

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 7 JUNE 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1303 Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 7 JUNE 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1303 Resolved-sideband and cryogenic-sideband and cryogenic cooling. Mechanical oscillations of a deformed silica microsphere are coupled to optical challenges in combining resolved-sideband cooling with cryogenic precooling for most optomechanical

Loss, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes of the Bay of Fundy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Marker Horizons and Cryogenic Coring to Monitor Sediment Deposition in Salt Marshes that has accumulated over the marker horizon is measured. Cryogenic coring is one method of extracting out of the soil, a frozen core of marsh sediment is obtained. Using cryogenic coring to obtain salt

Chmura, Gail L.

282

A room temperature operating cryogenic cell for in vivo monitoring of dry snow metamorphism by X-ray microtomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1mm A room temperature operating cryogenic cell for in vivo monitoring of dry snow metamorphism Examples of 3D images obtained 19 days 84 days0 day OUR WORK: We developed a new in vivo cryogenic cell conductivity of air ~ 0.0015 Wm-1K-1 (reduced by 28 compared to that at atmospheric pressure). Cryogenic cell

Ribes, Aurélien

283

Optical links for cryogenic focal-plane array readout Alan R. Johnston, Duncan TH. Liu, Siamak Forouhar,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical links for cryogenic focal-plane array readout Alan R. Johnston, Duncan TH. Liu, Siamak cryogenic focaiplane arrays must minimize power dissipation on the focal.plane. Since cooler power efficiency is low at cryogenic temperatures, reduction of focal-plane power has strong leverage in re. ducing

Fossum, Eric R.

284

Network analyzer calibration for cryogenic on-wafer measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cryogenic probe station for on-wafer microwave measurements has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to explore the basic device physics and characterize advanced components for low-temperature applications. The station was designed to operate over a temperature range of 20 to 300 K with a frequency range of DC to 50 GHz. Due to the vacuum and the low temperature environment, the use of microwave probes and the calibration of network analyzer measurements are somewhat elaborate. This paper presents guidelines for probe use and calibration in this environment.

Hietala, V.M.; Housel, M.S.; Caldwell, R.B.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Electrical Insulation Paper and Its Physical Properties at Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paper is widely used in various engineering applications due to its physical properties and ease of manufacture. As a result paper has been selected or designed as an electrical insulation material for parts and components in high voltage technology. In the current study we select a paper employed in conventional transformers as the electrical insulation material. The potential of this paper is investigated at cryogenic temperatures to determine its physical properties for high temperature superconducting power applications. Dielectric measurements were performed using impedance spectroscopy at a constant frequency. Dielectric breakdown tests were performed on samples at 77 K using a liquid nitrogen bath.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL] [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL] [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL] [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Cryogenic X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy for Biological Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is well suited for nondestructive, high-resolution biological imaging, especially for thick samples, with the high penetration power of x rays and without limitations imposed by a lens. We developed nonvacuum, cryogenic (cryo-) XDM with hard x rays at 8 keV and report the first frozen-hydrated imaging by XDM. By preserving samples in amorphous ice, the risk of artifacts associated with dehydration or chemical fixation is avoided, ensuring the imaging condition closest to their natural state. The reconstruction shows internal structures of intact D. radiodurans bacteria in their natural contrast.

Enju Lima; Lutz Wiegart; Petra Pernot; Malcolm Howells; Joanna Timmins; Federico Zontone; Anders Madsen

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

287

A millimeter-wave antireflection coating for cryogenic silicon lenses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed and tested an antireflection (AR) coating method for silicon lenses at cryogenic temperatures and millimeter wavelengths. Our particular application is a measurement of the cosmic microwave background. The coating consists of machined pieces of Cirlex glued to the silicon. The measured reflection from an AR coated flat piece is less than 1.5% at the design wavelength. The coating has been applied to flats and lenses and has survived multiple thermal cycles from 300 to 4 K. We present the manufacturing method, the material properties, the tests performed, and estimates of the loss that can be achieved in practical lenses.

J. M. Lau; J. W. Fowler; T. A. Marriage; L. Page; J. Leong; E. Wishnow; R. Henry; E. Wollck; M. Halpern; D. Marsden; G. Marsden

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

288

Cryogenic X-ray Diffraction Microscopy for Biological Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is well suited for nondestructive, high-resolution biological imaging, especially for thick samples, with the high penetration power of x rays and without limitations imposed by a lens. We developed nonvacuum, cryogenic (cryo-) XDM with hard x rays at 8 keV and report the first frozen-hydrated imaging by XDM. By preserving samples in amorphous ice, the risk of artifacts associated with dehydration or chemical fixation is avoided, ensuring the imaging condition closest to their natural state. The reconstruction shows internal structures of intact D. radiodurans bacteria in their natural contrast.

E Lima; L Wiegart; P Pernot; M Howells; J Timmins; F Zontone; A Madsen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Cryogenic H maser in a strong B field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the spin-exchange frequency shift of the cryogenic hydrogen maser for B?0. A general expression is derived in terms of populations of ground-state hyperfine levels. The coefficients in this expression are calculated in the degenerate-internal-states approximation, as well as to first order in the hyperfine plus Zeeman splitting. Numerical results are compared with rigorous coupled-channel calculations. Some implications are pointed out for the frequency stability of the H maser in a magnetic field.

A. C. Maan; H. T. C. Stoof; B. J. Verhaar

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

Campisi, I.E.

1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

292

Adsorbate Electric Fields on a Cryogenic Atom Chip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the behaviour of electric fields originating from adsorbates deposited on a cryogenic atom chip as it is cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. Using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency we measure the field strength versus distance from a 1 mm square of YBCO patterned onto a YSZ chip substrate. We find a localized and stable dipole field at room temperature and attribute it to a saturated layer of chemically adsorbed rubidium atoms on the YBCO. As the chip is cooled towards 83 K we observe a change in sign of the electric field as well as a transition from a localized to a delocalized dipole density. We relate these changes to the onset of physisorption on the chip surface when the van der Waals attraction overcomes the thermal desorption mechanisms. Our findings suggest that, through careful selection of substrate materials, it may be possible to reduce the electric fields caused by atomic adsorption on chips, opening up experiments to controlled Rydberg-surface co...

Chan, K S; Hufnagel, C; Dumke, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Cryogenic supply for accelerators and experiments at FAIR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the coming years the new international accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), one of the largest research projects worldwide, will be built at GSI. In the final construction FAIR consists of synchrotrons and storage rings with up to 1,100 meters in circumference, two linear accelerators and about 3.5 kilometers beam transfer lines. The existing GSI accelerators serve as pre-accelerators. Partly the new machines will consist of superconducting magnets and therefore require a reliable supply with liquid helium. As the requirements for the magnets is depending on the machine and have a high variety, the cooling system is different for each machine; two phase cooling, forced flow cooling and bath cooling respectively. In addition the cold mass of the individual magnets varies between less than 1t up to 80t and some magnets will cause a dynamic heat load due to ramping that is higher than the static loads. The full cryogenic system will be operated above atmospheric pressure. The refrigeration and liquefaction power will be provided by two main cryogenic plants of 8 and 25 kW at 4K and two smaller plants next to the experiments.

Kauschke, M.; Xiang, Y.; Schroeder, C. H.; Streicher, B.; Kollmus, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1,64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

294

Monte Carlo Simulation of Massive Absorbers for Cryogenic Calorimeters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in cryogenic calorimeters with macroscopic absorbers for applications such as dark matter direct detection and rare event search experiments. The physics of energy transport in calorimeters with absorber masses exceeding several grams is made complex by the anisotropic nature of the absorber crystals as well as the changing mean free paths as phonons decay to progressively lower energies. We present a Monte Carlo model capable of simulating anisotropic phonon transport in cryogenic crystals. We have initiated the validation process and discuss the level of agreement between our simulation and experimental results reported in the literature, focusing on heat pulse propagation in germanium. The simulation framework is implemented using Geant4, a toolkit originally developed for high-energy physics Monte Carlo simulations. Geant4 has also been used for nuclear and accelerator physics, and applications in medical and space sciences. We believe that our current work may open up new avenues for applications in material science and condensed matter physics.

Brandt, D.; Asai, M.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U.; Silva, E.do Couto e; Kelsey, M.; /SLAC; Leman, S.W.; McArthy, K.; /MIT; Resch, R.; Wright, D.; /SLAC; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; /MIT

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

295

Cryogenic cooling using tunneling structures with sharp energy features  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermoelectric cooling, based upon the extraction of hot electrons and holes from a metallic electron gas, holds unrealized potential for refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures. We discuss the performance of two such electronic refrigerators: the quantum-dot refrigerator (QDR) and the normal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) refrigerator. We obtain the QDR base temperature using a numerical simulation and verify the validity of certain simplifying assumptions which allow refrigerating performance to be summarized on a diagram of ambient temperature versus electronic temperature. In this way, we find that the best refrigeration is obtained with the electronic distribution far from the equilibrium Fermi-Dirac function and the temperature reduction achieved is limited by the rate at which phonons are absorbed. We predict that, with sufficient thermal isolation, electronic devices could be cooled to a small fraction of the ambient temperature using these solid-state refrigerators. The NIS refrigerator should be capable of cooling thin-film devices from above 300 mK to below 100 mK; the QDR will cool macroscopic metallic samples in the ?K or nK range. We also discuss topics related to thermoelectric refrigeration including other cryogenic thermoelectric cooling schemes, the validity of the linear-response theory of thermoelectric effects, the refrigerating efficiency of an optimized thermoelectric refrigerator, and the overall cooling power of thermoelectric refrigeration.

H. L. Edwards; Q. Niu; G. A. Georgakis; A. L. de Lozanne

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Performance degradation of Geiger-mode APDs at cryogenic temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) with THGEM multipliers, optically read out with Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs), were proposed as potential technique for charge recording in rare-event experiments. In this work we report on the degradation of the GAPD performance at cryogenic temperatures revealed in the course of the study of two-phase CRAD in Ar, with combined THGEM/GAPD-matrix multiplier; the GAPDs recorded secondary scintillation photons from the THGEM holes in the Near Infrared. The degradation effect, namely the loss of the GAPD pulse amplitude, depended on the incident X-ray photon flux. The critical counting rate of photoelectrons produced at the 4.4 mm2 GAPD, degrading its performance at 87 K, was estimated as 10000 per second. This effect was shown to result from the considerable increase of the pixel quenching resistor of this CPTA-made GAPD type. Though not affecting low-rate rare-event experiments, the observed effect may impose some limitations on the performance of CRADs with GAPD-base...

Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Shekhtman, L; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A; Breskin, A; Thers, D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials' low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Rabinowicz, E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.)

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

APPROACHING CRYOGENIC GE PERFORMANCE WITH PELTIER COOLED CDTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new class of hand-held, portable spectrometers based on large area (lcm2) CdTe detectors of thickness up to 3mm has been demonstrated to produce energy resolution of between 0.3 and 0.5% FWHM at 662 keV. The system uses a charge loss correction circuit for improved efficiency, and detector temperature stabilization to ensure consistent operation of the detector during field measurements over a wide range of ambient temperature. The system can operate continuously for up to 8hrs on rechargeable batteries. The signal output from the charge loss corrector is compatible with most analog and digital spectroscopy amplifiers and multi channel analyzers. Using a detector measuring 11.2 by 9.1 by 2.13 mm3, we have recently been able to obtain the first wide-range plutonium gamma-ray isotopic analysis with other than a cryogenically cooled germanium spectrometer. The CdTe spectrometer is capable of measuring small plutonium reference samples in about one hour, covering the range from low to high burnup. The isotopic analysis software used to obtain these results was FRAM, Version 4 from LANL. The new spectrometer is expected to be useful for low-grade assay, as well as for some in-situ plutonium gamma-ray isotopics in lieu of cryogenically cooled Ge.

Khusainov, A. K. (A. Kh.); Iwanczyk, J. S. (Jan S.); Patt, B. E. (Bradley E.); Prirogov, A. M. (Alexandre M.); Vo, Duc T.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Cryogenic System for a High Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed.

Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

300

A Miniature Helium Turbo-Expander for Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter highlights the features of a miniature helium turbo expander for cryogenic refrigeration systems. The Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards has investigated the use of small, high speed turbines, supported by gas lubricated journal bearings, in small capacity refrigeration system. Two systems have been studied, one that operates at 4.2 K and another at 30 K. As a result of optimization studies, a 20:1 pressure ratio was used for the 4.2 K system. It is found that although the final low temperature is obtained with an expansion valve, work extraction is necessary for system operation. Refrigeration at 30 K is accomplished by shutting the expansion valve, and leaving the low temperature loop of the system unused. Refrigeration is obtained downstream of the turbine. It is found that for this system, optimization studies indicated best performance at 4:1 pressure ratio. A program was initiated to investigate the performance of a 4:1 pressure ratio turbine for this application. A design goal of 70% was selected from the qualitative reasoning that in larger sizes 80 to 90% was common, but in small machines friction and leakage losses tend to be relatively high.

M.T. NORTON

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Towards the invisible cryogenic system for Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With about 10 000 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems installed worldwide helium cooled magnets have become familiar equipment in hospitals and imaging centers. Patients and operators are only aware of the hissing sound of the Gifford-MacMahon refrigerator. Service technicians however still work with cryogenic fluids and cold gases e.g. for replenishing the helium reservoir inserting retractable current leads for magnet ramps or replacing burst disks after a magnet quench. We will describe the steps taken at Oxford Magnet Technology towards the ultimate goal of a superconducting magnet being as simple as a household fridge. Early steps included the development of resealing quench valves as well as permanently installed transfer siphons that only open when fully cooled to 4K. On recently launched 1.5 Tesla solenoid magnets 500 A current leads are permanently fixed into the service turret with hardly any boil-off penalty (40–50 cc/hr total). Ramping of the magnet has been fully automated including electronic supervision of the gas-cooled current leads. One step ahead the 1 Tesla High Field Open magnet is refrigerated by a single 4K Gifford MacMahon coldhead relieving the user from the necessity to refill with helium. Our conduction cooled 0.2 Tesla HTS magnet testbed does not require liquid cryogens at any time in its life including initial cool-down.

F. Steinmeyer; P. W. Retz; K. White; A. Lang; W. Stautner; P. N. Smith; G. Gilgrass

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Improving cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosion performance on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flexible direct-drive target platform is used to implode cryogenic deuterium–tritium (DT) capsules on the OMEGA laser [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate ignition hydrodynamically equivalent performance where the laser drive intensity, the implosion velocity, the fuel adiabat, and the in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR) are the same as those for a 1.5-MJ target [Goncharov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 165001 (2010)] designed to ignite on the National Ignition Facility [Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)]. The results from a series of 29 cryogenic DT implosions are presented. The implosions were designed to span a broad region of design space to study target performance as a function of shell stability (adiabat) and implosion velocity. Ablation-front perturbation growth appears to limit target performance at high implosion velocities. Target outer-surface defects associated with contaminant gases in the DT fuel are identified as the dominant perturbation source at the ablation surface; performance degradation is confirmed by 2D hydrodynamic simulations that include these defects. A trend in the value of the Lawson criterion [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] for each of the implosions in adiabat–IFAR space suggests the existence of a stability boundary that leads to ablator mixing into the hot spot for the most ignition-equivalent designs.

Sangster, T. C.; Goncharov, V. N.; Betti, R.; Radha, P. B.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, Y. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Janezic, R.; Kelly, J. H.; Kessler, T. J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at JLab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

Dixon, K.; Wright, M.; Ganni, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

304

Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at Jlab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Wright, Mathew C. [JLAB; Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Spiral 2 cryogenic system overview: Design, construction and performance test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new particle accelerator project Spiral 2 at GANIL (“Grand Accélérateur d’Ions Lourds, i.e. National Large Heavy Ion Accelerator) in Caen (France) is a very large installation, intended to serve fundamental research in nuclear physics. The heart of the future machine features a superconductor linear accelerator, delivering a beam until 20Mev/A, which are then used to bombard a matter target. The resulting reactions, such as fission, transfer, fusion, etc. will generate billions of exotic nuclei. To achieve acceleration of the beam, 26 cavities which are placed inside cryomodules at helium cryogenic temperature will be used. AL-AT (Air Liquide Advanced Technologies) takes part to the project by supplying cryogenic plant. The plant includes the liquefier associated to its compressor station, a large dewar, a storage tank for helium gas and transfer lines. In addition, a helium recovery system composed of recovery compressor, high pressure storage and external purifier has been supplied. Customized HELIAL LF has been designed, manufactured and tested by AL-AT to match the refrigeration power need for the Spiral 2 project which is around 1300 W equivalent at 4.5 K.

Deschildre, C.; Bernhardt, J.; Flavien, G.; Crispel, S. [Air Liquide Advanced Technologies, Sassenage (France); Souli, M. [GANIL, Caen (France); Commeaux, C. [IPN, Orsay (France)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

306

Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [INC-DTCI-ICSI Rm. Valcea, str.Uzinei, Nr.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Properties and Processes for Cryogenic Refrigeration R. Radebaugh, P. Bradley, M. Lewis (838), J. Gary, and A. O'Gallagher (ITL)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Properties and Processes for Cryogenic Refrigeration R. Radebaugh, P. Bradley, M. Lewis (838), J. Gary, and A. O'Gallagher (ITL) Cryogenic temperatures are required for many technology areas, including. Material properties at cryogenic temperatures also are needed by industry for the design of cryogenic

Magee, Joseph W.

308

Cryogenics Vision Workshop for High-Temperature Superconducting Electric Power Systems Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems sponsored the Cryogenics Vision Workshop, which was held on July 27, 1999 in Washington, D.C. This workshop was held in conjunction with the Program's Annual Peer Review meeting. Of the 175 people attending the peer review meeting, 31 were selected in advance to participate in the Cryogenics Vision Workshops discussions. The participants represented cryogenic equipment manufactures, industrial gas manufacturers and distributors, component suppliers, electric power equipment manufacturers (Superconductivity Partnership Initiative participants), electric utilities, federal agencies, national laboratories, and consulting firms. Critical factors were discussed that need to be considered in describing the successful future commercialization of cryogenic systems. Such systems will enable the widespread deployment of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) electric power equipment. Potential research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities and partnership opportunities for advancing suitable cryogenic systems were also discussed. The workshop agenda can be found in the following section of this report. Facilitated sessions were held to discuss the following specific focus topics: identifying Critical Factors that need to be included in a Cryogenics Vision for HTS Electric Power Systems (From the HTS equipment end-user perspective) identifying R and D Needs and Partnership Roles (From the cryogenic industry perspective) The findings of the facilitated Cryogenics Vision Workshop were then presented in a plenary session of the Annual Peer Review Meeting. Approximately 120 attendees participated in the afternoon plenary session. This large group heard summary reports from the workshop session leaders and then held a wrap-up session to discuss the findings, cross-cutting themes, and next steps. These summary reports are presented in this document. The ideas and suggestions raised during the Workshop will be used by the DOE Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems in preparing subsequent planning and strategy documents such as a Cryogenic Technology Development Roadmap.

Energetics, Inc.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pressurized Items and Cryogens Assessment plan - Developed By NNSA/Nevada Site Office Facility Representative Division  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pressurized Systems and Cryogens Pressurized Systems and Cryogens Performance Objective: Assure personnel health and safety through regularly scheduled inspections and maintenance on pressure vessels and equipment, compressed gases and gas cylinders, vacuum equipment and systems, hydraulics, and cryogenic materials and systems. Performance Criteria: BN inspects, operates and safely stores unmodified compressed-gas or liquid cylinders approved by the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the appropriate regulators. BN inspects, operates and maintains refrigeration systems that comply with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes, and applicable Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standards. BN inspects, operates and maintains pressure systems that operate at an

310

THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: A GALAXY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Co-add Data. We use the artificial neural network (ANN) technique to calculate the photo-z and the nearest neighbor error method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx}13 million objects classified as galaxies in the co-add with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx}83,000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey, the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3, the VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph-Very Large Telescope Deep Survey, and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.031. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; Dodelson, Scott; Hao Jiangang; Johnston, David; Kubo, Jeffrey; Lin Huan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Simet, Melanie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Upgrade of the cryogenic CERN RF test facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the large number of superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cryomodules to be tested for the former LEP and the present LHC accelerator a RF test facility was erected early in the 1990’s in the largest cryogenic test facility at CERN located at Point 18. This facility consisted of four vertical test stands for single cavities and originally one and then two horizontal test benches for RF cryomodules operating at 4.5 K in saturated helium. CERN is presently working on the upgrade of its accelerator infrastructure, which requires new superconducting cavities operating below 2 K in saturated superfluid helium. Consequently, the RF test facility has been renewed in order to allow efficient cavity and cryomodule tests in superfluid helium and to improve its thermal performances. The new RF test facility is described and its performances are presented.

Pirotte, O.; Benda, V.; Brunner, O.; Inglese, V.; Maesen, P.; Vullierme, B. [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Koettig, T. [ESS - European Spallation Source, Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

312

Cooling of cryogenic electron bilayers via the Coulomb interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat dissipation in current-carrying cryogenic nanostructures is problematic because the phonon density of states decreases strongly as energy decreases. We show that the Coulomb interaction can prove a valuable resource for carrier cooling via coupling to a nearby, cold electron reservoir. Specifically, we consider the geometry of an electron bilayer in a silicon-based heterostructure, and analyze the power transfer. We show that across a range of temperatures, separations, and sheet densities, the electron-electron interaction dominates the phonon heat-dissipation modes as the main cooling mechanism. Coulomb cooling is most effective at low densities, when phonon cooling is least effective in silicon, making it especially relevant for experiments attempting to perform coherent manipulations of single spins.

John King Gamble; Mark Friesen; Robert Joynt; S. N. Coppersmith

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

313

Cryogenic Control Architecture for Large-Scale Quantum Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-state qubits have recently advanced to the level that enables them, in-principle, to be scaled-up into fault-tolerant quantum computers. As these physical qubits continue to advance, meeting the challenge of realising a quantum machine will also require the engineering of new classical hardware and control architectures with complexity far beyond the systems used in today's few-qubit experiments. Here, we report a micro-architecture for controlling and reading out qubits during the execution of a quantum algorithm such as an error correcting code. We demonstrate the basic principles of this architecture in a configuration that distributes components of the control system across different temperature stages of a dilution refrigerator, as determined by the available cooling power. The combined setup includes a cryogenic field-programmable gate array (FPGA) controlling a switching matrix at 20 millikelvin which, in turn, manipulates a semiconductor qubit.

J. M. Hornibrook; J. I. Colless; I. D. Conway Lamb; S. J. Pauka; H. Lu; A. C. Gossard; J. D. Watson; G. C. Gardner; S. Fallahi; M. J. Manfra; D. J. Reilly

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

314

Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS): The Hunt for Dark Matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deciphering the nature of dark matter has great scientific importance. A leading hypothesis is that dark matter is made of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), which may result from supersymmetry or additional spatial dimensions. The underground search for elastic scattering of WIMPs on suitable targets (the so-called 'direct detection') is currently led by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II (CDMS II) experiment. Its sensitivity is ten times better than any other experiment and we hope to obtain another factor ten in the coming two years. After a brief recall of our recent results, I will describe the complementarity between direct detection experiments, the LHC and the ILC and I will outline the role that SLAC could play in this SuperCDMS program.

Sadoulet, Bernard (UC Berkeley) [UC Berkeley

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cryogenic Double Beta Decay Experiments: CUORE and CUORICINO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic bolometers, with their excellent energy resolution, flexibility in material, and availability in high purity, are excellent detectors for the search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Kilogram-size single crystals of TeO_2 are utilized in CUORICINO for an array with a total detector mass of 40.7 kg. CUORICINO currently sets the most stringent limit on the halflife of Te-130 of T > 2.4x10^{24} yr (90% C.L.), corresponding to a limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass in the range of < 0.2-0.9 eV. Based on technology developed for CUORICINO and its predecessors, CUORE is a next-generation experiment designed to probe neutrino mass in the range of 10 - 100 meV. Latest results from CUORICINO and overview of the progress and current status of CUORE are presented.

Reina Maruyama; for the CUORE Collaboration

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

316

Production Of The ADD Type Kaluza-Klein Excitations At Future e+e-, ep And pp Colliders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Possible production of ADD type Kaluza-Klein excitations are investigated at future high energy e+e-, ep and pp colliders. Discovery limits and signatures of such excitations are discussed at above colliders comparatively.

Billur, A. A.; Ciftci, A. K. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, R. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar (Turkey); Inan, S. C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas (Turkey); Sultansoy, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, H. Cavid Avenue 33, Baku (Azerbaijan)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

317

It All Adds Up is the University of Minnesota's conservation campaign. Designed to enlist the campus community's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Management department launched It All Adds Up in 2009 by setting a five percent energy reduction goal building comfort. Just as a mechanic can improve a car's fuel economy with a tune-up, a recommissioning

Webb, Peter

318

The Cryogenic Distribution Line for the LHC: Functional Specification and Conceptual Design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)1 currently under construction at CERN will make use of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K. The cryogenic distribution scheme for each of the eight sec...

W. Erdt; G. Riddone; R. Trant

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Cryogenic temperature characteristics of bulk silicon and Silicon-on-Sapphire devices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Studies of Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) CMOS device operation in cryogenic environments are presented. The main focus was to observe the characteristic changes in high, medium and… (more)

Melton, Steven Allen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Cryogenic sample exchange NMR probe for magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a cryogenic sample exchange system that dramatically improves the efficiency of magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments by reducing the time required to change samples and by ...

Barnes, Alexander B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A Metallic Alloy That is Tough and Ductile at Cryogenic Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Metallic Alloy That is Tough and Ductile at Cryogenic Temperatures Researchers at Berkeley and Oak Ridge Labs Test a Multi-element High-Entropy Alloy with Surprising Results At...

322

Cryogenic Yb3+-doped materials for pulsed solid-state laser applications [Invited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We review recent progress in pulsed lasers using cryogenically-cooled Yb3+-doped gain media, with an emphasis on high average power. Recent measurements of thermo-optic...

Rand, Darren; Miller, Daniel; Ripin, Daniel J; Fan, Tso Yee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Spectral Collection of Polyethylene Pellets at nearly Cryogenic Temperature to Improve Selectivity of Raman Measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used for analysis of diverse polymer samples. Normally, Raman spectral collection of samples is routinely performed at room temperature for convenience. However, the feasibility of improving spectral selectivity and the resulting quantitative accuracy, when samples are measured at nearly cryogenic temperature, has not been investigated. For this purpose, we attempted to measure the density of polyethylene (PE) pellets at cryogenic temperatures and the resulting accuracies were compared with that from room temperature measurement. Initially, each of 25 PE sample was allowed to cool down to cryogenic temperature and the corresponding Raman spectra were continuously collected while the temperature of sample increased. When the temperature of sample was at cryogenic temperature, the resulting band widths were narrower compared to those at room temperature, thereby improving the accuracy of density measurement. In overall, the proposed Raman scheme is simple and efficient; therefore, it could be further applied for analysis of other polymers.

Kim, Saetbyeol; Lee, Sanguk; Hwang, Jinyoung; Chung, Hoeil [Analytical Spectroscopy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

324

Cryogenic Fourier spectrometer for measuring trace species in the lower stratosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer has been built to measure thermal emission of the earth’s limb from a balloon-borne platform. Liquid nitrogen cooling of the spectrometer and...

Brasunas, John C; Kunde, Virgil G; Herath, L W

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Vapour nucleation in a cryogenic–fluid–dissolved–nitrogen mixture during rapid depressurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the dissolved nitrogen comes out of the...effect of dissolved nitrogen was not addressed...non-condensable gas (nitrogen) in a cryogenic...g. superheated water or pure refrigerants...to estimate the solubility of nitrogen in...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Strength Specifications and Methods of Test for Structural Grades of Cryogenic Balsa Wood Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Balsa wood is a useful material for cryogenic applications owing to its relatively high structural strength and good thermal insulating properties that increase with decreasing temperatures. Balsa wood insulation

G. E. Padawer

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Cryogenic, Conduction Cooled, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser, Suitable For Power Scaling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermo mechanical and thermo optical properties of Yb:YAG improve significantly at cryogenic temperatures. We present the first end pumped, zigzag slab Yb:YAG geometry, which is...

Ganija, Miftar; Ottaway, David J; Veitch, Peter J; Munch, Jesper

328

High power, 60MHz, cryogenically cooled, mode-locked, Yb:YAG oscillator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate a 60MHz, cryogenically cooled, mode-locked Yb:YAG oscillator with up to 12W average output power. Mode-locking is achieved via a SESAM, an intracavity SHG crystal, and...

Gerrity, Michael; Brown, Susannah; Popmintchev, Tenio; Chen, Ming-Chang; Witte, Stefan; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Backus, Sterling

329

Initial Operation and Performance Test Results of The Accelerator System String Test (Asst) Cryogenic System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

PSI has supplied three equal capacity helium cryogenic plants1 (dubbed ASST, MTL, and N15B). The first two plants will provide the helium refrigeration and liquefaction required for magnet testing in the Accelera...

Ted Kobel; Roberto Than

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

331

Questions and Answers - How many neutrons can you add to an atom without it  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Is it possible for an element to emitmore than one kind of radiation? Is it possible for an element to emit<br>more than one kind of radiation? Previous Question (Is it possible for an element to emit more than one kind of radiation?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Are nitrogen, arsenic, and tantalum radioactive?) Are nitrogen, arsenic, andtantalum radioactive? How many neutrons can you add to an atom without it getting unbalanced? The number of neutrons that an atom can carry is dependent on what it is. Some will become unstable with only one extra or one less neutron while others can hold or lose many extra. It varies from atom to atom and also within atoms. Take a look at a Periodic Table. The atomic number is the number of protons in that atom. If you change the number of protons the atom becomes

332

Laboratory adds a sixth R&D 100 award to its 2009 count  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R&D 100 awards R&D 100 awards Laboratory adds a sixth R&D 100 award to its 2009 count This year's awards bring the Los Alamos total to 113 since the Laboratory first entered the competition in 1978. November 4, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact Communications Office

333

Questions and Answers - Why is it (in detail) that the more coils you add  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

I am creating an electromagnetfor my science fair project. I am creating an electromagnet<br>for my science fair project. Previous Question (I am creating an electromagnet for my science fair project.) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Which jobs use electromagnets?) Which jobs use electromagnets? Why is it (in detail) that the more coils you add to an electromagnet, the stronger its magnetic field is? If I go into detail, I will soon reach a point at which I can't do the math! But the answer to your question is simpler than you might think. First, picture the straight piece of wire that your magnet is made of before it's wrapped up in coils. Now, if you run a current through it, is it a magnet? The answer is "Yes." This is because (repeat after me): any electric charge in motion creates a magnetic field. The magnetic field

334

NETL: News Release - Energy Department Adds More Cutting-Edge Projects to  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 3, 2001 October 3, 2001 Energy Department Adds More Cutting-Edge Projects to Improve Tomorrow's Gas Pipelines MORGANTOWN, WV - Every day in the United States an average of 55 billion cubic feet of natural gas moves through more than1.2 million miles of underground pipe and thousands of compressor stations to virtually every home and nearly 5 million businesses across the country. For the most part, this flow of natural gas is uneventful - in fact, America's pipeline system is unequaled in its efficiency and safety. But the current gas infrastructure is aging and leaks or breakages can occur. Moreover, as the Nation's consumption of natural gas increases, at least 300,000 miles of new distribution and transmission pipelines will have to be built by 2015.

335

Add-on memantine to valproate treatment increased HDL-C in bipolar II disorder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Memantine is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. As an augmenting agent, it has an antidepressant-like and mood-stabilizing effect. Memantine also reduces binge eating episodes and weight. We investigated whether memantine added on to valproate (VPA) is more effective than VPA alone for treating BP-II depression and improving the patient's metabolic profile. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to one of two groups: VPA plus either add-on [1] memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 62) or [2] placebo (n = 73) for 12 weeks. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate clinical response. Height, weight, fasting serum glucose, fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were followed regularly. Multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to analyze the effects of memantine on clinical performance. There were no significant differences in pre- and post-treatment YMRS and HDRS scores between the VPA + memantine and VPA + placebo groups. Although there were no significant differences in the pre- and post-treatment values of most metabolic indices between the two groups, there was a significant increase of HDL-C (p = 0.009) in the VPA + memantine group compared with the VPA + placebo group. This increase remained significant even after controlling for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.020). We conclude that add-on memantine plus VPA treatment of BP-II depression increases the blood level of HDL-C even in the absence of change in affective symptoms. Trial registration: NCT01188148 (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/), Trial date was from 1st August, 2008 to 31st July, 2012 in National Cheng Kung University and Tri-Service General Hospital.

Sheng-Yu Lee; Shiou-Lan Chen; Yun-Hsuan Chang; Po See Chen; San-Yuan Huang; Nian-Sheng Tzeng; Yu-Shan Wang; Liang-Jen Wang; I. Hui Lee; Tzung Lieh Yeh; Yen Kuang Yang; Ru-Band Lu; Jau-Shyong Hong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Performance scaling of high-power picosecond cryogenically cooled rod-type Yb:YAG multipass amplification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance scaling of high-power picosecond cryogenically cooled rod-type Yb:YAG multipass amplification is studied numerically, taking into account diffraction, dispersion,...

Fu, Xing; Hong, Kyung-Han; Chen, Li-Jin; Kärtner, Franz X

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pressure Build?Up in LNG and LH2 Vehicular Cryogenic Storage Tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of LNG and LH2 as fuels in heavy duty vehicles is increasing steadily because cryogenic liquids provides superior volumetric and gravimetric energy densities compared to other means of on?board storage. Although several sizes and types of tanks exist a typical vehicular storage tank has a volume of ?400 liters (?100 gallons). The pressure in the ullage space of a tank freshly filled is usually ?0.25 MPa but may vary during use from ?0.25 MPa (?20 psig) to ?0.92 MPa (?120 psig). Cryogenic vehicular tanks are typically dual?walled stainless steel vessels with vacuum and superinsulation isolation between the inner and outer vessel walls. The heat leaks into such tanks are measured as a percentage boil?off per day. For a storage tank of vehicular size range the boil?off may be ? 1 % day depending upon the cryogen and the quality of the tank. The corresponding heat leak into the cryogenic liquid vaporizes a certain amount of liquid that in turn increases the pressure in the tank which in turn significantly influences the properties of the cryogens. We have used a novel approach to calculate the increase in pressure of LNG and LH2 in a closed cryogenic vessel with a fixed heat leak as a function of time using real equations of state for the properties of the cryogens. The method and results for the time it takes for a freshly filled tank to increase in pressure from the filling pressure of ?0.25 MPa to a venting pressure of ?1.73 MPa are presented.

J. A. Barclay; A. M. Rowe; M. A. Barclay

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Cryogenic system for the Cryomodule Test Facility at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the current progress and near-future plans for the cryogenic system at the new Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at Fermilab, which includes the helium compressors, refrigerators, warm vacuum compressors, gas and liquid storage, and a distribution system. CMTF will house the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), which is the front end of the proposed Project X. PXIE includes one 162.5 MHz half wave resonator (HWR) cryomodule and one 325 MHz single spoke resonator (SSR) cryomodule. Both cryomodules contain superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities and superconducting magnets operated at 2.0 K. CMTF will also support the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA), which is located in the adjacent New Muon Lab (NML) building. A cryomodule test stand (CMTS1) located at CMTF will be used to test 1.3 GHz cryomodules before they are installed in the ASTA cryomodule string. A liquid helium pump and transfer line will be used to provide supplemental liquid helium to ASTA.

White, Michael; Martinez, Alex; Bossert, Rick; Dalesandro, Andrew; Geynisman, Michael; Hansen, Benjamin; Klebaner, Arkadiy; Makara, Jerry; Pei, Liujin; Richardson, Dave; Soyars, William; Theilacker, Jay [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

339

Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NE-F6, KSC, FL 32899 (United States); Tomsik, T. M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Conyers, H. J. [NASA Stennis Space Center, Building 3225, SSC, MS 39529 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

340

Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment uses low-temperature solid-state detectors to seek Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and has the world's best exclusion limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The experiment uses ionization and athermal phonon signals from particle interactions to discriminate between candidate (nuclear recoil) and background (electron recoil) events with extremely high efficiency. The detectors' low energy threshold for electron recoil events allows us to perform the search for relic axions and solar axions which can interact in the detector via the axio-electric coupling $g_{a\\bar{e}e}$ and the Primakoff coupling $g_{a\\gamma\\gamma}$ respectively. We describe the experiment and our most recent results from the Soudan 5-tower data runs which include a world-leading upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section with a minimum of $4.6\\times10^{-44}$ cm$^{2}$ at the 90% confidence level (CL) for a 60 GeV/c$^{2}$ WIMP, the world-leading experimental upper limit on the axio-electric coupling of $1.4\\times10^{-12}$ at the 90% CL for a 2.5 keV/c$^{2}$ axion, and the upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of $2.4\\times10^{-9}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at the 95% CL.

Oleg Kamaev; for the CDMS Collaboration

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth from Earth or in space are envisioned for automobiles aircraft rockets and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage transfer and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125 000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening complete modularity pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach problem solving and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

The development of a cryogenic over-pressure pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cryogenic over-pressure pump (OPP) was tested in the prototype telescope liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling system for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Project. This OPP consists of a process cylinder (PC), gas generator, and solenoid operated valves (SOVs). It is a positive displacement pump that provided intermittent liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow to an array of charge couple devices (CCDs) for the prototype Dark Energy Camera (DECam). In theory, a heater submerged in liquid would generate the drive gas in a closed loop cooling system. The drive gas would be injected into the PC to displace that liquid volume. However, due to limitations of the prototype closed loop nitrogen system (CCD cooling system) for DECam, a quasiclosed-loop nitrogen system was created. During the test of the OPP, the CCD array was cooled to its designed set point temperature of 173K. It was maintained at that temperature via electrical heaters. The performance of the OPP was captured in pressure, temperature, and flow rate in the CCD LN2 cooling system at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL)

Alvarez, M.; Cease, H.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Lathrop, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Garcia, J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 60616 A (United States); Ruiz, F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 60616 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

343

Tracer-encapsulated cryogenic pellet production for particle transport diagnostics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A device for producing a tracer-encapsulated cryogenic pellet is constructed for an accurate transport diagnostic system to measure particle transport both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic-field lines in magnetic confinementdevices. As for the typical configuration of the tracer-encapsulated pellet it is proposed that a 50–250 ?m diam tracer made of a light atom such as lithium carbon etc. is encapsulated in the center of a 1–3 mm diam cylindrical pellet of hydrogen. For demonstration of the device operation a 240 ?m diam carbon sphere is encapsulated in the center of a 3 mm diam cylindrical pellet of hydrogen and accelerated by a light gas gun to velocities of 400–800 m/s in a test chamber. The pellet has been photographed simultaneously from two directions and the two two-dimensional images are reconstructed to a three-dimensional image. Thus the proof of principle of the device operation has been demonstrated.

S. Sudo; H. Itoh; K. Khlopenkov

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Implementation of a Modelica compiler using JastAdd attribute grammars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have implemented a compiler for key parts of Modelica, an object-oriented language supporting equation-based modeling and simulation of complex physical systems. The compiler is extensible, to support experiments with emerging tools for physical models. To achieve extensibility, the implementation is done declaratively in JastAdd, a metacompilation system supporting modern attribute grammar mechanisms such as reference attributes and nonterminal attributes. This paper reports on experiences from this implementation. For name and type analyses, we illustrate how declarative design strategies, originally developed for a Java compiler, could be reused to support Modelica’s advanced features of multiple inheritance and structural subtyping. Furthermore, we present new general design strategies for declarative generation of target \\{ASTs\\} from source ASTs. We illustrate how these strategies are used to resolve a generics-like feature of Modelica called modifications, and to support flattening, a fundamental part of Modelica compilation. To validate that the approach is practical, we have compared the execution speed of our compiler to two existing Modelica compilers.

Johan Åkesson; Torbjörn Ekman; Görel Hedin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Ultra-high-mass mass spectrometry with charge discrimination using cryogenic detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultra-high-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a cryogenic particle detector as an ion detector with charge discriminating capabilities. Cryogenic detectors have the potential for significantly improving the performance and sensitivity of time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and compared to ion multipliers they exhibit superior sensitivity for high-mass, slow-moving macromolecular ions and can be used as "stop" detectors in time-of-flight applications. In addition, their energy resolving capability can be used to measure the charge state of the ions. Charge discrimination is very valuable in all time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Using a cryogenically-cooled Nb-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction (STJ) detector operating at 1.3 K as an ion detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for large biomolecules it was found that the STJ detector has charge discrimination capabilities. Since the cryogenic STJ detector responds to ion energy and does not rely on secondary electron production, as in the conventionally used microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, the cryogenic detector therefore detects large molecular ions with a velocity-independent efficiency approaching 100%.

Frank, Matthias (Berkeley, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Oakland, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R. (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

347

Requirements and interfaces to cryogenic and power supply plants for the ITER magnet system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the requirements and interfaces of cryogenic and power supply plants for the ITER magnet system. The heat loads and mass flow rates of the magnet system is evaluated to keep coil temperature within 6.5 K during the plasma operation of 2200 s. The helium consumption in the current leads is estimated for a current feed of 4.5 MA from 4 K to 300 K. The location of the electrical insulation breaks is compared near winding and outside of cryostat. The terminal box is designed for interfacing the cryogenic and power supply systems. Separate vacuums for the cryostat and the cryolines facilitate maintenance of all cryogenic components without warm-up of the whole system. A superconducting busbar is used to supply current from a current connector at the coil to the vapor-cooled lead in the coil terminal box. The layout of cryogenic lines and equipment is designed to consider space limitations and routing restrictions in the tokamak hall and the electrical termination building. The main parameters of the cryogenic plant (cryoplant) are discussed.

Yoshida, K.; Kalinin, V.; Stoner, S. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Progress update on cryogenic system for ARIEL E-linac at TRIUMF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TRIUMF is involved in a major upgrade. The Advanced Rare IsotopeE Laboratory (ARIEL) has become a fully funded project in July 2010. A 10 mA 50 MeV SRF electron linac (e-linac) operating CW at 1.3 GHz is the key component of this initiative. This machine will serve as a second independent photo-fission driver for Rare Isotope Beams (RIB) production at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility. The cryogens delivery system requirements are driven by the electron accelerator cryomodule design [1, 2]. Since commencement of the project in 2010 the cryogenic system of e-linac has moved from the conceptual design phase into engineering design and procurement stage. The present document summarizes the progress in cryogenic system development and construction. Current status of e-linac cryogenic system including details of LN{sub 2} storage and delivery systems, and helium subatmospheric (SA) system is presented. The first phase of e-linac consisting of two cryomodules, cryogens storage, delivery, and distribution systems, and a 600 W class liquid helium cryoplant is scheduled for installation and commissioning by year 2014.

Koveshnikov, A.; Bylinskii, I.; Hodgson, G.; Yosifov, D. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

349

Experimental study on cryogenic moisture uptake in polyurethane foam insulation material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rigid foam is widely used to insulate cryogenic tanks, in particular for space launch vehicles due to its lightweight, mechanical strength and thermal-insulating performance. Up to now, little information is available on the intrusion of moisture into the material under cryogenic conditions, which will bring substantial additional weight for the space vehicles at lift-off. A cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure the amount of water uptake into the polyurethane foam. One side of the specimen is exposed to an environment with high humidity and ambient temperature, while the other with cryogenic temperature at approximately 78 K. A total of 16 specimens were tested for up to 24 h to explore the effects of the surface thermal protection layer, the foam thickness, exposed time, the butt joints, and the material density on water uptake of the foam. The results are constructive for the applications of the foam to the cryogenic insulation system in space launch vehicles.

X.B. Zhang; L. Yao; L.M. Qiu; Z.H. Gan; R.P. Yang; X.J. Ma; Z.H. Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Diagnosing fuel R and R asymmetries in cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions using charged-particle spectrometry at OMEGA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagnosing fuel R and R asymmetries in cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions using charged; published online 22 April 2009 Determining fuel areal density R in moderate- R 100­200 mg/cm2 cryogenic-on deuterons KO-Ds , elastically scattered by primary DT neutrons, from which a fuel R can be inferred

351

Add-ons for Lattice Boltzmann Methods: Regularization, Filtering and Robert A. Brownlee, Jeremy Levesley, David Packwood, Alexander N. Gorban  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Add-ons for Lattice Boltzmann Methods: Regularization, Filtering and Limiters Robert A. Brownlee, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK Abstract: We describe how regularization of lattice Boltzmann methods can be achieved-Driven Cavity. 1. INTRODUCTION Lattice Boltzmann Methods (LBM) are a class of discrete computational schemes

Jensen, Max

352

Philosophy, Politics & Law BA-MA A master degree adds problem-solving abilities in new and unfamiliar environments within  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Philosophy, Politics & Law BA-MA A master degree adds problem-solving abilities in new and students of philosophy are well prepared, but also an area which is often intellectually interesting. "...The law is not only a career that interests many philosophers and philosophy students; it is also

Suzuki, Masatsugu

353

Abstract--The robot described in this paper, SUE (Supinator Extender), adds forearm/wrist rehabilitation functionality to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the workspace of the arm robot. The rotation axis used for supination-pronation is a small bearing just below. Traditional robot wrists that attach to the end of a serial robotic chain resemble the human arm with a wrist Abstract--The robot described in this paper, SUE (Supinator Extender), adds forearm

Bobrow, James E.

354

Senate Bill No. 34 An act to add Sections 2069, 2099, and 2099.5 to the Fish and Game  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Senate Bill No. 34 CHAPTER 9 An act to add Sections 2069, 2099, and 2099.5 to the Fish and Game Species Act (CESA) requires the Fish and Game Commission to establish a list of endangered species and a list of threatened species and requires the Department of Fish and Game to recommend

355

In situ broadband cryogenic calibration for two-port superconducting microwave resonators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce an improved microwave calibration method for use in a cryogenic environment, based on a traditional three-standard calibration, the Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibration. The modified calibration method takes advantage of additional information from multiple measurements of an ensemble of realizations of a superconducting resonator, as a new pseudo-Open standard, to correct errors in the TRL calibration. We also demonstrate an experimental realization of this in situ broadband cryogenic calibration system utilizing cryogenic switches. All calibration measurements are done in the same thermal cycle as the measurement of the resonator (requiring only an additional 20 min), thus avoiding 4 additional thermal cycles for traditional TRL calibration (which would require an additional 12 days). The experimental measurements on a wave-chaotic microwave billiard verify that the new method significantly improves the measured scattering matrix of a high-quality-factor superconducting resonator.

Yeh, Jen-Hao; Anlage, Steven M. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3285 (United States); CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Thermal detector model for cryogenic composite detectors for the dark matter experiments CRESST and EURECA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) and the EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) experiments are direct dark matter search experiments where cryogenic detectors are used to detect spin-independent, coherent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle)-nucleon scattering events by means of the recoil energy. The cryogenic detectors use a massive single crystal as absorber which is equipped with a TES (transition edge sensor) for signal read-out. They are operated at mK-temperatures. In order to enable a mass production of these detectors, as needed for the EURECA experiment, a so-called composite detector design (CDD) that allows decoupling of the TES fabrication from the optimization procedure of the absorber single-crystal was developed and studied. To further investigate, understand and optimize the performance of composite detectors a detailed thermal detector model which takes into account the CDD has been developed.

S. Roth; C. Ciemniak; C. Coppi; F. v. Feilitzsch; A. Guetlein; C. Isaila; J. -C. Lanfranchi; S. Pfister; W. Potzel; W. Westphal

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V., E-mail: k.kamenev@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom)] [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Azuma, Masaki [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)] [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Attfield, J. Paul [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P.L. Dickrell and W.G. Sawyer*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P life [4,5], ability to operate from cryogenic temperature (4 K) to 500 K, and their relative that operate at cryogenic temperatures, there is a paucity of data available for friction coeffi- cients

Sawyer, Wallace

359

IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 407 A 0.15 GHz Cryogenic SiGe MMIC LNA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 407 A 0.1­5 GHz Cryogenic for operation at cryogenic temperatures is presented. At room temperature, the cir- cuit provides greater than and the first matched wideband cryogenic integrated circuit LNA that covers frequencies as low as 0.1 GHz. Index

Weinreb, Sander

360

An automated hydride generation-cryogenic trapping-ICP-MS system for measuring inorganic and methylated Ge, Sb and As species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An automated hydride generation-cryogenic trapping-ICP-MS system for measuring inorganic of both flow injection and batch hydride generation and couples it to an automated cryogenic trapping unit with detection by ICP-MS. The Teflon cryogenic trap was packed with 10 cm of SE-30 5% Chromosorb W-HP 80­100 mesh

Canberra, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CRYOGENIC 1.5-4.5 GHz ULTRA LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER Niklas Wadefalk*, Anders Mellberg, Iltcho Angelov, Emmanuil Choumas**, Erik Kollberg,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRYOGENIC 1.5-4.5 GHz ULTRA LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER Niklas Wadefalk*, Anders Mellberg, Iltcho Angelov Trading AG, Truebbach, Switzerland Abstract - This paper describes cryogenic broadband amplifier with very the channel at the mesa edge and thereby decreased the gate leakage current. Index Terms ­ cryogenic low noise

362

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, TMTT-2011-09-0851 1 Low Power, Very Low Noise, Cryogenic SiGe IF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Cryogenic SiGe IF Amplifiers for THz Mixer Receivers Damon Russell, Member, IEEE, and Sander Weinreb, Life-conducting mixers with cryogenic IF ampli- fiers. The critical parameters of the IF amplifiers are noise tem to 15 K, from 1 to 6 GHz, at power consumptions as low as 2 mW. Index Terms--Cryogenics, low

Weinreb, Sander

363

Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m{sup 3} storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

364

A new high-background-rejection dark matter Ge cryogenic detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new design of a cryogenic germanium detector for dark matter search is presented, taking advantage of the coplanar grid technique of event localisation for improved background discrimination. Experiments performed with prototype devices in the EDELWEISS II setup at the Modane underground facility demonstrate the remarkably high efficiency of these devices for the rejection of low-energy $\\beta$, approaching 10$^5$ . This opens the road to investigate the range beyond 10$^{-8}$ pb in the WIMP-nucleon collision cross-sections, as proposed in the EURECA project of a one-ton cryogenic detector mass.

Broniatowski, A; Armengaud, E; Bergé, L; Benoît, A; Besida, O; Blumer, J; Chantelauze, A; Chapellier, M; Chardin, G; Charlieux, F; Collin, S; Crauste, O; De Jésus, M; Di Stefano, P; Dolgorouki, Y; Domange, J; Dumoulin, L; Eitel, K; Gascon, J; Gerbier, G; Gros, M; Hannawald, M; Hervé, S; Juillard, A; Kluck, H; Kozlov, V; Lemrani, R; Lubashevskiy, A; Marrache, C; Marnieros, S; Navick, X -F; Nones, C; Olivieri, E; Pari, P; Paul, B; Rozov, S; Sanglard, V; Scorza, S; Semikh, S; Verdier, M -A; Vagneron, L; Yakushev, E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D. [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

366

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRYOGENIC HYDROGEN SYSTEM FOR A SPALLATION NEUTRTON SOURCE IN J-PARC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An intense spallation neutron source (JSNS) driven by a proton beam of 1-MW has been constructed as one of the main experimental facilities in J-PARC. Supercritical hydrogen at around 20 K and 1.5 MPa was selected as a moderator material in JSNS. Three kinds of hydrogen moderators (coupled, decoupled, and poisoned) were installed to provide pulsed neutron beam of higher neutronic performance. The total nuclear heating in the moderators was estimated to be 3.75 kW for a proton beam power of 1 MW. The cryogenic hydrogen system, where the hydrogen circulation system is cooled by a helium refrigerator system with the refrigerator capacity of 6.45 kW at 15.6 K, provides the supercritical hydrogen for the moderators and absorbs nuclear heating in the moderators. The off-beam commissioning has confirmed that the cryogenic hydrogen system can be cooled down to 18 K within 19 hours. The supercritical hydrogen with a mass flow rate of 190 g/s can be circulated in the rated condition. It was verified that the cryogenic hydrogen system satisfied the performance requirements. The first cold neutron beam cooled by the cryogenic hydrogen system was successfully generated in May 2008.

Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Uehara, T.; Sakurayama, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Kato, T.; Futakawa, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

Design and testing of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is constructing a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab building. The facility will be used for testing and validating cryomodule designs as well as support systems. For the initial phase of the project, a single Type III plus 1.3 GHz cryomodule will be cooled and tested using a single Tevatron style standalone refrigerator. Subsequent phases involve testing as many as two full RF units consisting of up to six 1.3 GHz cryomodules with the addition of a new cryogenic plant. The cryogenic infrastructure consists of the refrigerator system, cryogenic distribution system as well as an ambient temperature pumping system to achieve 2 K operations with supporting purification systems. A discussion of the available capacity for the various phases versus the proposed heat loads is included as well as commissioning results and testing schedule. This paper describes the plans, status and challenges of this initial phase of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system.

Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; DeGraff, B.D.; Leibfritz, J.; /Fermilab

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is disclosed for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system. 8 figs.

Zhang, B.X.; Ganni, V.; Stifle, K.E.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cryogenic Yb:YAG Total-Reflection Active-Mirror Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A regenerative amplifier with a cryogenic Yb:YAG total-reflection active-mirror shows 3.5mJ at 100Hz with M2<1.1. A high energy fluence of 2.6J/cm2 energy fluence is achieved for...

Kawanaka, Junji; Furuse, Hiroaki; Albach, Daniel; Takeuchi, Yasuki; Yoshida, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kan, Hirofumi

370

Cryogenic (<20 K) helium cooling mitigates radiation damage to protein crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of diffraction data collected from matched protein crystals bathed in helium at a set temperature of 8 K and nitrogen at 100 K indicate that the use of cryogenic helium can increase the diffractive lifetime of crystals and measurably mitigate radiation damage.

Chinte, U.

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

371

Control System For Cryogenic THD Layering At The National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world largest and most energetic laser system for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In 2010, NIF began ignition experiments using cryogenically cooled targets containing layers of the tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) fuel. The 75 {micro}m thick layer is formed inside of the 2 mm target capsule at temperatures of approximately 18 K. The ICF target designs require sub-micron smoothness of the THD ice layers. Formation of such layers is still an active research area, requiring a flexible control system capable of executing the evolving layering protocols. This task is performed by the Cryogenic Target Subsystem (CTS) of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The CTS provides cryogenic temperature control with the 1 mK resolution required for beta-layering and for the thermal gradient fill of the capsule. The CTS also includes a 3-axis x-ray radiography engine for phase contrast imaging of the ice layers inside of the plastic and beryllium capsules. In addition to automatic control engines, CTS is integrated with the Matlab interactive programming environment to allow flexibility in experimental layering protocols. The CTS Layering Matlab Toolbox provides the tools for layer image analysis, system characterization and cryogenic control. The CTS Layering Report tool generates qualification metrics of the layers, such as concentricity of the layer and roughness of the growth boundary grooves. The CTS activities are automatically coordinated with other NIF controls in the carefully orchestrated NIF Shot Sequence.

Fedorov, M; Blubaugh, J; Edwards, O; Mauvais, M; Sanchez, R; Wilson, B

2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

372

Cryogenic-target performance and implosion physics studies on OMEGAa... V. A. Smalyuk,1,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

focused on understanding the physics of this high-intensity regime. Understanding the dy- namics of targetCryogenic-target performance and implosion physics studies on OMEGAa... V. A. Smalyuk,1,b R. Betti York 14623-1299, USA 2 Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

373

Cryogenic system component development for the fusion experimental reactor at JAERI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of fusion R and D at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is to construct the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) to follow JT-60. The construction of FER inevitably requires development of a large, reliable, and efficient helium liquefier/refrigerator and the more advanced cryogenic technology for cooling superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils. Typical characteristics required for the cryogenic system of FER are 10 to 20 kW at 4 K as one unit, reliability for > 8000 h, a stable pulsed heat load, and high-energy efficiency of > 1/500. In this cryogenic system, the major components such as the helium compressor, turbo-expander, cold circulation pump for supercritical helium, and cold compressor to reduce operating temperature below 4 K should be scaled up to a mass flow rate of > 1000 g/s. For this purpose, JAERI has developed cryogenics since 1980 in accordance with the development program in which the scaling up of the major components mentioned above are involved as well as cooling technology development.

Kato, T.; Kamiya, S.; Tada, E.; Hiyama, T.; Kawano, K.; Shimamoto, S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 32:137142 (2003) Cooling Efficiency of Cryogen Spray During Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and other vascular skin lesions. The efficacy of CSC depends critically on the heat transfer coefficient (H layer, detach- ed from in vivo human skin. The heat transfer coefficient of the stratum corneum to be dependent on the specific design of the cryogen valve and nozzle. With nozzles used in typical clinical

Aguilar, Guillermo

375

Data:0944af53-b9a9-4942-83a7-851991add082 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b9a9-4942-83a7-851991add082 b9a9-4942-83a7-851991add082 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Miami-Cass County Rural E M C Effective date: 2011/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Single Phase Sector: Residential Description: The Miami-Cass County Rural Electric Membership Corporation (REMC) shall charge and collect for residential electric service on the following bases of availability, application, character of service, monthly rate, minimum charge, purchased power cost adjustment clause, and tax adjustment. AVAILABILITY: This schedule is available to any member of the REMC located within the territory served by Miami-Cass County Rural Electric Membership Corporation.

376

Data:39ca18f4-adde-4162-adbf-49c715c9fbe5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f4-adde-4162-adbf-49c715c9fbe5 f4-adde-4162-adbf-49c715c9fbe5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bristol Virginia Utilities Effective date: 2013/08/01 End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Lighting - Metal Halide Flood - 400 Watt - Transition Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: www.bvu-optinet.com/data_elements/Electric_Rates.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring:

377

Data:22865059-40ab-4e38-add7-9ca276368573 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-40ab-4e38-add7-9ca276368573 -40ab-4e38-add7-9ca276368573 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Ameren Illinois Company Effective date: 2010/11/19 End date if known: Rate name: DS-3 and BGS-3 Zone 2 - General Delivery Service 600V to 15kV Sector: Industrial Description: Availability: Service under this Rate is available for any eligible Non-Residential Customer within the territory served by Company that has demand metering installed and a maximum monthly Demand equal to or greater than 150 kilowatts (kW) but less than 1,000 kW as qualified in the Delivery Service Rate Reassignment section.

378

Data:2a0bdae9-8320-4794-adde-ad3cbe147351 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bdae9-8320-4794-adde-ad3cbe147351 bdae9-8320-4794-adde-ad3cbe147351 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Wahoo, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial Large General Service (Single Phase) Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: http://www.wahoo.ne.us/content_subcat.asp?SubCategoryID=88&CategoryID=125&ContentID=68 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V):

379

Data:789add43-c49c-4629-ad6f-5e867fa282db | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add43-c49c-4629-ad6f-5e867fa282db add43-c49c-4629-ad6f-5e867fa282db No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Black Earth, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 1999/08/01 End date if known: Rate name: Ms-1 Outdoor Lighting Service: 150W HPS(Ornamental) Sector: Lighting Description: Application: This schedule will be applied to municipal street lighting. The utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Fixed Monthly Charge includes Commitment to Community Rider: $1.33 per customer per month. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly.

380

Data:Ac94956d-2b15-4590-8add-3f718005a413 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6d-2b15-4590-8add-3f718005a413 6d-2b15-4590-8add-3f718005a413 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Northeast Nebraska P P D Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rural Residential Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: http://www.nnppd.com/billing/rates/ Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the first use of a beta-eliminating cut based on a maximum-likelihood characterization described above.

Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Highly efficient, high-power, broadly tunable, cryogenically cooled and diode-pumped Yb:CaF2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a high-power diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 laser operating at cryogenic temperature (77K). A laser output power of 97W at 1034nm was extracted for a pump power of 245W....

Ricaud, S; Papadopoulos, D N; Camy, P; Doualan, J L; Moncorgé, R; Courjaud, A; Mottay, E; Georges, P; Druon, F

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

High-average-power cryogenically-cooled picosecond Yb:YAG amplifier seeded by a fiber CPA system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a 300-W-level picosecond laser based on a cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifier seeded by a fiber CPA system. High-average-power picosecond second harmonic generation is also presented.

Gopinath, Juliet

384

High-Average-Power Cryogenically-Cooled Picosecond Yb:YAG Amplifier Seeded by a Fiber CPA System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a 300-W-level picosecond laser based on a cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifier seeded by a fiber CPA system. High-average-power picosecond second harmonic generation is...

Hong, Kyung-Han; Gopinath, Juliet; Siddiqui, Aleem; Moses, Jeffrey; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hybl, John; Fan, Tso Yee

385

High-power diode-pumped cryogenically cooled Yb:CaF2 laser with extremely low quantum defect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-power diode-pumped laser operation at 992–993?nm under a pumping wavelength of 981 of 986?nm is demonstrated with Yb:CaF2 operating at cryogenic temperature (77?K),...

Ricaud, S; Papadopoulos, D N; Pellegrina, A; Balembois, F; Georges, P; Courjaud, A; Camy, P; Doualan, J L; Moncorgé, R; Druon, F

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ASTEROIDS ESTIMATED FROM THE WISE 3-BAND DATA AND NEOWISE POST-CRYOGENIC SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhancements to the science data processing pipeline of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, collectively known as NEOWISE, resulted in the detection of >158,000 minor planets in four infrared wavelengths during the fully cryogenic portion of the mission. Following the depletion of its cryogen, NASA's Planetary Science Directorate funded a four-month extension to complete the survey of the inner edge of the Main Asteroid Belt and to detect and discover near-Earth objects (NEOs). This extended survey phase, known as the NEOWISE Post-Cryogenic Survey, resulted in the detection of {approx}6500 large Main Belt asteroids and 86 NEOs in its 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m channels. During the Post-Cryogenic Survey, NEOWISE discovered and detected a number of asteroids co-orbital with the Earth and Mars, including the first known Earth Trojan. We present preliminary thermal fits for these and other NEOs detected during the 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-Cryogenic Surveys.

Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Nugent, C. R. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Tholen, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

Exergy Analysis of the Cryogenic Helium Distribution System for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world’s largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility..

Claudet, S; Tavian, L; Wagner, U; 10.1063/1.3422294

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Superconducting meissner effect bearings for cryogenic turbomachines. Final report, 1 January 1991-30 March 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the second year efforts to develop a Meissner bearing system for miniature cryogenic turboexpanders used in Brayton cycle cryocoolers. During this period, a permanent magnet/Meissner effect bearing was tested, and a system was developed for measuring the stiffness and damping of superconductor/magnet pairs at high frequencies and low amplitudes (I kHz, <100 um). Preliminary measurements have shown the feasibility of Meissner effect bearing/damper systems for small turbomachines. A new configuration for the bearing system has been conceptualized, and a patent disclosure prepared. The system provides both accurate positioning of the shaft at room temperature and stable rotation at cryogenic temperatures.... Meissner effect bearings.

Valenzuela, J.; Martin, J.

1989-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

389

Characterization of liquefied natural gas tanker steel from cryogenic to fire temperatures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel source in the U.S. has prompted a study to improve our capability to predict cascading damage to LNG tankers from cryogenic spills and subsequent fire. To support this large modeling and simulation effort, a suite of experiments were conducted on two tanker steels, ABS Grade A steel and ABS Grade EH steel. A thorough and complete understanding of the mechanical behavior of the tanker steels was developed that was heretofore unavailable for the span of temperatures of interest encompassing cryogenic to fire temperatures. This was accomplished by conducting several types of experiments, including tension, notched tension and Charpy impact tests at fourteen temperatures over the range of -191 C to 800 C. Several custom fixtures and special techniques were developed for testing at the various temperatures. The experimental techniques developed and the resulting data will be presented, along with a complete description of the material behavior over the temperature span.

Dempsey, J. Franklin (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wellman, Gerald William (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Kalan, Robert J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.

Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Advances in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of dynamic self-assembling nanostructures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Elucidating the structural information of nanoscale materials in their solvent-exposed state is crucial, as a result, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has become an increasingly popular technique in the materials science, chemistry, and biology communities. Cryo-TEM provides a method to directly visualize the specimen structure in a solution-state through a thin film of vitrified solvent. This technique complements X-ray, neutron, and light scattering methods that probe the statistical average of all species present; furthermore, cryo-TEM can be used to observe changes in structure over time. In the area of self-assembly, this tool has been particularly powerful for the characterization of natural and synthetic small molecule assemblies, as well as hybrid organic–inorganic composites. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cryogenic TEM in the context of self-assembling systems with emphasis on characterization of transitions observed in response to external stimuli.

Christina J. Newcomb; Tyson J. Moyer; Sungsoo S. Lee; Samuel I. Stupp

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Energy Efficiency of large Cryogenic Systems: the LHC Case and Beyond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research infrastructures for high-energy and nuclear physics, nuclear fusion and production of high magnetic fields are increasingly based on applied superconductivity and associated cryogenics in their quest for scientific breakthroughs at affordable capital and operation costs, a condition for their acceptance and sustained funding by society. The thermodynamic penalty for operating at low temperature makes energy efficiency a key requirement for their large cryogenic systems, from conceptual design to procurement, construction and operation. Meeting this requirement takes a combined approach on several fronts in parallel: management of heat loads and sizing of cooling duties, distribution of cooling power matching the needs of the superconducting devices, efficient production of refrigeration, optimal control resting on precise instrumentation and diagnostics, as well as a targeted industrial procurement policy. The case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is presented. Potential improvements for fu...

Claudet, S; Ferlin, G; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

EXERGY ANALYSIS OF THE CRYOGENIC HELIUM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world's largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility.

Claudet, S.; Lebrun, Ph.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva, 23 (Switzerland)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

394

Deep cryogenic treatment of AISI M2 high-speed steel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of Deep Cryogenic Treatment (DCT) on the properties of AISI-M2 is evaluated. Hardness,(apparent) fracture toughness and wear resistance were measured after submitting this steel to conventional vacuum heat treatment, including quenching and triple tempering and three variants including DCT before and after tempering. In any case, only minor differences in hardness and a corresponding increase in fracture toughness were introduced by DCT, even after tempering the steel at temperature lower than conventional. Tempering could be optimised if DCT was carried out after quenching, owing to a shift of the secondary peak hardness towards lower temperature. A reduction of the wear rate of 32% was displayed by the specimen cryogenically treated before conventional triple tempering. A further reduction to 49% was observed by lowering the tempering temperature.

M. Pellizzari; A. Molinari; L. Girardini; L. Maldarelli

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Performance of a cryogenic system prototype for the XENON1T Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed an efficient cryogenic system with heat exchange and associated gas purification system, as a prototype for the XENON1T experiment. The XENON1T detector will use about 3 ton of liquid xenon (LXe) at a temperature of 175K as target and detection medium for a dark matter search. In this paper we report results on the cryogenic system performance focusing on the dynamics of the gas circulation-purification through a heated getter, at flow rates above 50 Standard Liter per Minute (SLPM). A maximum flow of 114 SLPM has been achieved, and using two heat exchangers in parallel, a heat exchange efficiency better than 96% has been measured.

Elena Aprile; Ran Budnik; Bin Choi; Hugo Contreras; Karl Giboni; Luke Goetzke; Rafael Lang; Kyungeun Lim; Antonio melgarejo; Petr Shagin

2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

396

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.

NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; CHEN,K.C; DICKEN,M; MORRIS,C; ANDREWS,R; GREENWOOD,A.L; CASTILLO,E

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR A 35 KV/90 MVA SATURATED IRON?CORE SUPERCONDUCTING FAULT CURRENT LIMITER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic system was built as an open system for a 35 kV/90 MVA saturated iron?core superconducting fault current limiter. It consists of an annular cylindrical liquid nitrogen dewar cryogenic pipes sensors valves and a control unit. A HTS dc bias coil was immersed with liquid nitrogen in the dewar. The control circuit constantly monitors the liquid nitrogen level and controls the supply of liquid nitrogen in accordance with the liquid nitrogen level change. Nitrogen vapor was directly released into the environment. Heat loss under different working conditions such as no magnetization current 150 A magnetization current and on?grid condition was measured to evaluate the performance of the system. As compared with no magnetization current of the dc bias coil evaporation of liquid nitrogen increases about 20% under the on?grid condition.

H. Hong; W. Z. Gong; B. Tian; J. Y. Zhang; X. M. Hu; J. Z. Wang; X. Y. Niu; Y. Wang; L. F. Zhang; Y. W. Sun; T. Q. Wu; Y. Xin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Compression and combustion of non-cryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel for inertial fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variants of a target with a solid thermonuclear fuel in the form of deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals for an inertial fusion have been proposed. The laser-pulse-induced compression of non-cryogenic targets, as well as ignition and combustion of such targets, has been examined. The numerical calculations show that, despite a decrease in the caloric content of the fuel and an increase in the energy losses on intrinsic radiation in the target containing deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals as compared to the target containing deuterium-tritium ice, the non-cryogenic target can ensure the fusion gain sufficient for its use in the energy cycle of a thermonuclear power plant based on the inertial plasma confinement method.

Gus'kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Integration of light hydrocarbons cryogenic separation process in refinery based on LNG cold energy utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract China depends on naphtha (derived from oil) as the main feedstock for ethylene plants, resulting in margins that are negatively co-related with the price of oil. Clearly, light hydrocarbons provide cost advantages over the conventional naphtha feedstock. Consequently, the recovery of light hydrocarbons from refinery gas has been gathering more and more significance. Nonetheless, the cryogenic separation needs low process temperatures, substantially increasing the refrigeration load requirements and, attendantly, the compression requirements associated with the refrigeration system. In this paper, the cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is applied to light hydrocarbons cryogenic separation process to replace the compression refrigeration system on the basis of one China refinery. The results show that LNG can provide 14,373 kW cold energy for the separation process, resulting in a direct compression power saving of 7973 kW and making the utilization rate of LNG cold energy as high as 71.9%.

Yajun Li; Hao Luo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Reduction of plyatomic ion interferences in indictively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A desolvation scheme for introducing aqueous and organic samples into an argon inductively coupled plasma is described; the aerosol generated by nebulizer is heated (+140 C) and cooled ({minus}80 C) repeatedly, and the dried aerosol is then injected into the mass spectrometer. Polyatomic ions are greatly suppressed. This scheme was validated with analysis of seawater and urine reference samples. Finally, the removal of organic solvents by cryogenic desolvation was studied.

Alves, L.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cryogenic systems for the SSC and the status of their development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of two parallel magnet rings, each 87,120 m in circumference, constructed in a tunnel 25 to 74 m underground. Protons are injected into these ring from the high energy booster (HEB), which contains a separate magnet ring 10,800 m in circumference constructed in a tunnel 14 m above the collider tunnel. The magnets will be operated at a controlled low temperature in order to maintain the windings in the superconducting state. Therefore the magnet cryostat is designed with a high vacuum insulating chamber, multilayer insulation (MLI), and thermal shields at 84 K and 20 K nominal temperatures. The major portion of the heat load is from thermal radiation and conduction through the supports, and is intercepted and absorbed by the shields. The cryogenic system for the machine is divided into sectors of nominally equal length: ten for the collider and two for the HEB. Each sector has a dedicated cryogenic system (SCS) as well as some level of redundancy from the neighboring SCS. The helium refrigeration plants will be installed at the midpoint of each sector. Each cryogenic sector in the collider is divided into four strings, two upper and two lower, about 4000 m long. Each string is subdivided into sections of about 1080 m, the smallest modules that can be isolated for maintenance, or for warmup and cooldown. Each section is subdivided into cells and half cells. The half cell, containing six main magnets and a spool piece is 90 m long. The SSC cryogenic system for each sector consists of a sector refrigerator surface system (SRS) and a sector refrigerator tunnel system (SRT). Proposals for the SRS systems` are presently in review for vendor selection. In this paper the SRT subsystems requirements and their status will be reviewed.

Fietz, W.A.; Ganni, V.; Abramovich, S.; Niehaus, T.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Analysis and experimental study of a plate-type hydraulic vibration damper for cryogenic rotating machinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as to style and content by: Alan B. Palazzolo (Chair of Committee) Norris Stubbs (Member) Robin C. Redfield (Member) go~ Walter L. Bradley (Head of Department) December 1991 Analysis and Experimental Study of a Plate-Type Hydraulic Vibration Damper... for Cryogenic Rotating Machinery. (December 1991) Emmanuel Angustia Olan, B. S. , Texas A&M University chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Alan B. palazzolo The objective of this research is to design, construct, investigate, and analyze a plate-type hydraulic...

Olan, Emmanuel Angustia

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

Mirror thermal noise in laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors operating at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mirror thermal noise is and will remain one of the main limitations to the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors based on laser interferometers. We report about projected mirror thermal noise due to losses in the mirror coatings and substrates. The evaluation includes all kind of thermal noises presently known. Several of the envisaged substrate and coating materials are considered. The results for mirrors operated at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature are reported.

Janyce Franc; Nazario Morgado; Raffaele Flaminio; Ronny Nawrodt; Iain Martin; Liam Cunningham; Alan Cumming; Sheila Rowan; James Hough

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Cryogenic sapphire oscillator with exceptionally high long-term frequency stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the development of a sapphire cryogenic microwave resonator oscillator long-term fractional frequency stability of 2x10^-17Sqrt[\\tau] for integration times \\tau>10^3 s and negative drift of about 2.2x10^-15/day. The short-term frequency instability of the oscillator is highly reproducible and also state-of-the-art: 5.6x10^-16 for an integration time of \\tau ~ 20 s.

J. G. Hartnett; C. R. Locke; E. N. Ivanov; M. E. Tobar; P. L. Stanwix

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

405

Cryogenic sub-system for the 56 MHz SRF storage cavity for RHIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 56 MHz Superconducting RF Storage Cavity is being constructed for the RHIC collider. This cavity is a quarter wave resonator that will be operated in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The cavity requires an extremely quiet environment to maintain its operating frequency. The cavity, besides being engineered for a mechanically quiet system, also requires a quiet cryogenic system. The helium is taken from RHIC's main helium supply header at 3.5 atm, 5.3K at a phase separator tank. The boil-off is sent back to the RHIC refrigeration system to recover the cooling. To acoustically separate the RHIC helium supply and return lines, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger condenses the helium vapor generated in the RF cavity bath. A system description and operating parameters are given about the cryogen delivery system. The 56 MHz superconducting storage RF cavity project is making progress. The cryogenic system design is in its final stage. The helium supply lines have been tapped into the RHIC helium distribution lines. The plate-and-fin heat exchanger design is near completion and specification will be sent out for bid soon. The cold helium vapor heating system design will start soon as well. A booster compressor specification is underway. The first phase separator and transfer line design work is near completion and will be sent out for bid soon.

Huang, Y.; Than, R.; Orfin, P.; Lederle, D.; Tallerico, T.; Masi L.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

MPPC versus MRS APD in two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) with combined THGEM/GAPD multiplier have become an emerging potential technique for dark matter search and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. In such a multiplier the THGEM hole avalanches are optically recorded in the Near Infrared (NIR) using a matrix of Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs). To select the proper sensor, the performances of six GAPD types manufactured by different companies, namely by Hamamatsu (MPPCs), CPTA (MRS APDs) and SensL (SiPMs), have been comparatively studied at cryogenic temperatures when operated in two-phase CRADs in Ar at 87 K. While the GAPDs with ceramic packages failed to operate properly at cryogenic temperatures, those with plastic packages, namely MPPC S10931-100P and MRS APD 149-35, showed satisfactory performances at 87 K. In addition, MPPC S10931-100P turned out to be superior in terms of the higher detection efficiency, lower nose rate, lower pixel quenching resistor and better characteristics reproducibility.

Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ?1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented.

Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); O'Brien, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Ahammed, M. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

408

KOTOBUKI-1 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. For cryogenic specimen stage with small positional fluctuation for a long exposure time of more than several minutes, we here use a cryogenic pot cooled by the evaporation cooling effect for liquid nitrogen. In addition, a loading device is developed to bring specimens stored in liquid nitrogen to the specimen stage in vacuum. The apparatus allows diffraction data collection for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K with a positional fluctuation of less than 0.4 ?m and provides an experimental environment to easily exchange specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage. The apparatus was developed and utilized in diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of ?m from material and biological sciences, such as metal colloid particles and chloroplast, at BL29XU of SPring-8. Recently, it has been applied for single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of sub-?m using X-ray free electron laser at BL3 of SACLA.

Nakasako, Masayoshi; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan) [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shirahama, Keiya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masaki; Hikima, Takaaki; Yonekura, Koji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Inubushi, Yuichi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Inui, Yayoi [Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hoshi, Takahiko [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15 Kurigi, Aso-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan)] [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15 Kurigi, Aso-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

P Pereira; S Valtchev; J Pina; A Gonçalves; M Ventim Neves; A L Rodrigues

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Data:66498add-6265-466d-892a-b3fba65a8172 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add-6265-466d-892a-b3fba65a8172 add-6265-466d-892a-b3fba65a8172 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Menasha, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/04/06 End date if known: Rate name: Gs-2 General Service Single Phase Optional Time-of-Day 8am-8pm Sector: Commercial Description: This rate schedule is optional to all Gs-1, General Service customers. This rate will be available to both single-phase and three-phase customers including commercial, institutional, government and other Gs-1 customers. The monthly Maximum Measured Demand of customers served on this rate shall not exceed 50 kilowatts for three or more months in a consecutive 12-month period.

411

This form is for add-on certificates only. "Add-On" certificates are available to students already enrolled in degree-granting graduate programs at Binghamton University. If you would like to apply for a stand-alone certificate, or any other type of progr  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This form is for add-on certificates only. "Add-On" certificates are available to students already for a stand-alone certificate, or any other type of program, please consult the Graduate School website for instructions. APPLICANT INFORMATION B Number: Email: Last Name: First Name: MI: Date of Birth: Phone Number

Suzuki, Masatsugu

412

Memantine add-on in moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a growing body of evidence for the efficacy of memantine augmentation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, to date, no double-blind study has addressed this issue. The objective of the present randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of memantine add-on treatment in patients with moderate to severe OCD. Forty-two patients with the diagnosis of OCD based on DSM-IV-TR who had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of ?21 were randomly assigned to memantine (10 mg/day for the first week, and 20 mg/day for the rest of the trial) or placebo in addition to fluvoxamine for eight weeks. Patients were assessed using Y-BOCS every two weeks. Thirty-eight patients completed the study. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant effect for time × treatment interaction in total scale [F (2.096, 75.470) = 5.280, P = 0.006] and obsession [F (2.340, 94.547) = 5.716, P = 0.002] and near significant effect for compulsion subscales [F (2.005, 79.179) = 2.841, P = 0.065]. By week eight, all patients in the memantine group and six (32%) patients in the placebo group [P value of Fisher's exact test memantine group compared with six (32%) patients in the placebo group achieved remission (?2(1) = 13.328, P memantine add-on to fluvoxamine significantly improved short-term outcomes in patients with moderate to severe OCD.

Ali Ghaleiha; Neda Entezari; Amirhossein Modabbernia; Babak Najand; Neda Askari; Mina Tabrizi; Mandana Ashrafi; Reza Hajiaghaee; Shahin Akhondzadeh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

50 years of helium liquefaction at the MIT Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The evolution of the helium liquefaction facility of the MIT Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory and the history of its operation over the last 50 years are described. Professor Samuel C. Collins created the liquid-helium facility based on his earlier developments. The chronology of the laboratory helium liquefiers is given with a brief description of each one. The current facility based on the Model 2000 liquefier is described and operating experience is given. The reasons for the very high availability of the liquefaction system are developed.

Joseph L. Smith Jr.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings: results at 100 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results from cryogenic tests of Volume-Phase Holographic(VPH) gratings at 100 K. The aims of these tests are to see whether the diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength is significantly different at a low temperature from that at room temperature and to see how the performance of a VPH grating is affected by a number of thermal cycles. We have completed 10 cycles between room temperature and 100 $K$, and find no clear evidence that the diffraction efficiency changes with temperature or with successive thermal cycle.

Naoyuki Tamura; Graham J. Murray; Peter Luke; Colin Blackburn; David J. Robertson; Nigel A. Dipper; Ray M. Sharples; Jeremy R. Allington-Smith

2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

415

Cryogenic Optical Resonators: A New Tool for Laser Frequency Stabilization at the 1 Hz Level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate a laser system with a frequency instability of 0.7 Hz for integration times of 20 s, corresponding to 2.3×10-15 fractional instability. This is the lowest short-term instability of any current oscillator. The system uses diode-pumped miniature Nd:YAG lasers stabilized to sapphire Fabry-Pérot reference cavities at liquid helium temperature. Cryogenic optical resonators are promising for precision experiments, such as high-resolution spectroscopy, flywheel oscillators for optical frequency standards, and displacement measurements. As an example, we report a measurement of the ultralow thermal expansion of a sapphire cavity at 1.9 K.

Stefan Seel; Rafael Storz; Giuseppe Ruoso; Jürgen Mlynek; Stephan Schiller

1997-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

416

Cryogenic High-Frequency Readout and Control Platform for Spin Qubits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a cryogenic platform for the control and readout of spin qubits that comprises a high density of dc and radio frequency sample interconnects based on a set of coupled printed circuit boards. The modular setup incorporates 24 filtered dc lines, 14 control and readout lines with bandwidth from dc to above 6 GHz, and 2 microwave connections for excitation to 40 GHz. We report the performance of this platform, including signal integrity and crosstalk measurements and discuss design criteria for constructing sample interconnect technology needed for multi-qubit devices.

J. I. Colless; D. J. Reilly

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

417

Preliminary results of a WIMP search with EDELWEISS-II cryogenic detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The EDELWEISS-II experiment uses cryogenic heat-and-ionization detectors in order to detect the rare interactions from possible WIMP dark matter particles on Germanium nuclei. Recently, new-generation detectors with an interleaved electrode geometry were developped and validated, enabling an outstanding rejection of gamma-rays and surface interactions. We present here preliminary results of a one-year WIMP search carried out with ten of such detectors in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane. A sensitivity to the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section of 5 \\times 10-8 pb was achieved using a 322 kg

E. Armengaud; for the EDELWEISS collaboration

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

418

30 kV coaxial vacuum-tight feedthrough for operation at cryogenic temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we describe the technology of building a vacuum-tight high voltage feedthrough which is able to operate at voltages up to 30 kV. The feedthrough has a coaxial structure with a grounded sheath which makes it capable to lead high voltage potentials into cryogenic liquids, without risk of surface discharges in the gas phase above the liquid level. The feedthrough is designed to be used in ionization detectors, based on liquefied noble gases, such as Argon or Xenon.

I. Kreslo; I. Badhrees; S. Delaquis; A. Ereditato; S. Janos; M. Messina; U. Moser; B. Rossi; M. Zeller

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

419

Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a cryogenic cavity-optomechanical system that combines Si3N4 membranes with a mechanically-rigid Fabry-Perot cavity. The extremely high quality-factor frequency products of the membranes allow us to cool a MHz mechanical mode to a phonon occupation of less than 10, starting at a bath temperature of 5 kelvin. We show that even at cold temperatures thermally-occupied mechanical modes of the cavity elements can be a limitation, and we discuss methods to reduce these effects sufficiently to achieve ground state cooling. This promising new platform should have versatile uses for hybrid devices and searches for radiation pressure shot noise.

T. P. Purdy; R. W. Peterson; P. -L. Yu; C. A. Regal

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Spin-transfer switching of orthogonal spin-valve devices at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the quasi-static and dynamic switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 12?K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for slowly varied current as well as for current pulses with durations as short as 200 ps. We demonstrate 100% switching probability with current pulses 0.6?ns in duration. We also present a switching probability diagram that summarizes device switching operation under a variety of pulse durations, amplitudes, and polarities.

Ye, L., E-mail: ly17@nyu.edu; Gopman, D. B.; Rehm, L.; Backes, D.; Wolf, G.; Kent, A. D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Ohki, T. [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Kirichenko, A. F.; Vernik, I. V.; Mukhanov, O. A. [HYPRES, 175 Clearbrook Road, Elmsford, New York 10523 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cryogenic UHV-STM Study of Hydrogen and Deuterium Desorption from Si(100)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic UHV scanning tunneling microscope has been used to study the electron stimulated desorption of hydrogen and deuterium from Si(100) surfaces at 11 K. A strong isotope effect is observed, as seen previously at room temperature. Above ?5 eV, the desorption yields for H and D are temperature independent, while in the tunneling regime, below 4 eV, H is a factor of ?300 easier to desorb at 11 than at 300 K. This large temperature dependence is explained by a model that involves multiple vibrational excitation and takes into account the increase of the Si-H(D) vibrational lifetime at low temperature.

E. T. Foley, A. F. Kam, J. W. Lyding, and Ph. Avouris

1998-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

Limits on spin-dependent wimp-nucleon interactions from the cryogenic dark matter search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is an experiment to detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) based on their interactions with Ge and Si nuclei. We report the results of an analysis of data from the first two runs of CDMS at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in terms of spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon interactions on {sup 73}Ge and {sup 29}Si. These data exclude new regions of spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon interaction parameter space, including regions relevant to spin-dependent interpretations of the annual modulation signal reported by the DAMA/NaI experiment.

Akerib, D.S.; Armel-Funkhouser, M.S.; Attisha, M.J.; Bailey, C.N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, Daniel A.; Brink, P.L.; Brusov, P.P.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D.O.; Chang, C.L.; Cooley, J.; Crisler, M.B.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; DeJongh, F.; Dixon, R.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Driscoll, D.D.; Duong, L.; /Case Western Reserve U. /UC, Berkeley /Brown U.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Comparative test on two kinds of new compliant foil bearing for small cryogenic turbo-expander  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two kinds of new compliant foil journal bearing for a small cryogenic turbo-expander used in the Brayton cycle cryocooler are presented in this paper. The foil of bearings is supported with copper wires and elastic material respectively, so the bearings are much simpler in structure than previous compliant foil bearing. The performances of the bearings are studied under the same experiment conditions. The results indicate that both bearings have better damp performance and the foil bearing supported with elastic material has preferable stability to the one supported with copper wires.

Y Hou; Z.H Zhu; C.Z Chen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample.

Gonczy, John D. (Oaklawn, IL); Markley, Finley W. (St. Charles, IL); McCaw, William R. (Burr Ridge, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Microstructure development in particulate coatings examined with high-resolution cryogenic scanning electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors used cryogenic scanning electron microscopy to examine the early stages of latex film formation. They visualized the influence of ionic strength and extent of carboxylation in latex-calcium carbonate formulations and in latex-only formulations. Results demonstrated that latex particles deposited on calcium carbonate surfaces creating a suspension of carboxylic acid-stabilized calcium carbonate particles. Images of consolidation fronts showed that variation of ionic strength and extent of carboxylation dramatically changes the way latex particles consolidate and form films.

Sheehan, J.G.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Takamura, Koichi [BASF Corp., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Cryogenic Properties of Inorganic Insulation Materials for ITER Magnets: A Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a literature search on the cryogenic properties of candidate inorganic insulators for the ITER TF magnets are reported. The materials investigated include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, MgO, porcelain, SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, and mica. A graphical presentation is given of mechanical, elastic, electrical, and thermal properties between 4 and 300 K. A companion report reviews the low temperature irradiation resistance of these materials.

Simon, N.J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Click to add title  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transmission Congestion Bob Bradish Managing Director, Transmission Planning & Business Development American Electric Power U.S. Department of Energy National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshop December 6, 2011 2 American Electric Power 5.2 million customers in 11 states ~18,000 employees Largest distributor of electricity in the U.S. - 215,800 miles Largest transmission owner - 39,000 miles 2 nd largest generator - 39,000 MW Operations in 3 RTOs - PJM, SPP, & ERCOT 3 Value of 2009 Study * The study conclusions were appropriate - Identified historical congestion - Overly broad, missed some areas - Type I and Type II areas are generally accurate but could be improved - especially Type I - Limited ability to address emerging issues 4 Changing "State of Congestion"

428

A Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Spectrometer without Liquid Cryogens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are being developed as X-ray detectors because they combine the high energy resolution of cryogenic detector technologies with the high count rate capabilities of athermal devices. We have built STJ spectrometers for chemical analysis of dilute samples by high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the synchrotron. The instruments use 36 pixels of 200 {micro}m x 200 {micro}m Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb STJs with 165 nm thick Nb absorber films. They have achieved an energy resolution of {approx}10-20 eV FWHM for X-ray energies below 1 keV, and can be operated at a total count rate of {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a liquid-cryogen-free refrigerator based on a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler in combination with a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization stage. It holds the STJ detector at the end of a 40-cm-long cold finger, and attains the required operating temperature of {approx}0.3 K at the push of a button. We describe the instrument performance and present speciation measurements on Eu dopant activators in the novel scintillator material SrI{sub 2} to illustrate the potential for STJ spectrometers at the synchrotron.

Friedrich, S; Hertrich, T; Drury, O B; Cherepy, N J; Hohne, J

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Experimental investigation of CO{sub 2} condensation process using cryogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is one of the dominant gas molecules that causes greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming. Numerous studies have been carried out to regulate the emission of CO{sub 2} to reduce greenhouse gas. The liquid CO{sub 2} is a convenient form of transportation compared to high-pressurized gaseous CO{sub 2}. Therefore, the direct liquefaction mechanism of CO{sub 2} at low temperature draws technical attention recently. In particular, cold thermal energy of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) could be a candidate to condense gaseous CO{sub 2}, especially in the LNG powered ship. In this paper, the detailed direct condensation process of CO{sub 2} using LN{sub 2} with intermittent solidification is investigated. Pressurized CO{sub 2} at 600 kPa is directly liquefied in a vessel by liquid nitrogen which is supplied into the coiled tube heat exchanger inside the CO{sub 2} vessel. The heat exchanger temperature is controlled from 130 K to 205 K to regulate the solidification and sublimation of CO{sub 2} by duty control with cryogenic solenoid valve. The characteristics of CO{sub 2} condensation process with cryogen are analyzed from the measurement results. The results show that the solidification causes the significant degradation of CO{sub 2} condensation heat transfer. Finally, the condensation rate with and without solidification is compared.

Lee, Cheonkyu; Yoo, Junghyun; Lee, Jisung; Park, Hana; Jeong, Sangkwon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

430

The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the ATLAS Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW at 4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requirements of the magnets in the various operating scenarios.

Delruelle, N.; Haug, F.; Junker, S.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; Pirotte, O. [CERN, AT division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cryogenic Optomechanics with a Si3N4 Membrane and Classical Laser Noise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a cryogenic optomechanical system comprising a flexible Si3N4 membrane placed at the center of a free-space optical cavity in a 400 mK cryogenic environment. We observe a mechanical quality factor Q > 4 x 10^6 for the 261-kHz fundamental drum-head mode of the membrane, and a cavity resonance halfwidth of 60 kHz. The optomechanical system therefore operates in the resolved sideband limit. We monitor the membrane's thermal motion using a heterodyne optical circuit capable of simultaneously measuring both of the mechanical sidebands, and find that the observed optical spring and damping quantitatively agree with theory. The mechanical sidebands exhibit a Fano lineshape, and to explain this we develop a theory describing heterodyne measurements in the presence of correlated classical laser noise. Finally, we discuss the use of a passive filter cavity to remove classical laser noise, and consider the future requirements for laser cooling this relatively large and low-frequency mechanical element to very near its quantum mechanical ground state.

A. M. Jayich; J. C. Sankey; K. Borkje; D. Lee; C. Yang; M. Underwood; L. Childress; A. Petrenko; S. M. Girvin; J. G. E. Harris

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

432

Cryogenic-laser-fusion target implosion studies performed with the OMEGA uv-laser system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of direct-drive laser-fusion implosion experiments was performed on cryogenically cooled, DT-filled glass microballoons with the OMEGA 24-beam uv (351-nm) laser system. The targets consisted of glass microballoons having radii of 100 to 150 ?m, wall thicknesses of 3 to 7 ?m, filled with DT gas at pressures of 75 to 100 atm. The targets were cooled to below the freezing point of DT, in situ, by a cryogenic target system. The targets were irradiated by approximately 1 to 1.2 kJ of uv light in 650-ps Gaussian pulses. The on-target irradiation uniformity was enhanced for these experiments by the use of distributed phase plates, which brought the estimated irradiation nonuniformities to ?12% (?rms). Target performance was diagnosed by an array of x-ray, plasma, and nuclear instruments. The measured target performance showed ?70% absorption, thermonuclear yields of 106 to 108 neutrons, and final fuel areal densities of 20 to 40 mg/cm2 for the optimum targets examined in these experiments. Fuel densities at the time of thermonuclear neutron production, inferred from direct measurements of the fuel areal density, were in the range of 20 to 50 g/cm3 (100 to 200 times the density of liquid DT) for the optimum targets.

F. J. Marshall; S. A. Letzring; C. P. Verdon; S. Skupsky; R. L. Keck; J. P. Knauer; R. L. Kremens; D. K. Bradley; T. Kessler; J. Delettrez; H. Kim; J. M. Soures; R. L. McCrory

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Effects of local defect growth in direct-drive cryogenic implosions on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spherically symmetric, low-adiabat (adiabat ? ? 3) cryogenic direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1995)] yield less than 10% of the neutrons predicted in one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations suggest that this performance degradation can be explained assuming perturbations from isolated defects of submicron to tens-of-micron scale on the outer surface or inside the shell of implosion targets. These defects develop during the cryogenic filling process and typically number from several tens up to hundreds for each target covering from about 0.2% to 1% of its surface. The simulations predict that such defects can significantly perturb the implosion and result in the injection of about 1 to 2 ?g of the hot ablator (carbon-deuterium) and fuel (deuterium-tritium) materials from the ablation surface into the targets. Both the hot mass injection and perturbations of the shell reduce the final shell convergence ratio and implosion performance. The injected carbon ions radiatively cool the hot spot, reducing the fuel temperature, and further reducing the neutron yield. The negative effect of local defects can be minimized by decreasing the number and size of these defects and/or using more hydrodynamically stable implosion designs with higher shell adiabat.

Igumenshchev, I. V.; Shmayda, W. T.; Harding, D. R.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Goncharov, V. N. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States) [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States) [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Cryogenic systems for proof of the principle experiment of coherent electron cooling at RHIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) Proof of Principle (PoP) experiment is proposed to be installed in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to demonstrate proton and ion beam cooling with this new technique that may increase the beam luminosity in certain cases, by as much as tenfold. Within the scope of this project, a 112 MHz, 2MeV Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) electron gun and a 704 MHz 20MeV 5-cell SRF cavity will be installed at IP2 in the RHIC ring. The superconducting RF electron gun will be cooled in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity will be cooled in a super-fluid helium bath at 2.0 K. This paper discusses the cryogenic systems designed for both cavities. For the 112 MHz cavity cryogenic system, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger is used to isolate the cavity helium bath from pressure pulses and microphonics noise sources. For the 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity, a heat exchanger is also used to isolate the SRF cavity helium bath from noise sources in the sub-atmospheric pumping system operating at room temperature. Detailed designs, thermal analyses and discussions for both systems will be presented in this paper.

Huang, Yuenian; Belomestnykh, Sergey; Brutus, Jean Clifford; Lederle, Dewey; Orfin, Paul; Skaritka, John; Soria, Victor; Tallerico, Thomas; Than, Roberto [Collider Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

435

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Pipe Sizing for Solenoid / VLPC Cryogenic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of a solenoid magnet and VLPC detectors are two of a number of upgrades which will occur at the D-Zero detector in the near future. Both of these upgrades will require cryogenic services for their operation. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the pipe/tube size choices made for these cryogenic services. This was done by calculating the required flow rates to cool down the magnet and VLPC's over a reasonable length of time and to determine the required piping sizes for a given allowable pressure drop. The pressure drops for steady state conditions also are addressed. The cool down requirements drove the pipe size decision. The raw engineering calculations that were done for this project are included as an appendix to this note. The body of this document discusses the methods and results of the calculations. As a quick summary, Figures 1 and 2 show the size selections. Tables 1 and 2 give a more detailed size and description of each section of Solenoid and VLPC transfer line.

Rucinski, Russ; Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

1995-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

436

Cryogenic sandwich-type insulation board composed of E-glass/epoxy composite and polymeric foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a clean energy source whose consumption has recently increased greatly due to the failure of a nuclear power plant. LNG is transported with LNG carriers that store LNG at the cryogenic temperature of ?163 °C. Because the cargo containment system (CCS) of LNG carriers should be operated for more than 40 years at the cryogenic temperature, its reliability against thermal and mechanical loads should be guaranteed without compromising its thermal insulation performance. For reasons of both mechanical and thermal performance, the faces and cores of conventional insulation boards are made of plywood and high-density (110 kg/m3) polymeric. In this study, an advanced sandwich-type insulation board composed of E-glass/epoxy composite faces and a low-density polymeric foam core with a composite box configuration was developed to seal a foam blowing gas of low thermal conductivity. The mechanical performance of the advanced sandwich-type insulation board was simulated using the finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS (SIMULIA, USA). The sealing performance of the composite box was also investigated experimentally. Finally, the thermal performance of the advanced sandwich-type insulation board was numerically investigated using thermal conductivity equations.

Ilbeom Choi; Young Ho Yu; Dai Gil Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEON CRYOGENIC TURBO?EXPANDER WITH MAGNETIC BEARINGS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic turbo?expander with active magnetic bearings was made and tested in a reverse?Brayton cycle refrigerator using neon as working fluid. Turbine isentropic efficiency is a very important factor for the refrigerator since it affects the performance of the refrigerator significantly. Properties of neon are suitable for the working fluid in a refrigerator to cool HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) applications. The neon refrigerator needs a very small and high speed turbo?expander. But there are few studies of isentropic efficiencies of cryogenic turbo?expander using neon gas. Thus the experiment to get the design information was carried out. A prototype of neon refrigerator was made for HTS applications in 2007. Its cooling power was 2 kW at temperature of 70 K and operated in process pressure between 2 MPa and 1 MPa. To improve the performance of the neon refrigerator the process pressure was changed to 1 MPa?0.5 MPa. Under this process pressure isentropic efficiencies for two types of turbine impellers were obtained. The test results were included in to the turbine design program so that we could predict the isentropic efficiencies of the turbo?expander more accurately. Details of the turbo?expander design and test results are described in this report.

H. Hirai; M. Hirokawa; S. Yoshida; Y. Kamioka; A. Takaike; H. Hayashi; H. Okamoto; Y. Shiohara

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005 3823 Design of a Superhigh-Speed Cryogenic Permanent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

magnet is centrally located inside the hollow shaft. The permanent magnet was inserted into the hollow shaft by heating the titanium shaft to 570 K and cooling the permanent magnet down to 77 K. B. Design-Speed Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Liping Zheng1, Thomas X. Wu1, Dipjyoti Acharya2, Kalpathy B

Wu, Thomas

439

3.6-W cryogenic Tm,Ho:YLF laser pumped by fiber-coupled diodes module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we report a high power cryogenic cooling Tm(6 at.-%),Ho(0.5 at.-%):YLF laser end-pumped by a 19-fiber-coupled-diodes module with the central wavelength of 792 nm at 20...

Yao, Baoquan; Ju, Youlun; Wang, Yuezhu; He, Wanjun; Li, Yufeng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Cryogenic ion implantation near amorphization threshold dose for halo/extension junction improvement in sub-30 nm device technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on junction advantages of cryogenic ion implantation with medium current implanters. We propose a methodical approach on maximizing cryogenic effects on junction characteristics near the amorphization threshold doses that are typically used for halo implants for sub-30 nm technologies. BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant at a dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2} does not amorphize silicon at room temperature. When implanted at -100 Degree-Sign C, it forms a 30 - 35 nm thick amorphous layer. The cryogenic BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant significantly reduces the depth of the boron distribution, both as-implanted and after anneals, which improves short channel rolloff characteristics. It also creates a shallower n{sup +}-p junction by steepening profiles of arsenic that is subsequently implanted in the surface region. We demonstrate effects of implant sequences, germanium preamorphization, indium and carbon co-implants for extension/halo process integration. When applied to sequences such as Ge+As+C+In+BF{sub 2}{sup +}, the cryogenic implants at -100 Degree-Sign C enable removal of Ge preamorphization, and form more active n{sup +}-p junctions and steeper B and In halo profiles than sequences at room temperature.

Park, Hugh; Todorov, Stan; Colombeau, Benjamin; Rodier, Dennis; Kouzminov, Dimitry; Zou Wei; Guo Baonian; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Decker-Lucke, Kurt [Applied Materials, Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Cryogenic disk Yb : YAG laser with 120-mJ energy at 500-Hz pulse repetition rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A repetitively pulsed laser system based on cryogenically cooled Yb : YAG disks is developed. The creation of Yb : YAG/YAG composites and the use of an active liquid nitrogen cooling system made it possible to significantly decrease the effect of amplified spontaneous emission. The average output power of the system is 60 W. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Perevezentsev, E A; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and high temperature ion transport membranes. While polymeric membranes can produce oxygen enriched air of various concentrations, ion transport membranes can produce purities of close to 100%. Both membraHybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process Thomas

Struchtrup, Henning

443

A New Compact Cryogenic Air Sampler and Its Application in Stratospheric Greenhouse Gas Observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To collect stratospheric air samples for greenhouse gas measurements, a compact cryogenic air sampler has been developed using a cooling device called the Joule–Thomson (J–T) minicooler. The J–T minicooler can produce liquefied neon within 5 s ...

Shinji Morimoto; Takashi Yamanouchi; Hideyuki Honda; Issei Iijima; Tetsuya Yoshida; Shuji Aoki; Takakiyo Nakazawa; Shigeyuki Ishidoya; Satoshi Sugawara

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

130-W picosecond green laser based on a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG amplifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

130-W average-power picosecond green laser pulses at 514.5 nm are generated from a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG laser. A second-harmonic conversion efficiency of 54% is achieved with a 15-mm-long noncritically ...

Hong, Kyung-Han

445

cryogenic storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Storage in which (a) the superconductive property of materials is used to store data and (b) use is made of the phenomenon that superconductivity is destroyed in the presence of a magnetic field, thus enabling...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMULATION CODE FOR A COOL-DOWN PROCESS OF THE CRYOGENIC HYDROGEN SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical hydrogen with a pressure of 1.5 MPa and a temperature of 20 K has been selected as a moderator material in an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS), which is one of main experimental facilities in J-PARC. The cryogenic hydrogen system, in which a hydrogen circulation system is cooled by a helium refrigerator with the refrigeration power of 6.45 kW at 15.5 K, has been designed to provide the supercritical hydrogen to the moderator and to remove the nuclear heating generated there. In this study, we have developed a simulation code that predicts temperature behaviors in the hydrogen circulation system during its cool-down process. Cool-down process analyses have been performed, and an operational method for the cool-down process has been studied. The analytical results indicate that the hydrogen circulation system would be able to be cooled down to 18 K within 19 hours.

Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Kato, T.; Futakawa, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

447

Impact of geometry on light collection efficiency of scintillation detectors for cryogenic rare event searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulations of photon propagation in scintillation detectors were performed with the aim to find the optimal scintillator geometry, surface treatment, and shape of external reflector in order to achieve maximum light collection efficiency for detector configurations that avoid direct optical coupling, a situation that is commonly found in cryogenic scintillating bolometers in experimental searches for double beta decay and dark matter. To evaluate the light collection efficiency of various geometrical configurations we used the ZEMAX ray-tracing software. It was found that scintillators in the shape of a triangular prism with an external mirror shaped as truncated cone gives the highest light collection efficiency. The results of the simulations were confirmed by carrying out measurements of the light collection efficiencies of CaWO4 crystal scintillators. A comparison of simulated and measured values of light output shows good agreement

F. A. Danevich; V. V. Kobychev; R. V. Kobychev; H. Kraus; V. B. Mikhailik; V. M. Mokina; I. M. Solsky

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

448

Impact of geometry on light collection efficiency of scintillation detectors for cryogenic rare event searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulations of photon propagation in scintillation detectors were performed with the aim to find the optimal scintillator geometry, surface treatment, and shape of external reflector in order to achieve maximum light collection efficiency for detector configurations that avoid direct optical coupling, a situation that is commonly found in cryogenic scintillating bolometers in experimental searches for double beta decay and dark matter. To evaluate the light collection efficiency of various geometrical configurations we used the ZEMAX ray-tracing software. It was found that scintillators in the shape of a triangular prism with an external mirror shaped as truncated cone gives the highest light collection efficiency. The results of the simulations were confirmed by carrying out measurements of the light collection efficiencies of CaWO4 crystal scintillators. A comparison of simulated and measured values of light output shows good agreement

Danevich, F A; Kobychev, R V; Kraus, H; Mikhailik, V B; Mokina, V M; Solsky, I M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

450

Radiation-pressure self-cooling of a micromirror in a cryogenic environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate radiation-pressure cavity-cooling of a mechanical mode of a micromirror starting from cryogenic temperatures. To achieve that, a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (F\\approx 2200) was actively stabilized inside a continuous-flow 4He cryostat. We observed optical cooling of the fundamental mode of a 50mu x 50 mu x 5.4 mu singly-clamped micromirror at \\omega_m=3.5 MHz from 35 K to approx. 290 mK. This corresponds to a thermal occupation factor of \\approx 1x10^4. The cooling performance is only limited by the mechanical quality and by the optical finesse of the system. Heating effects, e.g. due to absorption of photons in the micromirror, could not be observed. These results represent a next step towards cavity-cooling a mechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state.

Simon Groeblacher; Sylvain Gigan; Hannes R. Boehm; Anton Zeilinger; Markus Aspelmeyer

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

451

Precision test for the new Michelson-Morley experiments with rotating cryogenic cavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new ether-drift experiment in D\\"usseldorf is currently measuring the relative frequency shift of two cryogenic optical resonators upon active rotations of the apparatus. I point out that the observed fractional amplitude of the sidereal variations of the signal in February, C_sid \\sim (11 \\pm 2) 10^{-16}, is entirely consistent with the expectations based on Miller's observations in the same epoch of the year. This leads to predict that, with future data collected in August-September, the observed sidereal variations should increase by \\sim + 70 %, i.e. up to C_sid \\sim (19\\pm 2) 10^{-16} retaining the present normalization. This would represent clean experimental evidence for the existence of a preferred frame.

M. Consoli

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A cryogenic surface-electrode elliptical ion trap for quantum simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-dimensional crystals of trapped ions are a promising system with which to implement quantum simulations of challenging problems such as spin frustration. Here, we present a design for a surface-electrode elliptical ion trap which produces a 2-D ion crystal and is amenable to microfabrication, which would enable higher simulated coupling rates, as well as interactions based on magnetic forces generated by on-chip currents. Working in an 11 K cryogenic environment, we experimentally verify to within 5% a numerical model of the structure of ion crystals in the trap. We also explore the possibility of implementing quantum simulation using magnetic forces, and calculate J-coupling rates on the order of 10^3 / s for an ion crystal height of 10 microns, using a current of 1 A.

Robert J. Clark; Ziliang Lin; Kenan S. Diab; Isaac L. Chuang

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

454

Demonstration of an ultracold micro-optomechanical oscillator in a cryogenic cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preparing and manipulating quantum states of mechanical resonators is a highly interdisciplinary undertaking that now receives enormous interest for its far-reaching potential in fundamental and applied science. Up to now, only nanoscale mechanical devices achieved operation close to the quantum regime. We report a new micro-optomechanical resonator that is laser cooled to a level of 30 thermal quanta. This is equivalent to the best nanomechanical devices, however, with a mass more than four orders of magnitude larger (43 ng versus 1 pg) and at more than two orders of magnitude higher environment temperature (5 K versus 30 mK). Despite the large laser-added cooling factor of 4,000 and the cryogenic environment, our cooling performance is not limited by residual absorption effects. These results pave the way for the preparation of 100-um scale objects in the quantum regime. Possible applications range from quantum-limited optomechanical sensing devices to macroscopic tests of quantum physics.

Simon Groeblacher; Jared B. Hertzberg; Michael R. Vanner; Garrett D. Cole; Sylvain Gigan; K. C. Schwab; Markus Aspelmeyer

2009-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

455

Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search at Soudan Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search at Soudan Underground Laboratory for two-tower arrays of detector. Twelve detectors were operated from March 25 to August 8, 2004, or 74.5 detector live days.Within expected background, no statistically significant indication of a WIMP signal was observed. Based on this null observation and combined with our previous results, we exclude a spin-averaged WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section above 1.6 x 10{sup -43} cm{sup 2} for Ge detectors, and 3 x 10{sup -42} cm{sup 2} for Si detectors, for a WIMP mass 60GeV/c{sup 2} with 90%C.L. This result constrains parameter space of minimal supersymmetric standard models (MSSM) and starts to reach the parameter space of a constrained model (CMSSM).

Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Development of a Navigator and Imaging Techniques for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project contributes to the detection of flaws in the germanium detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Specifically, after imaging the detector surface with a precise imaging and measuring device, they developed software to stitch the resulting images together, applying any necessary rotations, offsets, and averaging, to produce a smooth image of the whole detector that can be used to detect flaws on the surface of the detector. These images were also tiled appropriately for the Google Maps API to use as a navigation tool, allowing viewers to smoothly zoom and pan across the detector surface. Automated defect identification can now be implemented, increasing the scalability of the germanium detector fabrication.

Wilen, Chris; /Carleton Coll. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

457

An Efficient, Movable Single-Particle Detector for Use in Cryogenic Ultra-High Vacuum Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to $\\sim$ 10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, high-temperature bakeable and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR). We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

Spruck, Kaija; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Old?ich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample. 7 figs.

Gonczy, J.D.; Markley, F.W.; McCaw, W.R.; Niemann, R.C.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR CO 2 SEPARATION AND LNG PRODUCTION FROM LANDFILL GAS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integrated cryogenic system to separate carbon dioxide ( CO 2 ) and produce LNG from landfill gas is investigated and designed. The main objective of this design is to eliminate the requirement of a standard CO 2 removal process in the liquefaction system such distillation or (temperature or pressure) swing adsorption and to directly separate carbon dioxide as frost at the liquefying channel of methane. Two identical sets of heat exchangers are installed in parallel and switched alternatively with a time period so that one is in separation?liquefaction mode while the other is in CO 2 clean?up mode. A thermal regeneration scheme is presented for the purpose of saving energy and avoiding the stoppage of LNG production followed by the flow switching. The switching period is determined from results of a combined heat and mass transfer analysis on the CO 2 freeze?out process.

H. M. Chang; M. J. Chung; S. B. Park

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Creep of 304 LN and 316 L stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep behavior of Type 304 LN plate and 316 L shielded-metal-arc (SMA)-deposited stainless weld metal was investigated at 4/sup 0/K. Testing was performed at constant load in a creep machine with a cryostat designed for long-term stability. Both transient and steady-state creep were observed during tests lasting over 2000 hours. Steady-state creep rates were much greater than expected from extrapolations of 300-K creep data. Creep rates on the order of 10/sup -10/ s/sup -1/ were observed at stresses around the yield stress for both materials. The stress exponent under these conditions if approx.2.3. Possible creep mechanisms at this temperature and the impact of these results on the design of engineering structures for long-term structural stability at cryogenic temperatures are discussed.

Roth, L.D.; Manhardt, A.E.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Kershaw, R.P. Jr.

1985-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitors for the Superconducting Magnets of the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Beam Loss Monitor detectors close to the interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider are currently located outside the cryostat, far from the superconducting coils of the magnets. In addition to their sensitivity to lost beam particles, they also detect particles coming from the experimental collisions, which do not contribute significantly to the heat deposition in the superconducting coils. In the future, with beams of higher energy and brightness resulting in higher luminosity, distinguishing between these interaction products and dangerous quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams will be challenging. The system can be optimised by locating beam loss monitors as close as possible to the superconducting coils, inside the cold mass in a superfluid helium environment, at 1.9 K. The dose then measured by such Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitors would more precisely correspond to the real dose deposited in the coil. The candidates under investigation for such detectors are based on p+-n-n+ si...

Bartosik, MR; Sapinski, M; Kurfuerst, C; Griesmayer, E; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

The TORE SUPRA Cryogenic System Behaviour During Long Plasma Discharges with a High Injected Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After the CIEL project completion including the upgrade of the plasma facing components and the water cooling system, the superconducting Tore Supra Tokamak achieved a world record of injected energy (1.1 GJ), during long duration (6 min) plasma discharges, which was enabled by the upgrade of the transfer system capacities, but also by the steady state toroidal field. The Tore Supra cryogenic refrigerator enables the toroidal field coils to be operated at nominal current along the full daily plasma operation shift. It has capacities of 300 W at 1.8 K, 750 W at 4.5 K and 30 kW at 80 K and was operated with a high reliability for more than 16 years. After a brief recall on the cryogenic refrigeration of the toroidal superconducting magnet, the distribution of the heat loads at the various levels of temperature (in standby mode 150W at 1.8 K and 200W at 4.5 K) is presented. The inventory of the calculated static and variable heat loads deposited within each part of toroidal field coils and thermal shields, is given with the factors of dependence. This analysis identifies and quantifies the major magnetic disturbances like a disruption (about 12 kJ onto the coils and 300 kJ onto the thick casings) which generate additional heat loads for the refrigerator.The measurements associated with the He II saturated bath pumping system, and the supercritical helium loop cooling the thick casings, allow us to verify thereafter the behaviour of the cryo-refrigerator during the long duration discharges, and the compliance with the theoretical model.The conclusions bring results also applicable to the cyoplant of future plant like ITER which will operate with long duration discharges.

Henry, D.; Hertout, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Duchateau, J. L.; Reynaud, P. [Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Association, Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

463

Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

464

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: First 5-Tower Data and Improved Understanding of Ionization Collection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with cryogenic particle detectors. These detectors have the ability to discriminate between nuclear recoil candidate and electron recoil background events by collecting both phonon and ionization energy from recoils in the detector crystals. The CDMS-II experiment has completed analysis of the first data runs with 30 semiconductor detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, resulting in a world leading WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section limit for WIMP masses above 44 GeV/c{sup 2}. As CDMS aims to achieve greater WIMP sensitivity, it is necessary to increase the detector mass and discrimination between signal and background events. Incomplete ionization collection results in the largest background in the CDMS detectors as this causes electron recoil background interactions to appear as false candidate events. Two primary causes of incomplete ionization collection are surface and bulk trapping. Recent work has been focused on reducing surface trapping through the modification of fabrication methods for future detectors. Analyzing data taken with test devices has shown that hydrogen passivation of the amorphous silicon blocking layer worsens surface trapping. Additional data has shown that the iron-ion implantation used to lower the critical temperature of the tungsten transition-edge sensors causes a degradation of the ionization collection. Using selective implantation on future detectors may improve ionization collection for events near the phonon side detector surface. Bulk trapping is minimized by neutralizing ionized lattice impurities. Detector investigations at testing facilities and in situ at the experimental site have provided methods to optimize the neutralization process and monitor running conditions to maintain full ionization collection. This work details my contribution to the 5-tower data taking, monitoring, and analysis effort as well as the SuperCDMS detector development with the focus on monitoring and improving ionization collection in the detectors.

Bailey, Catherine N.; /Case Western Reserve U.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

GAO-04-611 Nuclear Waste: Absence of Key Management Reforms on Hanford's Cleanup Project Adds to Challenges of Achieving Cost and Schedule Goals  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Committee on Government Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives June 2004 NUCLEAR WASTE Absence of Key Management Reforms on Hanford's Cleanup Project Adds to Challenges of Achieving Cost and Schedule Goals GAO-04-611 www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-04-611. To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on the link above. For more information, contact Robin M. Nazzaro at (202) 512-3841 or nazzaror@gao.gov. Highlights of GAO-04-611, a report to the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives June 2004 NUCLEAR WASTE Absence of Key Management Reforms on Hanford's Cleanup Project Adds to Challenges of Achieving Cost and Schedule Goals DOE's initial approach called for treating 10 percent of the site's high-level waste by 2018 and for operating the plant until treatment was completed in

466

Data:8b3f1d11-9cac-4987-9771-e293b749add4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-9cac-4987-9771-e293b749add4 -9cac-4987-9771-e293b749add4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Entergy Gulf States Louisiana LLC Effective date: 2011/10/28 End date if known: Rate name: 2 Area Lighting - Security light HPS - 250W Sector: Lighting Description: This rate is applicable under the regular terms and conditions of the company in areas designated by company where facilities of adequate capacity and suitable voltage are available. Source or reference: http://www.entergy-louisiana.com/content/price/tariffs/egsi/egsila_als.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW)

467

Data:05b3932a-87d3-4729-89f5-209a57add0f5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

87d3-4729-89f5-209a57add0f5 87d3-4729-89f5-209a57add0f5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Nolin Rural Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Security Lights: Directional Floodlight 400 Watt HPS Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: www.nolinrecc.com Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

468

Data:F6575add-8cbe-41e6-8ef9-5dec938eaa47 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add-8cbe-41e6-8ef9-5dec938eaa47 add-8cbe-41e6-8ef9-5dec938eaa47 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: East Central Oklahoma Elec Coop Inc Effective date: 1995/12/01 End date if known: Rate name: High Load Factor Industrial Power Service Sector: Industrial Description: Available for industrial power services to: (a) Loads of 5,000 kW or more per month actual demand (or contract minimum demand), and (b) Loads to be located within the Cooperative's area, receiving service from a wholesale meter point, subject to the established rules and regulations of the Cooperative. Monthly Rate:

469

Data:D7964dbe-4a06-4933-a709-e46a3d7c0add | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4dbe-4a06-4933-a709-e46a3d7c0add 4dbe-4a06-4933-a709-e46a3d7c0add No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Coulee Dam, Washington (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Electric Rate Sector: Description: General electric rate for all applications. Source or reference: http://www.eatonville-wa.gov/billing Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

470

Data:531adde6-66b3-4895-93d3-0774cb5066a2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

adde6-66b3-4895-93d3-0774cb5066a2 adde6-66b3-4895-93d3-0774cb5066a2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Lompoc, California (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Domestic Service- Space Heating Sector: Residential Description: Residential customers with electric space heating as the principal source of home heating will be charged the Tier 2 Energy Rate for kilowatt usage from 326 to 1500 KWh during the seven (7) months of November through May, inclusive. A minimum charge of $3.97 is applied to this rate. Source or reference: ISU Documentation

471

Data:D6ced60e-2b93-4182-8add-404cb880552f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ced60e-2b93-4182-8add-404cb880552f ced60e-2b93-4182-8add-404cb880552f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Davenport, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/11/11 End date if known: Rate name: Directional Lighting MV 1000 W Unmetered Sector: Lighting Description: Area/directional lighting of farmyards, backyards, patios, parking lots, storage yards, trailer courts, industrial sites, schools churches, apartments, businesses and many other applications where lighting is needed for identification, merchandising, environment, aesthetics, safety, security, protection or convenience.

472

Data:5ee868e4-34ac-41fb-a1c8-992add91539f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-34ac-41fb-a1c8-992add91539f -34ac-41fb-a1c8-992add91539f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Dakota Valley Elec Coop Inc Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: General Service Rural Multi-Phase under 150-kW Sector: Commercial Description: This rate is applicable for all "V" phase and three-phase loads with peak kW demand of 150-kW or less, and meeting all other Cooperatives requirements and policies. Transformer Capacity Charge $1.00 charge for each additional kVA over 30 less demand and energy usage for the month. Source or reference: www.dakotavalley.com

473

Data:1b2efb80-964b-4853-add3-c2cf5221b66f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

efb80-964b-4853-add3-c2cf5221b66f efb80-964b-4853-add3-c2cf5221b66f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Algoma Utility Comm Effective date: 2008/05/28 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Service Single-Phase Sector: Residential Description: This rate will be applied to residential single-phase customers for ordinary household purposes. Single-phase motors may not exceed 5 horsepower individual-rated capacity without utility permission. Rg-1 Residential Service $1.00 per customer per month Source or reference: http://www.algomautilities.com/media/Electric_Rate_Tariff_Sheets.pdf

474

Data:07f78f8f-a33a-4414-add9-cd8d2c7ac364 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f8f-a33a-4414-add9-cd8d2c7ac364 f8f-a33a-4414-add9-cd8d2c7ac364 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Randolph Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: L23 - 40 FT CLASS 5 Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABILITY This schedule is available to individual members located on the Cooperative's distribution system. Mercury vapor lights are only available at existing locations. RATE - MONTHLY All night outdoor lighting service using overhead conductors and the Cooperative's standard lighting package equipment mounted on 30-foot Class 6, treated pine poles.

475

Data:12cff366-0022-4784-a9d9-16b7a430add2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cff366-0022-4784-a9d9-16b7a430add2 cff366-0022-4784-a9d9-16b7a430add2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: New York Power Authority Effective date: 2013/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: SC 91 TOD Sector: Industrial Description: New York City Customers Source or reference: http://www.nypa.gov/about/documents.htm Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

476

Data:92c2add1-3784-4ee6-960d-c05f4ffe0301 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add1-3784-4ee6-960d-c05f4ffe0301 add1-3784-4ee6-960d-c05f4ffe0301 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Kit Carson Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2011/09/22 End date if known: Rate name: Optional Time-Of-Use, Irrigation (Firm) Power Service Sector: Industrial Description: Applicable to all irrigation consumers within the Utility's service area, subject to the execution of a service contract. Source or reference: www.kitcarson.com Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months):

477

Data:B4671c18-8c9d-4671-ac83-5396add6541a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

71c18-8c9d-4671-ac83-5396add6541a 71c18-8c9d-4671-ac83-5396add6541a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Village of Blanchester, Ohio (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Sector: Residential Description: This rate is available to all single family residential units, apartment units, and churches at 120-240 volts, single phase, alternating current at 60 cycles. Source or reference: Binder #5B (Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh):

478

Data:C7b061e6-b81a-4820-b908-4a59d3add450 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e6-b81a-4820-b908-4a59d3add450 e6-b81a-4820-b908-4a59d3add450 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Springfield, Oregon (Utility Company) Effective date: 2013/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Street Lighting 150 W HPS Opt. 1 L-1 Sector: Lighting Description: Option 1 refers to a Customer owned and installed fixture. The fixed monthly charge covers energy, operation and fixture maintenance fees. Possible Additional Fees include: Transfer of a street light, mast arm, overhead conductor, and conductor support to a new pole, and make necessary electrical connection: $175 each.

479

Data:Eab7f012-1032-4c00-8161-f2add7a7c3aa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Eab7f012-1032-4c00-8161-f2add7a7c3aa Eab7f012-1032-4c00-8161-f2add7a7c3aa No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Borough of Pitcairn, Pennsylvania (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: All-Electric Homes Sector: Residential Description: Available on an optional basis for year round domestic service through one meter to individual residential customers whose principal energy requirements for lighting, the operation of all major appliances including air conditioning equipment, water heating, and heating of all dwelling space in the home are furnished by electric service delivered by the Utility.

480

Data:B6e54752-e770-462e-a511-ad019add2fa8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4752-e770-462e-a511-ad019add2fa8 4752-e770-462e-a511-ad019add2fa8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Electrical Dist No3 Pinal Cnty Effective date: 2011/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: RATE NO. 01 RESIDENTIAL SERVICE-Overhead Service Sector: Residential Description: Applicability: To residential use only in single private residences or apartments for lighting, appliances domestic single-phase power with no motor over 5HP, heating and cooling served through one meter. Monthly minimum bill: $30.00 Source or reference: http://www.ed3online.org/view/70 Source Parent: Comments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "add cryogenic frostpoint" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Data:386d21c2-2f42-446c-9eb7-22403f926add | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c2-2f42-446c-9eb7-22403f926add c2-2f42-446c-9eb7-22403f926add No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Farmers' Electric Coop, Inc (New Mexico) Effective date: 2010/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Small Commercial Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate Binder#8 (Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

482

Data:Cb2d96ad-d16b-4cc8-b1eb-1f06e653de8f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ad-d16b-4cc8-b1eb-1f06e653de8f ad-d16b-4cc8-b1eb-1f06e653de8f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Farmers' Electric Coop, Inc (New Mexico) Effective date: 2010/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Livestock/Non-Dom Wel Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate Binder#8 (Illinois State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

483

Data:83be13c0-5016-4add-881b-ba3063dd1c7a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3c0-5016-4add-881b-ba3063dd1c7a 3c0-5016-4add-881b-ba3063dd1c7a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bangor Hydro-Electric Co Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: High-Pressure Sodium- 250 watts Sector: Lighting Description: Service under this rate is available for street and area lighting service installations, maintenance and use of energy, and traffic control lighting service provided the customer furnishes the equipment. Customers taking service under this rate schedule are responsible for paying both Distribution Service and Stranded Cost. bundled TD&S monthly rate included

484

Data:2add8eb1-dcb1-4c1f-9bca-ce3f2117c0f5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

add8eb1-dcb1-4c1f-9bca-ce3f2117c0f5 add8eb1-dcb1-4c1f-9bca-ce3f2117c0f5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Central Electric Membership Corporation Effective date: 2009/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: SUBDIVISION STREET LIGHTING Sodium Vapor, Enclosed w/pole-4 consumers Sector: Lighting Description: 9,500 Lumens, 100 W, 1 light per 4 consumers. Availability - Available to individual consumers, in all territory served by the Cooperative, for purposes of residential subdivision street lighting from dusk to dawn. Service under this schedule is subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations.

485

Data:43aa53c1-df2e-4ed8-add8-644adbb6aae2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-df2e-4ed8-add8-644adbb6aae2 -df2e-4ed8-add8-644adbb6aae2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Chanute, Kansas (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Residential Single Phase Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: http://www.chanute.org/Business/Utilities/electric.htm Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

486

EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Cryogenic NMR and Advanced Electronic Structure Theory as a Unique EMSL Capability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Temperature dependence of the on-resonance portion Temperature dependence of the on-resonance portion of the 55 Mn-NMR spectrum of a Mn(IV,IV) dimer acquired at 9.4 T. EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Cryogenic NMR and Advanced Electronic Structure Theory as a Unique EMSL Capability for Complex Systems: Application to the Photosynthetic Energy Conversion Systems Project start date: April 1, 2010 EMSL Lead Investigator: Ping Yang Molecular Science Computing Group, EMSL, PNNL Co-investigator: Andrew S. Lipton Cell Biology & Biochemistry, FCSD, PNNL Collaborator: K.V. Lakshmi Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate a unique capability to be enabled at EMSL-the integration of leading-edge cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements and advanced electronic

487

Development of a cryogenic load frame for the neutron diffractometer at Takumi in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To prepare for projects such as the Large Hadron Collider upgrade, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Demonstration reactor, it is important to form a clear understanding of stress-strain properties of the materials that make up superconducting magnets. Thus, we have been studying the mechanical properties of superconducting wires using neutron diffraction measurements. To simulate operational conditions such as temperature, stress, and strain, we developed a cryogenic load frame for stress-strain measurements of materials using a neutron diffractometer at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Takumi beam line. The maximum load that can be applied to a sample using an external driving machine is 50 kN. Using a Gifford-MacMahon cryocooler, samples can be measured down to temperatures below 10 K when loaded. In the present paper, we describe the details of the cryogenic load frame with its test results by using type-304 stainless steel wire.

Jin, Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugano, Michinaka [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Harjo, Stefanus; Aizawa, Kazuya; Abe, Jun; Gong, Wu; Iwahashi, Takaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hemmi, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Umeno, Takahiro [Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 306-2611 (Japan)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

488

Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

Ma, T.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dixit, S.; Doeppner, T.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Springer, P. T.; Suter, L.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

Laboratory-Based Cryogenic Soft X-ray Tomography with Correlative Cryo-Light and Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we present a novel laboratory-based cryogenic soft X-ray microscope for whole cell tomography of frozen hydrated samples. We demonstrate the capabilities of this compact cryogenic microscope by visualizing internal sub-cellular structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The microscope is shown to achieve better than 50 nm spatial resolution with a Siemens star test sample. For whole biological cells, the microscope can image specimens up to 5 micrometers thick. Structures as small as 90 nm can be detected in tomographic reconstructions at roughly 70 nm spatial resolution following a low cumulative radiation dose of only 7.2 MGy. Furthermore, the design of the specimen chamber utilizes a standard sample support that permits multimodal correlative imaging of the exact same unstained yeast cell via cryo-fluorescence light microscopy, cryo-soft x-ray microscopy and cryo-transmission electron microscopy. This completely laboratory-based cryogenic soft x-ray microscope will therefore enable greater access to three-dimensional ultrastructure determination of biological whole cells without chemical fixation or physical sectioning.

Carlson, David B.; Gelb, Jeff; Palshin, Vadim; Evans, James E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.

Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); RIKEN Harima Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikaduki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Hazards Induced by Breach of Liquid Rocket Fuel Tanks: Conditions and Risks of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Explosions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the data of purposeful rupture experiments with LOx and LH2 tanks, the Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Impact (HOVI) tests that were performed to clarify the ignition mechanisms, the explosive power of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures under different conditions, and to elucidate the puzzling source of the initial formation of flames near the intertank section during the Challenger disaster. We carry out a physics-based analysis of general explosions scenarios for cryogenic gaseous H2/Ox mixtures and determine their realizability conditions, using the well-established simplified models from the detonation and deflagration theory. We study the features of aerosol H2/Ox mixture combustion and show, in particular, that aerosols intensify the deflagration flames and can induce detonation for any ignition mechanism. We propose a cavitation-induced mechanism of self-ignition of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures that may be realized when gaseous H2 and Ox flows are mixed with a liquid Ox turbulent stream, as occurred in all HOVI ...

Osipov, Viatcheslav; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Mathias, Donovan; Lawrence, Scott; Werkheiser, Mary

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Measuring symmetry of implosions in cryogenic Hohlraums at the NIF using gated x-ray detectors (invited)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of imploding inertial confinement capsules requires, among other things, controlling the symmetry with high accuracy and fidelity. We have used gated x-ray imaging, with 10 {mu}m and 70 ps resolution, to detect the x-ray emission from the imploded core of symmetry capsules at the National Ignition Facility. The measurements are used to characterize the time dependent symmetry and the x-ray bang time of the implosion from two orthogonal directions. These measurements were one of the primary diagnostics used to tune the parameters of the laser and Hohlraum to vary the symmetry and x-ray bang time of the implosion of cryogenically cooled ignition scale deuterium/helium filled plastic capsules. Here, we will report on the successful measurements performed with up to 1.2 MJ of laser energy in a fully integrated cryogenics gas-filled ignition-scale Hohlraum and capsule illuminated with 192 smoothed laser beams. We will describe the technique, the accuracy of the technique, and the results of the variation in symmetry with tuning parameters, and explain how that set was used to predictably tune the implosion symmetry as the laser energy, the laser cone wavelength separation, and the Hohlraum size were increased to ignition scales. We will also describe how to apply that technique to cryogenically layered tritium-hydrogen-deuterium capsules.

Kyrala, G. A.; Kline, J. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dixit, S.; Glenzer, S.; Kalantar, D.; Bradley, D.; Izumi, N.; Meezan, N.; Landen, O. L.; Callahan, D.; Weber, S. V.; Holder, J. P.; Glenn, S.; Edwards, M. J.; Bell, P.; Kimbrough, J.; Koch, J.; Prasad, R.; Suter, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

Jurns, John M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bäck, Harald [Sweco Industry AB, P.O. Box 286, 201 22 Malmö (Sweden); Gierow, Martin [Lunds Energikoncernen AB, P.O. Box 25, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

494

A cryogenic current comparator for the absolute measurement of nA beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of beam transformer, based on the principle of a Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC), was built to measure extracted ion beams from the SIS, the heavy ion synchroton at GSI. A current resolution of 0.006-0.065 nA/{radical}(Hz), depending on the frequency range, could be achieved allowing us to measure ion beams with intensities greater than 10{sup 9} particles per second with high accuracy. Numerous investigations were carried out to study the zero drift of the system which shows a strong exponential slope with two time constants. In addition, the influence of external magnetic fields was measured. Furthermore the microphonic sensitivity of the system was studied by measuring noise spectra of the detector's vibration and the output signal. Measurements with neon and argon beams will be presented and compared with signals emitted from Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM). Another measuring function of the CCC-detector aims at the analysis of the beam's time structure to get information about beam spill fluctuations. With an extended bandwidth (0-20 kHz) of the detector system it is now possible to compare simulations of extracted beams from synchrotons with measurements of the CCC.

Peters, Andreas; Reeg, Hannes; Schroeder, Claus Hermann [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Vodel, Wolfgang; Koch, Helmar; Neubert, Ralf [Institut fuer Festkoeperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universitaet, Jena (Germany)

1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

495

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

Duncan, R.V.

1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

496

Cryogenic strength and microstructure of a hydrostatically extruded austenitic steel 1.4429 (AISI 316LN)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The as-received material with the average equivalent grain diameter of 45 ?m was subjected to a hydrostatic extrusion process to a total true strain of 0.25, 0.84 and 1.36. Static tensile tests of the extruded material, performed at the room temperature, in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The material extruded to the strain of 1.36 and tested in liquid helium revealed ultimate strength 2.6 GPa. The results obtained for strengthened material were compared with the properties of as-received state. The effect of extrusion on the structure of this material was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of necking and the nature of fracture surfaces in the specimens subjected to tensile tests confirm ductile behaviour of the extruded material even at liquid helium temperature, despite limited ductility. The results show that the hydrostatically extruded austenitic stainless steel is a promising material for relatively small, heavy loaded components working at cryogenic conditions.

P. Czarkowski; A.T. Krawczy?ska; T. Brynk; M. Nowacki; M. Lewandowska; K.J. Kurzyd?owski

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Microscopic surface structure of C/SiC composite mirrors for space cryogenic telescopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the microscopic surface structure of carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirrors that have been improved for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and other cooled telescopes. The C/SiC composite consists of carbon fiber, silicon carbide, and residual silicon. Specific microscopic structures are found on the surface of the bare C/SiC mirrors after polishing. These structures are considered to be caused by the different hardness of those materials. The roughness obtained for the bare mirrors is 20 nm rms for flat surfaces and 100 nm rms for curved surfaces. It was confirmed that a SiSiC slurry coating is effective in reducing the roughness to 2 nm rms. The scattering properties of the mirrors were measured at room temperature and also at 95 K. No significant change was found in the scattering properties through cooling, which suggests that the microscopic surface structure is stable with changes in temperature down to cryogenic values. The C/SiC mirror with the SiSiC slurry coating is a promising candidate for the SPICA telescope.

Keigo Enya; Takao Nakagawa; Hidehiro Kaneda; Takashi Onaka; Tuyoshi Ozaki; Masami Kume

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

498

VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand at tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0.1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation. For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc. The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0.1 Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Structural integrity assessment of type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved the Code Case 2123 in 1992 which allows the use of Type 201LN stainless steel in the construction of ASME Section VIII, Division 1 and Division 2 pressure vessels for -320{degrees}F applications. Type 201LN stainless steel is a nitrogen strengthened modified version of ASTM A240, Type 201 stainless steel with a restricted chemistry. The Code allowable design stresses for Type 201LN for Division 1 vessels are approximately 27% higher than Type 304 stainless steel and equal to that of the 5 Ni and 9 Ni steels. This paper discusses the important features of the Code Case 2123 and the structural integrity assessment of Type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic vessels. Tensile, Charpy-V-notch and fracture properties have been obtained on several heats of this steel including weldments. A linear-elastic fracture mechanics analysis has been conducted to assess the expected fracture mode and the fracture-critical crack sizes. The results have been compared with Type 304 stainless steel, 5 Ni and 9 Ni steel vessels.

Rana, M.D.; Zawierucha, R. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Ultracold neutron source at the PULSTAR reactor: Engineering design and cryogenic testing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Construction is completed and commissioning is in progress for an ultracold neutron (UCN) source at the PULSTAR reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University. The source utilizes two stages of neutron moderation, one in heavy water at room temperature and the other in solid methane at ~ 40 K , followed by a converter stage, solid deuterium at 5 K, that allows a single down scattering of cold neutrons to provide UCN. The UCN source rolls into the thermal column enclosure of the PULSTAR reactor, where neutrons will be delivered from a bare face of the reactor core by streaming through a graphite-lined assembly. The source infrastructure, i.e., graphite-lined assembly, heavy-water system, gas handling system, and helium liquefier cooling system, has been tested and all systems operate as predicted. The research program being considered for the PULSTAR UCN source includes the physics of UCN production, fundamental particle physics, and material surface studies of nanolayers containing hydrogen. In the present paper we report details of the engineering and cryogenic design of the facility as well as results of critical commissioning tests without neutrons.

E. Korobkina; G. Medlin; B. Wehring; A.I. Hawari; P.R. Huffman; A.R. Young; B. Beaumont; G. Palmquist

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z