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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

"Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" 2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" " Potential by Census Region, 1991" " (Estimates in Physical Units)" ,,,,"RSE" ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum","Row" "Type of Energy","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)","Factors" "RSE Column Factors:",1,1.2,0.8 ," Total United States" ,"-","-","-" "Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthours)",718480,701478,766887,2 "Natural Gas (billion cubic feet)",5345,3485,5887,2 "Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",23885,19113,201081,3.7 "Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",65837,36488,201921,2.6

2

LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The top three panels correspond to the southern segment of the solar minimum orbit; repeated passesLANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes

California at Berkeley, University of

3

Comparison of VLF Wave Activity in the Solar Wind During Solar Maximum and Minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

second fast latitude scan (near the solar maximum) with the wave observations during the first fast Experiments (URAP) of Ulysses during its first orbit, which occurred when the solar activity was approachingComparison of VLF Wave Activity in the Solar Wind During Solar Maximum and Minimum: Ulysses

California at Berkeley, University of

4

On the maximum and minimum mass of protoneutron stars in the Brueckner theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the structure of protoneutron stars within the finite-temperature Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theoretical approach, paying particular attention to the joining with a low-density nuclear equation of state (EOS). We find a slight sensitivity of the minimum value of the protoneutron star mass on the low-density EOS, whereas the maximum mass is hardly affected.

Burgio, G F

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

6

We study the continuous extractive distillation of minimum and maximum boiling azeotropic mixtures A-B with a heavy or a light entrainer E, intending to assess its feasibility based on thermodynamic insights.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;#12;Abstract We study the continuous extractive distillation of minimum and maximum boiling on operating parameters: distillate product purity and recovery, reflux ratio R and entrainer ­ feed flow rate. For the 1.0-2 class both A and B can be distillated. For one of them there exists a maximum entrainer - feed

Mailhes, Corinne

7

SPACE TECHNOLOGY Actual Estimate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SPACE TECHNOLOGY TECH-1 Actual Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY.7 247.0 Exploration Technology Development 144.6 189.9 202.0 215.5 215.7 214.5 216.5 Notional SPACE TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW .............................. TECH- 2 SBIR AND STTR

8

Maximum and minimum sensitizable timing analysis using data dependent delays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 ps is given by: t30:5o;rise = t30:5 53:0a;1 t30:5 53:0c;f all +t30:5 50:5a;f all t30:5 50:5c;1 +t30:5 30:5a;f all t30:5 30:5c;f all +St30:5 50:5

Singh, Karandeep

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

9

"Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in "Recycling". "Waste-to-Energy" is now defined as Recycling, when energy efficiency is > 0,65 Prevention Reuse Recycling and Waste-to Energy? #12;6 European Policies on Landfill Ban The EU Landfill Directive The amount Ban decided upon in 2000, in force in 2005. A very strong effect, with a strong increase of Waste-to-Energy

Columbia University

10

Minimum variance beamforming with soft response constraints  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soft constraints on the beamformer response to the signal are examined in the context of minimum variance beamforming. A quadratic constraint on the beamformer weights is used to control the mean-squared error between a desired response and the actual ...

B.D. van Veen

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Haemers' Minimum Rank.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Haemers' minimum rank was first defined by Willem Haemers in 1979. He created this graph parameter as an upper bound for the Shannon capacity of… (more)

Tims, Geoff

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

On the Minimum Load Coloring Problem --Extended Abtract--  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

# such that the maximum load, l # := max{r# , b #}, is minimized. In the following we shall skip the term ``maximumOn the Minimum Load Coloring Problem --Extended Abtract-- Nitin Ahuja 1 , Andreas Baltz 2 Abstract. Given a graph G = (V, E) with n vertices, m edges and maximum vertex degree #, the load

Doerr, Benjamin

13

The Minimum Price Contract  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A minimum price contract is one of many tools a marketer may use to better manage price and production risk while trying to achieve financial goals and objectives. This publication discusses the advantages and disadvantages involved...

Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

14

Tropical Africa: Calculated Actual Aboveground Live Biomass in Open and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calculated Actual Aboveground Live Biomass in Open and Calculated Actual Aboveground Live Biomass in Open and Closed Forests (1980) image Brown, S., and G. Gaston. 1996. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates For 1980. ORNL/CDIAC-92, NDP-055. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. More Maps Land Use Maximum Potential Biomass Density Area of Closed Forests (By Country) Mean Biomass of Closed Forests (By Country) Area of Open Forests (By Country) Mean Biomass of Open Forests (By County) Percent Forest Cover (By Country) Total Forest Biomass (By Country) Population Density - 1990 (By Administrative Unit) Population Density - 1980 (By Administrative Unit) Population Density - 1970 (By Administrative Unit) Population Density - 1960 (By Administrative Unit)

15

Is there a maximum observable redshift in an open universe?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An estimate of the maximum observable redshift is obtained using only t_{0} approximately equal to (14+- 3)10^{9}years, H_{0} approximately equal to 65 +- 10Km\\sec^{-1}Mpc^{-1}(t_{0}H_{0} approximately equal to 0.91 +- 0.08/0.18) assuming \\Lambda approximately equal to 0. The resulting maximum redshift z_{+} approximately equal to 10 appears to give a reasonable upper limit to the highest actually observed redshifts. Some implications are discussed.

J. A. Gonzalo

2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

16

Maximum-principle-satisfying and positivity-preserving high order ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conservation laws: Survey and new developments ..... Notice that in (2.10) we need to evaluate the maximum/minimum of a ..... total energy, p is the pressure, e is the internal energy, and ? > 1 is a constant ... under a standard CFL condition.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",999,1021,1041,1051,1056,1066,1073,1081,1087,1098,1107,1122,1121,1128,1143,1173,1201,1223 "AEO 1995",,1006,1010,1011,1016,1017,1021,1027,1033,1040,1051,1066,1076,1083,1090,1108,1122,1137 "AEO 1996",,,1037,1044,1041,1045,1061,1070,1086,1100,1112,1121,1135,1156,1161,1167,1173,1184,1190 "AEO 1997",,,,1028,1052,1072,1088,1105,1110,1115,1123,1133,1146,1171,1182,1190,1193,1201,1209 "AEO 1998",,,,,1088,1122,1127.746338,1144.767212,1175.662598,1176.493652,1182.742065,1191.246948,1206.99585,1229.007202,1238.69043,1248.505981,1260.836914,1265.159424,1284.229736

18

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",11.24893441,11.08565002,10.98332766,10.82852279,10.67400621,10.54170176,10.39583203,10.27184573,10.14478673,10.02575883,9.910410202,9.810812106,9.69894802,9.599821783,9.486985399,9.394733753,9.303329725,9.221322623 "AEO 1995",,10.86137373,10.75116461,10.60467959,10.42268977,10.28668187,10.14461664,10.01081222,9.883759026,9.759022105,9.627404949,9.513643295,9.400418762,9.311729546,9.226142899,9.147374752,9.071102491,8.99599906 "AEO 1996",,,10.71047701,10.59846153,10.43655044,10.27812088,10.12746866,9.9694713,9.824165152,9.714832565,9.621874334,9.532324916,9.428169355,9.32931308,9.232716414,9.170931044,9.086870061,9.019963901,8.945602337

19

Minimum Gas Service Standards (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Natural gas companies in Ohio are required to follow the Minimum Gas Service Standards, which are set and enforced by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. These rules are found in chapter 4901...

20

Nonlinear optics at maximum coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...D. Walls Nonlinear optics at maximum coherence S. E. Harris G. Y. Yin M. Jain H...optical processes which utilize maximum coherence of a non-allowed transition. The nonlinear...frequency. Nonlinear optics at maximum coherence B y S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Design of maximum density aggregate grading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An aggregate grading that yields maximum solid density and maximum particle interlock is highly desirable for both bound mixtures, such as asphalt concrete and plain and reinforced concrete, and for unbound mixtures such as those used in base courses. Maximum particle interlock leads to high strength. Whereas minimum voids in a certain material composition is conducive to high strength and low compression. Aggregate grading may be obtained, for instance, from the ASTM, which is based on experience or may be designed according to Lees’ method. In the present work five different types of aggregates were used, each with a variety of chosen grading. It was found that Lees’ method produced the lowest porosity of all types of aggregates as well as for the various employed gradings. Lees’ rational method of aggregate grading, however, is a very lengthy and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, programming of Lees’ method is an essential step to make such an excellent method available to practicing engineers. A program named ‘ratmix’ was developed and has incorporated 58 design graphs of the Lees’ method. ratmix is a comprehensive program for Lees’ rational method; it conducts interpolation for intermediate points within the design graphs as well as between graphs of different properties.

Yahia A Abdel-Jawad; Waddah Salman Abdullah

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Table 14. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual (million short tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 914 939 963 995 1031 1080 AEO 1983 900 926 947 974 1010 1045 1191 AEO 1984 899 921 948 974 1010 1057 1221 AEO 1985 886 909 930 940 958 985 1015 1041 1072 1094 1116 AEO 1986 890 920 954 962 983 1017 1044 1073 1097 1126 1142 1156 1176 1191 1217 AEO 1987 917 914 932 962 978 996 1020 1043 1068 1149 AEO 1989* 941 946 977 990 1018 1039 1058 1082 1084 1107 1130 1152 1171 AEO 1990 973 987 1085 1178 1379 AEO 1991 1035 1002 1016 1031 1043 1054 1065 1079 1096 1111 1133 1142 1160 1193 1234 1272 1309 1349 1386 1433 AEO 1992 1004 1040 1019 1034 1052 1064 1074 1087 1102 1133 1144 1156 1173 1201 1229 1272 1312 1355 1397 AEO 1993 1039 1043 1054 1065 1076 1086 1094 1102 1125 1136 1148 1161 1178 1204 1237 1269 1302 1327 AEO 1994 999 1021

23

MaximumLetThrough.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Maximum Let-Through Currents in the APS Storage Ring Quadrupole, Sextupole, and Corrector Magnets J. Carwardine, D. McGhee, G. Markovich May 18, 1999 Abstract Limits are described for the maximum magnet currents, under specified fault conditions, for the storage ring quadrupole, sextupole, and corrector magnets. Introduction In computing the maximum let-through current for the magnets for the storage ring, several factors must be considered. In general, the maximum current likely to occur even under fault conditions is less than the maximum theoretical DC current given the magnet resistance and the maximum available DC voltage. The first level of protection against magnet current overloads is the over-current interlock that is built into the converter electronics package. The threshold is set to approximately 110% of

24

Maximum and minimum stable random packings of Platonic solids Jessica Baker and Arshad Kudrolli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of steel ball bearings 3 . In fact, work in the last decade has shown that random packing itself of the tetrahedrons 8,9 . In the case of tetrahedrons, disordered wagon-wheel packings were initially found to pack were said to be 0.76 .02 if the observed packings were extrapolated to infinite systems, but the pro

Kudrolli, Arshad

25

A METHOD OF RECORDING MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES OF FOREST SOILS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...authors would give a slight rebate on the price to offset...Ent., May, 1929. 1 C. G. Bates and Raphael...reads from minus 20 to plus 500 C. The Six type of ther-mometer...within the pit (Fig. 1). When readings are made...soil temperatures are: (1) The bulb remains at all...

E. W. Gemmer JR.

1929-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

26

MinimumEnergy Mobile Wireless Networks Revisited Li Li Joseph Y. Halpern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at maximum power. Transmitting at maximum power requires a great deal of energy. To minimize energy usage, we for a graph to have this minimum­energy property. We use this characterization to construct a protocol called, SMECN has lower link main­ tenance costs than MECN and can achieve a significant saving in energy usage

Li, Li Erran

27

Table 23. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu / $Billion Nominal GDP) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 20.1 18.5 16.9 15.5 14.4 13.2 AEO 1983 19.9 18.7 17.4 16.2 15.1 14.0 9.5 AEO 1984 20.1 19.0 17.7 16.5 15.5 14.5 10.2 AEO 1985 20.0 19.1 18.0 16.9 15.9 14.7 13.7 12.7 11.8 11.0 10.3 AEO 1986 18.3 17.8 16.8 16.1 15.2 14.3 13.4 12.6 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.5 8.9 8.3 7.8 AEO 1987 17.6 17.0 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.7 12.9 12.1 11.4 8.2 AEO 1989* 16.9 16.2 15.2 14.2 13.3 12.5 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.0 AEO 1990 16.1 15.4 11.7 8.6 6.4 AEO 1991 15.5 14.9 14.2 13.6 13.0 12.5 11.9 11.3 10.8 10.3 9.7 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.3 6.0 AEO 1992 15.0 14.5 13.9 13.3 12.7 12.1 11.6 11.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.1 7.7 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.2 AEO 1993 14.7 13.9 13.4 12.8 12.3 11.8 11.2 10.7 10.2 9.6 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.8 7.4 7.1 6.7 6.4

28

Single ion heat engine with maximum efficiency at maximum power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an experimental scheme to realize a nano heat engine with a single ion. An Otto cycle may be implemented by confining the ion in a linear Paul trap with tapered geometry and coupling it to engineered laser reservoirs. The quantum efficiency at maximum power is analytically determined in various regimes. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations of the engine are performed that demonstrate its feasibility and its ability to operate at maximum efficiency of 30% under realistic conditions.

Obinna Abah; Johannes Rossnagel; Georg Jacob; Sebastian Deffner; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer; Eric Lutz

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

29

HEAT Loan Minimum Standards and Requirements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents additional resources on loan standards and requirements from Elise Avers' presentation on HEAT Loan Minimum Standards and Requirements.

30

Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in CDMA Wireless Sensor Networks Benigno Zurita Ares://www.ee.kth.se/control Abstract. A theoretical framework is proposed for accurate perfor- mance analysis of minimum energy coding energy consumption is analyzed for two coding schemes proposed in the literature: Minimum Energy coding

Johansson, Karl Henrik

31

Solar signals in the minimum extreme temperature records in the southern region of the Gulf of Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Minimum extreme temperature series from several meteorological stations of the Gulf of Mexico are spectrally analyzed using the Maximum Entropy Method. We obtained significant periodicities similar to those found in meteorological and solar activity phenomena. This indicates that probably the solar activity signals are present in the minimum extreme temperature records of this Mexican region.

D. Maravilla; B. Mendoza; E. Jáuregui

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

January 23, 2008" ,"Next Update: October 2007" ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005...

33

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

34

Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

35

Estimation of Regional Actual Evapotranspiration in the Panama Canal Watershed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The upper Río Chagres basin is a part of the Panama Canal Watershed. The least known water balance...SEBAL...). We use an image from March 27, 2000, for estimation of the distribution of the regional actual evapo...

Jan M.H. Hendrickx; Wim G.M. Bastiaanssen; Edwin J.M. Noordman…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

37

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose This paper addresses the problem of power and sample size calculation for a stepwise multiple test procedure of a compound. A general expression for the power of this procedure is derived. It is used to find the minimum

Tamhane, Ajit C.

38

Credible Research Designs for Minimum Wage Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adjusted Current Employment Statistics data from BLS. TheBureau of Labor Statistics’ Employment and Earnings Reports.and Statistics 92, 4: 945-64. [27] _________2013. “Minimum Wage Shocks, Employment

Allegretto, Sylvia; Dube, Arindrajit; Reich, Michael; Zipperer, Ben

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

40

Minimum rank of graphs that allow loops.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The traditional "minimum rank problem" for simple graphs associates a set of symmetric matrices, the zero-nonzero pattern of whose off-diagonal entries are described by the… (more)

Mikkelson, Rana C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Self-actualization as it relates to aerobic physical fitness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

higher than the aerobic and archery group on the TC, Ex, and C scales. The archery group was significantly higher than the preaerobic and aerobic groups on the Fr and S scales. Females from the preaerobic group were significantly lower than archery... Inventory Sav Self-actualization values measures how well a person holds and lives by values of se 1f- ac tualizing people Ex Existentiality measures ability to flexibly apply self-actualizing values to one's own life Fr Feeling reactivity measures...

Russell, Kathryn Terese Vecchio

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Subsidiary minimum principles for scattering parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We denote as a "primary minimum principle" one in which a quantity B of physical interest is represented as the minimum value with respect to variations in a trial function ?t of a functional F(?t); F then provides a variational upper bound on B. (The Rayleigh-Ritz principle for the ground-state energy of a system is a familiar example.) If F is quadratic in ?t, the variational property of F enables one to determine the linear parameters relatively easily, but the minimum property is required if the nonlinear parameters are to be determined in a way which allows for systematic improvement of ?t. We show here that for a wide class of problems for which primary minimum principles do not exist, useful and rigorous secondary or "subsidiary minimum principles" are available. That is, we construct a functional F?(?t) whose minimum value is reached for ?t equal to some function ? of dynamical interest. (The Rayleigh-Ritz method provides a subsidiary minimum principle for the approximate determination of the ground-state wave function of a system.) If B=B(?), then a study of F?(?t) provides a powerful tool for the estimation of ? and therefore B, though B(?t) is not normally a variational bound on B(?). Subsidiary minimum principles have recently been obtained for the approximation of the auxiliary functions that appear in the variational principle for the matrix element (?n, W?m), where ?n and ?m are bound-state wave functions and W is an arbitrary operator. Here we extend the method to the estimation of matrix elements of the Green's function g(?) of a bound system with ? below the continuum threshold energy. The response of the system to an external perturbation can be represented by matrix elements of this type. While no new results on the bound-state problem are obtained, our formulation is a convenient starting point for the further extension of the method to continuum problems. The new result obtained here is the derivation of a subsidiary minimum principle for the problem of scattering of a projectile by a target whose bound-state wave function is only imprecisely known. The subsidiary minimum principle allows for systematic improvement of the closed-channel component of the trial scattering wave function that appears in a Kohn-type variational calculation of the scattering amplitude.

Leonard Rosenberg and Larry Spruch

1974-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

experiment actually sees," Smith says. "When we were  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experiment actually sees," Smith says. "When we were finished, we got much more ­ a method in science depend on atoms and molecules moving," Smith says. "We want to create movies of molecules science development," Smith says.--Morgan McCorkle A theoretical technique developed at ORNL is bringing

Pennycook, Steve

44

COORDINATING ADVICE AND ACTUAL TREATMENT Thomas A. Russ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Unfortunately, this information is not always immediately available. For example, the exact fluid infused via an intravenous line can only be determined after someone checks the infusion bottle to determine how much fluid differ in timing and exact amount from what is actually done. For example, an infusion order might call

Russ, Thomas A.

45

Maximum-Likelihood Continuity Mapping (MALCOM): An Alternative to HMMs  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe Maximum-Likelihood Continuity Mapping (MALCOM) as an alternative to hidden Markov models (HMMs) for processing sequence data such as speech. While HMMs have a discrete ''hidden'' space constrained by a fixed finite-automata architecture, MALCOM has a continuous hidden space (a continuity map) that is constrained only by a smoothness requirement on paths through the space. MALCOM fits into the same probabilistic framework for speech recognition as HMMs, but it represents a far more realistic model of the speech production process. The authors support this claim by generating continuity maps for three speakers and using the resulting MALCOM paths to predict measured speech articulator data. The correlations between the MALCOM paths (obtained from only the speech acoustics) and the actual articulator movements average 0.77 on an independent test set not used to train MALCOM nor the predictor. On average, this unsupervised model achieves 92% of performance obtained using the corresponding supervised method.

Nix, D.A.; Hogden, J.E.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Diffusion maximum as a function of size in dense liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the diffusion of small guest particles of different sizes in a host fluid at liquid densities using molecular dynamics simulations. We observe an enhancement of the diffusivity of guest particles for a size related to the structure of the void space of the host fluid, analogous to the “levitation effect” observed for guest diffusion in porous solids. Friction and activation energy are found to be minimum for the guest size with maximum self-diffusivity. Wavelength dependent self-diffusivity indicates a monotonic and oscillatory dependence on wave number k for anomalous and linear regimes, respectively. These are associated with single and bi-exponential decay of the incoherent intermediate scattering function.

Pradip Kr. Ghorai; A. V. Anil Kumar; Srikanth Sastry; S. Yashonath

2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

48

Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Minimum Efficiency Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements Covered Product Categories

49

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: CORE COMPETENCY...

50

Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final July 01, 2010 Final July 01, 2010 1 Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance On Real Property 1. The following is the FY 2010 implementation procedures for the field offices/sites to determine and report deferred maintenance on real property as required by the Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards (SFFAS) No. 6, Accounting for Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E) and DOE Order 430.1B, Real Property Asset Management (RPAM). a. This document is intended to assist field offices/sites in consistently and accurately applying the appropriate methods to determine and report deferred maintenance estimates and reporting of annual required and actual maintenance costs. b. This reporting satisfies the Department's obligation to recognize and record deferred

51

Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 2508 2373 2256 2161 2088 2022 1953 1891 1851 1825 1799 1781 1767 1759 1778 1789 1807 1862 AEO 1995 2402 2307 2205 2095 2037 1967 1953 1924 1916 1905 1894 1883 1887 1887 1920 1945 1967 AEO 1996 2387 2310 2248 2172 2113 2062 2011 1978 1953 1938 1916 1920 1927 1949 1971 1986 2000 AEO 1997 2362 2307 2245 2197 2143 2091 2055 2033 2015 2004 1997 1989 1982 1975 1967 1949 AEO 1998 2340 2332 2291 2252 2220 2192 2169 2145 2125 2104 2087 2068 2050 2033 2016 AEO 1999 2340 2309 2296 2265 2207 2171 2141 2122 2114 2092 2074 2057 2040 2025 AEO 2000 2193 2181 2122 2063 2016 1980 1957 1939 1920 1904 1894 1889 1889

52

Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Draft July 9, 2009 Draft July 9, 2009 1 Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance On Real Property 1. The following is the FY 2009 implementation procedures for the field offices/sites to determine and report deferred maintenance on real property as required by the Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards (SFFAS) No. 6, Accounting for Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E) and DOE Order 430.1B, Real Property Asset Management (RPAM). a. This document is intended to assist field offices/sites in consistently and accurately applying the appropriate methods to determine and report deferred maintenance estimates and reporting of annual required and actual maintenance costs. b. This reporting satisfies the Department's obligation to recognize and record deferred

53

Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",920,928,933,938,943,948,953,958,962,967,978,990,987,992,1006,1035,1061,1079 "AEO 1995",,935,940,941,947,948,951,954,958,963,971,984,992,996,1002,1013,1025,1039 "AEO 1996",,,937,942,954,962,983,990,1004,1017,1027,1033,1046,1067,1070,1071,1074,1082,1087 "AEO 1997",,,,948,970,987,1003,1017,1020,1025,1034,1041,1054,1075,1086,1092,1092,1099,1104 "AEO 1998",,,,,1009,1051,1043.875977,1058.292725,1086.598145,1084.446655,1089.787109,1096.931763,1111.523926,1129.833862,1142.338257,1148.019409,1159.695312,1162.210815,1180.029785

54

Table 4. Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 6450 6566 6643 6723 6811 6880 6957 7059 7125 7205 7296 7377 7446 7523 7596 7665 7712 7775 AEO 1995 6398 6544 6555 6676 6745 6822 6888 6964 7048 7147 7245 7337 7406 7472 7537 7581 7621 AEO 1996 6490 6526 6607 6709 6782 6855 6942 7008 7085 7176 7260 7329 7384 7450 7501 7545 7581 AEO 1997 6636 6694 6826 6953 7074 7183 7267 7369 7461 7548 7643 7731 7793 7833 7884 7924 AEO 1998 6895 6906 7066 7161 7278 7400 7488 7597 7719 7859 7959 8074 8190 8286 8361 AEO 1999 6884 7007 7269 7383 7472 7539 7620 7725 7841 7949 8069 8174 8283 8351 AEO 2000 7056 7141 7266 7363 7452 7578 7694 7815 7926 8028 8113 8217 8288

55

Table 6. Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 2935 3201 3362 3504 3657 3738 3880 3993 4099 4212 4303 4398 4475 4541 4584 4639 4668 4672 AEO 1995 2953 3157 3281 3489 3610 3741 3818 3920 4000 4103 4208 4303 4362 4420 4442 4460 4460 AEO 1996 3011 3106 3219 3398 3519 3679 3807 3891 3979 4070 4165 4212 4260 4289 4303 4322 4325 AEO 1997 3099 3245 3497 3665 3825 3975 4084 4190 4285 4380 4464 4552 4617 4654 4709 4760 AEO 1998 3303 3391 3654 3713 3876 4053 4137 4298 4415 4556 4639 4750 4910 4992 5087 AEO 1999 3380 3442 3888 4022 4153 4238 4336 4441 4545 4652 4780 4888 4999 5073 AEO 2000 3599 3847 4036 4187 4320 4465 4579 4690 4780 4882 4968 5055 5113

56

Table 7b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per thousand cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",1.983258692,2.124739238,2.26534793,2.409252566,2.585728477,2.727400662,2.854942053,2.980927152,3.13861755,3.345819536,3.591100993,3.849544702,4.184279801,4.510016556,4.915074503,5.29147351,5.56022351,5.960471854 "AEO 1995",,1.891706924,1.998384058,1.952818035,2.064227053,2.152302174,2.400016103,2.569033816,2.897681159,3.160088567,3.556344605,3.869033816,4.267391304,4.561932367,4.848599034,5.157246377,5.413405797,5.660917874 "AEO 1996",,,1.630674532,1.740334763,1.862956911,1.9915856,2.10351261,2.194934146,2.287655669,2.378991658,2.476043002,2.589847464,2.717610782,2.836870306,2.967124845,3.117719429,3.294003735,3.485657428,3.728419409

57

Minimum error discrimination between similarity-transformed quantum states  

SciTech Connect

Using the well-known necessary and sufficient conditions for minimum error discrimination (MED), we extract an equivalent form for the MED conditions. In fact, by replacing the inequalities corresponding to the MED conditions with an equivalent but more suitable and convenient identity, the problem of mixed state discrimination with optimal success probability is solved. Moreover, we show that the mentioned optimality conditions can be viewed as a Helstrom family of ensembles under some circumstances. Using the given identity, MED between N similarity transformed equiprobable quantum states is investigated. In the case that the unitary operators are generating a set of irreducible representation, the optimal set of measurements and corresponding maximum success probability of discrimination can be determined precisely. In particular, it is shown that for equiprobable pure states, the optimal measurement strategy is the square-root measurement (SRM), whereas for the mixed states, SRM is not optimal. In the case that the unitary operators are reducible, there is no closed-form formula in the general case, but the procedure can be applied in each case in accordance to that case. Finally, we give the maximum success probability of optimal discrimination for some important examples of mixed quantum states, such as generalized Bloch sphere m-qubit states, spin-j states, particular nonsymmetric qudit states, etc.

Jafarizadeh, M. A. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-1795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sufiani, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-1795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazhari Khiavi, Y. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers PreliminaryRefrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers Pre-NOPRlighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air

Letschert, Virginie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Rice yields in tropical/subtropical Asia exhibit large but opposing sensitivities to minimum and maximum temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Nutrient-specific fertilizer prices were generally not available...of compound fertilizers. The price of nitrogen fertilizer was approximated...uniform wages and fertilizer prices across farms at a given site...season-year t and 0 otherwise, wit is an N × K matrix of weather...

Jarrod R. Welch; Jeffrey R. Vincent; Maximilian Auffhammer; Piedad F. Moya; Achim Dobermann; David Dawe

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and general lighting incandescent services (GLIS) areLighting Phase out of incandescent lighting has been passedout of general service incandescent lamps (GSIL) which don’t

Letschert, Virginie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the energy use from this process accounts for an estimated 3% of the world energy consumption.1 With rising on the overall plant energy consumption. The use of heat integration combined with complex config- urations distillation ar- rangements. An easy form of comparison for energy consumption is the minimum vapor flow rate

Skogestad, Sigurd

62

Learning Minimum Volume Sets Clayton Scott  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Learning Minimum Volume Sets Clayton Scott Statistics Department Rice University Houston, TX 77005 herein are primarily of theoretical interest, although they may be implemented e#eciently for certain measure based on S: # P (G) = (1/n) # n i=1 I(X i # G). Here I(·) is the indicator function. Set µ

Scott, Clayton

63

A comparison of maximum likelihood and other estimators of eigenvalues from several correlated Monte Carlo samples  

SciTech Connect

The maximum likelihood method for the multivariate normal distribution is applied to the case of several individual eigenvalues. Correlated Monte Carlo estimates of the eigenvalue are assumed to follow this prescription and aspects of the assumption are examined. Monte Carlo cell calculations using the SAM-CE and VIM codes for the TRX-1 and TRX-2 benchmark reactors, and SAM-CE full core results are analyzed with this method. Variance reductions of a few percent to a factor of 2 are obtained from maximum likelihood estimation as compared with the simple average and the minimum variance individual eigenvalue. The numerical results verify that the use of sample variances and correlation coefficients in place of the corresponding population statistics still leads to nearly minimum variance estimation for a sufficient number of histories and aggregates.

Beer, M.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Towards Optimal Measurement of Power Spectra I: Minimum Variance Pair Weighting and the Fisher Matrix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the first of a pair of papers which address the problem of measuring the unredshifted power spectrum in optimal fashion from a survey of galaxies, with arbitrary geometry, for Gaussian or non-Gaussian fluctuations, in real or redshift space. In this first paper, that pair weighting is derived which formally minimizes the expected variance of the unredshifted power spectrum windowed over some arbitrary kernel. The inverse of the covariance matrix of minimum variance estimators of windowed power spectra is the Fisher information matrix, which plays a central role in establishing optimal estimators. Actually computing the minimum variance pair window and the Fisher matrix in a real survey still presents a formidable numerical problem, so here a perturbation series solution is developed. The properties of the Fisher matrix evaluated according to the approximate method suggested here are investigated in more detail in the second paper.

A. J. S. Hamilton

1997-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

65

Table 10. Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual" Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (trillion cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",2.02,2.4,2.66,2.74,2.81,2.85,2.89,2.93,2.95,2.97,3,3.16,3.31,3.5,3.57,3.63,3.74,3.85 "AEO 1995",,2.46,2.54,2.8,2.87,2.87,2.89,2.9,2.9,2.92,2.95,2.97,3,3.03,3.19,3.35,3.51,3.6 "AEO 1996",,,2.56,2.75,2.85,2.88,2.93,2.98,3.02,3.06,3.07,3.09,3.12,3.17,3.23,3.29,3.37,3.46,3.56 "AEO 1997",,,,2.82,2.96,3.16,3.43,3.46,3.5,3.53,3.58,3.64,3.69,3.74,3.78,3.83,3.87,3.92,3.97 "AEO 1998",,,,,2.95,3.19,3.531808376,3.842532873,3.869043112,3.894513845,3.935930967,3.976293564,4.021911621,4.062207222,4.107616425,4.164502144,4.221304417,4.277039051,4.339964867

66

Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 920 928 933 938 943 948 953 958 962 967 978 990 987 992 1006 1035 1061 1079 AEO 1995 935 940 941 947 948 951 954 958 963 971 984 992 996 1002 1013 1025 1039 AEO 1996 937 942 954 962 983 990 1004 1017 1027 1033 1046 1067 1070 1071 1074 1082 1087 AEO 1997 948 970 987 1003 1017 1020 1025 1034 1041 1054 1075 1086 1092 1092 1099 1104 AEO 1998 1009 1051 1044 1058 1087 1084 1090 1097 1112 1130 1142 1148 1160 1162 1180 AEO 1999 1040 1075 1092 1109 1113 1118 1120 1120 1133 1139 1150 1155 1156 1173 AEO 2000 1053 1086 1103 1124 1142 1164 1175 1184 1189 1194 1199 1195 1200 AEO 2001 1078 1112 1135 1153 1165 1183 1191 1220 1228 1228 1235 1240

67

Table 22. Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual (million metric tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 AEO 1983 AEO 1984 AEO 1985 AEO 1986 AEO 1987 AEO 1989* AEO 1990 AEO 1991 AEO 1992 AEO 1993 5009 5053 5130 5207 5269 5335 5401 5449 5504 5562 5621 5672 5724 5771 5819 5867 5918 5969 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441.3 5489.0 5551.3 5621.0 5679.7 5727.3 5775.0 5841.0 5888.7 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 AEO 1997 5295 5381 5491 5586 5658 5715 5781 5863 5934 6009 6106 6184 6236 6268 AEO 1998 5474 5621 5711 5784 5893 5957 6026 6098 6192 6292 6379 6465 6542 AEO 1999 5522 5689 5810 5913 5976 6036 6084 6152 6244 6325 6418 6493 AEO 2000

68

Table 16. Total Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual (billion kilowatt-hours) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 2364 2454 2534 2626 2708 2811 AEO 1983 2318 2395 2476 2565 2650 2739 3153 AEO 1984 2321 2376 2461 2551 2637 2738 3182 AEO 1985 2317 2360 2427 2491 2570 2651 2730 2808 2879 2949 3026 AEO 1986 2363 2416 2479 2533 2608 2706 2798 2883 2966 3048 3116 3185 3255 3324 3397 AEO 1987 2460 2494 2555 2622 2683 2748 2823 2902 2977 3363 AEO 1989* 2556 2619 2689 2760 2835 2917 2994 3072 3156 3236 3313 3394 3473 AEO 1990 2612 2689 3083 3488.0 3870.0 AEO 1991 2700 2762 2806 2855 2904 2959 3022 3088 3151 3214 3282 3355 3427 3496 3563 3632 3704 3776 3846 3916 AEO 1992 2746 2845 2858 2913 2975 3030 3087 3146 3209 3276 3345 3415 3483 3552 3625 3699 3774 3847 3921 AEO 1993 2803 2840 2893 2946 2998 3052 3104 3157 3214 3271 3327

69

Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual" Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",2507.55,2372.5,2255.7,2160.8,2087.8,2022.1,1952.75,1890.7,1850.55,1825,1799.45,1781.2,1766.6,1759.3,1777.55,1788.5,1806.75,1861.5 "AEO 1995",,2401.7,2306.8,2204.6,2095.1,2036.7,1967.35,1952.75,1923.55,1916.25,1905.3,1894.35,1883.4,1887.05,1887.05,1919.9,1945.45,1967.35 "AEO 1996",,,2387.1,2310.45,2248.4,2171.75,2113.35,2062.25,2011.15,1978.3,1952.75,1938.15,1916.25,1919.9,1927.2,1949.1,1971,1985.6,2000.2 "AEO 1997",,,,2361.55,2306.8,2244.75,2197.3,2142.55,2091.45,2054.95,2033.05,2014.8,2003.85,1996.55,1989.25,1981.95,1974.65,1967.35,1949.1

70

Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",88.02,89.53,90.72,91.73,92.71,93.61,94.56,95.73,96.69,97.69,98.89,100,100.79,101.7,102.7,103.6,104.3,105.23 "AEO 1995",,89.21,89.98,90.57,91.91,92.98,93.84,94.61,95.3,96.19,97.18,98.38,99.37,100.3,101.2,102.1,102.9,103.88 "AEO 1996",,,90.6,91.26,92.54,93.46,94.27,95.07,95.94,96.92,97.98,99.2,100.38,101.4,102.1,103.1,103.8,104.69,105.5 "AEO 1997",,,,92.64,93.58,95.13,96.59,97.85,98.79,99.9,101.2,102.4,103.4,104.7,105.8,106.6,107.2,107.9,108.6 "AEO 1998",,,,,94.68,96.71,98.61027527,99.81855774,101.254303,102.3907928,103.3935776,104.453476,105.8160553,107.2683716,108.5873566,109.8798981,111.0723877,112.166893,113.0926208

71

Table 7a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per thousand cubic feet in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO Dollar Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",1992,1.9399,2.029,2.1099,2.1899,2.29,2.35,2.39,2.42,2.47,2.55,2.65,2.75,2.89,3.01,3.17,3.3,3.35,3.47 "AEO 1995",1993,,1.85,1.899,1.81,1.87,1.8999,2.06,2.14,2.34,2.47,2.69,2.83,3.02,3.12,3.21,3.3,3.35,3.39 "AEO 1996",1994,,,1.597672343,1.665446997,1.74129355,1.815978527,1.866241336,1.892736554,1.913619637,1.928664207,1.943216205,1.964540124,1.988652706,2.003382921,2.024799585,2.056392431,2.099974155,2.14731431,2.218094587

72

Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 AEO 1996 1994 7.09 6.99 6.94 6.93 6.96 6.96 6.96 6.97 6.98 6.97 6.98 6.95 6.95 6.94 6.96 6.95 6.91 AEO 1997 1995 6.94 6.89 6.90 6.91 6.86 6.84 6.78 6.73 6.66 6.60 6.58 6.54 6.49 6.48 6.45 6.36

73

Table 4. Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",6449.55,6566.35,6643,6723.3,6810.9,6880.25,6956.9,7059.1,7124.8,7205.1,7296.35,7376.65,7446,7522.65,7595.65,7665,7712.45,7774.5 "AEO 1995",,6398.45,6544.45,6555.4,6675.85,6745.2,6821.85,6887.55,6964.2,7048.15,7146.7,7245.25,7336.5,7405.85,7471.55,7537.25,7581.05,7621.2 "AEO 1996",,,6489.7,6526.2,6606.5,6708.7,6781.7,6854.7,6942.3,7008,7084.65,7175.9,7259.85,7329.2,7383.95,7449.65,7500.75,7544.55,7581.05 "AEO 1997",,,,6635.7,6694.1,6825.5,6953.25,7073.7,7183.2,7267.15,7369.35,7460.6,7548.2,7643.1,7730.7,7792.75,7832.9,7884,7924.15

74

Table 9. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual" Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (trillion cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",17.71,17.68,17.84,18.12,18.25,18.43,18.58,18.93,19.28,19.51,19.8,19.92,20.13,20.18,20.38,20.35,20.16,20.19 "AEO 1995",,18.28,17.98,17.92,18.21,18.63,18.92,19.08,19.2,19.36,19.52,19.75,19.94,20.17,20.28,20.6,20.59,20.88 "AEO 1996",,,18.9,19.15,19.52,19.59,19.59,19.65,19.73,19.97,20.36,20.82,21.25,21.37,21.68,22.11,22.47,22.83,23.36 "AEO 1997",,,,19.1,19.7,20.17,20.32,20.54,20.77,21.26,21.9,22.31,22.66,22.93,23.38,23.68,23.99,24.25,24.65 "AEO 1998",,,,,18.85,19.06,20.34936142,20.27427673,20.60257721,20.94442177,21.44076347,21.80969238,22.25416183,22.65365219,23.176651,23.74545097,24.22989273,24.70069313,24.96691322

75

Table 7a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per thousand cubic feet in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1992 1.94 2.03 2.11 2.19 2.29 2.35 2.39 2.42 2.47 2.55 2.65 2.75 2.89 3.01 3.17 3.30 3.35 3.47 AEO 1995 1993 1.85 1.90 1.81 1.87 1.90 2.06 2.14 2.34 2.47 2.69 2.83 3.02 3.12 3.21 3.30 3.35 3.39 AEO 1996 1994 1.60 1.67 1.74 1.82 1.87 1.89 1.91 1.93 1.94 1.96 1.99 2.00 2.02 2.06 2.10 2.15 2.22

76

Pose estimation of an uncooperative spacecraft from actual space imagery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses the preliminary design of a spaceborne monocular vision-based navigation system for on-orbit-servicing and formation-flying applications. The aim is to estimate the pose of a passive space resident object using its known three-dimensional model and single low-resolution two-dimensional images collected on-board the active spacecraft. In contrast to previous work, no supportive means are available on the target satellite (e.g., light emitting diodes) and no a-priori knowledge of the relative position and attitude is available (i.e., lost-in-space scenario). Three fundamental mechanisms - perceptual organisation, true perspective projection, and random sample consensus - are exploited to overcome the limitations of monocular passive optical navigation in space. The preliminary design is conducted and validated making use of actual images collected in the frame of the PRISMA mission at about 700 km altitude and 10 m inter-spacecraft separation.

Simone D'Amico; Mathias Benn; John L. Jørgensen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

78

The minimum jet power and equipartition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the minimum power of jets and their magnetic field strength based on their observed non-thermal synchrotron emission. The correct form of this method takes into account both the internal energy in the jet and the ion rest-mass energy associated with the bulk motion. The latter was neglected in a number of papers, which instead adopted the well-known energy-content minimization method. That method was developed for static sources, for which there is no bulk-motion component of the energy. In the case of electron power-law spectra with index >2 in ion-electron jets, the rest-mass component dominates. The minimization method for the jet power taking it into account was considered in some other work, but only based on either an assumption of a constant total synchrotron flux or a fixed range of the Lorentz factors. Instead, we base our method on an observed optically-thin synchrotron spectrum. We find the minimum jet power is independent of its radius when the rest-mass power dominates, which becomes th...

Zdziarski, Andrzej A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Table 18. Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.6 AEO 1995 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.3 AEO 1996 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 AEO 1997 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.2 AEO 1998 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 AEO 1999 7.4 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 AEO 2000 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.7 8.7 8.8 AEO 2001 7.8 8.1 8.3 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.7 AEO 2002 8.2 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.9 10.1

80

Table 21. Total Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 18.6 18.2 17.7 17.3 17.0 16.9 AEO 1983 19.8 20.1 20.4 20.4 20.5 20.5 20.7 AEO 1984 19.2 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.1 19.2 20.1 AEO 1985 20.0 19.8 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.1 20.3 AEO 1986 20.5 20.8 20.8 20.6 20.7 20.3 21.0 AEO 1987 21.3 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 22.0 22.0 22.0 21.9 22.3 AEO 1989* 21.8 22.2 22.4 22.4 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 23.0 23.2 AEO 1990 22.0 22.4 23.2 24.3 25.5 AEO 1991 22.1 21.6 21.9 22.1 22.3 22.5 22.8 23.1 23.4 23.8 24.1 24.5 24.8 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.0 26.3 26.6 26.9 AEO 1992 21.7 22.0 22.5 22.9 23.2 23.4 23.6 23.9 24.1 24.4 24.8 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.0 26.3 26.6 26.9 27.1 AEO 1993 22.5 22.8 23.4 23.9 24.3 24.7 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.1 26.5 26.8 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.1 28.4 28.7 AEO 1994 23.6

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81

Table 10. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production, Projected vs. Actual Production, Projected vs. Actual (trillion cubic feet) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 14.74 14.26 14.33 14.89 15.39 15.88 AEO 1983 16.48 16.27 16.20 16.31 16.27 16.29 14.89 AEO 1984 17.48 17.10 17.44 17.58 17.52 17.32 16.39 AEO 1985 16.95 17.08 17.11 17.29 17.40 17.33 17.32 17.27 17.05 16.80 16.50 AEO 1986 16.30 16.27 17.15 16.68 16.90 16.97 16.87 16.93 16.86 16.62 16.40 16.33 16.57 16.23 16.12 AEO 1987 16.21 16.09 16.38 16.32 16.30 16.30 16.44 16.62 16.81 17.39 AEO 1989* 16.71 16.71 16.94 17.01 16.83 17.09 17.35 17.54 17.67 17.98 18.20 18.25 18.49 AEO 1990 16.91 17.25 18.84 20.58 20.24 AEO 1991 17.40 17.48 18.11 18.22 18.15 18.22 18.39 18.82 19.03 19.28 19.62 19.89 20.13 20.07 19.95 19.82 19.64 19.50 19.30 19.08 AEO 1992 17.43 17.69 17.95 18.00 18.29 18.27 18.51 18.75 18.97

82

Table 17. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 79.1 79.6 79.9 80.8 82.1 83.3 AEO 1983 78.0 79.5 81.0 82.4 83.9 84.6 89.0 AEO 1984 78.5 79.4 81.2 83.1 85.1 86.4 93.0 AEO 1985 77.6 78.5 79.8 81.2 82.7 83.3 84.2 85.0 85.7 86.3 87.2 AEO 1986 77.0 78.8 79.8 80.7 81.5 82.9 83.8 84.6 85.3 86.0 86.6 87.4 88.3 89.4 90.2 AEO 1987 78.9 80.0 82.0 82.8 83.9 85.1 86.2 87.1 87.9 92.5 AEO 1989* 82.2 83.8 84.5 85.4 86.2 87.1 87.8 88.7 89.5 90.4 91.4 92.4 93.5 AEO 1990 84.2 85.4 91.9 97.4 102.8 AEO 1991 84.4 85.0 86.0 87.0 87.9 89.1 90.4 91.8 93.1 94.3 95.6 97.1 98.4 99.4 100.3 101.4 102.5 103.6 104.7 105.8 AEO 1992 84.7 87.0 88.0 89.2 90.5 91.4 92.4 93.4 94.5 95.6 96.9 98.0 99.0 100.0 101.2 102.2 103.2 104.3 105.2 AEO 1993 87.0 88.3 89.8 91.4 92.7 94.0 95.3 96.3 97.5 98.6

83

Table 3. Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 4.3% 3.8% 3.6% 3.3% 3.2% 3.2% AEO 1983 3.3% 3.3% 3.4% 3.3% 3.2% 3.1% 2.7% AEO 1984 2.7% 2.4% 2.9% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 2.7% AEO 1985 2.3% 2.2% 2.7% 2.8% 2.9% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% AEO 1986 2.6% 2.5% 2.7% 2.5% 2.5% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% AEO 1987 2.7% 2.3% 2.4% 2.5% 2.5% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% AEO 1989* 4.0% 3.4% 3.1% 3.0% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% AEO 1990 2.9% 2.3% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% AEO 1991 0.8% 1.0% 1.7% 1.8% 1.8% 1.9% 2.0% 2.1% 2.1% 2.1% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% AEO 1992 -0.1% 1.6% 2.0% 2.2% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2%

84

Table 20. Total Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 24.0 24.1 24.4 24.9 25.5 26.1 AEO 1983 23.2 23.6 23.9 24.4 24.9 25.0 25.4 AEO 1984 24.1 24.5 25.4 25.5 27.1 27.4 28.7 AEO 1985 23.2 23.6 23.9 24.4 24.8 24.8 24.4 AEO 1986 22.2 22.8 23.1 23.4 23.4 23.6 22.8 AEO 1987 22.4 22.8 23.7 24.0 24.3 24.6 24.6 24.7 24.9 22.6 AEO 1989* 23.6 24.0 24.1 24.3 24.5 24.3 24.3 24.5 24.6 24.8 24.9 24.4 24.1 AEO 1990 25.0 25.4 27.1 27.3 28.6 AEO 1991 24.6 24.5 24.8 24.8 25.0 25.3 25.7 26.2 26.5 26.1 25.9 26.2 26.4 26.6 26.7 27.0 27.2 27.4 27.7 28.0 AEO 1992 24.6 25.3 25.4 25.6 26.1 26.3 26.5 26.5 26.0 25.6 25.8 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.4 26.7 26.9 27.2 27.3 AEO 1993 25.5 25.9 26.2 26.8 27.1 27.5 27.8 27.4 27.1 27.4 27.6 27.8 28.0 28.2 28.4 28.7 28.9 29.1 AEO 1994 25.4 25.9

85

Table 8. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual (current dollars per thousand cubic feet) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 4.32 5.47 6.67 7.51 8.04 8.57 AEO 1983 2.93 3.11 3.46 3.93 4.56 5.26 12.74 AEO 1984 2.77 2.90 3.21 3.63 4.13 4.79 9.33 AEO 1985 2.60 2.61 2.66 2.71 2.94 3.35 3.85 4.46 5.10 5.83 6.67 AEO 1986 1.73 1.96 2.29 2.54 2.81 3.15 3.73 4.34 5.06 5.90 6.79 7.70 8.62 9.68 10.80 AEO 1987 1.83 1.95 2.11 2.28 2.49 2.72 3.08 3.51 4.07 7.54 AEO 1989* 1.62 1.70 1.91 2.13 2.58 3.04 3.48 3.93 4.76 5.23 5.80 6.43 6.98 AEO 1990 1.78 1.88 2.93 5.36 9.2 AEO 1991 1.77 1.90 2.11 2.30 2.42 2.51 2.60 2.74 2.91 3.29 3.75 4.31 5.07 5.77 6.45 7.29 8.09 8.94 9.62 10.27 AEO 1992 1.69 1.85 2.03 2.15 2.35 2.51 2.74 3.01 3.40 3.81 4.24 4.74 5.25 5.78 6.37 6.89 7.50 8.15 9.05 AEO 1993 1.85 1.94 2.09 2.30

86

Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 88.0 89.5 90.7 91.7 92.7 93.6 94.6 95.7 96.7 97.7 98.9 100.0 100.8 101.7 102.7 103.6 104.3 105.2 AEO 1995 89.2 90.0 90.6 91.9 93.0 93.8 94.6 95.3 96.2 97.2 98.4 99.4 100.3 101.2 102.1 102.9 103.9 AEO 1996 90.6 91.3 92.5 93.5 94.3 95.1 95.9 96.9 98.0 99.2 100.4 101.4 102.1 103.1 103.8 104.7 105.5 AEO 1997 92.6 93.6 95.1 96.6 97.9 98.8 99.9 101.2 102.4 103.4 104.7 105.8 106.6 107.2 107.9 108.6 AEO 1998 94.7 96.7 98.6 99.8 101.3 102.4 103.4 104.5 105.8 107.3 108.6 109.9 111.1 112.2 113.1 AEO 1999 94.6 97.0 99.2 100.9 102.0 102.8 103.6 104.7 106.0 107.2 108.5 109.7 110.8 111.8

87

Table 9. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (trillion cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 17.71 17.68 17.84 18.12 18.25 18.43 18.58 18.93 19.28 19.51 19.80 19.92 20.13 20.18 20.38 20.35 20.16 20.19 AEO 1995 18.28 17.98 17.92 18.21 18.63 18.92 19.08 19.20 19.36 19.52 19.75 19.94 20.17 20.28 20.60 20.59 20.88 AEO 1996 18.90 19.15 19.52 19.59 19.59 19.65 19.73 19.97 20.36 20.82 21.25 21.37 21.68 22.11 22.47 22.83 23.36 AEO 1997 19.10 19.70 20.17 20.32 20.54 20.77 21.26 21.90 22.31 22.66 22.93 23.38 23.68 23.99 24.25 24.65 AEO 1998 18.85 19.06 20.35 20.27 20.60 20.94 21.44 21.81 22.25 22.65 23.18 23.75 24.23 24.70 24.97 AEO 1999 18.80 19.13 19.28 19.82 20.23 20.77 21.05 21.57 21.98 22.47 22.85 23.26 23.77 24.15

88

Table 19. Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 25.4 25.9 26.3 26.7 27.0 27.1 26.8 26.6 26.9 27.2 27.7 28.1 28.3 28.7 29.1 29.4 29.7 30.0 AEO 1995 26.2 26.3 26.5 27.0 27.3 26.9 26.6 26.8 27.1 27.5 27.9 28.2 28.4 28.7 29.0 29.3 29.6 AEO 1996 26.5 26.6 27.3 27.5 26.9 26.5 26.7 26.9 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.2 28.3 28.5 28.7 28.9 29.2 AEO 1997 26.2 26.5 26.9 26.7 26.6 26.8 27.1 27.4 27.8 28.0 28.4 28.7 28.9 29.0 29.2 29.4 AEO 1998 27.2 27.5 27.2 26.9 27.1 27.5 27.7 27.9 28.3 28.7 29.0 29.3 29.7 29.9 30.1 AEO 1999 26.7 26.4 26.4 26.8 27.1 27.3 27.5 27.9 28.3 28.6 28.9 29.2 29.5 29.7 AEO 2000 25.8 25.5 25.7 26.0 26.5 26.9 27.4 27.8 28.1 28.3 28.5 28.8 29.0

89

Table 18. Total Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2 AEO 1983 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.1 10.0 AEO 1984 9.9 9.9 10.0 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.5 AEO 1985 9.8 10.0 10.1 10.3 10.6 10.6 10.9 AEO 1986 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.3 10.4 10.8 10.9 AEO 1987 9.9 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.6 AEO 1989* 10.3 10.5 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 AEO 1990 10.4 10.7 10.8 11.0 11.3 AEO 1991 10.2 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.5 11.6 AEO 1992 10.6 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.8 11.9 12.0 AEO 1993 10.7 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.5 AEO 1994 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.4

90

Table 6. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual (million barrels per day) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 8.79 8.85 8.84 8.80 8.66 8.21 AEO 1983 8.67 8.71 8.66 8.72 8.80 8.63 8.11 AEO 1984 8.86 8.70 8.59 8.45 8.28 8.25 7.19 AEO 1985 8.92 8.96 9.01 8.78 8.38 8.05 7.64 7.27 6.89 6.68 6.53 AEO 1986 8.80 8.63 8.30 7.90 7.43 6.95 6.60 6.36 6.20 5.99 5.80 5.66 5.54 5.45 5.43 AEO 1987 8.31 8.18 8.00 7.63 7.34 7.09 6.86 6.64 6.54 6.03 AEO 1989* 8.18 7.97 7.64 7.25 6.87 6.59 6.37 6.17 6.05 6.00 5.94 5.90 5.89 AEO 1990 7.67 7.37 6.40 5.86 5.35 AEO 1991 7.23 6.98 7.10 7.11 7.01 6.79 6.48 6.22 5.92 5.64 5.36 5.11 4.90 4.73 4.62 4.59 4.58 4.53 4.46 4.42 AEO 1992 7.37 7.17 6.99 6.89 6.68 6.45 6.28 6.16 6.06 5.91 5.79 5.71 5.66 5.64 5.62 5.63 5.62 5.55 5.52 AEO 1993 7.20 6.94 6.79 6.52 6.22 6.00 5.84 5.72

91

Table 17. Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.6 AEO 1995 11.0 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 AEO 1996 10.4 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 AEO 1997 11.1 10.9 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0 AEO 1998 10.7 11.1 11.2 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.9 12.1 12.1 12.2 12.3 AEO 1999 10.5 11.1 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0 12.1 AEO 2000 10.7 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0

92

Table 2. Real Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Real Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual Real Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual Projected Real GDP Growth Trend (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 3.1% 3.2% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% AEO 1995 3.7% 2.8% 2.5% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% AEO 1996 2.6% 2.2% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 1.6% AEO 1997 2.1% 1.9% 2.0% 2.2% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.1% 2.1% 1.5% AEO 1998 3.4% 2.9% 2.6% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 1.8% AEO 1999 3.4% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 1.8% AEO 2000 3.8% 2.9% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5%

93

Table 7. Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual (million barrels per day) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 7.58 7.45 7.12 6.82 6.66 7.09 AEO 1983 5.15 5.44 5.73 5.79 5.72 5.95 6.96 AEO 1984 4.85 5.11 5.53 5.95 6.31 6.59 8.65 AEO 1985 4.17 4.38 4.73 4.93 5.36 5.72 6.23 6.66 7.14 7.39 7.74 AEO 1986 5.15 5.38 5.46 5.92 6.46 7.09 7.50 7.78 7.96 8.20 8.47 8.74 9.04 9.57 9.76 AEO 1987 5.81 6.04 6.81 7.28 7.82 8.34 8.71 8.94 8.98 10.01 AEO 1989* 6.28 6.84 7.49 7.96 8.53 8.83 9.04 9.28 9.60 9.64 9.75 10.02 10.20 AEO 1990 7.20 7.61 9.13 9.95 11.02 AEO 1991 7.28 7.25 7.34 7.48 7.72 8.10 8.57 9.09 9.61 10.07 10.51 11.00 11.44 11.72 11.86 12.11 12.30 12.49 12.71 12.91 AEO 1992 6.86 7.42 7.88 8.16 8.55 8.80 9.06 9.32 9.50 9.80 10.17 10.35 10.56 10.61 10.85 11.00 11.15 11.29 11.50 AEO 1993 7.25 8.01 8.49 9.06

94

Table 7b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per thousand cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1.98 2.12 2.27 2.41 2.59 2.73 2.85 2.98 3.14 3.35 3.59 3.85 4.18 4.51 4.92 5.29 5.56 5.96 AEO 1995 1.89 2.00 1.95 2.06 2.15 2.40 2.57 2.90 3.16 3.56 3.87 4.27 4.56 4.85 5.16 5.41 5.66 AEO 1996 1.63 1.74 1.86 1.99 2.10 2.19 2.29 2.38 2.48 2.59 2.72 2.84 2.97 3.12 3.29 3.49 3.73 AEO 1997 2.03 1.82 1.90 1.99 2.06 2.13 2.21 2.32 2.43 2.54 2.65 2.77 2.88 3.00 3.11 3.24 AEO 1998 2.30 2.20 2.26 2.31 2.38 2.44 2.52 2.60 2.69 2.79 2.93 3.06 3.20 3.35 3.48 AEO 1999 1.98 2.15 2.20 2.32 2.43 2.53 2.63 2.76 2.90 3.02 3.12 3.23 3.35 3.47

95

Table 20. Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 23.6 24.1 24.5 24.7 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.2 26.5 26.9 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.3 28.6 28.9 29.2 29.5 AEO 1995 23.3 24.0 24.2 24.7 25.1 25.5 25.9 26.2 26.5 26.9 27.3 27.7 28.0 28.3 28.5 28.7 28.9 AEO 1996 23.9 24.1 24.5 24.8 25.3 25.7 26.0 26.4 26.7 27.1 27.5 27.8 28.1 28.4 28.6 28.9 29.1 AEO 1997 24.7 25.3 25.9 26.4 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 28.9 29.4 29.8 30.3 30.6 30.9 31.1 31.3 AEO 1998 25.3 25.9 26.7 27.1 27.7 28.3 28.8 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.2 31.7 32.3 32.8 33.1 AEO 1999 25.4 26.0 27.0 27.6 28.2 28.8 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.2 31.7 32.2 32.8 33.1 AEO 2000 26.2 26.8 27.4 28.0 28.5 29.1 29.7 30.3 30.9 31.4 31.9 32.5 32.9

96

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 AEO 1995 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.0 AEO 1996 10.7 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1997 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1998 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 AEO 1999 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 2000 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 AEO 2001 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.4

97

Table 15. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual (nominal cents per kilowatt-hour) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 6.38 6.96 7.63 8.23 8.83 9.49 AEO 1983 6.85 7.28 7.74 8.22 8.68 9.18 13.12 AEO 1984 6.67 7.05 7.48 7.89 8.25 8.65 11.53 AEO 1985 6.62 6.94 7.32 7.63 7.89 8.15 8.46 8.85 9.20 9.61 10.04 AEO 1986 6.67 6.88 7.05 7.18 7.35 7.52 7.65 7.87 8.31 8.83 9.41 10.01 10.61 11.33 12.02 AEO 1987 6.63 6.65 6.92 7.12 7.38 7.62 7.94 8.36 8.86 11.99 AEO 1989* 6.50 6.75 7.14 7.48 7.82 8.11 8.50 8.91 9.39 9.91 10.49 11.05 11.61 AEO 1990 6.49 6.72 8.40 10.99 14.5 AEO 1991 6.94 7.31 7.59 7.82 8.18 8.38 8.54 8.73 8.99 9.38 9.83 10.29 10.83 11.36 11.94 12.58 13.21 13.88 14.58 15.21 AEO 1992 6.97 7.16 7.32 7.56 7.78 8.04 8.29 8.57 8.93 9.38 9.82 10.26 10.73 11.25 11.83 12.37 12.96 13.58 14.23 AEO 1993

98

Table 11. Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual (trillion cubic feet) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.19 AEO 1983 1.08 1.16 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 AEO 1984 0.99 1.05 1.16 1.27 1.43 1.57 2.11 AEO 1985 0.94 1.00 1.19 1.45 1.58 1.86 1.94 2.06 2.17 2.32 2.44 AEO 1986 0.74 0.88 0.62 1.03 1.05 1.27 1.39 1.47 1.66 1.79 1.96 2.17 2.38 2.42 2.43 AEO 1987 0.84 0.89 1.07 1.16 1.26 1.36 1.46 1.65 1.75 2.50 AEO 1989* 1.15 1.32 1.44 1.52 1.61 1.70 1.79 1.87 1.98 2.06 2.15 2.23 2.31 AEO 1990 1.26 1.43 2.07 2.68 2.95 AEO 1991 1.36 1.53 1.70 1.82 2.11 2.30 2.33 2.36 2.42 2.49 2.56 2.70 2.75 2.83 2.90 2.95 3.02 3.09 3.17 3.19 AEO 1992 1.48 1.62 1.88 2.08 2.25 2.41 2.56 2.68 2.70 2.72 2.76 2.84 2.92 3.05 3.10 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.30 AEO 1993 1.79 2.08 2.35 2.49 2.61 2.74 2.89 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10

99

Table 8. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (trillion cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 19.87 20.21 20.64 20.99 21.20 21.42 21.60 21.99 22.37 22.63 22.95 23.22 23.58 23.82 24.09 24.13 24.02 24.14 AEO 1995 20.82 20.66 20.85 21.21 21.65 21.95 22.12 22.25 22.43 22.62 22.87 23.08 23.36 23.61 24.08 24.23 24.59 AEO 1996 21.32 21.64 22.11 22.21 22.26 22.34 22.46 22.74 23.14 23.63 24.08 24.25 24.63 25.11 25.56 26.00 26.63 AEO 1997 22.15 22.75 23.24 23.64 23.86 24.13 24.65 25.34 25.82 26.22 26.52 27.00 27.35 27.70 28.01 28.47 AEO 1998 21.84 23.03 23.84 24.08 24.44 24.81 25.33 25.72 26.22 26.65 27.22 27.84 28.35 28.84 29.17 AEO 1999 21.35 22.36 22.54 23.18 23.65 24.17 24.57 25.19 25.77 26.41 26.92 27.42 28.02 28.50

100

Notes on Frequentist, Maximum Likelihood & Bayesian Statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, theory, "gut feeling," etc. · Changes the probability distribution #12;Bayesian Statistics · ProbabilityNotes on Frequentist, Maximum Likelihood & Bayesian Statistics #12;Statistical Methods · Probability is a long-term frequency statement about the data ­ if repeated, what proportion of the time would

Ernest, Holly

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101

PublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 maximum depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a video camera to complete installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory. NEPTUNE- tion systems that--using power and the internet--provide continuous, long-term monitoring of oceanPublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 THE 2.7km maximum depth beneath the ocean surface of neptune

Pedersen, Tom

102

Minimum-Energy Multicast Tree in Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum-Energy Multicast Tree in Cognitive Radio Networks Wei Ren, Xiangyang Xiao, Qing Zhao algorithm with bounded performance guarantee for constructing the minimum-energy multicast tree, which by studying the impact of the traffic load of the primary network on the minimum-energy multicast tree. I

Islam, M. Saif

103

Minimum Cost Operation Mode and Minimum Loss Operation Mode of Power System – Operation Mode Selection Based on Voltage Stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two formulae – an optimal P-Q generation formula for minimum system cost and an optimal MW allocation formula for minimum system loss – are described in this paper. The author defines two kinds of power system operation

Sang-Joong Lee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual results satellitenexperiment Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The actual case here corresponds to the minor windows (U0.5) case in Table 6. Table A1: Load and energy... .96) 6343.77 (3316.14) 933.65 (901.44) Major windows (Actual) Diff. - -...

105

Minimum Bias Triggers at ATLAS, LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the first phase of LHC data-taking ATLAS will measure the charged-particle density at the initial center-of-mass energy of 10 TeV and then at 14 TeV. This will allow us improve our knowledge of soft QCD models and pin-down cross-sections of different classes of inelastic collisions at LHC energies. In particular, the dominant non-diffractive interaction is a key process to understanding QCD backgrounds when we reach higher luminosities. We highlight two minimum-bias triggers, sensitive to particles in complementary ranges in pseudo-rapidity, one based on signals from the Inner Detector, the other explicitly designed to trigger on inelastic processes. Studies of their trigger efficiencies as well as possible trigger biases are presented.

Regina Kwee

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

106

Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures.

Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Chemical Physics Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway); Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

107

Table 19. Total Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.9 AEO 1983 6.4 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 AEO 1984 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.3 AEO 1985 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.7 AEO 1986 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.4 AEO 1987 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.3 AEO 1989* 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 AEO 1990 6.6 6.8 7.1 7.4 7.8 AEO 1991 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 AEO 1992 6.8 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 AEO 1993 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.2 AEO 1994 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 AEO 1995 6.94 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 AEO 1996 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0

108

Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as: Daigle et al. : Accelerated maximum likelihood parame-Gillespie DT: Approximate accelerated stochastic simulationARTICLE Open Access Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter

Daigle, Bernie J; Roh, Min K; Petzold, Linda R; Niemi, Jarad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The Hybrid Maximum Principle is a consequence of Pontryagin ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a simple proof of the Maximum Principle for smooth hybrid control sys- ... result in the study of such problems is Hybrid Maximum Principle proved in [4] ...

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Video summarization via minimum sparse reconstruction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The rapid growth of video data demands both effective and efficient video summarization methods so that users are empowered to quickly browse and comprehend a large amount of video content. In this paper, we formulate the video summarization task with a novel minimum sparse reconstruction (MSR) problem. That is, the original video sequence can be best reconstructed with as few selected keyframes as possible. Different from the recently proposed convex relaxation based sparse dictionary selection method, our proposed method utilizes the true sparse constraint L0 norm, instead of the relaxed constraint L 2 , 1 norm, such that keyframes are directly selected as a sparse dictionary that can well reconstruct all the video frames. An on-line version is further developed owing to the real-time efficiency of the proposed MSR principle. In addition, a percentage of reconstruction (POR) criterion is proposed to intuitively guide users in obtaining a summary with an appropriate length. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets with various types of videos demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform the state of the art.

Shaohui Mei; Genliang Guan; Zhiyong Wang; Shuai Wan; Mingyi He; David Dagan Feng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors October 7, 2013 - 11:28am Addthis Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for general-purpose, single-speed, polyphase induction motors of 1 to 500 horsepower (hp). This new standard took effect in December 2010. The new minimum efficiency levels match FEMP's performance requirement for these motors. As a result of this increase in mandatory minimum standards and combined with the lack of significant availability of motors exceeding these standards, FEMP is suspending the purchasing specification for electric motors. Federal buyers may select for purchase any motor that meets design requirements.

112

Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set minimum distance requirements between certain types of facilities that generate, process, store, and dispose of hazardous waste

113

Minimum concave cost flows in capacitated grid networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the minimum concave cost flow problem over a two-dimensional grid network (CFG), where one dimension represents time periods and the other.

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

115

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS: CA Cybersecurity Program Manager (CSPM...

116

Lower Bounds for the Quadratic Minimum Spanning Tree Problem ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (MSTP) is one of the most known ... munication, and energy networks, where linear costs account for the use or ...

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Optimization Online - Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 28, 2007 ... Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization. Benjamin Recht(brecht ***at*** caltech.edu)

Benjamin Recht

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

118

Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit in this work the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized White Dwarfs (WD). The impact of a strong magnetic field onto the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into a parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of TOV equations for the parallel pressures, and found that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when $B \\gtrsim 10^{13}$ G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WD with super Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we derived structure equations appropriated for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symme...

Paret, D Manreza; Horvath, J E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Critical insulation thickness for maximum entropy generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Critical insulation thickness is known to refer to the insulation thickness that maximises the rate of heat transfer in cylindrical and spherical systems. The same analogy is extended to the rate of entropy generation in the present study. The possible critical insulation thickness that yields a maximum rate of entropy generation is investigated. Entropy generation is related to heat transfer through and temperature distribution within the insulation material. It is found that there exists a critical insulation thickness for maximising the rate of entropy generation that is a function of the Bi number and the surface to ambient temperature ratio. The solution of such critical thickness is formulated analytically for both cylindrical and spherical geometries. It is also found that the critical insulation thickness for the rate of entropy generation does not coincide with that for the rate of heat transfer.

Ahmet Z. Sahin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales relacionadas con Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: actuales relacionadas con Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Departamento de Fsica (EPS) Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Summary: fsica relacionada con la implosin de los...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales clasificaciones del Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 30 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales del sector Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Engineering 60 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

123

Minimum-cost quantum measurements for quantum information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowing about optimal quantum measurements is important for many applications in quantum information and quantum communication. However, deriving optimal quantum measurements is often difficult. We present a collection of results for minimum-cost quantum measurements, and give examples of how they can be used. Among other results, we show that a minimum-cost measurement for a set of given pure states is formally equivalent to a minimum-error measurement for mixed states of those same pure states. For pure symmetric states it turns out that for a certain class of cost matrices, the minimum-cost measurement is the square-root measurement. That is, the optimal minimum-cost measurement is in this case the same as the minimum-error measurement. Finally, we consider sequences of individual ``local" systems, and examine when the global minimum-cost measurement is a sequence of optimal local measurements. We also consider an example where the global minimum-cost measurement is, perhaps counter-intuitively, not a sequence of local measurements, and discuss how this is related to related to the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph argument for the nature of the wave function.

Petros Wallden; Vedran Dunjko; Erika Andersson

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

124

A Parallel Algorithm for Approximating the Minimum Cycle Cover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approximation algorithm for the problem of finding a minimum cycle cover. A cycle cover is a set of cycles cover [1, 7, 8]. The basis for our approximation algorithm is a routine to find a maximal set of edgeA Parallel Algorithm for Approximating the Minimum Cycle Cover Philip Klein \\Lambda Aiken

Yang, Junfeng

125

Polynomial Time Algorithms for Minimum Energy Scheduling Philippe Baptiste1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

algorithm for computing the minimum energy schedule when all jobs have unit length. 1 Introduction PowerPolynomial Time Algorithms for Minimum Energy Scheduling Philippe Baptiste1 , Marek Chrobak2 policies is to reduce the amount of energy consumed by computer systems while maintaining satisfactory

Chrobak, Marek

126

Algorithms to Compute Minimum Cycle Basis in Directed Graphs #  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, . . . ,C d whose incidence vectors permit a unique linear combination of the incidence vector of any cycleAlgorithms to Compute Minimum Cycle Basis in Directed Graphs # Telikepalli Kavitha + Kurt Mehlhorn # Abstract We consider the problem of computing a minimum cycle basis in a di­ rected graph G with m arcs

Mehlhorn, Kurt

127

Approximate Minimum-Energy Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a set of destination nodes, the problem is to build a minimum-energy multicast tree for the requestApproximate Minimum-Energy Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--A wireless ad hoc network consists of mobile nodes that are equipped with energy

Liang, Weifa

128

Minimum cost spanning tree problems with indierent agents Christian Trudeau  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum cost spanning tree problems with indi¤erent agents Christian Trudeau Economics Department, University of Windsor November 5, 2013 Abstract We consider an extension of minimum cost spanning tree (mcst) problems where some agents do not need to be connected to the source, but might reduce the cost of others

Virginia Tech

129

Can minimum-bias distributions on transverse energy test hadron production models?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recent study reports measurements of transverse-energy $E_t$ distributions at mid-rapidity for several high-energy nuclear collision systems. The $E_t$ data are analyzed in the context of constituent-quark (CQ) participants estimated with a Glauber-model simulation. The study concludes that systematic variations of hadron and $E_t$ yields previously interpreted in terms of a two-component soft+hard model (TCM) of hadron production including a dijet (hard) contribution are actually the result of CQ participant trends with only soft production. It is claimed that deviations from linear scaling with the number of nucleon participants of hadron yields vs A-A centrality do not actually arise from dijet production as previously assumed. In the present study we examine the new $E_t$ data in the context of the TCM and compare those results with previous differential spectrum and minimum-bias correlation analysis. We present substantial evidence supporting a significant dijet contribution to all high-energy nuclear collisions consistent with the TCM and conclude that the $E_t$ data, given their systematic uncertainties, fail to support claimed CQ model interpretations.

Thomas A. Trainor

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

130

Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection  

SciTech Connect

The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.

Hogden, J.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations

132

Comment on "Efficiency of Isothermal Molecular Machines at Maximum Power"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comment on "Efficiency of Isothermal Molecular Machines at Maximum Power" (PRL 108, 210602 (2012), arXiv:1201.6396)

Yunxin Zhang

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

133

Minimum Purchase Price Regulations (Prince Edward Island, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Minimum Purchase Price Regulations establish the price which utilities must pay for power produced by large-scale renewable energy generators – that is those capable of producing more than 100...

134

Minimum Stream Flow and Water Sale Contracts (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Indiana Natural Resources Commission may provide certain minimum quantities of stream flow or sell water on a unit pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply storage in...

135

Planning of Minimum-Time Trajectories for Robot Arms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The minimum-time for a robot arm has been a longstanding and unsolved problem of considerable interest. We present a general solution to this problem that involves joint-space tesselation, a dynamic time-scaling ...

Sahar, Gideon

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Selection of minimum earthquake intensity in calculating pipe failure probabilities  

SciTech Connect

In a piping reliability analysis, it is sometimes necessary to specify a minimum ground motion intensity, usually the peak acceleration, below which the ground motions are not considered as earthquakes and, hence, are neglected. The calculated probability of failure of a piping system is dependent on this selected minimum earthquake intensity chosen for the analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the minimum earthquake intensity on the probability of pipe failure. The results indicated that the probability of failure of the piping system is not very sensitive to the variations of the selected minimum peak ground acceleration. However, it does have significant effects on various scenarios that make up the system failure.

Lo, T.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology is now available to increase heater efficiencies to 92 percent and more. By 1980, this technology will be field proven and corrosion and reliability problems identified and resolved. Recent studies have shown that a minimum efficiency...

Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air...

Tanskyi, O.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

TOWARD THE MINIMUM INNER EDGE DISTANCE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable ...

Zsom, Andras

140

Spheromak as a relaxed state with minimum dissipation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The principle of minimum dissipation of energy is utilized to obtain the spheromak configuration as a relaxed state. The Euler-Lagrange equation for the minimum dissipative relaxed state is solved in terms of Chandrasekhar-Kendall eigenfunctions analytically generalized in the complex domain. This state is non-force-free and further shows the nonconstancy of the ratio of parallel current to the magnetic field.

B. Dasgupta; M. S. Janaki; R. Bhattacharyya; P. Dasgupta; T. Watanabe; T. Sato

2002-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classificationcapabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropyfunction, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are sufficiently strong interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics to define the approach to and the nature of patterned stable steady states. For many pattern-forming systems these principles define quantifiable stable states as maxima or minima (or both) in the dissipation. An elementary statistical-mechanical proof is offered. To turn the argument full circle, the transformations of the partitions and classes which are predicated upon such minimax entropic paths can through digital modeling be directly identified with the syntactic and inferential elements of deductive logic. It follows therefore that all self-organizing or pattern-forming systems which possess stable steady states approach these states according to the imperatives of formal logic, the optimum pattern with its rich endowment ofequivalence relations representing the central theorem of the associated calculus. Logic is thus ‘‘the stuff of the universe,’’ and biological evolution with its culmination in the human brain is the most significant example of all the irreversible pattern-forming processes. We thus conclude with a few remarks on the relevance of the contribution to the theory of evolution and to research on artificial intelligence.

J. S. Kirkaldy

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: February 6, 0: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #410: February 6, 2006 Maximum Speed Limits by State, 2005 on AddThis.com...

143

XAFS Study of Phase-Change Recording Material Using Actual Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the interface layer to the local structure for atomic arrangement of a GeBiTe phase-change material was investigated by using XAFS on the actual rewritable HD DVD...

Nakai, Tsukasa; Yoshiki, Masahiko; Satoh, Yasuhiro

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del ultrasonido Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: : evolucin histrica y situacin actual. 8 l) Evaluacin de la capacidad de carga del Parque para los... Proyectos A lo largo del ao 2010 han estado vigentes 85...

145

E-Print Network 3.0 - anciano consideraciones actuales Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mitigacin de los efectos del cambio climtico y con... polticas De proseguir las emisiones de GEI a una tasa igual o superior a la actual, el calentamiento Source: Binette,...

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual terrestrial rabies Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Information Sciences 56 innovati nNREL Advances a Unique Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Summary: actually begins at another of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)...

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del huemul Sample Search Results  

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and Information Sciences 88 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del franciscanismo Sample Search...  

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and Information Sciences 75 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del control Sample Search Results  

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and Information Sciences 30 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del tabaquismo Sample Search Results  

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and Information Sciences 91 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del no-acceso Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Information Sciences 73 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del rabdomiosarcoma Sample Search...  

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and Information Sciences 74 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del estreptococo Sample Search Results  

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and Information Sciences 80 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

154

1197 South Lumpkin Street Athens Georgia 30602-3603 weddings@georgiacenter.uga.edu 706.542.2654 The minimum charge For a dinner recePTion is $600.00.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FFee. Dinner Receptions recePTion service inFormaTion All leftover food and beverages are the property.542.2654 The minimum charge For a dinner recePTion is $600.00. service For a maximum oF Two hours exTended service Time of the event. The number given at that time will be the minimum number charged. An 18% service charge and 7

Arnold, Jonathan

155

A Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data Title A Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2013 Authors Hong, Tianzhen, Wen-Kuei Chang, and Hung-Wen Lin Date Published 05/2013 Keywords Actual meteorological year, Building simulation, Energy use, Peak electricity demand, Typical meteorological year, Weather data Abstract Traditional energy performance calculated using building simulation with the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data represents the energy performance in a typical year but not necessarily the average or typical energy performance of a building in long term. Furthermore, the simulated results do not provide the range of variations due to the change of weather, which is important in building energy management and risk assessment of energy efficiency investment. This study analyzes the weather impact on peak electric demand and energy use by building simulation using 30-year actual meteorological year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels across all 17 climate zones. The simulated results from the AMY are compared to those from TMY3 to determine and analyze the differences. It was found that yearly weather variation has significant impact on building performance especially peak electric demand. Energy savings of building technologies should be evaluated using simulations with multi-decade actual weather data to fully consider investment risk and the long term performance.

156

Minimum Time Optimal Synthesis for a Control System on SU(2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the time optimal control on an invariant system on SU(2), with two independent controls and a bound on the norm of the control, the extremals of the maximum principle are explicit functions of time and the resulting differential equations can be explicitly integrated. We use this fact here to perform the optimal synthesis for these systems, i.e., find all optimal trajectories. As a consequence, we describe a simple method to find the minimum time control for every desired final condition. Although the Lie group SU(2) is three dimensional, optimal trajectories can be described in the unit disk of the complex plane. We find that a circular trajectory separates optimal trajectories that reach the boundary of the unit disk from the others. Inside this separatrix circle another trajectory (the critical trajectory) plays an important role in that all optimal trajectories end at an intersection with this curve. Our results are of interest to find the minimum time needed to achieve a given evolution of a two level quantum system.

Francesca Albertini; Domenico D'Alessandro

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

157

Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Maximum Efficiency (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Maintaining System Air Quality Compressed Air Storage Strategies Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses...

159

Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations apply to all dams and structures which impound or divert waters on rivers or their tributaries, with some exceptions. The

160

Maximum Constant Boost Control of the Z-Source Inverter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum Constant Boost Control of the Z-Source Inverter Miaosen Shen1 , Jin Wang1 , Alan Joseph1 Laboratory Abstract: This paper proposes two maximum constant boost control methods for the Z-source inverter to modulation index is analyzed in detail and verified by simulation and experiment. Keywords- Z-source inverter

Tolbert, Leon M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Acceleration of Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Tomosynthesis Mammography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the amount of x-ray radiation exposure to the patients, tomosynthesis uses a lower dose of x-ray than convenAcceleration of Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Tomosynthesis Mammography Juemin Zhang, Waleed twu2@partners.org Abstract Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation is used dur- ing tomosynthesis

Meleis, Waleed

162

Maximum Residual Energy Routing with Reverse Energy Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

node consumes energy, but the receiving node does not. This assumption is not true if acknowledgementsMaximum Residual Energy Routing with Reverse Energy Cost Qiling Xie, Chin-Tau Lea, Mordecai J-The Maximum Residual Energy Path (MREP) routing has been shown an effective routing scheme for energy

Fleischer, Rudolf

163

Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing  

SciTech Connect

Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Requirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

» Three other 2000-3000-level PSYC courses (any area) No more than 3 credits of PSYC 3889 or 3999 canRequirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including: » One Area I course » One Area II course) ___2100 (Principles of Research in Psychology) Area I. Social, Developmental, Clinical, & Industrial

Alpay, S. Pamir

165

The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification  

SciTech Connect

We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

New approximation algorithms for minimum cycle bases of graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the problem of computing an approximate minimum cycle basis of an undirected edge-weighted graph G with m edges and n vertices; the extension to directed graphs is also discussed. In this problem, a {0, 1} incidence vector ...

Telikepalli Kavitha; Kurt Mehlhorn; Dimitrios Michail

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

On minimum balanced bipartitions of triangle-free graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A balanced bipartition of a graph G is a partition of V(G) into two subsets V 1 and V 2 that differ in cardinality by at most 1. A minimum balanced bipartition of G ... Keywords: Balanced bipartition, Planar graphs, Triangle-free graphs

Haiyan Li; Yanting Liang; Muhuo Liu; Baogang Xu

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Implementing Minimum Cycle Basis algorithms Kurt Mehlhorn and Dimitrios Michail  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Implementing Minimum Cycle Basis algorithms Kurt Mehlhorn and Dimitrios Michail Max consider the problem of computing a mini- mum cycle basis of an undirected graph G = (V, E) with n vertices in a significant speedup. Based on our experimental observations, we combine the two fundamen- tally different

Mehlhorn, Kurt

169

A minimum entropy principle of high order schemes for gas ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The entropy solutions of the compressible Euler equations satisfy a minimum principle for the specific ... where ? is the density, u is the velocity, m is the momentum, E is the total energy and p is the pressure. ... can enforce this condition without destroying conservation. .... achieved under a standard CFL condition ? (|u| + c) ...

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J for predicting daily Rn have been widely used. However, when the paucity of detailed climatological data with National Weather Service climatological datasets that only record Tmax and Tmin on a regular basis. DOI: 10

171

Optimizing rotational acceleration curves for minimum energy use in electric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimizing rotational acceleration curves for minimum energy use in electric motors. 12/15/06 Fall the optimal efficiency of a motor for any input values of motor constants, distance, or time. In every of the inspiration to find which rotational acceleration curve for the used motors would be most efficient. We really

Ruina, Andy L.

172

Localized Minimum-Energy Broadcasting for Wireless Multihop Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tree. We then observe that, for very dense networks, it is more energy-efficient to reach more than oneLocalized Minimum-Energy Broadcasting for Wireless Multihop Networks with Directional Antennas, and Carmen M. Yago Abstract--There are a number of proposals to achieve energy-efficient broadcasting

Stojmenovic, Ivan

173

Minimum-Hot-Spot Query Trees for Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an energy- efficient query routing tree. (a) Energy harvesting for battery- less nodes for the (b) Voltree to the querying node. Energy-efficient query routing trees are needed in a plethora of systems such as PeopleMinimum-Hot-Spot Query Trees for Wireless Sensor Networks Georgios Chatzimilioudis Dept

Zeinalipour, Demetris

174

Minimum cost connection networks: truth-telling and implementation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum cost connection networks: truth-telling and implementation Jens Leth Hougaard Mich Tvede Abstract In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands. We use

Guo, Zaoyang

175

Minimum Power Configuration for Wireless Communication in Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conserve more energy than exist- ing minimum power routing and topology control protocols. Furthermore configuration, ad hoc net- works, energy efficiency, wireless communications Part of this article was published aggressively conserve energy in order to operate for extensive periods without wired power sources. Since

176

Structural Testing Based on Minimum Kernels Elena Dubrova  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural Testing Based on Minimum Kernels Elena Dubrova Royal Institute of Technology, IMIT/KTH, 164 46 Kista, Sweden Abstract Structural testing techniques, such as statement and branch coverage of tests which guarantees high coverage is a time-consuming task. In this paper we present a technique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

National Common Minimum Programme of the Congress-Led  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

National Common Minimum Programme of the Congress-Led United Progressive Alliance: Policy Reform Progressive Alliance: Policy Reform and Public Investment Requirements Nirupam Bajpai and Jeffrey D. Sachs 2004. This note attempts to identify and analyze what the key policy reform measures and the public

178

The prize-collecting generalized minimum spanning tree problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce the prize-collecting generalized minimum spanning tree problem. In this problem a network of node clusters needs to be connected via a tree architecture using exactly one node per cluster. Nodes in each cluster compete by offering a payment ... Keywords: Branch-and-cut, Genetic algorithms, Heuristics, Local search, Networks

Bruce Golden; S. Raghavan; Daliborka Stanojevi?

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Weierstrass Pairs and Minimum Distance of Goppa Codes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prove that elements of the Weierstrass gap set of a pair of points may be used to define a geometric Goppa code which has minimum distance greater than the usual lower bound. We determine the Weierstrass gap set of a pair of any two Weierstrass ... Keywords: Hermitian code, Weierstrass pair, Weierstrass point

Gretchen L. Matthews

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Interior Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interior Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26 Minor standing is prerequisite architecture studio course is required for architecture majors enrolled in the interior architecture minor (1 is required for Architecture majors): IARC 484 Interior Design Studio (6), IARC 486 Furniture

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26 Minor standing is prerequisite Notes: Required courses in one's major will not count for the minor with one exception: 1 architecture studio course is required for interior architecture majors enrolled in the architecture minor, and this studio

182

Optimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tapering is shown to reduce the (a CMOS inverter) with the driver (a CMOS inverter). The power dissipatedOptimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects Magdy A. El-Moursy and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New

Friedman, Eby G.

183

Gasoline direct injection: Actual trends and future strategies for injection and combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments have raised increased interest on the concept of gasoline direct injection as the most promising future strategy for fuel economy improvement of SI engines. The general requirements for mixture preparation and combustion systems in a GDI engine are presented in view of known and actual systems regarding fuel economy and emission potential. The characteristics of the actually favored injection systems are discussed and guidelines for the development of appropriate combustion systems are derived. The differences between such mixture preparation strategies as air distributed fuel and fuel wall impingement are discussed, leading to the alternative approach to the problem of mixture preparation with the fully air distributing concept of direct mixture injection.

Fraidl, G.K.; Piock, W.F.; Wirth, M.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A COGNITIVE-SYSTEMIC RECONSTRUCTION OF MASLOW'S THEORY OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A COGNITIVE-SYSTEMIC RECONSTRUCTION OF MASLOW'S THEORY OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION by Francis Heylighen1-order, cognitive-sys- temic framework. A hierarchy of basic needs is derived from the ur- gency of perturbations: material, cognitive and subjective. Material and/or cognitive incompetence during child- hood create

Toint, Philippe

185

SAMPLE GENERAL TERMS WHEN PURCHASING SERVICES* ACTUAL TERMS REQUIRED WILL BE DETERMINED BY CONTRACTS &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 SAMPLE GENERAL TERMS WHEN PURCHASING SERVICES* ACTUAL TERMS REQUIRED WILL BE DETERMINED Contracts and Procurement (x4532) if you have questions regarding purchasing services. 1. Independent Status in an independent capacity and not as officers or employees or agents of the State of California. While Contractor

de Lijser, Peter

186

EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24  

SciTech Connect

The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of {beta} than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfven waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona.

Nuevo, Federico A.; Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67-Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

187

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

On the maximum pressure rise rate in boosted HCCI operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the combined effects of boosting, intake air temperature, trapped residual gas fraction, and dilution on the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) in a boosted single cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with ...

Wildman, Craig B.

189

Nonstationary analysis of annual maximum streamflow of Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Both natural climate change and anthropogenic impacts may cause nonstationarities in hydrological extremes. In this study, long-term annual maximum streamflow (AMS) records from 145 stations over Canada were used to investigate the nonstationary ...

Xuezhi Tan; Thian Yew Gan

190

Propane spectral resolution enhancement by the maximum entropy method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Burg algorithm for maximum entropy power spectral density estimation is applied to a time series of data obtained from a Michelson interferometer and compared with a standard fast...

Bonavito, N L; Yeh, K C; Stewart, K P; Inguva, R; Hurley, E J

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Efficiency at maximum power of interacting molecular machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the efficiency of systems of molecular motors operating at maximum power. We consider two models of kinesin motors on a microtubule: for both the simplified and the detailed model, we find that the many-body exclusion effect enhances the efficiency at maximum power of the many-motor system, with respect to the single motor case. Remarkably, we find that this effect occurs in a limited region of the system parameters, compatible with the biologically relevant range.

N. Golubeva; A. Imparato

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION STORAGE RINGS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION STORAGE RINGS 1. C. Teng ANL/FNAL LS-17 L. Teng March 18, 1985 The natural emittance of an electron beam in a storage ring is given by (see e.g., M. Sands, SLAC 21) (1) where Cq =~~= 3.832 x 10-l3 m 32/3 mc J x partition factor in the bending plane y = total energy in mc 2 uni ts p orbit radius in bending magnets (assumed the same in all magne ts) H yn 2 - + 2ann ' + Bn I 2 ( a, B, Y = betatron functions ) n, n I dispersion functions <> = averaging over bending magnets We shall calculate for each bending magnet, then average over all magnets. 2 A. General Expression for H This can be calculated in a straightforward manner, but we can save a great deal of arithmetic with some preliminary formal analytical

193

The minimum-uncertainty coherent states for Landau levels  

SciTech Connect

The Glauber minimum-uncertainty coherent states with two variables for Landau levels, based on the representation of Weyl-Heisenberg algebra by two different modes, have been studied about four decades ago. Here, we introduce new two-variable coherent states with minimum uncertainty relationship for Landau levels in three different methods: the infinite unitary representation of su(1, 1) is realized in two different methods, first, by consecutive levels with the same energy gaps and also with the same value for z-angular momentum quantum number, then, by shifting z-angular momentum mode number by two units while the energy level remaining the same. Besides, for su(2), whether by lowest Landau levels or Landau levels with lowest z-angular momentum, just one finite unitary representation is introduced. Having constructed the generalized Klauder-Perelomov coherent states, for any of the three representations, we obtain their Glauber coherency by displacement operator of Weyl-Heisenberg algebra.

Dehghani, A. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P. O. Box 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhri, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, P. O. Box 51666-16471 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojaveri, B. [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, P. O. Box 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

7-122 A solar pond power plant operates by absorbing heat from the hot region near the bottom, and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

calculated above. 7-123 A Carnot heat engine cycle is executed in a closed system with a fixed mass of steam can have is to be determined. Analysis The highest thermal efficiency a heat engine operating between transfer. Therefore, the maximum efficiency of the actual heat engine will be lower than the value

Bahrami, Majid

195

The Energy-Dependence of GRB Minimum Variability Timescales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We constrain the minimum variability timescales for 938 GRBs observed by the Fermi/GBM instrument prior to July 11, 2012. The tightest constraints on progenitor radii derived from these timescales are obtained from light curves in the hardest energy channel. In the softer bands -- or from measurements of the same GRBs in the hard X-rays from Swift -- we show that variability timescales tend to be a factor 2--3 longer. Applying a survival analysis to account for detections and upper limits, we find median minimum timescale in the rest frame for long-duration and short-duration GRBs of 45 ms and 10 ms, respectively. Fewer than 10% of GRBs show evidence for variability on timescales below 2 ms. These shortest timescales require Lorentz factors $\\gtrsim 400$ and imply typical emission radii $R \\approx 1 {\\times} 10^{14}$ cm for long-duration GRBs and $R \\approx 3 {\\times} 10^{13}$ cm for short-duration GRBs. We discuss implications for the GRB fireball model and investigate whether GRB minimum timescales evolve w...

Golkhou, V Zach; Littlejohns, Owen M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

Hamrick, Todd

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

197

Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications.  

SciTech Connect

Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences - the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environmental packages' apply to any genome sequence of known origin and can be used in combination with MIMARKS and other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we present the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J. R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J. A. (CLS-CI); ( MCS); (Microbial Genomics and Bioinformatics Group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany); (Jacombs University Bremen gGmbH, Bremen, Germany); (Natural Environment Research Council Environmental Bioinformatics Centre, Wallington CEH); (Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado); (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, California); (Ribosomal Database Project, Michigan State University)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

"Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO 1995",,5137,5173.666667,5188.333333,5261.666667,5309.333333,5360.666667,5393.666667,5441.333333,5489,5551.333333,5621,5679.666667,5727.333333,5775,5841,5888.666667,5943.666667 "AEO 1996",,,5181.817301,5223.645142,5294.776326,5354.687297,5416.802205,5463.67395,5525.288005,5588.52771,5660.226888,5734.87972,5812.398031,5879.320068,5924.814575,5981.291626,6029.640422,6086.804077,6142.120972

199

Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under-predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The Multiple Peril Crop Insurance Actual Production History (APH) Insurance Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics, Professor and Extension Economist? Management, The Texas A&M System; and Extension Agricultural Economist, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture?s (USDA) Risk..., levels of coverage, price elections, applicable premium rates and subsidy amounts. The special provisions list program calendar dates and contain general and special statements that may further define, limit or modify coverage. MPCI?s Actual...

Stokes, Kenneth; Barnaby, G. A. Art; Waller, Mark L.; Outlaw, Joe

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

.A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

202

Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout  

SciTech Connect

Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

203

Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Height(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Height(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 0.6 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.2 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.4 + A Alden Large Flume + 0.0 + Alden Small Flume + 0.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 0.3 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.0 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 0.6 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 0.6 +

204

Efficiency of autonomous soft nano-machines at maximum power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider nano-sized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing non-equilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall in three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient", "strong and inefficient", and "balanced". For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.

Udo Seifert

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

205

The impact of minimum age of employment regulation on child labor and schooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Promoting minimum age of employment regulation has been a centerpiece in child labor policy for the last 15 years. If enforced, minimum age regulation would change the age profile of paid child employment. Using micro-data ...

Edmonds, Eric V

206

Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

Mena, Hugo Eduardo

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...

Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

208

Performance of Civil Aviation Receivers during Maximum Solar Activity Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of Civil Aviation Receivers during Maximum Solar Activity Events Lina DEAMBROGIO on the fields of ionosphere scintillations, solar energetic particles and on the implementation of operational the upcoming period of high solar activity. Emilien ROBERT got his PhD in 2005 and started to work on behalf

Boyer, Edmond

209

Rapidly Solving an Online Sequence of Maximum Flow Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... an interdictor allocates a finite amount of resources to remove arcs from a net- ... is, the next maximum flow problem in the sequence differs from the previous one by ..... the appropriate reoptimization case and then taking the appropriate action to ..... Our first set of computational experiments tested the performance of our ...

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

210

THE MAXIMUM CAPACITY OF A LINE PLAN IS INAPPROXIMABLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE MAXIMUM CAPACITY OF A LINE PLAN IS INAPPROXIMABLE CHRISTINA PUHL AND SEBASTIAN STILLER Abstract a network, upper arc-capacities and a line pool. E-mail: puhl@math.tu-berlin.de, stiller of the European Commission under contract no. FP6-021235-2. 1 #12;2 CHRISTINA PUHL AND SEBASTIAN STILLER We

Nabben, Reinhard

211

High-Energy Flare Observations from the Solar Maximum Mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article High-Energy Flare Observations from the Solar Maximum Mission W...Vestrand We review high-energy observations of solar flares with emphasis...expectation, high-energy emission is a common property of solar flares. Direct interpretation...

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Maximum Entropy in Support of Semantically Annotated Datasets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum Entropy in Support of Semantically Annotated Datasets Paulo Pinheiro da Silva, Vladik whether two datasets describe the same quantity. The existing solution to this problem is to use these datasets' ontologies to deduce that these datasets indeed represent the same quantity. However, even when

Kreinovich, Vladik

213

O(1)-Approximations for Maximum Movement Piotr Berman1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

movement of the pebbles, motivated by minimizing either execution time or energy usage. Spe- cific problems the maximum movement made by pebbles on a graph to reach a configuration in which the pebbles form a connected. For example, in the connectivity goal, the proximity of the robots should form a connected graph. Two

Demaine, Erik

214

Maximization of Recursive Utilities: A Dynamic Maximum Principle Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximization of Recursive Utilities: A Dynamic Maximum Principle Approach Wahid FAIDI LAMSIN, ENIT for a class of robust utility function introduced in Bordigoni, Matoussi et Schweizer (2005). Our method-investment strategy which is characterized as the unique solution of a forward-backward system. Key words : Utility

Di Girolami, Cristina

215

Maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have made a new compilation of observations of maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number from the literature, which we analyse for consistency with the predictions of a simple random drawing hypothesis for stellar mass selection in clusters. Previously, Weidner and Kroupa have suggested that the maximum stellar mass is lower, in low mass clusters, than would be expected on the basis of random drawing, and have pointed out that this could have important implications for steepening the integrated initial mass function of the Galaxy (the IGIMF) at high masses. Our compilation demonstrates how the observed distribution in the plane of maximum stellar mass versus membership number is affected by the method of target selection; in particular, rather low n clusters with large maximum stellar masses are abundant in observational datasets that specifically seek clusters in the environs of high mass stars. Although we do not consider our compilation to be either complete or unbiased, we discuss the method by which such data should be statistically analysed. Our very provisional conclusion is that the data is not indicating any striking deviation from the expectations of random drawing.

Th. Maschberger; C. J. Clarke

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

216

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel with energy harvesting. We assume that the side information of both the channel states and energy harvesting

Greenberg, Albert

217

Anomalous electron density events in the quiet summer ionosphere at solar minimum over Millstone Hill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anomalous electron density events in the quiet summer ionosphere at solar minimum over Millstone region ionosphere over Millstone Hill with calculations from the IZMIRAN model for solar minimum layer. This phenomenon occurs frequently in the quiet ionosphere at solar minimum during summer

Boyer, Edmond

218

Magnetic Flux Transport Simulations of Solar Surface Magnetic Distributions During a Grand Minimum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Scotland, KY16 9SS. Abstract. It is well known that magnetic activity on the Sun modulates from one cycle strongly depend on the phase of the cycle in which the grand minimum starts and whether it lasts for an odd or even number of cycles. If the grand minimum starts around cycle minimum then a signi#12;cant amount

Mackay, Duncan

219

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products-component feed into M products has been derived. Interestingly, the minimum-energy solution in a complex solution of minimum energy for distillation of a multicomponent feed into multiple products has not been

Skogestad, Sigurd

220

An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network Sheetalkumar Doshi of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms for their imple- mentation. We of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol in terms of energy savings with an existing on-demand ad

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network Sheetalkumar Doshi the necessary features of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms the performance of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol in terms of energy savings with an existing on

Brown, Timothy X.

222

ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM  

SciTech Connect

Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: ? Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. ? Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was independent of added glycolate concentration. The change in soluble plutonium content was dependent on the added glycolate concentration, with higher levels of glycolate (5 g/L and 10 g/L) appearing to suppress the plutonium solubility. The inclusion of glycolate did not change the dissolution of or sorption onto actual-waste 2H-evaporator pot scale to an extent that will impact Tank Farm storage and concentration. The effects that were noted involved dissolution of components from evaporator scale and precipitation of components onto evaporator scale that were independent of the level of added glycolate.

Martino, C.

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

223

Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per barrel) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 17.06 17.21 18.24 19.43 20.64 22.12 23.76 25.52 27.51 29.67 31.86 34.00 36.05 38.36 40.78 43.29 45.88 48.37 AEO 1995 15.24 17.27 18.23 19.26 20.39 21.59 22.97 24.33 25.79 27.27 28.82 30.38 32.14 33.89 35.85 37.97 40.28 AEO 1996 17.16 17.74 18.59 19.72 20.97 22.34 23.81 25.26 26.72 28.22 29.87 31.51 33.13 34.82 36.61 38.48 40.48

224

Table 11a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per million Btu in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1992 1.47 1.48 1.53 1.57 1.58 1.57 1.61 1.63 1.68 1.69 1.70 1.72 1.70 1.76 1.79 1.81 1.88 1.92 AEO 1995 1993 1.39 1.39 1.38 1.40 1.40 1.39 1.39 1.42 1.41 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.47 1.50 AEO 1996 1994 1.32 1.29 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.26 1.25 1.27 1.27 1.27 1.28 1.27 1.28 1.27 1.28 1.26 1.28

225

Table 11b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual" b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per million Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",1.502753725,1.549729719,1.64272351,1.727259934,1.784039735,1.822135762,1.923203642,2.00781457,2.134768212,2.217425497,2.303725166,2.407715232,2.46134106,2.637086093,2.775389073,2.902293046,3.120364238,3.298013245 "AEO 1995",,1.4212343,1.462640338,1.488780998,1.545300242,1.585877053,1.619428341,1.668671498,1.7584219,1.803937198,1.890547504,1.968695652,2.048913043,2.134750403,2.205281804,2.281690821,2.375434783,2.504830918 "AEO 1996",,,1.346101641,1.350594221,1.369020126,1.391737646,1.421340737,1.458772082,1.496497523,1.561369914,1.619940033,1.674758358,1.749420803,1.800709877,1.871110564,1.924495246,2.006850327,2.048938234,2.156821499

226

"Table 20. Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",23.62,24.08,24.45,24.72,25.06,25.38,25.74,26.16,26.49,26.85,27.23,27.55,27.91,28.26,28.61,28.92,29.18,29.5 "AEO 1995",,23.26,24.01,24.18,24.69,25.11,25.5,25.86,26.15,26.5,26.88,27.28,27.66,27.99,28.25,28.51,28.72,28.94 "AEO 1996",,,23.89674759,24.08507919,24.47502899,24.84881783,25.25887871,25.65527534,26.040205,26.38586426,26.72540092,27.0748024,27.47158241,27.80837631,28.11616135,28.3992157,28.62907982,28.85912895,29.09081459 "AEO 1997",,,,24.68686867,25.34906006,25.87225533,26.437994,27.03513145,27.52499771,27.96490097,28.45482063,28.92999458,29.38239861,29.84147453,30.26097488,30.59760475,30.85550499,31.10873222,31.31938744

227

"Table 19. Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",25.43,25.904,26.303,26.659,26.974,27.062,26.755,26.598,26.908,27.228,27.668,28.068,28.348,28.668,29.068,29.398,29.688,30.008 "AEO 1995",,26.164,26.293,26.499,27.044,27.252,26.855,26.578,26.798,27.098,27.458,27.878,28.158,28.448,28.728,29.038,29.298,29.608 "AEO 1996",,,26.54702756,26.62236823,27.31312376,27.47668697,26.90313339,26.47577946,26.67685979,26.928811,27.23795407,27.58448499,27.91057103,28.15050595,28.30145734,28.518,28.73702901,28.93001263,29.15872662 "AEO 1997",,,,26.21291769,26.45981795,26.88483478,26.67847443,26.55107968,26.78246968,27.07367604,27.44749539,27.75711339,28.02446072,28.39156621,28.69999783,28.87316602,29.01207631,29.19475644,29.37683575

228

File:Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Plan .pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search File Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » File:Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Plan .pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Plan .pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: application/pdf, 2 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 09:33, 3 January 2014 Thumbnail for version as of 09:33, 3 January 2014 1,275 × 1,650, 2 pages (257 KB) Foteri (Talk | contribs) Category:Wind for Schools Portal CurriculaCategory:Wind for Schools High School Curricula

229

Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63 21.08 21.50 21.98 22.44 22.94 23.50 24.12 AEO 1996 1994 16.81 16.98 17.37 17.98 18.61 19.27 19.92 20.47 20.97 21.41 21.86 22.25 22.61 22.97 23.34 23.70 24.08

230

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

"Table 18. Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",6.82,6.87,6.94,7,7.06,7.13,7.16,7.22,7.27,7.32,7.36,7.38,7.41,7.45,7.47,7.5,7.51,7.55 "AEO 1995",,6.94,6.9,6.95,6.99,7.02,7.05,7.08,7.09,7.11,7.13,7.15,7.17,7.19,7.22,7.26,7.3,7.34 "AEO 1996",,,7.059859276,7.17492485,7.228339195,7.28186655,7.336973667,7.387932777,7.442782879,7.501244545,7.561584473,7.623688221,7.684037209,7.749266148,7.815915108,7.884147644,7.950204372,8.016282082,8.085801125 "AEO 1997",,,,7.401538849,7.353548527,7.420701504,7.48336792,7.540113449,7.603093624,7.663851738,7.723834991,7.783358574,7.838726044,7.89124918,7.947964668,8.008976936,8.067288399,8.130317688,8.197405815

233

Contracting Officer Warrant Requirements Function Experience Minimum Training Continuous Learning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ACMP Flash 2011-62 ACMP Flash 2011-62 Contracting Officer Warrant Requirements Function Experience Minimum Training Continuous Learning GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases up to $25,000 At least 6 months of Government Purchase Card experience Certified to Level I in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases $25,000 up to the simplified acquisition threshold At least 1 year of Government Purchase Card experience Certified to Level II in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases over the simplified acquisition threshold At least 5 years of progressively complex contracting experience Certified to Level III in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years

234

Phase behavior and minimum miscibility pressure for nitrogen miscible displacement  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen (N/sub 2/) has been successfully used as a displacing gas for light oil recovery. The information of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and phase behavior for N/sub 2/ with light oils is important for the screening of this oil recovery method. Phase behavior studies were performed on N/sub 2/-hydrocarbon mixtures at high pressure (above 4,000 psia) to help interpret the results of the slim tube experiments. Synthetic oil systems of methane + n-butane (nC/sub 4/) + n-decane (nC/sub 10/) were studied to determine the approximate phase behavior of crude oil with nitrogen and to investigate the effect of the presence of methane (C/sub 1/) on phase behavior and the MMP of N/sub 2/. The resulting phase diagram shows that methane can lower the miscibility pressure of nitrogen.

Chung, F.T.H.; Llave, F.M.; Louvier, R.W.; Hudgins, D.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Property:Maximum Velocity(m/s) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Velocity(m/s) Velocity(m/s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Velocity(m/s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Velocity(m/s)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alden Large Flume + 0.9 + B Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 2.7 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 7.2 + Carderock Rotating Arm Tow Tank + 25.8 + Carderock Tow Tank 1 + 9.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 10.3 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 25.8 + Chase Tow Tank + 2.5 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 18.3 + H Haynes Tow Tank + 1.8 + I Ice Towing Tank + 0.5 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 2.7 + M MHL Free Surface Channel + 2 + MHL High Speed Cavitation + 25.9 + MHL Tow Tank + 6.7 + MIT Tow Tank + 1.5 + MMA Tugboat/ Barge/ Vessel + 5.1 + Maine Tow Tank + 3 +

236

Radiative muon capture rates and the maximum photon energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential photon spectrum for radiative muon capture is expanded about the average maximum photon energy km and the correction terms evaluated using for one a modified Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, thus extending previous work for ordinary capture. The resulting rate is much less dependent on km than the usual closure result. The ratio km? appropriate for closure calculations, with ? the average neutrino energy, is determined and found to be approximately constant and, when correction terms are included, somewhat higher than values previously used. By similar techniques a consistency relation is derived which can be solved to explicitly estimate "physical" values of km and ?.NUCLEAR REACTIONS Radiative muon capture. Differential photon spectrum, relative rate for Ca40. Dipole sum rules used to correct closure approximation, obtain estimates of mean excitation energy, average maximum photon energy.

R. S. Sloboda and Harold W. Fearing

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

When are microcircuits well-modeled by maximum entropy methods?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fire. The inputs are chosen from distributions that are either gaussian, uniform, skewed, or bimodal. For each circuit, we compute the distribution on output spiking states either analytically or by sampling, approximate by a maximum entropy fit... generation is characterized by a simple static nonlinearity, or by integrate-and-fire (LIF) threshold-crossing dynamics. However, this circuit does generate substantial higher-order correlations if the common input to the three cells is bimodal. This approach...

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

Maximum entanglement in squeezed boson and fermion states  

SciTech Connect

A class of squeezed boson and fermion states is studied with particular emphasis on the nature of entanglement. We first investigate the case of bosons, considering two-mode squeezed states. Then we construct the fermion version to show that such states are maximum entangled, for both bosons and fermions. To achieve these results, we demonstrate some relations involving squeezed boson states. The generalization to the case of fermions is made by using Grassmann variables.

Khanna, F. C. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Malbouisson, J. M. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Santana, A. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Santos, E. S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia, 40030-010, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Maximum Entry and Mandatory Separation Ages for Certain Security Employees  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The policy establishes the DOE policy on maximum entry and mandatory separation ages for primary or secondary positions covered under special statutory retirement provisions and for those employees whose primary duties are the protection of officials of the United States against threats to personal safety or the investigation, apprehension, and detention of individuals suspected or convicted of offenses against the criminal laws of the United States. Admin Chg 1, dated 12-1-11, cancels DOE P 310.1.

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Maximum Patch Method for Directional Dark Matter Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Present and planned dark matter detection experiments search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoils in poorly known background conditions. In this environment, the maximum gap statistical method provides a way of setting more sensitive cross section upper limits by incorporating known signal information. We give a recipe for the numerical calculation of upper limits for planned directional dark matter detection experiments, that will measure both recoil energy and angle, based on the gaps between events in two-dimensional phase space.

Shawn Henderson; Jocelyn Monroe; Peter Fisher

2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Maximum patch method for directional dark matter detection  

SciTech Connect

Present and planned dark matter detection experiments search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoils in poorly known background conditions. In this environment, the maximum gap statistical method provides a way of setting more sensitive cross section upper limits by incorporating known signal information. We give a recipe for the numerical calculation of upper limits for planned directional dark matter detection experiments, that will measure both recoil energy and angle, based on the gaps between events in two-dimensional phase space.

Henderson, Shawn; Monroe, Jocelyn; Fisher, Peter [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Laboratory for Nuclear Science, MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Maximum entropy method for reconstruction of the CMB images  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new approach for the accurate reconstruction of cosmic microwave background distributions from observations containing in addition to the primary fluctuations the radiation from unresolved extragalactic point sources and pixel noise. The approach uses some effective realizations of the well-known maximum entropy method and principally takes into account {\\it a priori} information about finiteness and spherical symmetry of the power spectrum of the CMB satisfying the Gaussian statistics.

A. T. Bajkova

2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

243

Property:Maximum Wave Length(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Length(m) Wave Length(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Length(m) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Length(m)" Showing 18 pages using this property. A Alden Small Flume + Variable + Alden Wave Basin + 1.8 + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + 12.2 + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + 12.2 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 15.2 + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + 64 + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + 30 + H Haynes Wave Basin + 10.7 + L Lakefront Tow Tank + 22 + M MIT Tow Tank + 4.6 + O OTRC Wave Basin + 25 + Ohmsett Tow Tank + 18 + R Richmond Field Station Tow Tank + 2 + S SAFL Channel + 6.6 + Sandia Lake Facility + 4.57 + Sheets Wave Basin + 10 + Ship Towing Tank + 6 + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:Maximum_Wave_Length(m)&oldid=597351

244

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Total Maximum Daily Load Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) The overall goal of the Clean Water Act is to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters." In 1999, EPA proposed changes to Section 303(d), to establish Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for watersheds that do not meet this goal. The TMDL is the highest amount of a given pollutant that is permissible in that body of water over a given period of time. TMDLs include both waste load allocation (WLA) for point sources and load allocations for non-point sources. In Appalachia, acid mine drainage (AMD) is the single most damaging non-point source. There is also particular concern of the atmospheric deposition of airborne sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury compounds. States are currently in the process of developing comprehensive lists of impaired waters and establishing TMDLs for those waters. EPA has recently proposed a final rule that will require states to develop TMDLs and implement plans for improving water quality within the next 10 years. Under the new rule, TMDL credits could be traded within a watershed.

245

Compact stars with a small electric charge: the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass for incompressible matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the stiffest equations of state for matter in a compact star is constant energy density and this generates the interior Schwarzschild radius to mass relation and the Misner maximum mass for relativistic compact stars. If dark matter populates the interior of stars, and this matter is supersymmetric or of some other type, some of it possessing a tiny electric charge, there is the possibility that highly compact stars can trap a small but non-negligible electric charge. In this case the radius to mass relation for such compact stars should get modifications. We use an analytical scheme to investigate the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass of relativistic stars made of an incompressible fluid with a small electric charge. The investigation is carried out by using the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, i.e., the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, together with the other equations of structure, with the further hypothesis that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. The approach relies on Volkoff and Misner's method to solve the TOV equation. For zero charge one gets the interior Schwarzschild limit, and supposing incompressible boson or fermion matter with constituents with masses of the order of the neutron mass one gets that the maximum mass is the Misner mass. For a small electric charge, our analytical approximating scheme valid in first order in the star's electric charge, shows that the maximum mass increases relatively to the uncharged case, whereas the minimum possible radius decreases, an expected effect since the new field is repulsive aiding the pressure to sustain the star against gravitational collapse.

José P. S. Lemos; Francisco J. Lopes; Gonçalo Quinta; Vilson T. Zanchin

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

246

7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

Bahrami, Majid

247

Switching characteristics and maximum repetitive frequency of InGaAsP/InP bistable injection lasers  

SciTech Connect

Switching characteristics of nonuniformly pumped InGaAsP/InP BH Structure bistable lasers are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. First observation of automatic turn-on phenomenon was made, which is found to be a random process. For repetitive operation, turn-on delay time and necessary duration of switch-off pulse practically limited the maximum repetitive frequency. For ''switch-on,'' triggering the saturable absorption region is more effective. For reducing the minimum switch-off pulse width, either higher doping or reverse biasing at the absorption region is recommended. Tradeoff relation of OFF pulse width with threshold current and stable operation are discussed. With some improvements in device parameters, bistable operation at repetitive frequency over 1 GHz is expected.

Liu, H.F.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kamiya, T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Predicted and actual productions of horizontal wells in heavy-oil fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the comparison of predicted and actual cumulative and daily oil production. The predicted results were obtained from the use of Joshi's equation, wherein, the effects of anisotropy and eccentricity were included. The cumulative production obtained from the use of equations developed by Borisov, Giger, Renard and Dupuy resulted in errors in excess of 100%, thus, they were not considered applicable for predicting cumulative and daily flows of heavy oils in horizontal wells. The wells considered in this analysis varied from 537 to 1201 metres with corresponding well bores of 0.089 to. 0.110 m. Using Joshi's equation, the predicted cumulative oil-production was within a 20% difference for up to 12 months of production for long wells and up to 24 months for short wells. Short wells were defined as those being under 1000 m.

Peter Catania

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Submitted to ApJ Letters, June 29, 2005 Are Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Novae Actually from Supernovae?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Submitted to ApJ Letters, June 29, 2005 Are Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Novae Actually stellar nucleosynthesis and mixing. The best-studied presolar phase, silicon carbide (SiC), exhibits

Nittler, Larry R.

250

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

Miyashita, Yasushi

251

Maximum likelihood reconstruction for the Daya Bay Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino experiment is designed to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle theta13. In this paper, we report a maximum likelihood (ML) method to reconstruct the vertex and energy of events in the anti-neutrino detector, based on a simplified optical model that describes light propagation. We calibrate the key paramters of the optical model with Co60 source, by comparing the predicted charges of the PMTs with the observed charges. With the optimized parameters, the resolution of the vertex reconstruction is about 25cm for Co60 gamma.

Xia Dongmei

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

252

Verification of the Taylor (minimum energy) state in a spheromak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental measurements of the equilibrium in the S?1 spheromak [M. Yamada J. Sinnis H. P. Furth M. Okabayashi G. Sheffield T. H. Stix and A. M. M. Todd in P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e U S?J a p a n S y m p o s i u m o n C o m p a c t T o r u s e s a n d E n e r g e t i c P a r t i c l e I n j e c t i o n (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton NJ 1979) p. 171] by use of magnetic probes inside the plasma show that the final magnetic equilibrium is one that has relaxed close to the Taylor (minimum?energy) state even though the plasma is far from that state during formation. The comparison is made by calculating the two?dimensional ? profile of the plasma from the probe data where ? is defined as ?0? j ?/B. Measurements using a triple Langmuir probe proved evidence to support the conclusion that the pressure gradients in the relaxed state are confined to the edge region of the plasma.

G. W. Hart; A. Janos; D. D. Meyerhofer; M. Yamada

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Transmission resonance spectroscopy in the third minimum of 232Pa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fission probability of 232Pa was measured as a function of the excitation energy in order to search for hyperdeformed (HD) transmission resonances using the (d,pf) transfer reaction on a radioactive 231Pa target. The experiment was performed at the Tandem accelerator of the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory (MLL) at Garching using the 231Pa(d,pf) reaction at a bombarding energy of Ed=12 MeV and with an energy resolution of ?E=5.5 keV. Two groups of transmission resonances have been observed at excitation energies of E*=5.7 and 5.9 MeV. The fine structure of the resonance group at E*=5.7 MeV could be interpreted as overlapping rotational bands with a rotational parameter characteristic to a HD nuclear shape (?2/2?=2.10±0.15 keV). The fission barrier parameters of 232Pa have been determined by fitting talys 1.2 nuclear reaction code calculations to the overall structure of the fission probability. From the average level spacing of the J=4 states, the excitation energy of the ground state of the third minimum has been deduced to be EIII=5.05?0.10+0.40 MeV.

L. Csige; M. Csatlós; T. Faestermann; J. Gulyás; D. Habs; R. Hertenberger; M. Hunyadi; A. Krasznahorkay; H. J. Maier; P. G. Thirolf; H.-F. Wirth

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

254

Location of Maximum Credible Beam Losses in LCLS Injector  

SciTech Connect

The memo describes the maximum credible beam the LCLS injector can produce and lose at various locations along the beamline. The estimation procedure is based upon three previous reports [1, 2, 3]. While specific numbers have been updated to accurately reflect the present design parameters, the conclusions are very similar to those given in Ref 1. The source of the maximum credible beam results from the explosive electron emission from the photocathode if the drive laser intensity exceeds the threshold for plasma production. In this event, the gun's RF field can extract a large number of electrons from this plasma which are accelerated out of the gun and into the beamline. This electron emission persists until it has depleted the gun of all its energy. Hence the number of electrons emitted per pulse is limited by the amount of stored RF energy in the gun. It needs to be emphasized that this type of emission is highly undesirable, as it causes permanent damage to the cathode.

Mao, Stan

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

255

Ionization and maximum energy of nuclei in shock acceleration theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the acceleration of heavy nuclei at SNR shocks when the process of ionization is taken into account. Heavy atoms ($Z_N >$ few) in the interstellar medium which start the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) are never fully ionized at the moment of injection. The ionization occurs during the acceleration process, when atoms already move relativistically. For typical environment around SNRs the photo-ionization due to the background galactic radiation dominates over Coulomb collisions. The main consequence of ionization is the reduction of the maximum energy which ions can achieve with respect to the standard result of the DSA. In fact the photo-ionization has a timescale comparable to the beginning of the Sedov-Taylor phase, hence the maximum energy is no more proportional to the nuclear charge, as predicted by standard DSA, but rather to the effective ions' charge during the acceleration process, which is smaller than the total nuclear charge $Z_N$. This result can have a direct consequence in the pred...

Morlino, Giovanni

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

257

Table 12. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual (nominal dollars per million Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 2.03 2.17 2.33 2.52 2.73 2.99 AEO 1983 1.99 2.10 2.24 2.39 2.57 2.76 4.29 AEO 1984 1.90 2.01 2.13 2.28 2.44 2.61 3.79 AEO 1985 1.68 1.76 1.86 1.95 2.05 2.19 2.32 2.49 2.66 2.83 3.03 AEO 1986 1.61 1.68 1.75 1.83 1.93 2.05 2.19 2.35 2.54 2.73 2.92 3.10 3.31 3.49 3.68 AEO 1987 1.52 1.55 1.65 1.75 1.84 1.96 2.11 2.27 2.44 3.55 AEO 1989* 1.50 1.51 1.68 1.77 1.88 2.00 2.13 2.26 2.40 2.55 2.70 2.86 3.00 AEO 1990 1.46 1.53 2.07 2.76 3.7 AEO 1991 1.51 1.58 1.66 1.77 1.88 1.96 2.06 2.16 2.28 2.41 2.57 2.70 2.85 3.04 3.26 3.46 3.65 3.87 4.08 4.33 AEO 1992 1.54 1.61 1.66 1.75 1.85 1.97 2.03 2.14 2.26 2.44 2.55 2.69 2.83 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.58 3.78 4.01 AEO 1993 1.92 1.54 1.61 1.70

258

Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Minimum Cost Path Problem for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 4, 2014 ... Abstract: We introduce a practically important and theoretically challenging problem: finding the minimum cost path for plug-in hybrid electric ...

Okan Arslan

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

260

Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance- Fact Sheet, May 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet about the Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance Program

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Maximum Entropy Principle and the Higgs boson mass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A successful connection between Higgs boson decays and the Maximum Entropy Principle is presented. Based on the information theory inference approach we determine the Higgs boson mass as M H = 125.04 ± 0.25 GeV , a value fully compatible to the LHC measurement. This is straightforwardly obtained by taking the Higgs boson branching ratios as the target probability distributions of the inference, without any extra assumptions beyond the Standard Model. Yet, the principle can be a powerful tool in the construction of any model affecting the Higgs sector. We give, as an example, the case where the Higgs boson has an extra invisible decay channel within a Higgs portal model.

Alexandre Alves; Alex G. Dias; Roberto da Silva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Low Energy CDMS II Germanium Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS~II) experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is constructed using GEANT4 to simulate the surface-event background from $^{210}$Pb decay-chain events, while using independent calibration data to model the gamma background. Fitting this background model to the data results in no statistically significant WIMP component. In addition, we perform fits using an analytic ad hoc background model proposed by Collar and Fields, who claimed to find a large excess of signal-like events in our data. We confirm the strong preference for a signal hypothesis in their analysis under these assumptions, but excesses are observed in both single- and multiple-scatter events, which implies the signal is not caused by WIMPs, but rather reflects the inadequacy of their background model.

Agnese, R; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fritts, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Graham, M; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, R H; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fracture Toughness and Maximum Stress in a Disordered Lattice System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fracture in a disordered lattice system is studied. In our system, particles are initially arranged on the triangular lattice and each nearest-neighbor pair is connected with a randomly chosen soft or hard Hookean spring. Every spring has the common threshold of stress at which it is cut. We make an initial crack and expand the system perpendicularly to the crack. We find that the maximum stress in the stress-strain curve is larger than those in the systems with soft or hard springs only (uniform systems). Energy required to advance fracture is also larger in some disordered systems, which indicates that the fracture toughness improves. The increase of the energy is caused by the following two factors. One is that the soft spring is able to hold larger energy than the hard one. The other is that the number of cut springs increases as the fracture surface becomes tortuous in disordered systems.

Chiyori Urabe; Shinji Takesue

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

266

A new scanning photoemission microscope for ELETTRA: SuperMAXIMUM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High brightness third?generation synchrotrons allow diffraction?limited performance and large flux for scanning photoemission microscopes. A new microscope SuperMAXIMUM is being developed at the University of Wisconsin Center for X ray Lithography in collaboration with the Sincrotrone Trieste. The beamline being built in Trieste uses a variable angle spherical gratingmonochromator (VASGM). A combination of rotation of a plane mirror and rotation of the spherical grating keeps the slit positions and beam directions fixed. The microscope objectives are normal?incidence multilayer?coated Schwarzschild objectives. The project which is nearing completion utilizes novel designs for optics alignment sample rastering mechanics and software control. We will discuss the project status new designs and techniques.

John T. Welnak; H. Solak; J. Wallace; F. Cerrina; F. Barbo; M. Bertolo; A. Bianco; S. Di Fonzo; S. Fontana; W. Jark; F. Mazzolini; R. Rosei; A. Savoia; J.H. Underwood; G. Margaritondo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

A new scanning photoemission microscope for ELETTRA: SuperMAXIMUM  

SciTech Connect

High brightness, third-generation synchrotrons allow diffraction-limited performance and large flux for scanning photoemission microscopes. A new microscope, SuperMAXIMUM, is being developed at the University of Wisconsin Center for X ray Lithography in collaboration with the Sincrotrone Trieste. The beamline, being built in Trieste, uses a variable angle spherical grating monochromator (VASGM). A combination of rotation of a plane mirror and rotation of the spherical grating keeps the slit positions and beam directions fixed. The microscope objectives are normal-incidence, multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objectives. The project, which is nearing completion, utilizes novel designs for optics alignment, sample rastering mechanics, and software control. We will discuss the project status, new designs, and techniques. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Welnak, J.T.; Solak, H.; Wallace, J.; Cerrina, F.; Barbo, F.; Bertolo, M.; Bianco, A.; Di Fonzo, S.; Fontana, S.; Jark, W.; Mazzolini, F.; Rosei, R.; Savoia, A.; Underwood, J.; Margaritondo, G. [University of WI--Center for X ray Lithography, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States)] [University of WI--Center for X ray Lithography, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States); [Sincrotrone Trieste, Padriciano 99, 34012, Trieste (Italy); [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Center for X ray Optics, 1 Cyclotron Road, 80-101, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); [Institut de Physique Appliqee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Definition 0.1. Let D be any set and f W D ! R a function. An element 2 D is a (global or absolute) maximum for f on D if for all x 2 D, f ./ f .x/. The  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Definition 0.1. Let D be any set and f W D ! R a function. An element 2 D is a (global or absolute the maximum value. Minimum is defined similarly. Definition 0.2. Let f W D ! R as above. The function f. The function f is said to be bounded if it is bounded both above and below. Now let D be a subset of R (the

Goodman, Fred

269

Determining the minimum mass and cost of a magnetic refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An expression is determined for the mass of the magnet and magnetocaloric material needed for a magnetic refrigerator and these are determined using numerical modeling for both parallel plate and packed sphere bed regenerators as function of temperature span and cooling power. As magnetocaloric material Gd or a model material with a constant adiabatic temperature change, representing a infinitely linearly graded refrigeration device, is used. For the magnet a maximum figure of merit magnet or a Halbach cylinder is used. For a cost of \\$40 and \\$20 per kg for the magnet and magnetocaloric material, respectively, the cheapest 100 W parallel plate refrigerator with a temperature span of 20 K using Gd and a Halbach magnet has 0.8 kg of magnet, 0.3 kg of Gd and a cost of \\$35. Using the constant material reduces this cost to \\$25. A packed sphere bed refrigerator with the constant material costs \\$7. It is also shown that increasing the operation frequency reduces the cost. Finally, the lowest cost is also found a...

Bjørk, R; Bahl, C R H; Pryds, N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

FINDING THE GLOBAL MINIMUM FOR BINARY IMAGE RESTORATION Tony F. Chan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- est. In this paper we define the restored image as the global min- imizer of the total-variation (TVFINDING THE GLOBAL MINIMUM FOR BINARY IMAGE RESTORATION Tony F. Chan , Selim Esedo¯glu and Mila and there are no general methods to calculate the global minimum, while local minimziers are very often of limited inter

Esedoglu, Selim

271

Modeling the Global Structure of the Heliosphere during the Recent Solar Minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Berkeley, California. Abstract. The recent solar minimum, marking the end of solar cycle 23, has beenModeling the Global Structure of the Heliosphere during the Recent Solar Minimum: Model Mikic and Janet G. Luhmann Predictive Science, San Diego, California. Harvard-Smithsonian Center

California at Berkeley, University of

272

Lost sunspot cycle in the beginning of Dalton minimum: New evidence and consequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the beginning of the Dalton minimum during 1790s [Usoskin et al., 2001]. Earlier, this cycle has been combinedLost sunspot cycle in the beginning of Dalton minimum: New evidence and consequences I. G. Usoskin November 2002; published 24 December 2002. [1] We have recently suggested that one solar cycle was lost

Usoskin, Ilya G.

273

An Exponential Improvement on the MST Heuristic for Minimum Energy Broadcasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in energy saving. A naturally arising issue in ad hoc wireless networks is that of supporting communicationAn Exponential Improvement on the MST Heuristic for Minimum Energy Broadcasting in Ad Hoc Wireless Abstract. In this paper we present a new approximation algorithm for the Minimum Energy Broadcast Routing

Caragiannis, Ioannis

274

Solar change and climate: an update in the light of the current exceptional solar minimum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...review-article 2010 Anniversary Series 1005 41 169 Solar change and climate: an update in the light of the current exceptional solar minimum Mike Lockwood 1 2 * * m.lockwood...Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK Solar outputs during the current solar minimum...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

On the Cost and Quality Tradeoff in Constructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees in Wireless Ad  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Cost and Quality Tradeoff in Constructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees in Wireless Ad Hoc], each having a different complexity and produc- ing a broadcast tree with a different energy cost. Thus to the quality of the trees constructed. II. BUILDING BLOCKS The three ingredients that constitute any minimum-energy

Hu, Y. Charlie

276

ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The absolute theoretical minimum energies to produce liquid steel from idealized scrap (100% Fe) and ore (100% Fe2O3) are much lower than consumed in practice, as are the theoretical minimum energies to roll the steel into its final shape.

277

Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemical Engineering, 7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract The minimum energy requirements of six different heat1 Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements energy-consuming process, where distillation is the process most widely used for fluid separations

Skogestad, Sigurd

278

Bloat control and generalization pressure using the minimum description length principle for a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bloat control and generalization pressure using the minimum description length principle to achieve these objectives based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle. This principle solutions that are bigger than necessary, contradicting the Occam's razor principle [7] which says that "the

Bacardit, Jaume

279

Bloat control and generalization pressure using the minimum description length principle for a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bloat control and generalization pressure using the minimum description length principle propose a method to achieve these objectives based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle. This principle is a metric which combines in a smart way the accuracy and the complexity of a theory (rule set

Bacardit, Jaume

280

Installation of the MAXIMUM microscope at the ALS  

SciTech Connect

The MAXIMUM scanning x-ray microscope, developed at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison was implemented on the Advanced Light Source in August of 1995. The microscope`s initial operation at SRC successfully demonstrated the use of multilayer coated Schwarzschild objective for focusing 130 eV x-rays to a spot size of better than 0.1 micron with an electron energy resolution of 250meV. The performance of the microscope was severely limited, because of the relatively low brightness of SRC, which limits the available flux at the focus of the microscope. The high brightness of the ALS is expected to increase the usable flux at the sample by a factor of 1,000. The authors will report on the installation of the microscope on bending magnet beamline 6.3.2 at the ALS and the initial measurement of optical performance on the new source, and preliminary experiments with surface chemistry of HF etched Si will be described.

Ng, W.; Perera, R.C.C.; Underwood, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stoughton, WI (United States). Center for X-ray Lithography

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

The Building Energy Report Card is used to compare the actual annual energy consumption of buildings to a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Building Energy Report Card is used to compare the actual annual energy consumption Thermal Unit (Btu). For convenience, this annual energy consumption is expressed as thousands of Btus (i of buildings to a State of Minnesota "target." This target represents the amount of energy that would

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

283

General Project Sequence The following are typical steps on many projects. Actual required steps may vary from project to project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General Project Sequence The following are typical steps on many projects. Actual required steps may vary from project to project depending upon the scope, complexity, and specific features. Time periods indicated will vary depending on the nature of the project and needs of the user group

Mather, Patrick T.

284

An experimental and computational leakage investigation of labyrinth seals with rub grooves of actual size and shape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to that of a modified convex wall geometry. The test facility is a 33 times enlargement of the actual seal. The pressure drop leakage rate and flow visualization digital images for the standard geometry seal were measured at various Reynolds numbers...

Ambrosia, Matthew Stanley

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Probable maximum point rainfall estimation for the southern half of the Indian peninsula  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Preparation of a generalized chart of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for the southern half of the Indian peninsula lying between lat. 8°N to 16°N has been attempted in this study. Maximum 1-day rainfall ...

O N Dhar; A K Kulkarni; P R Rakhecha

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Improved Fixed-Parameter Algorithm for the Minimum Weight 3-SAT Problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is known that when the input instance is a 2-CNF formula, the problem actually is equivalent (in terms of parameterized and exact complexity) to the vertex cover (or 2-hitting set) problem. In this paper, we p...

Venkatesh Raman; Bal Sri Shankar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Novel Approximation Algorithm for Minimum Geometric Disk Cover Problem with Hexagon Tessellation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given a set P ofn...points in the Euclidean plane, the minimum geometric disk cover (MGDC) problem is to identify a minimally sized set of congruent disks with prescribed radiusr that cover all the points in P. I...

Chi-Yu Chang; Chi-Chang Chen; Cheng-Chun Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A Cycle Augmentation Algorithm for Minimum Cost Multicommodity Flows on a Ring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Cycle Augmentation Algorithm for Minimum Cost Multicommodity Flows on a Ring Bruce Shepherd bshep of Ford and Fulkerson [5]. We mention that a similar state of affairs held for generalized

Shepherd, Bruce

289

Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The affine rank minimization problem consists of finding a matrix of minimum rank that satisfies a given system of linear equality constraints. Such problems have appeared in the literature of a diverse set of fields ...

Recht, Benjamin

290

Extreme Poverty Indicator: Proportion of Population Below Minimum Level of Dietary Energy Consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on the comparison of many current poverty measurement indicators in the world, the report has chosen the most basic ... proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption”.

Qi Zhang; Fei Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

J 4.8 MODELING THE TALLAHASSEE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALY Kelly G. Godsey*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 J 4.8 MODELING THE TALLAHASSEE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALY Kelly G. Godsey* 1,2 , Henry E author address: Kelly G. Godsey, NWS, Morristown, TN 37814; email: Kelly.Godsey@noaa.gov #12;2 Fig. 1

Fuelberg, Henry

292

Field-reversed configuration (FRC) as a minimum-dissipative relaxed state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The field-reversed configuration (FRC) with a completely null toroidal field and finite plasma beta is shown to result from a relaxation mechanism based on the principle of minimum dissipation of energy.

R Bhattacharyya; M.S Janaki; B Dasgupta

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Computer simulation of optimal functioning regimes with minimum fuel consumption for automotives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with computer simulation that allows the calculus of operating regimes with minimum fuel consumption for road vehicles, using engine’s mechanical characteristics for power and consumption, charact...

Salvadore Mugurel Burciu

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Minimum Energy Cost k-barrier Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Barrier coverage problem is one of important issues in wireless sensor networks. In this paper we study the minimum energy cost k-barrier coverage problem in wireless sensor network in which each sensor has l...?...

Huiqiang Yang; Deying Li; Qinghua Zhu…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A network approach for identifying minimum-cost aircraft routing and fuel-allocating decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A NETWORK APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING MINIMUM-COST AIRCRAFT ROUTING AJVD FUEL-ALLOCATING DECISIONS A Thesis by NADER MAHMOUD KABBAVI Approved as to style and content by...A NETWORK APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING MINIMUM-COST AIRCRAFT ROUTING AND FUEL-ALLOCATING DECISIONS A Thesis by NADER MAHMOUD KABBANI Submitted to the OIIice of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

Kabbani, Nader Mahmoud

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Minimum thickness for circumferential sleeve repair fillet welds in corroded gas pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The minimum weldable pipe wall thickness for sleeve repair welds is numerically assessed in this work, as a function of pressure during the welding operations of a corroded gas pipeline, according to the approach by Battelle. The minimum weldable thickness is found to increase when the flow rate of the transported gas in the section being repaired increases. Integrity of the repairs is assessed, and alternative measures to momentarily increase the flow in the area of the repair are evaluated.

A.P Cisilino; M.D Chapetti; J.L Otegui

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Actual Crimes Reported For: Offense Type (includes attempts) 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 0 0 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Drug Law Violations Arrest 0 3 4 0 1 0 0 4 4 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Liquor Law Violations Arrest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OSU-Tulsa Campus Crime Statistics Act. Number of Arrests/Referrals for Select Offenses #12;Actual Crimes Reported For

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

298

Strain energy minimum and vibrational properties of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes Suchitra Konduri, Sanjoy Mukherjee, and Sankar Nair*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strain energy minimum and vibrational properties of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes study the origin of the strain energy minimum in a single-walled aluminosilicate nanotube via a har- persity in the nanotube diameter is explained in terms of a minimum in the strain energy due

Nair, Sankar

299

A Dynamic Localized Minimum-Energy Agent Tree-Based Data Dissemination Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Dynamic Localized Minimum-Energy Agent Tree-Based Data Dissemination Scheme for Wireless Sensor this prob- lem by proposing a minimum-energy tree-based data dissemination scheme, Dynamic Localized Minimum-Energy Agent Tree-Based Scheme (DLATS). We exploit the fact that sensor nodes are stationary and location

Holliday, JoAnne

300

1906 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 53, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2005 Minimum-Energy Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in polynomial time, in sharp con- trast with the NP-hardness of constructing the minimum-energy multicast tree with a single tree is presented. The minimum energy-per-bit for multicasting with routing is found by an integer in the Steiner tree literature, can now be interpreted as the optimization for minimum energy multicasting

Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

TECHNICAL REPORT TR-09-04, UC DAVIS, SEPTEMBER 2009. 1 Minimum-Energy Multicast Tree in Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TECHNICAL REPORT TR-09-04, UC DAVIS, SEPTEMBER 2009. 1 Minimum-Energy Multicast Tree in Cognitive guarantee for constructing the minimum-energy multicast tree, which transforms the multicast problem load of the primary network on the minimum-energy multicast tree. I. INTRODUCTION Multicast can provide

Islam, M. Saif

302

Major in Aerospace Engineering Master of Engineering (with creative component) A minimum of 27 credits of acceptable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Major in Aerospace Engineering Master of Engineering (with creative component) ­ A minimum of 27 Engineering along with a minimum of 3 credits of Aer E 599 (creative component) must be taken. The POS Mechanics Master of Engineering (with creative component) ­ A minimum of 24 credits of acceptable course

Lin, Zhiqun

303

Minimum-Energy Filtering on the Unit Circle Using Velocity Measurements with Bias and Vectorial state Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum-Energy Filtering on the Unit Circle Using Velocity Measurements with Bias and Vectorial consider minimum-energy filtering of a system defined on the unit circle when the angular velocity measure approximate minimum- energy filter for this system using vectorial measurements. This work extends prior work

Trumpf, Jochen

304

Released: June 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption, 2006; " Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption, 2006; " " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: Energy Sources;" " Column: Consumption Potential;" " Unit: Physical Units." ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum" "Energy Sources","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)" ,"Total United States" "Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthours)",854102,826077,889281 "Natural Gas (billion cubic feet)",5357,4442,5649 "Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",22139,19251,101340 "Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",39925,25176,85318

305

Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Statistics in Crystallography: a Review of Practical Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The applications of the maximum entropy and Bayesian methods to problems in X-ray, neutron and electron crystallography are reviewed.

Gilmore, C.J.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image-guided radiation therapy procedure.

Matsubara, Kana, E-mail: matsubara-kana@hs.tmu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Ryosuke [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Saitoh, Hidetoshi [Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku Tokyo (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Minimum unit for the fractional statistics of anyons and its application  

SciTech Connect

Although Han et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 150404 (2007)] proposed a quantum circuit with six qubits to demonstrate the basic braiding statistics of anyons, we have found that a four-qubit system is enough for realizing such a process. We call it the minimum unit for the fractional statistics of anyons. With some special order, the minimum unit can be used to construct two kinds of fractional charge excitation n/(n+1)[or (n+1)/n] and (n{sup 2}-kn+6n+2)/(n{sup 2}-kn+5n+4)[or (n{sup 2}-kn+2n+k+1)/3(n{sup 2}-kn+5n+4)], where n,k are positive integers and k{<=}n. This minimum unit can be realized by a photonic quantum simulator or by electrons in an optical lattice or quantum dot array. Its use will have some advantages in metrology.

Xi Xiaoqiang [School of Science, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an 710061 (China); School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States); Hu Mingliang [School of Science, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an 710061 (China)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

On the origin of the low temperatures resistivity minimum in Cr thin films  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient, ? and R{sub H}, in Cr films of different thicknesses grown on MgO (100) substrates, as a function of temperature T and applied magnetic field H. The results show a low temperature minimum in ?(T), which is thickness dependent. From 40?K to 2?K, the Hall coefficient is a monotonous increasing function as T is reduced with no particular signature at the temperature T{sub min} where the minimum develops. We explain the resistivity minimum assuming an imperfect nesting of the Fermi surface leading to small electron and hole pockets. We introduce a phenomenological model which supports this simple physical picture.

Osquiguil, E.; Tosi, L.; Kaul, E. E.; Balseiro, C. A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

Minimum variance control of organic Rankine cycle based waste heat recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, an online self-tuning generalized minimum variance (GMV) controller is proposed for a 100 KW waste heat recovery system with organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC process model is formulated by the controlled autoregressive moving average (CARMA) model whose parameters are identified using the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with forgetting factor. The generalized minimum variance algorithm is applied to regulate ORC based waste heat recovery system. The contributions of this work are twofold: (1) the proposed control strategy is formulated under the data-driven framework, which does not need the precise mathematic model; (2) this proposed method is applied to handle tracking set-point variations and process disturbances by improved minimum objective GMV function. The performance of GMV controller is compared with the PID controller. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy can achieve satisfactory set-point tracking and disturbance rejection performance.

Guolian Hou; Shanshan Bi; Mingming Lin; Jianhua Zhang; Jinliang Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Theoretical support for a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in electron-CF4 scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe complex Kohn calculations for elastic e--CF4 scattering at incident electron energies of 0.04–20 eV. An accurate representation of the electronic correlation effects involving target polarization is critical in the explicit demonstration of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum. We use a set of polarized virtual orbitals to form a compact representation of closed channels in the trial scattering function to include these effects. These are the first ab initio calculations to verify the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in CF4. We find excellent comparison between the complex Kohn results and measured differential and integral cross sections.

W. A. Isaacs; C. W. McCurdy; T. N. Rescigno

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

An Improved Maximum Likelihood Formulation for Accurate Genome Assembly Aditya Varma, Abhiram Ranade and Srinivas Aluru  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Improved Maximum Likelihood Formulation for Accurate Genome Assembly Aditya Varma, Abhiram maximum likelihood method for genome assembly. We formulate the problem as one of direct convex estimate of the length of the genome or the need to use further expectation minimization to predict

Ranade, Abhiram G.

312

A 6/5-approximation algorithm for the maximum 3-cover problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the maximum cover problem, we are given a collection of sets over a ground set of elements and a positive integer w, and we are asked to compute a collection of at most w sets whose union contains the maximum ...

Ioannis Caragiannis; Gianpiero Monaco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A Basic Thermodynamic Derivation of the Maximum Overburden Pressure Generated in Frost Heave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can derive the maximum overburden pressure. A similar argument can also produce the maximum Heave Engine Frost heave is a common environmental process in which the freezing of water into ice can produce forces large enough to seriously damage roads and bridges [1]. Contrary to common belief, frost

Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

314

On the duration of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum Ursula Rohl and Thomas Westerhold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the duration of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) Ursula Ro¨hl and Thomas Westerhold of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA [1] The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) is one of global warming and a massive perturbation of the global carbon cycle from injection of isotopically light

Zachos, James

315

Vegetation and Fire at the Last Glacial Maximum in Tropical South America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 4 Vegetation and Fire at the Last Glacial Maximum in Tropical South America Francis E temperatures. Keywords Charcoal · Last Glacial Maximum · pollen · Quaternary · tropical South America F-mail: Francis.Mayle@ed.ac.uk 89F. Vimeux et al. (eds.), Past Climate Variability in South America

Binford, Michael W.

316

Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage D. Reisenfeld, and T. R. Sanderson (2004), Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum, New Mexico, USA T. R. Sanderson Research and Scientific Support Department of European Space Agency

Sanahuja, Blai

317

Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations Rebecca H. Masel, Pennsylvania 18015, United States ABSTRACT: Maximum temperature limitations are encountered in distillation of the bottoms product fixes the column base pressure and, hence, the condenser pressure. The distillate

Gilchrist, James F.

318

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan Abstract We present the first optimal algorithm to compute the maximum Tukey depth (also known as location or halfspace depth , the Tukey depth of a point q IRd is defined as: min{|P | : over all halfspaces containing q}. We

Chan, Timothy M.

319

High order maximum principle preserving semi-Lagrangian finite difference WENO schemes for the Vlasov equation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the parametrized maximum principle preserving (MPP) flux limiter, originally developed in [37], to the semi-Lagrangian finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme for solving the Vlasov equation. The MPP flux ... Keywords: Finite difference WENO scheme, Maximum principle preserving, Parametrized flux limiter, Semi-Lagrangian method, Vlasov equation

Tao Xiong, Jing-Mei Qiu, Zhengfu Xu, Andrew Christlieb

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Beating the maximum cooling limit with graded thermoelectric materials Zhixi Bian and Ali Shakouria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1063/1.2396895 The maximum cooling temperature is one of the perfor- mance parameters for a thermoelectric module. ExcludingBeating the maximum cooling limit with graded thermoelectric materials Zhixi Bian and Ali Shakouria cooling of a single element thermoelectric material cannot be improved by changing its geometry.3

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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321

Frequency Moments Inverse Problem and Maximum (Shannon vs. R enyi-Tsallis) Entropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) maximization of Shannon's entropy (MaxEnt), b) maximization of R#19;enyi-Tsallis entropy (maxTent). ConcerningEnt 4 1.2 Aims 5 2 Frequency moment constraints 5 2.1 Characteristics of MaxEnt choice 6 2.2 Maximum RFrequency Moments Inverse Problem and Maximum (Shannon vs. R#19;enyi-Tsallis) Entropy #3; A case

322

These special appetizers are assembled on site for maximum freshness and require that an attendant be on site at your event. Minimum order is 2 dozen for each item.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- west Ranch Dressing. $20 per person Jalapeño Marinated Tenderloin Blackberry & Brie Crostini Our ENTR�ES All Entrées are served as China Plated Meals. Entrees include House Salad and Dressing, Artisan Soup & Strawberry Salad with Balsamic Dressing A cup of creamy Potato Soup loaded with Celery

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

323

Distribution of glycerol ether lipids in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The distributions of microbial glycerol ether lipids in suspended particulate matter in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP) were investigated. Nine groups of glycerol ether core lipids were detected and quantified: isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) (iso-GDGTs), isoprenoid glycerol dialkanol diethers (iso-GDDs) and hydroxylated isoprenoid \\{GDGTs\\} and \\{GDDs\\} (OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs) of archaeal origin; branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br-GDGTs) of bacterial origin and overly branched \\{GDGTs\\} (OB-GDGTs), sparsely branched \\{GDGTs\\} (SB-GDGTs), hybrid isoprenoid/branched \\{GDGTs\\} (IB-GDGTs) and a tentatively assigned H-shaped GDGT (H-1020) of unknown biological origin. The archaeal iso-GDGTs were the most abundant core lipids (89% of total), followed by iso-GDDs (4%), br-GDGTs (2%) and OH-GDGTs (1%). Archaeal intact polar \\{GDGTs\\} (IP GDGTs), including both mono- and diglycosidic iso-GDGTs, had depth profiles similar to OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs, with a maximum concentration in the upper OMZ and secondary peaks in the mid and lower OMZ, suggesting similar but multiple planktonic sources. Core lipids of iso-GDGTs and other glycerol ethers showed deviating concentration profiles compared with IP \\{GDGTs\\} and OH-GDGTs and were most abundant in the mid OMZ. This is the first report of OH-GDDs, OB-GDGTs, SB-GDGTs, IB-GDGTs and H-1020 in the marine water column and the distribution patterns of these “orphan lipids” suggest that anaerobic planktonic microbes are their main source.

Sitan Xie; Xiao-Lei Liu; Florence Schubotz; Stuart G. Wakeham; Kai-Uwe Hinrichs

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Rapid measurement of minimum miscibility pressure with the rising-bubble apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) for a gas/oil pair can be measured within 1 hour with the rising-bubble apparatus (RBA). Development of miscibility between a gas bubble and an oil can be observed visually. The measurements of the MMP with the RBA compare favorably with those based on slim-tube experiments and predictions from phase-behavior studies.

Christiansen, R.L.; Haines, H.K.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Power Controlled Minimum Frame Length Scheduling in TDMA Wireless Networks with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Controlled Minimum Frame Length Scheduling in TDMA Wireless Networks with Sectored Antennas controlled min- imum frame length scheduling for TDMA wireless networks. Given a set of one-hop transmission scheduling and power control was first addressed by Tamer and Ephremides in [1, 2]. Given a set of one

Arabshahi, Payman

326

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Students last name begins: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMEDE 410 Design and Application of Engineering): At least one of the following: BIOLCHEM 515 Introductory Biochemistry (Biotechnology only)5 (3

Eustice, Ryan

327

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Students last name begins: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMED E 410 Design and Application (Biotechnology only)5 (3) (I, II) BIOMED E 519 Quantitative Physiology (Tissue Engineering only)6 (4) (I) Other

Eustice, Ryan

328

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BME BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION ­ F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Michael Mayer, Ph.D. (mimayer@umich.edu) Biotechnology (one course): BIOMEDE 410 Design and Application of Biomaterials (3) (l)1 of Engineering): One course from this list: BIOLCHEM 515 Introductory Biochemistry (Biotechnology only)5 (3) (I

Kamat, Vineet R.

329

HIGH-LEVEL MULTI-STEP INVERTER OPTIMIZATION, USING A MINIMUM NUMBER OF POWER TRANSISTORS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIGH-LEVEL MULTI-STEP INVERTER OPTIMIZATION, USING A MINIMUM NUMBER OF POWER TRANSISTORS. Juan 56-41-246-999 e-mail lmoran@renoir.die.udec.cl ABSTRACT Multilevel inverters with a large number-5]. Multi-level inverters can operate not only with PWM techniques but also with amplitude modulation (AM

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

330

Exploiting Schedule Slacks for RateOptimal PowerMinimum Software Pipelining #  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­engineered compiler on Wattch power simulator, we observe that our approach can reduce dynamic energy consumptionExploiting Schedule Slacks for Rate­Optimal Power­Minimum Software Pipelining # Hongbo Yang + R systems de­ mand new compiler techniques geared toward both high performance and low power. Software

Gao, Guang R.

331

A MEASUREMENT OF THE PROTON SPECTRUM AT 1 AU NEAR SOLAR MINIMUM WITH THE CAPRICE EXPERIMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OG 5.2.1 A MEASUREMENT OF THE PROTON SPECTRUM AT 1 AU NEAR SOLAR MINIMUM WITH THE CAPRICELaboratori Nazionali INFN, Frascati, Italy 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA 6New Mexico, Italy ABSTRACT We report on a preliminary result of the absolute proton spectrum in the energy range 0

Morselli, Aldo

332

Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems  

SciTech Connect

A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO[sub 2]F[sub 2] and H[sub 2]O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF[sub 6] and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % [sup 235]U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems  

SciTech Connect

A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF{sub 6} and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % {sup 235}U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation ADCATS Report No. 99-5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation ADCATS Report No. 99-5 Kenneth W. Chase Department of Mechanical-all cost of production, while meeting target levels for quality. Using allocation tools, a designer may re and loosening tolerances on costly processes, for a net reduction in cost. Several algorithms are described

335

Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001 Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation Ivar J

Skogestad, Sigurd

336

Buffer Sizing for Minimum Energy-Delay Product by Using an Approximating Polynomial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Buffer Sizing for Minimum Energy-Delay Product by Using an Approximating Polynomial Chang Woo Kang to derive sizing rules for buffered chains, which optimize the overall energy-delay product. Categories result in a poor solution in terms of the energy-delay product. The focus of this work is on multi

Pedram, Massoud

337

A Graphical Tool to Visualize Predicted Minimum Delay Flights Tanujit Dey, David Phillips, and Patrick Steele  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

destinations from the airports Bal- timore Washington International (BWI) and Dulles International (IAD the predictions of both the minimum-delay and quickest routes for a given origin and destination airport using an airport with the color indicating average delay experienced, and the diameter of each circle representing

Phillips, David

338

Asymptotic behavior of the minimum mean squared error threshold for noisy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ã?cients of piecewise smooth signals Maarten Jansen Adhemar Bultheel Report TW 294, October 1999 n Katholieke smooth signals Maarten Jansen Adhemar Bultheel Report TW 294, October 1999 Department of Computer Science Jansen, Adhemar Bultheel October 4, 1999 Abstract This paper investigates the minimum risk threshold

Jansen, Maarten

339

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009 985 Minimum Energy Coding in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, which minimizes the total energy consumption by controlling the radio power, is developed. Numerical Networks (WSNs). Energy consumption and reliability are analyzed for two coding schemes: Minimum Energy ME with respect to energy consumption and bit error rate. It is concluded that MME is more energy

Johansson, Karl Henrik

340

A study on the locality behavior of minimum spanning tree algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Locality behavior study is crucial for achieving good performance for irregular problems. Graph algorithms with large, sparse inputs, for example, oftentimes achieve only a tiny fraction of the potential peak performance on current architectures. Compared ... Keywords: graph algorithm, memory locality, minimum spanning tree

Guojing Cong; Simone Sbaraglia

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Achieving MinimumCost Multicast: A Decentralized Approach Based on Network Coding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a monetary or energy cost must be paid for each link usage) and the other that applies for strictly convex­to­point links, and consider the problem of minimum­energy multicast in wireless networks as well as the case generally means finding the shortest tree connecting a set of points in a directed graph; in other words

Médard, Muriel

342

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 026115 (2012) Optimizing controllability of complex networks by minimum structural perturbations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Beijing 100875, China 2 School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University the practical usage of our approach, its implementation elucidates, interestingly, the intricate relationship dynamics, which is based on the classical control and graph theories [9­11]. The basic goal of the minimum

Lai, Ying-Cheng

343

The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets Charles H. Lineweaver & Marc Norman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets Charles H. Lineweaver & Marc Norman a rounded potato shape to a sphere. We derive this potato-to-sphere transition radius -- or "potato radius" -- from first principles. Using the empirical potato radii of asteroids and icy moons, we derive

Lineweaver, Charles H.

344

Constructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

networks are not available or not economical to build [3]. These span the commercial, public as well it is not economical to build a fixed in- frastructure for a short temporary usage. In tactical battle- fieldConstructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department

Liang, Weifa

345

A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding Huan-Xiang Zhoua; published online 20 May 2008 Master equations are widely used for modeling protein folding. Here- ceptual and quantitative models for protein folding.1­15 In such models, the conformational space

Weston, Ken

346

Giant Hydrogen Sulfide Plume in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru Supports Chemolithoautotrophy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Giant Hydrogen Sulfide Plume in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru Supports Chemolithoautotrophy sporadically accumulate hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is toxic to most multicellular organisms and has been feedback loop that could fuel further sulfate reduction and potentially stabilize the sulfidic OMZ waters

Boyer, Edmond

347

String method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

York University, New York, New York 10012 Giovanni Ciccottid INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica in the free energy. Provided that the number of collective variables is large enough, the new techniqueString method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces Luca

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

348

Requirements for the MINOR in Environmental Science Five courses required. Total credits = minimum of 15  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Requirements for the MINOR in Environmental Science Five courses required. Total credits = minimum to Environmental Science OR NRC 100 Environment and Society OR GEO-SCI 100 Global Environmental Change Select two (2) of following four courses ENVIRSCI 213 Introduction to Environmental Policy ENVIRSCI 214

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

349

Autopilot for a Nonlinear Non-Minimum Phase Tail-Controlled Missile  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Autopilot for a Nonlinear Non-Minimum Phase Tail-Controlled Missile Anshu Narang controlled missiles: 1. Exploiting the full physical capabilities of the missile system Fulfilling demanding aerodynamics is expensive and inaccurate Only certain states can be measured #12;3 Acceleration Control

Valasek, John

350

Statistics of counter-streaming solar wind suprathermal electrons at solar minimum: STEREO observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Statistics of counter-streaming solar wind suprathermal electrons at solar minimum: STEREO, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada 6 Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA Abstract. Previous work has shown that solar wind suprathermal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

BME BIOMEDICAL IMAGING CONCENTRATION F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BME BIOMEDICAL IMAGING CONCENTRATION ­ F12 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Luis Hernandez-Garcia, Ph.D. (hernan@umich.edu) Biomedical Imaging: BIOMEDE 5161 Medical Imaging Systems (3) (I)2 General: BIOMEDE 500 Biomedical Engineering Seminar (1) (I,II) BIOMEDE 550 Ethics and Enterprise (1) (I

Kamat, Vineet R.

352

BME BIOMEDICAL IMAGING CONCENTRATION F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BME BIOMEDICAL IMAGING CONCENTRATION ­ F11 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Luis Hernandez-Garcia, Ph.D. (hernan@umich.edu) Biomedical Imaging: BIOMEDE 5161 Medical Imaging Systems (3) (I)2 General: BIOMEDE 500 Biomedical Engineering Seminar (1) (I,II) BIOMEDE 550 Ethics and Enterprise (1) (I

Eustice, Ryan

353

Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV  

SciTech Connect

A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

Smith, A.E. [DFI/Aeronomics Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Matching of photovolatic motor-pump systems for maximum efficiency operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A PV array is a nonlinear d.c. source and its operation has to be carefully matched to that of its equivalent electrical load in order to extract the maximum available energy. Two PV pumping schemes are investigated to get the maximum gross mechanical power. The system based on the separately-excited d.c. motor is matched through the control of the motor excitation, while for the system based on the induction motor, the voltage source inverter frequency is controlled by maximum mechanical power operation.

Aziza M. Zaki; Mona N. Eskander

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Why E-government Usage Lags Behind: Explaining the Gap Between Potential and Actual Usage of Electronic Public Services in the Netherlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the EU-15 countries illustrate a gap between potential usage and actual usage of electronic public services. Using a model ... the case of current Dutch electronic governmental service usage. Motivational...

Alexander van Deursen; Jan van Dijk; Wolfgang Ebbers

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Maximum one-day point rainfall estimation for North Indian plains using district average rainfall ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quick and simple procedure has been developed for evaluating maximum point rainfall for different return periods for any ... to different return periods. The estimates of point rainfall obtained by this procedu...

O. N. Dhar; A. K. Kulkarni; P. R. Rakhecha

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Delay Analysis of Maximum Weight Scheduling in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies delay properties of the well-known maximum weight scheduling algorithm in wireless ad hoc networks. We consider wireless networks with either one-hop or multihop flows. Specifically, this paper shows ...

Modiano, Eytan H.

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - analog fixed maximum Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SUBGROUPS OF A FREE GROUP Summary: , by the Bestvina-Handel Theorem, and if H has rank exactly n, then H is said to be a maximum-rank 1-auto-fixed... subgroup of F, and...

359

Delineation of the Indo-Malayan Centre of Maximum Marine Biodiversity: The Coral Triangle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ranges of many tropical marine species overlap in a centre of maximum marine biodiversity, which is located in the Indo-Malayan ... efforts involve the establishment of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MP...

Bert W. Hoeksema

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Achieving Consistent Maximum Brake Torque with Varied Injection Timing in a DI Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the characteristics of combustion for swept injection timings along the maximum brake torque plateau are determined. The research is conducted by varying injection timing at constant engine speed and load while measuring engine emissions and in-cylinder pressure...

Kroeger, Timothy H

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Wind Mixing and Restratification in a Lake near the Temperature of Maximum Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cooling of a freshwater take provides an opportunity for studying wind mixing and restratification under the peculiar conditions associated with a density maximum. The concepts are explored using a mixing-layer model that incorporates both ...

David M. Farmer; Eddy Carmack

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Investment Options TFLIC Guaranteed Pooled Fund seeks to provide maximum yield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investment Options TFLIC Guaranteed Pooled Fund seeks to provide maximum yield consistent Financial Life Insurance Company (TFLIC) that invests in a diverse pool of high quality fixed: Galliard Capital Management Transamerica Partners Core Bond invests primarily in investment grade debt

Meyers, Steven D.

363

Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...

Dahl, Kristina Ariel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Atlantic Ocean circulation at the last glacial maximum : inferences from data and models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO? ...

Dail, Holly Janine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Variable-Speed Wind Generator System with Maximum Output Power Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To achieve maximum output power from wind generator systems, the rotational speed of wind generators should be adjusted in real time according to natural wind speed. This chapter pays attention to an optimum rota...

Yoko Amano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ? 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ? 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

hal-00172027,version1-13Sep2007 On the application of the Critical Minimum Energy Subspace method to disordered  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hal-00172027,version1-13Sep2007 On the application of the Critical Minimum Energy Subspace method Aires, Argentina (Dated: September 13, 2007) We discuss the recent application to strongly disordered systems of the Critical Minimum Energy Subspace (CMES) method, used to limit the energy subspace

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Boulder Boulder, CO-80309 Abstract--A minimum energy routing protocol reduces the energy con- sumption the energy consumption of a wireless ad hoc network. Past research has focused on energy savings schemes1 Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc

Brown, Timothy X.

369

Device Sizing for Minimum Energy Operation in Subthreshold Circuits Benton H. Calhoun, Alice Wang, and Anantha Chandrakasan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Minimum Energy Sizing influences the energy consumption of a circuit in two primary ways. First, sizing have low energy as the primary concern instead of performance. Minimum energy operation for low directly affects energy consumption by changing switched capacitance and leakage current. Sec- ondly

Calhoun, Benton H.

370

Global Minimum Determination of the Born-Oppenheimer Surface within Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect

We present a novel method, which we refer to as the dual minima hopping method, that allows us to find the global minimum of the potential energy surface (PES) within density functional theory for systems where a fast but less accurate calculation of the PES is possible. This method can rapidly find the ground state configuration of clusters and other complex systems with present day computer power by performing a systematic search. We apply the new method to silicon clusters. Even though these systems have already been extensively studied by other methods, we find new global minimum candidates for Si{sub 16} and Si{sub 19}, as well as new low-lying isomers for Si{sub 16}, Si{sub 17}, and Si{sub 18}.

Goedecker, Stefan; Hellmann, Waldemar; Lenosky, Thomas [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Physics Department, Ohio State University, 1040 Physics Research Building, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States)

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

371

Macroalgal diversity along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient challenges Remane’s species-minimum concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remane’s species-minimum concept, which states that the lowest number of taxa occurs at the horohalinicum (5–8 psu), was tested by investigating macroalgal diversity on hard substrates along the natural salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea. Field data on species occurrence and abundance were collected by SCUBA diving along 10 transects of the Finnish, Swedish and German coasts, covering a salinity range from 3.9 to 27 psu. Macroalgal species numbers declined steadily with salinity, decreasing until 7.2 psu was reached, but in the horohalinicum, a marked reduction of species number and a change in diversity were indicated by the Shannon index and evenness values. The non-linear decrease in macroalgal diversity at 5–8 psu and the lack of increase in species numbers at salinities below 5 psu imply a restricted applicability of Remane’s species-minimum concept to macroalgae.

Hendrik Schubert; Peter Feuerpfeil; Ronny Marquardt; Irena Telesh; Sergei Skarlato

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Boulder, Colorados SmartRegs: Minimum Performance Standards for Residential Rental Housing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Policy Brief is an excerpt from the report: "Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Policy Brief is an excerpt from the report: "Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households." For the full report and other resources visit: http://middleincome.lbl.gov March 20, 2012 Boulder, Colorado's SmartRegs: Minimum Performance Standards for Residential Rental Housing The Case for Performance Standards The City of Boulder's Climate Action Plan calls for greenhouse gas emissions reductions across all sectors of the community (e.g., buildings, transportation and industry). Energy conservation in new and existing buildings plays a key role in the plan's ambitious goals. In 2006, Boulder residents overwhelmingly approved a Climate Action Tax to fund Climate Action Plan efforts. For more than a decade the city has been incrementally strengthening minimum energy efficiency standards for residential

373

Thoracic target volume delineation using various maximum-intensity projection computed tomography image sets for radiotherapy treatment planning  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) is commonly used to account for respiratory motion of target volumes in radiotherapy to the thorax. From the 4D-CT acquisition, a maximum-intensity projection (MIP) image set can be created and used to help define the tumor motion envelope or the internal gross tumor volume (iGTV). The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences in automatically contoured target volumes for usage in the delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy using MIP data sets generated from one of the four methods: (1) 4D-CT phase-binned (PB) based on retrospective phase calculations, (2) 4D-CT phase-corrected phase-binned (PC-PB) based on motion extrema, (3) 4D-CT amplitude-binned (AB), and (4) cine CT built from all available images. Methods: MIP image data sets using each of the four methods were generated for a cohort of 28 patients who had prior thoracic 4D-CT scans that exhibited lung tumor motion of at least 1 cm. Each MIP image set was automatically contoured on commercial radiation treatment planning system. Margins were added to the iGTV to observe differences in the final simulated planning target volumes (PTVs). Results: For all patients, the iGTV measured on the MIP generated from the entire cine CT data set (iGTV{sub cine}) was the largest. Expressed as a percentage of iGTV{sub cine}, 4D-CT iGTV (all sorting methods) ranged from 83.8% to 99.1%, representing differences in the absolute volume ranging from 0.02 to 4.20 cm{sup 3}; the largest average and range of 4D-CT iGTV measurements was from the PC-PB data set. Expressed as a percentage of PTV{sub cine} (expansions applied to iGTV{sub cine}), the 4D-CT PTV ranged from 87.6% to 99.6%, representing differences in the absolute volume ranging from 0.08 to 7.42 cm{sup 3}. Regions of the measured respiratory waveform corresponding to a rapid change of phase or amplitude showed an increased susceptibility to the selection of identical images for adjacent bins. Duplicate image selection was most common in the AB implementation, followed by the PC-PB method. The authors also found that the image associated with the minimum amplitude measurement did not always correlate with the image that showed maximum tumor motion extent. Conclusions: The authors identified cases in which the MIP generated from a 4D-CT sorting process under-represented the iGTV by more than 10% or up to 4.2 cm{sup 3} when compared to the iGTV{sub cine}. They suggest utilization of a MIP generated from the full cine CT data set to ensure maximum inclusive tumor extent.

Zamora, David A.; Riegel, Adam C.; Sun Xiaojun; Balter, Peter; Starkschall, George; Mawlawi, Osama; Pan Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Improved approximation algorithms for low-density instances of the Minimum Entropy Set Cover Problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We study the approximability of instances of the minimum entropy set cover problem, parameterized by the average frequency of a random element in the covering sets. We analyze an algorithm combining a greedy approach with another one biased towards large sets. The algorithm is controlled by the percentage of elements to which we apply the biased approach. The optimal parameter choice leads to improved approximation guarantees when average element frequency is less than e.

Cosmin Bonchi?; Gabriel Istrate

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

MECS Fuel Oil Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Actual, Minimum and Maximum Use Values for Fuel Oils and Natural Gas : Actual, Minimum and Maximum Use Values for Fuel Oils and Natural Gas Year Distillate Fuel Oil (TBtu) Actual Minimum Maximum Discretionary Rate 1985 185 148 1224 3.4% 1994 152 125 1020 3.1% Residual Fuel Oil (TBtu) Actual Minimum Maximum Discretionary Rate 1985 505 290 1577 16.7% 1994 441 241 1249 19.8% Natural Gas (TBtu) Actual Minimum Maximum Discretionary Rate 1985 4656 2702 5233 77.2% 1994 6141 4435 6758 73.4% Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, 1985 and 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Surveys. Table 2: Establishments That Actually Switched Between Natural Gas and Residual Fuel Oil Type of Switch Number of Establishments in Population Number That Use Original Fuel Percentage That Use Original Fuel Number That Can Switch to Another Fuel Percentage That Can Switch to Another Fuel Number That Actually Made a Switch Percentage That Actually Made a Switch

376

Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more insights into the flare process than the free energy above the potential field state.

S. Regnier; E. R. Priest

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

377

On the "viscosity maximum" during the uniaxial extension of a low density polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental investigation of the viscosity overshoot phenomenon observed during uniaxial extension of a low density polyethylene is pre- sented. For this purpose, traditional integral viscosity measurements on a Muenstedt type extensional rheometer are combined with local mea- surements based on the in-situ visualization of the sample under exten- sion. For elongational experiments at constant strain rates within a wide range of Weissenberg numbers (Wi), three distinct deformation regimes are identified. Corresponding to low values of Wi (regime I), the tensile stress displays a broad maximum. This maximum can be explained by simple mathematical arguments as a result of low deformation rates and it should not be confused with the viscosity overshoot phenomenon. Corre- sponding to intermediate values of Wi (regime II), a local maximum of the integral extensional viscosity is systematically observed. However, within this regime, the local viscosity measurements reveal no maximum, but a plateau. Careful inspection of the images of samples within this regime shows that, corresponding to the maximum of the integral viscosity, sec- ondary necks develop along the sample. The emergence of a maximum of the integral elongational viscosity is thus related to the distinct in- homogeneity of deformation states and is not related to the rheological properties of the material. In the fast stretching limit (high Wi, regime III), the overall geometric uniformity of the sample is well preserved, no secondary necks are observed and both the integral and the local transient elongational viscosity show no maximum. A detailed comparison of the experimental findings with results from literature is presented.

Teodor I. Burghelea; Zdenek Stary; Helmut Muenstedt

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

A comparative study on conventional and advanced exergetic analyses of geothermal district heating systems based on actual operational data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper comparatively evaluates exergy destructions of a geothermal district heating system (GDHS) using both conventional and advanced exergetic analysis methods to identify the potential for improvement and the interactions among the components. As a real case study, the Afyon GDHS in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, is considered based on actual operational data. For the first time, advanced exergetic analysis is applied to the GDHSs, in which the exergy destruction rate within each component is split into unavoidable/avoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. The results indicate that the interconnections among all the components are not very strong. Thus, one should focus on how to reduce the internal inefficiency (destruction) rates of the components. The highest priority for improvement in the advanced exergetic analysis is in the re-injection pump (PM-IX), while it is the heat exchanger (HEX-III) in the conventional analysis. In addition, there is a substantial influence on the overall system as the total avoidable exergy destruction rate of the heat exchanger (HEX-V) has the highest value. On the overall system basis, the value for the conventional exergetic efficiency is determined to be 29.29% while that for the modified exergetic efficiency is calculated to be 34.46% through improving the overall components.

Arif Hepbasli; Ali Keçeba?

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

A review of maximum power point tracking algorithms for wind energy systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews state of the art maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for wind energy systems. Due to the instantaneous changing nature of the wind, it is desirable to determine the one optimal generator speed that ensures maximum energy yield. Therefore, it is essential to include a controller that can track the maximum peak regardless of wind speed. The available MPPT algorithms can be classified as either with or without sensors, as well as according to the techniques used to locate the maximum peak. A comparison has been made between the performance of different MPPT algorithms on the basis of various speed responses and ability to achieve the maximum energy yield. Based on simulation results available in the literature, the optimal torque control (OTC) has been found to be the best MPPT method for wind energy systems due to its simplicity. On the other hand, the perturbation and observation (P&O) method is flexible and simple in implementation, but is less efficient and has difficulties determining the optimum step-size.

M.A. Abdullah; A.H.M. Yatim; C.W. Tan; R. Saidur

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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381

Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.  

SciTech Connect

The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal ...

William B. Warren

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Production-ecological modelling explains the difference between potential soil N mineralisation and actual herbage N uptake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We studied two different grassland fertiliser management regimes on sand and peat soils: above-ground application of a combination of organic N-rich slurry manure and solid cattle manure (SCM) vs. slit-injected, mineral N-rich slurry manure, whether or not supplemented with chemical fertiliser (non-SCM). Measurements of field N mineralisation as estimated from herbage N uptake in unfertilised plots were compared with (i) potential N mineralisation as determined from a standard laboratory soil incubation, (ii) the contribution of groups of soil organisms to N mineralisation based on production-ecological model calculations, and (iii) N mineralisation calculated according to the Dutch fertilisation recommendation for grasslands. Density and biomass of soil biota (bacteria, fungi, enchytraeids, microarthropods and earthworms) as well as net plant N-uptake were higher in the SCM input grasslands compared to the non-SCM input grasslands. The currently used method in Dutch fertilisation recommendations underestimated actual soil N supply capacity by, on average, 102 kg N ha?1 (202 vs. 304 kg ha?1 = 34%). The summed production-ecological model estimate for N mineralisation by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and enchytraeids was 87–120% of the measured potential soil N mineralisation. Adding the modelled N mineralisation by earthworms to potential soil N mineralisation explained 98–107% of the measured herbage N uptake from soil. For all grasslands and soil biota groups together, the model estimated 105% of the measured net herbage N uptake from soil. Soil biota production-ecological modelling is a powerful tool to understand and predict N uptake in grassland, reflecting the effects of previous manure management and soil type. The results show that combining production ecological modelling to predict N supply with existing soil N tests using aerobic incubation methods, can add to a scientifically based improvement of the N fertilisation recommendations for production grasslands.

Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid; Ron G.M. de Goede; Lijbert Brussaard; Jaap Bloem; Egbert A. Lantinga

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Minimum Power Assignment in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Spanner Property  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be tested in polynomial time and is monotone [1], to minimize the maximum assigned power. We also give, they communicate through multi-hop wireless links by using intermediate nodes to relay the message. Larger distance uv . In other words, wuv > wxy if uv > xy and wuv = wxy if uv = xy . For example

Li, Xiang-Yang

385

Minimum Power Assignment in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Spanner Property  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be tested in polynomial time, to minimize the maximum assigned power. We also give polynomial time through multi-hop wireless links by using intermediate nodes to relay the message. Generally, nodes nodes u and v is a monotone increasing function of the Euclidean #12;distance uv . In other words, wuv

Li, Xiang-Yang

386

On the Vertical Decay Rate of the Maximum Tangential Winds in Tropical Cyclones DANIEL P. STERN* AND DAVID S. NOLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Vertical Decay Rate of the Maximum Tangential Winds in Tropical Cyclones DANIEL P. STERN independent of both the maximum wind speed and the radius of maximum winds (RMW). This can be seen winds change with height. Above 2-km height, vertical profiles of Vmaxnorm are nearly independent

Nolan, David S.

387

Dosimetric comparison of treatment plans based on free breathing, maximum, and average intensity projection CTs for lung cancer SBRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether there is a CT dataset may be more favorable for planning and dose calculation by comparing dosimetric characteristics between treatment plans calculated using free breathing (FB), maximum and average intensity projection (MIP and AIP, respectively) CTs for lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Twenty lung cancer SBRT patients, treated on a linac with 2.5 mm width multileaf-collimator (MLC), were analyzed retrospectively. Both FB helical and four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for each patient. Internal target volume (ITV) was delineated based on MIP CTs and modified based on both ten-phase datasets and FB CTs. Planning target volume (PTV) was then determined by adding additional setup margin to ITV. The PTVs and beams in the optimized treatment plan based on FB CTs were copied to MIP and AIP CTs, with the same isocenters, MLC patterns and monitor units. Mean effective depth (MED) of beams, and some dosimetric parameters for both PTVs and most important organ at risk (OAR), lung minus PTV, were compared between any two datasets using two-tail paired t test. Results: The MEDs in FB and AIP plans were similar but significantly smaller (Ps < 0.001) than that in MIP plans. Minimum dose, mean dose, dose covering at least 90% and 95% of PTVs in MIP plans were slightly higher than two other plans (Ps < 0.008). The absolute volume of lung minus PTV receiving greater than 5, 10, and 20 Gy in MIP plans were significantly smaller than those in both FB and AIP plans (Ps < 0.008). Conformity index for FB plans showed a small but statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Dosimetric characteristics of AIP plans are similar to those of FB plans. Slightly better target volume coverage and significantly lower low-dose region ({<=}30 Gy) in lung was observed in MIP plans. The decrease in low-dose region in lung was mainly caused by the change of lung volume contoured on two datasets rather than the differences of dose distribution between AIP and MIP plans. Compare with AIP datasets, FB datasets were more prone to significant image artifacts and MIP datasets may overestimate or underestimate the target volume when the target is closer to the denser tissue, so AIP seems favorable for planning and dose calculation for lung SBRT.

Tian Yuan; Wang Zhiheng; Ge Hong; Zhang Tian; Cai Jing; Kelsey, Christopher; Yoo, David; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing 100021 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Minimum variance hedging with bivariate regime-switching model for WTI crude oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a four-regime bivariate Markov regime-switching model to estimate the daily time-varying minimum variance hedge ratios for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil, and evaluates its in- and out-of-sample hedging performances with two-regime model, CC-GARCH, TVC-GARCH, and OLS models. Empirical results reveal that the four-regime Markov switching model outperforms the other models for both in- and out-of-sample hedging performance. Based on Hansen’s SPA test (2005), the four-regime model significantly outperforms the other models for only in-sample hedging.

Jui-Cheng Hung; Yi-Hsien Wang; Matthew C. Chang; Kuang-Hsun Shih; Hsiu-Hsueh Kao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Relaxation of spheromak plasmas toward a minimum-energy state and global magnetic fluctuations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Globally coherent modes which are observed during formation in the S-1 Spheromak plasma occur during flux conversion and plasma relaxation toward a minimum-energy state, suggesting that these modes provide a means for relaxation. A significant finding is the temporal progression of these modes through a sequence n=5,4,3,2, m=1, as q rises through rational fractions m/n, where n and m are defined by the functional dependence ei(n?+mtheta) of the fluctuations on toroidal angle ? and poloidal angle theta. Comparison with theory of the observed modes and the sequence of occurrence suggests that these modes are due to resistive MHD instabilities.

A. Janos; G. W. Hart; M. Yamada

1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

390

Correlation in fermion or boson systems as the minimum of entropy relative to all free states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the context of many-fermion systems, "correlation" refers to the inadequacy of an independent-particle model. Using "free" states as archetypes of our independent-particle model, we have proposed a measure of correlation that we called "nonfreeness" [Int. J. Quant. Inf. 5, 815 (2007)]. The nonfreeness of a many-fermion state was defined to be its entropy relative to the unique free state with the same 1-matrix. In this article, we prove that the nonfreeness of a state is the minimum of its entropy relative to all free states. We also extend the definition of nonfreeness to many-boson states and discuss a couple of examples.

Alex D. Gottlieb; Norbert J. Mauser

2014-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

391

Near minimum-time maneuvers of large space structures using parameter optimization and lyapunov feedback control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thruster Set Location, Saturation Thrust, and Positive Voltage Thrust Direction Thruster Manufacture 7 (1-2) 8 (3-4) 9 (5-6) 10 (7-8) Node ? 327 325 321 323 427 437 324 322 328 326 (m) -1. 35 1. 35 1. 35 -1. 35 -2. 82649 2. 82649...NEAR MINIMUM-TIME MANEUVERS OF LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES USING PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION AND LYAPUNOV FEEDBACK CONTROL A Thesis by IvtlCHAEL TIMOTHY CARTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Carter, Michael Timothy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

392

ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

393

Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Hydrazine Oxidoreductase (hzo) Gene in the Oxygen Minimum Zone Off Costa Rica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen loss pathway has been reported in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), but the community composition and spatial distribution of anammox bacteria in the eastern ...

Kong, Liangliang

394

Minimum Cost of Photovoltaic Energy for a Utility Grid and General Features of a Generating Plant Using Costless Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the minimum long term cost of electricity produced by future photovoltaic plants connected to a utility grid. As the cost of photovoltaic cells is supposed to drop drama...

Daniel Madet

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Maximum-entropy meshfree method for nonlinear static analysis of planar reinforced concrete structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the nonlinear system of equations. Maximum-entropy basis functions are used to discretize the two displacement control method is implemented to solve the nonlinear system of equations and to obtain tools in the field of structural engineering, Yaw and co-workers [1] presented a blended FE and meshfree

Sukumar, N.

396

Magnetofossil spike during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Ferromagnetic resonance, rock magnetic, and electron microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetofossil spike during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Ferromagnetic resonance, rock,2 Timothy D. Raub,3,4 Dirk Schumann,5 Hojatollah Vali,5 Alexei V. Smirnov,3,6 and Joseph L. Kirschvink1 controversial hypothesis that a cometary impact triggered the PETM. Here we present ferromagnetic resonance (FMR

397

Maximum late Holocene extent of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during the late 20th century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the 20th century. This suggests a lagged ice-margin response to prior cooling, such as the Little Ice AgeMaximum late Holocene extent of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during the late 20th century Samuel Keywords: Greenland Ice Sheet Little Ice Age 10 Be exposure dating Ice-dammed lake Lake sediment core a b

Briner, Jason P.

398

Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model  

SciTech Connect

We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

Donnelly, Catherine, E-mail: C.Donnelly@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Actuarial Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

SAWSA-LPR: Astochastic search strategy for estimation of maximum likelihood DNA phylogenetic trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the spirit of the ''grand challenge'', this paper covers the development of novel concepts for inference of large phylogenies based on the maximum likelihood method, which has proved to be the most accurate model for inference of huge and complex ... Keywords: DNA, Inferencing, LPR, Phylogenetic tree, Simulated annealing

Sanchita Paul, Gadadhar Sahoo

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Maximum Feedrate Interpolator for Multi-axis CNC Machining with Jerk Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum Feedrate Interpolator for Multi-axis CNC Machining with Jerk Constraints X. Beudaert, S name@lurpa.ens-cachan.fr Abstract A key role of the CNC is to perform the feedrate interpolation which for the next point along the path is computed. Examples and comparisons with an industrial CNC demonstrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ocean Circulation During the Last Glacial Maximum Simulated by PMIP3 Climate Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the intensity of the Atlantic Overturning Circulation (distinguished by the local maximum at approximately 30 N %. In the plot corresponding to the World Ocean Circulation, an increase in the Deep Circulation, associated of the water masses as well as the impact on ocean carbon storage. References: [1] Godfrey J. S., Geophysics

Schmittner, Andreas

402

Environmental and Ecological Statistics 10, 455467, 2003 Moment and maximum likelihood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental and Ecological Statistics 10, 455±467, 2003 Moment and maximum likelihood estimators are probability proportional to size methods. These methods are also referred to as size-biased because sampling are special cases of size-biased sampling where the probability weighting comes from a lineal or areal

403

Towards a frequency-dependent discrete maximum principle for the implicit Monte Carlo equations  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that temperature solutions of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations can exceed the external boundary temperatures, a so-called violation of the 'maximum principle.' Previous attempts at prescribing a maximum value of the time-step size {Delta}{sub t} that is sufficient to eliminate these violations have recommended a {Delta}{sub t} that is typically too small to be used in practice and that appeared to be much too conservative when compared to numerical solutions of the IMC equations for practical problems. In this paper, we derive a new estimator for the maximum time-step size that includes the spatial-grid size {Delta}{sub x}. This explicitly demonstrates that the effect of coarsening {Delta}{sub x} is to reduce the limitation on {Delta}{sub t}, which helps explain the overly conservative nature of the earlier, grid-independent results. We demonstrate that our new time-step restriction is a much more accurate means of predicting violations of the maximum principle. We discuss how the implications of the new, grid-dependent timestep restriction can impact IMC solution algorithms.

Wollaber, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Larsen, Edward W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Maximum Class Separability for Rough-Fuzzy C-Means Based Brain MR Image Segmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum Class Separability for Rough-Fuzzy C-Means Based Brain MR Image Segmentation Pradipta Maji of brain MR images. The RFCM algorithm comprises a judicious integration of the of rough sets, fuzzy sets with vagueness and incompleteness in class definition of brain MR images, the membership function of fuzzy sets

Pal, Sankar Kumar

405

Maximum Utility Product Pricing Models and Algorithms Based on Reservation Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum Utility Product Pricing Models and Algorithms Based on Reservation Prices R. Shioda L. Tun for pricing a product line with several customer segments under the assumption that customers' product choices utility model and formulate it as a mixed-integer programming problem, design heuristics and valid cuts

Tunçel, Levent

406

Self-Assembly for Maximum Yields Under Constraints Michael J. Fox and Jeff S. Shamma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-Assembly for Maximum Yields Under Constraints Michael J. Fox and Jeff S. Shamma Abstract-- We present an algorithm that, given any target tree, synthesizes reversible self-assembly rules that provide states that cannot be recovered from the unlabeled graph. I. INTRODUCTION Self-assembly is the phenomenon

Shamma, Jeff S.

407

Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture Stefano Accepted 26 September 2013 Available online 9 October 2013 Keywords: Optimization Photosynthesis Soil moisture Stomatal conductance Transpiration a b s t r a c t Optimization theories explain a variety

Katul, Gabriel

408

Generalized Local Maximum Principles for Finite-Difference Operators Author(s): Achi Brandt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generalized Local Maximum Principles for Finite-Difference Operators Author(s): Achi Brandt Source://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ams. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars

409

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song Intelligent sources of alternative energy. The construction of wind farms is destined to grow in the U.S., possibly twenty-fold by the year 2030. To maximize the wind energy capture, this paper presents a model for wind

Kusiak, Andrew

410

Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated) viewed as a heat engine converts heat energy extracted from the ocean to kinetic energy of the TC, which is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while

Wang, Yuqing

411

Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated as a heat engine converts heat energy extracted from the ocean into the kinetic energy of the TC, which is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while

Wang, Yuqing

412

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND THE GLOBAL CLIMATE SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF THE MAXIMUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND THE GLOBAL CLIMATE SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY of the global climate system and those of turbulent fluid systems are reviewed from a thermodynamic viewpoint production, energetics Citation: Ozawa, H., A. Ohmura, R. D. Lorenz, and T. Pujol, The second law

Lorenz, Ralph D.

413

Integrating ecophysiology and plankton dynamics into projected changes in maximum fisheries catch potential under climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). In addition, average surface water pH of the ocean has dropped by 0.1 units since pre- industrial timesIntegrating ecophysiology and plankton dynamics into projected changes in maximum fisheries catch 7TJ, UK 2 Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft

Pauly, Daniel

414

Accurate Single Molecule FRET Efficiency Determination for Surface Immobilized DNA Using Maximum Likelihood Calculated Lifetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate Single Molecule FRET Efficiency Determination for Surface Immobilized DNA Using MaximumVed: October 4, 2006; In Final Form: January 12, 2007 Single molecule fluorescent lifetime trajectories directly measured using time-tagged single-photon counting and scanning confocal microscopy. A modified

415

A PROXIMITY CONTROL ALGORITHM TO MINIMIZE NONSMOOTH AND NONCONVEX SEMI-INFINITE MAXIMUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the context of eigen- value optimization, and [8] gives an overview of the history. The bases for the presentA PROXIMITY CONTROL ALGORITHM TO MINIMIZE NONSMOOTH AND NONCONVEX SEMI-INFINITE MAXIMUM EIGENVALUE function, semi-infinite problem, H-norm. 1. Introduction. Proximity control for bundle methods has been

Noll, Dominikus

416

A PROXIMITY CONTROL ALGORITHM TO MINIMIZE NONSMOOTH AND NONCONVEX SEMI-INFINITE MAXIMUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the context of eigen- value optimization, and [9] gives an overview of the history. The bases for the presentA PROXIMITY CONTROL ALGORITHM TO MINIMIZE NONSMOOTH AND NONCONVEX SEMI-INFINITE MAXIMUM EIGENVALUE function, semi-infinite problem, H-norm. 1. Introduction. Proximity control for bundle methods has been

Noll, Dominikus

417

A population-based iterated greedy algorithm for the minimum weight vertex cover problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given an undirected, vertex-weighted graph, the goal of the minimum weight vertex cover problem is to find a subset of the vertices of the graph such that the subset is a vertex cover and the sum of the weights of its vertices is minimal. This problem is known to be NP-hard and no efficient algorithm is known to solve it to optimality. Therefore, most existing techniques are based on heuristics for providing approximate solutions in a reasonable computation time. Population-based search approaches have shown to be effective for solving a multitude of combinatorial optimization problems. Their advantage can be identified as their ability to find areas of the space containing high quality solutions. This paper proposes a simple and efficient population-based iterated greedy algorithm for tackling the minimum weight vertex cover problem. At each iteration, a population of solutions is established and refined using a fast randomized iterated greedy heuristic based on successive phases of destruction and reconstruction. An extensive experimental evaluation on a commonly used set of benchmark instances shows that our algorithm outperforms current state-of-the-art approaches.

Salim Bouamama; Christian Blum; Abdellah Boukerram

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Minimum separation distances for natural gas pipeline and boilers in the 300 area, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing actions to reduce energy expenditures and improve energy system reliability at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. These actions include replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing a new natural gas distribution system to provide a fuel source for many of these units, and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. The individual heating units will include steam boilers that are to be housed in individual annex buildings located at some distance away from nearby 300 Area nuclear facilities. This analysis develops the basis for siting the package boilers and natural gas distribution systems to be used to supply steam to 300 Area nuclear facilities. The effects of four potential fire and explosion scenarios involving the boiler and natural gas pipeline were quantified to determine minimum separation distances that would reduce the risks to nearby nuclear facilities. The resulting minimum separation distances are shown in Table ES.1.

Daling, P.M.; Graham, T.M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Standards and Rebate Incentive Programs for Domestic Refrigerators in the Pacific Northwest.  

SciTech Connect

Refrigerator-freezers (R/Fs) and freezers (FRs) account for 16% of the electricity consumed in the residential sector of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) forecast region (Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Western Montana). After space and water heating, R/Fs are the largest residential electrical end-use. There is great potential for reducing electricity consumption in a cost-effective manner through the purchase and use of more energy-efficient R/Fs and FRs. For example, if every household in the BPA region had the best R/F model now mass-produced, the electricity savings would be about 5 billion kWh/yr, approximately the power supplied annually by 1000 MW of nuclear or coal-fired generating capacity. The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and BPA recognize the savings potential from efficient R/Fs and FRs as well as the barriers to their use. In the 1983 regional power plan, the Council directed BPA to develop and implement incentive and promotion programs for efficient appliances. The NPPC also called for the evaluation of minimum efficiency standards for appliances sold in the region. In response to this directive, the Office of Conservation in BPA funded an evaluation of both rebate incentive programs and minimum efficiency standards for R/Fs and FRs. The results are presented in this report.

Geller, Howard S.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

An Ad-Hoc Method for Obtaining chi**2 Values from Unbinned Maximum Likelihood Fits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A common goal in an experimental physics analysis is to extract information from a reaction with multi-dimensional kinematics. The preferred method for such a task is typically the unbinned maximum likelihood method. In fits using this method, the likelihood is a goodness-of-fit quantity in that it effectively discriminates between available hypotheses; however, it does not provide any information as to how well the best hypothesis describes the data. In this paper, we present an {\\em ad-hoc} procedure for obtaining chi**2/n.d.f. values from unbinned maximum likelihood fits. This method does not require binning the data, making it very applicable to multi-dimensional problems.

M. Williams; C. A. Meyer

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Maximum-Entropy Meshfree Method for Compressible and Near-Incompressible Elasticity  

SciTech Connect

Numerical integration errors and volumetric locking in the near-incompressible limit are two outstanding issues in Galerkin-based meshfree computations. In this paper, we present a modified Gaussian integration scheme on background cells for meshfree methods that alleviates errors in numerical integration and ensures patch test satisfaction to machine precision. Secondly, a locking-free small-strain elasticity formulation for meshfree methods is proposed, which draws on developments in assumed strain methods and nodal integration techniques. In this study, maximum-entropy basis functions are used; however, the generality of our approach permits the use of any meshfree approximation. Various benchmark problems in two-dimensional compressible and near-incompressible small strain elasticity are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and optimal convergence in the energy norm of the maximum-entropy meshfree formulation.

Ortiz, A; Puso, M A; Sukumar, N

2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

422

Improved parameterized algorithms for minimum link-length rectilinear spanning path problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Parameterized Minimum Link-Length Rectilinear Spanning Path problem in the d-dimensional Euclidean space R d (d-RSP), for a given set S of n points in R d and a positive integer k, is to find a rectilinear spanning path P with at most k line-segments that cover all points in S, where all line-segments in P are axis-parallel. In this paper, we study a constrained d-RSP problem (Constrained d-RSP problem) in which each line-segment l in the spanning path must cover all the points in S that share the same line with l. By applying the branch-and-search and dynamic programming techniques, a parameterized algorithm with running time O ? ( ( 1 + 1 + 4 ( d ? 1 ) 2 ) k ) is given for the Constrained d-RSP problem, which significantly improves the current best result O ? ( ( 0.74 d k ) k ) .

Qilong Feng; Jianxin Wang; Chao Xu; Jinyi Yao; Jianer Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Achieving minimum impact insulation class 50 rating using resilient clip technology in lightweight construction.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Resilient clip technology is an alternative to resilient channel for supporting gypsum wallboard in fire rated wall and floor?ceiling assemblies. Lightweight wood frame construction presents challenges in meeting building code requirements for impact insulation class (IIC) and sound transmission class (STC) ratings in floor?ceiling assemblies. Through laboratory testing we were able to compare different floor?ceiling assemblies commonly used in multi?family construction. Two different structures were tested an 18 in. open web truss 24 in. o.c. and a 12 in. engineered joist (TJI) 24 in. o.c. Various finish floor coverings were used including ceramic tile vinyl and engineered wood. Structures achieved minimum IIC and STC 50 with and without 3/4 in. Gypsum concrete. Resilient rubber underlayment of varying thickness can further improve the IIC and STC ratings of the assembly as can adding a second layer of gypsum wallboard.

Wilson Byrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Possible Observation of Nuclear Reactor Neutrinos Near the Oscillation Absolute Minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After a summary of the basic three neutrino oscillation formalism we review briefly our present empirical knowledge of the oscillation parameters and conclude that the 2-neutrinos model is adequate to describe the survival probability of the electronic neutrino P(nue->nue). Then we proceed to the evaluation of P(nue->nue) relative to the antineutrinos emitted by the nuclear power stations presently in operation along the the Rhone valley. We assume that a detector has been installed in a existing cavity located under the Mont Ventoux at a depth equivalent to 1500 m of water. We show that such an experiment would provide the opportunity to observe neutrinos near the oscillation absolute minimum. We end by a rough estimate of the counting rate.

C. Bouchiat

2003-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

425

Photoelectron satellite spectrum in the region of the 3s Cooper minimum of argon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 3s,3p satellite spectrum of argon has been studied with use of synchrotron radiation in the 40–70-eV energy range. In the region of the 3s Cooper minimum (42.5 eV±0.2), the integral intensity of the satellites is ten times larger than the 3s partial cross section. The angular asymmetry parameters have been measured as a function of the photoelectron energy for the 3s 2S,3p 2P final states as well as for the satellites. For the lowest photon energies it appears that the ? parameter values of the most intense satellites are strongly dependent on the total angular momentum of the final ionic state.

M. Y. Adam, P. Morin, and G. Wendin

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Resistance minimum observed at Landau level filling factor ?=1/2 in ultra high magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the magnetotransport near Landau level filling factor ?=1/2 in a gated GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As square quantum well (width 35 nm) in magnetic field up to 45 T and in a temperature (T) range between 50 mK and 1.5 K. The longitudinal resistance at ?=1/2, Rxx(?=1/2), exhibits a steep valley that is flanked by a pair of rising resistance peaks in low T. The Rxx(?=1/2) shows nonmonotonous dependence on T, with a minimum resistance reached at T?0.5?K. The concomitant Hall resistance Rxy is not strictly linear with magnetic field and its slope shows a sharp cusp at ?=1/2, indicating a nonclassical Hall effect. The data are characteristic for ultra high field magnetotransport around ?=1/2 in thick, but single-layer, quantum wells.

Jian Zhang; R. R. Du; J. A. Simmons; J. L. Reno

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

427

On the minimum dark matter mass testable by neutrinos from the Sun  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a limitation on extracting bounds on the scattering cross section of dark matter with nucleons, using neutrinos from the Sun. If the dark matter particle is sufficiently light (less than about 4 GeV), the effect of evaporation is not negligible and the capture process goes in equilibrium with the evaporation. In this regime, the flux of solar neutrinos of dark matter origin becomes independent of the scattering cross section and therefore no constraint can be placed on it. We find the minimum values of dark matter masses for which the scattering cross section on nucleons can be probed using neutrinos from the Sun. We also provide simple and accurate fitting functions for all the relevant processes of GeV-scale dark matter in the Sun.

Busoni, Giorgio; Simone, Andrea De; Huang, Wei-Chih, E-mail: giorgio.busoni@sissa.it, E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

A maximum entropy theorem with applications to the measurement of biodiversity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a preliminary article stating and proving a new maximum entropy theorem. The entropies that we consider can be used as measures of biodiversity. In that context, the question is: for a given collection of species, which frequency distribution(s) maximize the diversity? The theorem provides the answer. The chief surprise is that although we are dealing not just with a single entropy, but a one-parameter family of entropies, there is a single distribution maximizing all of them simultaneously.

Leinster, Tom

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Computation of the maximum loadability of a power system using nonlinear optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Between Generator and Load. . . . . . . . . 34 E. Flowchart for Optimization Program F. Tutorial Example G. Conclusion. . 35 36 44 V SIMULATION RESULTS. 45 A. Introduction. B. Results of Simulation for Maximum Loadability of the Total System. I... of this work starting from the basics. Chapter III will cover concepts of power flow and loadability along with tutorial example. The literature survey over this topic and previous work as well as problem statement and solution method will be covered...

Khabirov, Abdufarrukh

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Interval analysis applied to the maximum loading point of electric power systems considering load data uncertainties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper proposes a simple and efficient power flow method to calculate, in an interval manner, the main variables corresponding to the maximum loading point, under load data uncertainties. The resulting interval nonlinear system of equations is solved using Krawczyk method. The proposed methodology is implemented in the Matlab environment using the Intlab toolbox. Results are compared with those obtainable by Monte Carlo simulations. IEEE 30 bus system and a South-southeastern Brazilian network are used to validate the proposed methodology.

L.E.S. Pereira; V.M. da Costa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Hydrodynamic equations for electrons in graphene obtained from the maximum entropy principle  

SciTech Connect

The maximum entropy principle is applied to the formal derivation of isothermal, Euler-like equations for semiclassical fermions (electrons and holes) in graphene. After proving general mathematical properties of the equations so obtained, their asymptotic form corresponding to significant physical regimes is investigated. In particular, the diffusive regime, the Maxwell-Boltzmann regime (high temperature), the collimation regime and the degenerate gas limit (vanishing temperature) are considered.

Barletti, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.barletti@unifi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica “Ulisse Dini”, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Viale Morgagni 67/A, 50134 Firenze (Italy)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

An Analysis of Maximum Residential Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the high efficiency instantaneous water heater with electronic ignition. The largest equipment energy savings (20%) was achieved from the horizontal-axis clothes washer. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) saved 75% lighting energy use. Among all...AN ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES Mini Malhotra Graduate Research Assistant Jeff Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor/Associate Director Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University College...

Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

QUIET-TIME INTERPLANETARY {approx}2-20 keV SUPERHALO ELECTRONS AT SOLAR MINIMUM  

SciTech Connect

We present a statistical survey of {approx}2-20 keV superhalo electrons in the solar wind measured by the SupraThermal Electron instrument on board the two STEREO spacecraft during quiet-time periods from 2007 March through 2009 March at solar minimum. The observed superhalo electrons have a nearly isotropic angular distribution and a power-law spectrum, f{proportional_to}v{sup -{gamma}}, with {gamma} ranging from 5 to 8.7, with nearly half between 6.5 and 7.5, and an average index of 6.69 {+-} 0.90. The observed power-law spectrum varies significantly on a spatial scale of {approx}>0.1 AU and a temporal scale of {approx}>several days. The integrated density of quiet-time superhalo electrons at 2-20 keV ranges from {approx}10{sup -8} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} cm{sup -3}, about 10{sup -9}-10{sup -6} of the solar wind density, and, as well as the power-law spectrum, shows no correlation with solar wind proton density, velocity, or temperature. The density of superhalo electrons appears to show a solar-cycle variation at solar minimum, while the power-law spectral index {gamma} has no solar-cycle variation. These quiet-time superhalo electrons are present even in the absence of any solar activity-e.g., active regions, flares or microflares, type III radio bursts, etc.-suggesting that they may be accelerated by processes such as resonant wave-particle interactions in the interplanetary medium, or possibly by nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or by acceleration at the CIR forward shocks.

Wang, Linghua [Department of Geophysics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Lin, Robert P.; Salem, Chadi; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin E.; Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps  

SciTech Connect

Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

435

U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2000 0 0 62 63 59 63 58 61 59 63 62 65 2001 61 61 63 65 64 60 58 56 54 58 59 58 2002 54 57 54 50 51 50 52 50 56 57 50 43 2003 40 41 41 40 38 39 41 43 39 39 38 42 2004 43 45 45 45 44 49 48 49 48 48 49 50 2005 52 53 51 50 55 57 54 55 56 57 57 58 2006 55 57 59 58 58 57 66 62 63 64 65 64 2007 63 63 68 71 70 69 69 71 73 77 79 75 2008 76 77 75 72 73 73 72 72 NA 77 72 73 2009 75 76 72 70 65 60 61 60 60 63 62 63 2010 64 65 63 66 67 67 67 65 64 62 62 62

436

Effect of altered boundary conditions on GCM studies of the climate of the last glacial maximum  

SciTech Connect

The authors address a problem discovered recently with global climate model results for the last glacial maximum. Bard, et. al. pointed out a mismatch in boundary conditions entered into the model. Ice sheet conditions were derived from CLIMAP based on a time 18000 radiocarbon years ago. It was assumed that radiocarbon and sidereal dates coincide. However it was recently shown that the sidereal data of the last glacial maximum is nearer 21kbp. The authors perform model calculations to attempt to evaluate the seriousness of this mismatch in terms of calculated results from the global climate model runs for the last glacial maximum. The authors find that one result of the timing mismatch is a sizable difference in northern hemisphere summer and Eurasian winter climates. These changes should have a major impact on circulation patterns in the GCM simulations. In addition new ice sheet model programs are available now which appear to improve on CLIMAP models. The authors urge that these GCM simulations be rerun.

Hyde, W.T.; Peltier, W.R.

1993-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

437

A proposed methodology for medium-range maximum demand anticipation and application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One to three years' anticipation of monthly and weekly peak demand is required to prepare maintenance schedules, develop power pooling agreements, select peaking capacity and provide data required by certain reliability coordinating centers. A total monthly forecast of the maximum demand is deduced and computed for the three years up to April 1981. This is accomplished for an important electrical network in Egypt. The anticipated maximum demand is executed for El-Mehalla El-Kubra city network. This network has an industrial and residential daily load characteristic. Direct monthly maximum demand forecasting is executed by separate treatment of weather-independent and weather-induced demand. The required forecast is derived by two methodologies: the probabilistic extrapolation-correlation, and that suggested by the authors. Daily and monthly data have been collected for more reliable determination of weather load models. Complete analysis, discussion and comments on the results are presented, and the results compared. This comparison reveals that an acceptable and reasonable percentage error is obtained on applying the proposed methodology.

M.S. Kandil; M.Helmy El-Maghraby; H. El-Dosouky

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

A maximum power tracking algorithm based on photovoltaic current control for matching loads to a photovoltaic generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) approach is studied. It is based on the photovoltaic (PV) current control. The last one...

Ben Hamed Mouna; Sbita Lassaâd

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

440

Software Engineering Model Schedule -(with CS 1131) example only; actual schedule may vary; see your academic dept. Includes 3 units of co-curricular activities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software Engineering Model Schedule - (with CS 1131) example only; actual schedule may vary; see FALL SPRING FALL SPRING CS 1000 1 CS 2321 3 CS 1141 2 CS 3141 3 CS 1131 5 MA 2160 4 CS 2311 3 CS 3421 4 Activity (1) Total 17 Total 15 Total 14-15 Total 16-17 3rd Year 4th Year FALL SPRING FALL SPRING CS 3311 3

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Software Engineering Model Schedule -(Starting with CS 1121) example only; actual schedule may vary; see your academic dept. Includes 3 units of co-curricular activities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software Engineering Model Schedule - (Starting with CS 1121) example only; actual schedule may Year 2nd Year FALL SPRING FALL SPRING CS 1000 1 CS 1122 3 CS 1141 2 CS 2311 3 CS 1121 3 MA 2160 4 CS Cocurricular Activity (1) Total 15 Total 15 Total 14-15 Total 16-17 3rd Year 4th Year FALL SPRING FALL SPRING

442

Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

443

Invasive interactions of Monomorium minimum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) infected with Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporida: Thelohaniidae)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

does not cause the formation of a pustule and no medical reactions have been recorded in humans (Thompson 1990). Monomorium minimum workers are much smaller than RIFA workers; 1.5 mm in length versus 2-6 mm in length (Thompson 1990). The research... nests (f = 0.022) and enter RIFA nests (f = 0.031) of at least one RIFA colony size. There was no significant difference in the ability of M. minimum to tunnel (f = 0.193), enter the RIFA box (f = 0.228), and get within 2 cm of the RIFA nest (f = 0...

Keck, Molly Elizabeth

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

444

Map-making in small field modulated CMB polarisation experiments: approximating the maximum-likelihood method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Map-making presents a significant computational challenge to the next generation of kilopixel CMB polarisation experiments. Years worth of time ordered data (TOD) from thousands of detectors will need to be compressed into maps of the T, Q and U Stokes parameters. Fundamental to the science goal of these experiments, the observation of B-modes, is the ability to control noise and systematics. In this paper, we consider an alternative to the maximum-likelihood method, called destriping, where the noise is modelled as a set of discrete offset functions and then subtracted from the time-stream. We compare our destriping code (Descart: the DEStriping CARTographer) to a full maximum-likelihood map-maker, applying them to 200 Monte-Carlo simulations of time-ordered data from a ground based, partial-sky polarisation modulation experiment. In these simulations, the noise is dominated by either detector or atmospheric 1/f noise. Using prior information of the power spectrum of this noise, we produce destriped maps of T, Q and U which are negligibly different from optimal. The method does not filter the signal or bias the E or B-mode power spectra. Depending on the length of the destriping baseline, the method delivers between 5 and 22 times improvement in computation time over the maximum-likelihood algorithm. We find that, for the specific case of single detector maps, it is essential to destripe the atmospheric 1/f in order to detect B-modes, even though the Q and U signals are modulated by a half-wave plate spinning at 5-Hz.

D. Sutton; B. R. Johnson; M. L. Brown; P. Cabella; P. G. Ferreira; K. M. Smith

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

445

DOUBLE-DETONATION SUB-CHANDRASEKHAR SUPERNOVAE: SYNTHETIC OBSERVABLES FOR MINIMUM HELIUM SHELL MASS MODELS  

SciTech Connect

In the double-detonation scenario for Type Ia supernovae, it is suggested that a detonation initiates in a shell of helium-rich material accreted from a companion star by a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. This shell detonation drives a shock front into the carbon-oxygen white dwarf that triggers a secondary detonation in the core. The core detonation results in a complete disruption of the white dwarf. Earlier studies concluded that this scenario has difficulties in accounting for the observed properties of Type Ia supernovae since the explosion ejecta are surrounded by the products of explosive helium burning in the shell. Recently, however, it was proposed that detonations might be possible for much less massive helium shells than previously assumed (Bildsten et al.). Moreover, it was shown that even detonations of these minimum helium shell masses robustly trigger detonations of the carbon-oxygen core (Fink et al.). Therefore, it is possible that the impact of the helium layer on observables is less than previously thought. Here, we present time-dependent multi-wavelength radiative transfer calculations for models with minimum helium shell mass and derive synthetic observables for both the optical and {gamma}-ray spectral regions. These differ strongly from those found in earlier simulations of sub-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions in which more massive helium shells were considered. Our models predict light curves that cover both the range of brightnesses and the rise and decline times of observed Type Ia supernovae. However, their colors and spectra do not match the observations. In particular, their B - V colors are generally too red. We show that this discrepancy is mainly due to the composition of the burning products of the helium shell of the Fink et al. models which contain significant amounts of titanium and chromium. Using a toy model, we also show that the burning products of the helium shell depend crucially on its initial composition. This leads us to conclude that good agreement between sub-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions and observed Type Ia supernovae may still be feasible but further study of the shell properties is required.

Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Fink, M.; Roepke, F. K.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W., E-mail: mkromer@mpa-garching.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)

Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Lensmem a gravitational lens inversion algorithm using the maximum entropy method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new algorithm for inverting poorly resolved gravitational lens systems using the maximum entropy method (MEM). We test the method with simulations and then apply it to an 8 GHz VLA map of the radio ring lens MG1654+134. We model the lens as a singular isothermal sphere embedded in an external shear field and find the critical radius of the lens is b=0\\parcs9820, the dimensionless shear is \\gamma=0.0771, and the position angle of the shear is \\theta=100\\pdeg8. These results are consistent with the results obtained by Kochanek (1995) using a complementary inversion algorithm based on Clean.

Wallington, S; Narayan, R

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

LensMEM: A Gravitational Lens Inversion Algorithm Using the Maximum Entropy Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new algorithm for inverting poorly resolved gravitational lens systems using the maximum entropy method (MEM). We test the method with simulations and then apply it to an 8 GHz VLA map of the radio ring lens MG1654+134. We model the lens as a singular isothermal sphere embedded in an external shear field and find the critical radius of the lens is $b=0\\parcs9820$, the dimensionless shear is $\\gamma=0.0771$, and the position angle of the shear is $\\theta=100\\pdeg8$. These results are consistent with the results obtained by Kochanek (1995) using a complementary inversion algorithm based on Clean.

S. Wallington; C. S. Kochanek; R. Narayan

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

Interpretation of the depths of maximum of extensive air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

To interpret the mean depth of cosmic ray air shower maximum and its dispersion, we parametrize those two observables as functions of the first two moments of the ln A distribution. We examine the goodness of this simple method through simulations of test mass distributions. The application of the parameterization to Pierre Auger Observatory data allows one to study the energy dependence of the mean ln A and of its variance under the assumption of selected hadronic interaction models. We discuss possible implications of these dependences in term of interaction models and astrophysical cosmic ray sources.

Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Detection-estimation of very close emitters: performance breakdown, ambiguity, and general statistical analysis of maximum-likelihood estimation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We reexamine the well-known problem of "threshold behavior" or "performance breakdown" in the detection-estimation of very closely spaced emitters. In this extreme regime, we analyze the performance for maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) of directions-of-arrival ... Keywords: direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, maximum-likelihood estimation, random matrix theory, signal detection, signal resolution

Yuri I. Abramovich; Ben A. Johnson

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Magnetic flux conversion and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state in S-1 spheromak plasmas  

SciTech Connect

S-1 Spheromak currents and magnetic fluxes have been measured with Rogowski coils and flux loops external to the plasma. Toroidal plasma currents up to 350 kA and spheromak configuration lifetimes over 1.0 msec have been achieved at moderate power levels. The plasma formation in the S-1 Spheromak device is based on an inductive transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic flux from a toroidal ''flux core'' to the plasma. Formation is programmed to guide the configuration into a force-free, minimum-energy Taylor state. Properly detailed programming of the formation process is found not to be essential since plasmas adjust themselves during formation to a final equilibrium near the Taylor state. After formation, if the plasma evolves away from the stable state, then distinct relaxation oscillation events occur which restore the configuration to that stable state. The relaxation process involves reconnection of magnetic field lines, and conversion of poloidal to toroidal magnetic flux (and vice versa) has been observed and documented. The scaling of toroidal plasma current and toroidal magnetic flux in the plasma with externally applied currents is consistent with the establishment of a Taylor state after formation. In addition, the magnetic helicity is proportional to that injected from the flux core, independent of how that helicity is generated.

Janos, A.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Designing a minimum-functionality neutron and gamma measurement instrument with a focus on authentication  

SciTech Connect

During the design and construction of the Next-Generation Attribute-Measurement System, which included a largely commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), nondestructive assay (NDA) system, we realized that commercial NDA equipment tends to include numerous features that are not required for an attribute-measurement system. Authentication of the hardware, firmware, and software in these instruments is still required, even for those features not used in this application. However, such a process adds to the complexity, cost, and time required for authentication. To avoid these added authenticat ion difficulties, we began to design NDA systems capable of performing neutron multiplicity and gamma-ray spectrometry measurements by using simplified hardware and software that avoids unused features and complexity. This paper discusses one possible approach to this design: A hardware-centric system that attempts to perform signal analysis as much as possible in the hardware. Simpler processors and minimal firmware are used because computational requirements are kept to a bare minimum. By hard-coding the majority of the device's operational parameters, we could cull large sections of flexible, configurable hardware and software found in COTS instruments, thus yielding a functional core that is more straightforward to authenticate.

Karpius, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Richard B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Minimum Analytical Chemistry Requirements for Pit Manufacturing at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Analytical chemistry is one of several capabilities necessary for executing the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Analytical chemistry capabilities reside in the Chemistry Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility and Plutonium Facility (TA-55). These analytical capabilities support plutonium recovery operations, plutonium metallurgy, and waste management. Analytical chemistry capabilities at both nuclear facilities are currently being configured to support pit manufacturing. This document summarizes the minimum analytical chemistry capabilities required to sustain pit manufacturing at LANL. By the year 2004, approximately $16 million will be required to procure analytical instrumentation to support pit manufacturing. In addition, $8.5 million will be required to procure glovebox enclosures. An estimated 50% increase in costs has been included for installation of analytical instruments and glovebox enclosures. However, no general and administrative (G and A) taxes have been included. If an additional 42.5/0 G and A tax were to be incurred, approximately $35 million would be required over the next five years to prepare analytical chemistry to support a 50-pit-per-year manufacturing capability by the year 2004.

Moy, Ming M.; Leasure, Craig S.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

A comparative assessment of Brazilian electric motors performance with minimum efficiency standards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The industrial electric motor is the most important load, considering its large number and associated energy consumption, being responsible for approximately 68% of the industrial energy consumption and 35% of the total electrical energy consumption in Brazil. This country, like others, is seeking to establish a regulation on the minimum efficiency index for electric motor equipment. This paper aims to present an overview of the installed park of industrial motors in Brazil and to evaluate the possible effects of such regulation. For this purpose, the measurement results obtained in the 2000–2012 period were used, which were extracted from the approximately 276 three-phase induction motors that had been sold and were being used in the Brazilian market, with a rated power in a large range from under 1 hp to over 150 hp. The analysis of the measurement results provided an overview of the average behavior of the induction motors in industry while considering energy efficiency and allowing estimates and proposals aiming at the improvement of the use of electrical energy.

Ildo L. Sauer; Hédio Tatizawa; Francisco A.M. Salotti; Sonia S. Mercedes

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Experimental beta limit in an average minimum-B tandem mirror  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High density (non-thermal-barrier) operation in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) is found to be restricted by a stability limit. This limit is observed in the ratio of the neutral beam sustained central cell beta ?c to the hot ion beta ?ih in the minimum-B anchor cells at both ends of the central cell, qualitatively consistent with a flute interchange stability limit. The ratio is ?c/?ih = 5, over the range of 0.03 ? ?c ? 0.22, with no apparent reduction due to ballooning at high ?c. This is a factor of six below the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) m = 1 stability theory prediction of ?c/?ih = 33 at ?c ? 0.1, where ballooning corrections to flute modes are small. The discrepancy could be due to approximations in the theory; however, experimental data indicate that the stability limit is due to drift wave turbulence or to large-m MHD flute or ballooning modes. The experimental beta limit is nearly independent of the hot electron beta in the anchor cells, which is compatible with theoretical predictions that the hot electron beta will decouple from MHD activity.

A.W. Molvik; T.A. Casper; A.H. Futch

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Patch-based image segmentation of satellite imagery using minimum spanning tree construction  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for hierarchical image segmentation and feature extraction. This method builds upon the combination of the detection of image spectral discontinuities using Canny edge detection and the image Laplacian, followed by the construction of a hierarchy of segmented images of successively reduced levels of details. These images are represented as sets of polygonized pixel patches (polygons) attributed with spectral and structural characteristics. This hierarchy forms the basis for object-oriented image analysis. To build fine level-of-detail representation of the original image, seed partitions (polygons) are built upon a triangular mesh composed of irregular sized triangles, whose spatial arrangement is adapted to the image content. This is achieved by building the triangular mesh on the top of the detected spectral discontinuities that form a network of constraints for the Delaunay triangulation. A polygonized image is represented as a spatial network in the form of a graph with vertices which correspond to the polygonal partitions and graph edges reflecting pairwise partitions relations. Image graph partitioning is based on the iterative graph oontraction using Boruvka's Minimum Spanning Tree algorithm. An important characteristic of the approach is that the agglomeration of partitions is constrained by the detected spectral discontinuities; thus the shapes of agglomerated partitions are more likely to correspond to the outlines of real-world objects.

Skurikhin, Alexei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

The Minimum Mass for Opacity-Limited Fragmentation in Turbulent Cloud Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new analysis of the minimum mass for star formation, based on opacity-limited fragmentation. Our analysis differs from the standard one, which considers hierarchical fragmentation of a 3-D medium, and yields $M_{_{\\rm MIN}} \\sim 0.007 {\\rm to} 0.010 M_\\odot$ for Population I star formation. Instead we analyse the more realistic situation in which there is one-shot fragmentation of a shock-compressed layer, of the sort which arises in turbulent star-forming clouds. In this situation, $M_{_{\\rm MIN}}$ can be smaller than $0.003 M_\\odot$. Our analysis is more stringent than the standard one in that (a) it requires fragments to have condensation timescales shorter than all competing mass scales, and (b) it takes into acount that a fragment grows by accretion whilst it is condensing out, and has to radiate away the energy dissipated in the associated accretion shock. It also accords with the recent detection, in young star clusters, of free-floating star-like objects having masses as low as $0.003 {\\rm M}_\\odot$.

D. F. A. Boyd; A. P. Whitworth

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

458

Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ  

SciTech Connect

The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

Terry J. Garino; Tina M. Nenoff; Mark A. Rodriguez

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Property:Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 10.0 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 10.0 + A Alden Large Flume + 0.0 + Alden Wave Basin + 1.0 + C Chase Tow Tank + 3.1 + Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility + 2.3 + Coastal Inlet Model Facility + 2.3 + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + 4.0 + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + 3.0 + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + 3.0 +

460

Application of maximum likelihood methods to laser Thomson scattering measurements of low density plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Laser Thomson scattering (LTS) is an established plasma diagnostic technique that has seen recent application to low density plasmas. It is difficult to perform LTS measurements when the scattered signal is weak as a result of low electron number density, poor optical access to the plasma, or both. Photon counting methods are often implemented in order to perform measurements in these low signal conditions. However, photon counting measurements performed with photo-multiplier tubes are time consuming and multi-photon arrivals are incorrectly recorded. In order to overcome these shortcomings a new data analysis method based on maximum likelihood estimation was developed. The key feature of this new data processing method is the inclusion of non-arrival events in determining the scattered Thomson signal. Maximum likelihood estimation and its application to Thomson scattering at low signal levels is presented and application of the new processing method to LTS measurements performed in the plume of a 2-kW Hall-effect thruster is discussed.

Washeleski, Robert L.; Meyer, Edmond J. IV; King, Lyon B. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States)] [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Maximum power point tracking of permanent magnet wind turbines equipped with direct matrix converter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel control method for Maximum Power Point Tracking of wind turbines (WTs) equipped with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and a Direct Matrix Converter (DMC). The method calculates the optimum wind turbine speed and maximizes the extracted power from wind turbine. This is done by Hill Climb Search method which is simple and does not need to know the generator parameters and no need to solve the complicated differential equations of generator. WT rotor speed is compared with its optimal value and then DMC controls WT until its rotor speed reaches its optimum value. Under this situation maximum power is extracted from WT and is injected to the grid with unity power factor. It is implemented by controlling the phase and the amplitude of the DMC output voltage by Venturini switching method. Simulations are done on a 2?MW PMSG WT in MATLAB/SIMULINK to obtain the results the wind speed was varied both using the Van Der Hoven method and changing the wind step. The obtained results verify the accuracy and simplicity of proposed method.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Dependency of U.S. Hurricane Economic Loss on Maximum Wind Speed and Storm Size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many empirical hurricane economic loss models consider only wind speed and neglect storm size. These models may be inadequate in accurately predicting the losses of super-sized storms, such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012. In this study, we examined the dependencies of normalized U.S. hurricane loss on both wind speed and storm size for 73 tropical cyclones that made landfall in the U.S. from 1988 to 2012. A multi-variate least squares regression is used to construct a hurricane loss model using both wind speed and size as predictors. Using maximum wind speed and size together captures more variance of losses than using wind speed or size alone. It is found that normalized hurricane loss (L) approximately follows a power law relation with maximum wind speed (Vmax) and size (R). Assuming L=10^c Vmax^a R^b, c being a scaling factor, the coefficients, a and b, generally range between 4-12 and 2-4, respectively. Both a and b tend to increase with stronger wind speed. For large losses, a weighted regression model, with...

Zhai, Alice R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Maximum wind energy contribution in autonomous electrical grids based on thermal power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greek islands cover their continuously increasing electricity demand on the basis of small autonomous thermal power stations. This electrification solution is related with increased operational cost and power insufficiency, especially during summer. On the other hand, the stochastic behaviour of the wind and the important fluctuations of daily and seasonal electricity load in almost all Greek islands pose a substantial penetration limit for the exploitation of the high wind potential of the area. In this context, the present study is concentrated on developing an integrated methodology which can estimate the maximum wind energy contribution to the existing autonomous electrical grids, using the appropriate stochastic analysis. For this purpose one takes into account the electrical demand probability density profile of every island under investigation as well as the operational characteristics of the corresponding thermal power stations. Special attention is paid in order to protect the existing internal combustion engines from unsafe operation below their technical minima as well as to preserve the local system active power reserve and the corresponding dynamic stability. In order to increase the reliability of the results obtained, one may use extensive information for several years. Finally, the proposed study is integrated with an appropriate parametrical analysis, investigating the impact of the main parameters variation on the expected maximum wind energy contribution.

J.K. Kaldellis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Minimum Energy for the four-product Kaibel-column Ivar J. Halvorsen, SINTEF, Norway and Sigurd Skogestad, NTNU, Norway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum Energy for the four-product Kaibel-column Ivar J. Halvorsen, SINTEF, Norway and Sigurd Skogestad, NTNU, Norway AIChE Annual meeting 2006, paper 216d 1. Introduction For a four-component feed that an analytic minimal energy expression for the Kaibel-arrangement is straightforward to deduce based

Skogestad, Sigurd

465

In 2006 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP). SPARSE FORWARD-BACKWARD USING MINIMUM DIVERGENCE BEAMS FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FORWARD-BACKWARD USING MINIMUM DIVERGENCE BEAMS FOR FAST TRAINING OF CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELDS Chris Pal, however, training can be expensive, because it often requires many iterations of forward-backward. Beam-backward, standard beam heuristics can be danger- ous, as they can make training unstable. We introduce sparse

Pal, Chris

466

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen increased animal activity associated with increasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. We examined faunal community responses to oxygen and organic matter gradients across the lower oxygen minimum zone (OMZ

Levin, Lisa

467

Maximum Entropy Method and Charge Flipping, a Powerful Combination to Visualize the True Nature of Structural Disorder from in situ X-ray Powder Diffraction Data  

SciTech Connect

In a systematic approach, the ability of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to reconstruct the most probable electron density of highly disordered crystal structures from X-ray powder diffraction data was evaluated. As a case study, the ambient temperature crystal structures of disordered {alpha}-Rb{sub 2}[C{sub 2}O{sub 4}] and {alpha}-Rb{sub 2}[CO{sub 3}] and ordered {delta}-K{sub 2}[C{sub 2}O{sub 4}] were investigated in detail with the aim of revealing the 'true' nature of the apparent disorder. Different combinations of F (based on phased structure factors) and G constraints (based on structure-factor amplitudes) from different sources were applied in MEM calculations. In particular, a new combination of the MEM with the recently developed charge-flipping algorithm with histogram matching for powder diffraction data (pCF) was successfully introduced to avoid the inevitable bias of the phases of the structure-factor amplitudes by the Rietveld model. Completely ab initio electron-density distributions have been obtained with the MEM applied to a combination of structure-factor amplitudes from Le Bail fits with phases derived from pCF. All features of the crystal structures, in particular the disorder of the oxalate and carbonate anions, and the displacements of the cations, are clearly obtained. This approach bears the potential of a fast method of electron-density determination, even for highly disordered materials. All the MEM maps obtained in this work were compared with the MEM map derived from the best Rietveld refined model. In general, the phased observed structure factors obtained from Rietveld refinement (applying F and G constraints) were found to give the closest description of the experimental data and thus lead to the most accurate image of the actual disorder.

Samy, A.; Dinnebier, R; van Smaalen, S; Jansen, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Extracting maximum petrophysical and geological information from a limited reservoir database  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of old fields lacking sufficient core and log data is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology that uses new and conventional tools to build a reliable reservoir model for the Sulimar Queen field. At the fine scale, permeability measured on a fine grid with a minipermeameter was used in conjunction with the petrographic data collected on multiple thin sections. The use of regression analysis and a newly developed fuzzy logic algorithm led to the identification of key petrographic elements which control permeability. At the log scale, old gamma ray logs were first rescaled/calibrated throughout the entire field for consistency and reliability using only four modem logs. Using data from one cored well and the rescaled gamma ray logs, correlations between core porosity, permeability, total water content and gamma ray were developed to complete the small scale characterization. At the reservoir scale, outcrop data and the rescaled gamma logs were used to define the reservoir structure over an area of ten square miles where only 36 wells were available. Given the structure, the rescaled gamma ray logs were used to build the reservoir volume by identifying the flow units and their continuity. Finally, history-matching results constrained to the primary production were used to estimate the dynamic reservoir properties such as relative permeabilities to complete the characterization. The obtained reservoir model was tested by forecasting the waterflood performance and which was in good agreement with the actual performance.

Ali, M.; Chawathe, A.; Ouenes, A. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Impact of orthorectification and spatial sampling on maximum NDVI composite data in mountain regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Topography and accuracy of image geometric registration significantly affect the quality of satellite data, since pixels are displaced depending on surface elevation and viewing geometry. This effect should be corrected for through the process of accurate image navigation and orthorectification in order to meet the geolocation accuracy for systematic observations specified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements for satellite climate data records. We investigated the impact of orthorectification on the accuracy of maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite data for a mountain region in north-western Canada at various spatial resolutions (1 km, 4 km, 5 km, and 8 km). Data from AVHRR on board NOAA-11 (1989 and 1990) and NOAA-16 (2001, 2002, and 2003) processed using a system called CAPS (Canadian AVHRR Processing System) for the month of August were considered. Results demonstrate the significant impact of orthorectification on the quality of composite NDVI data in mountainous terrain. Differences between orthorectified and non-orthorectified NDVI composites (?NDVI) adopted both large positive and negative values, with the 1% and 99% percentiles of ?NDVI at 1 km resolution spanning values between ? 0.16 < ?NDVI < 0.09. Differences were generally reduced to smaller numbers for coarser resolution data, but systematic positive biases for non-orthorectified composites were obtained at all spatial resolutions, ranging from 0.02 (1 km) to 0.004 (8 km). Analyzing the power spectra of maximum NDVI composites at 1 km resolution, large differences between orthorectified and non-orthorectified AVHRR data were identified at spatial scales between 4 km and 10 km. Validation of NOAA-16 AVHRR NDVI with MODIS NDVI composites revealed higher correlation coefficients (by up to 0.1) for orthorectified composites relative to the non-orthorectified case. Uncertainties due to the AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) sampling scheme introduce an average positive bias of 0.02 ± 0.03 at maximum NDVI composite level that translates into an average relative bias of 10.6% ± 19.1 for sparsely vegetated mountain regions. This can at least partially explain the systematic average positive biases we observed relative to our results in AVHRR GAC-based composites from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and Polar Pathfinder (PPF) datasets (0.19 and 0.05, respectively). With regard to the generation of AVHRR long-term climate data records, results suggest that orthorectification should be an integral part of AVHRR pre-processing, since neglecting the terrain displacement effect may lead to important biases and additional noise in time series at various spatial scales.

Fabio M.A. Fontana; Alexander P. Trishchenko; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov; Yi Luo; Stefan Wunderle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF COMETS 8P/TUTTLE AND 17P/HOLMES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM  

SciTech Connect

We present results for Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of two comets made during the minimum of solar cycle 24. The two comets, 17P/Holmes (17P) and 8P/Tuttle (8P), were very different in their activity and geometry. 17P was observed, for 30 ks right after its major outburst, on 2007 October 31 (10:07 UT), and comet 8P/Tuttle was observed in 2008 January for 47 ks. During the two Chandra observations, 17P was producing at least 100 times more water than 8P but was 2.2 times further away from the Sun. Also, 17P was at a relatively high solar latitude (+19.{sup 0}1) while 8P was observed at a lower solar latitude (3.{sup 0}4). The X-ray spectrum of 17P is unusually soft with little significant emission at energies above 500 eV. Depending on our choice of background, we derive a 300-1000 eV flux of 0.5-4.5 x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with over 90% of the emission in the 300-400 eV range. This corresponds to an X-ray luminosity between 0.4 and 3.3 x 10{sup 15} erg s{sup -1}. However, we cannot distinguish between this significant excess emission and possible instrumental effects, such as incomplete charge transfer across the CCD. 17P is the first comet observed at high latitude during solar minimum. Its lack of X-rays in the 400-1000 eV range, in a simple picture, may be attributed to the polar solar wind, which is depleted in highly charged ions. 8P/Tuttle was much brighter, with an average count rate of 0.20 counts s{sup -1} in the 300-1000 eV range. We derive an average X-ray flux in this range of 9.4 x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and an X-ray luminosity for the comet of 1.7 x 10{sup 14} erg s{sup -1}. The light curve showed a dramatic decrease in flux of over 60% between observations on January 1 and 4. When comparing outer regions of the coma to inner regions, its spectra showed a decrease in ratios of C VI/C V, O VIII/O VII, as predicted by recent solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission models. There are remarkable differences between the X-ray emission from these two comets, further demonstrating the qualities of cometary X-ray observations, and SWCX emission in general as a means of remote diagnostics of the interaction of astrophysical plasmas.

Christian, D. J. [Eureka Scientific, 2420 Delmer Ave, Suite 100, Oakland, CA, 94602 (United States); Bodewits, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, Mailstop 690.3, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lisse, C. M. [Planetary Exploration Group, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Rd, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Dennerl, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1603, 85740 Garching (Germany); Wolk, S. J. [Chandra X-Ray Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hsieh, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen's University Belfast, Astronomy Research Centre, Belfast (United Kingdom); Zurbuchen, T. H.; Zhao, L. [Department of Atmospheric Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)], E-mail: damian.christ@gmail.com, E-mail: damian.christian@csun.edu, E-mail: Dennis.Bodewits@nasa.gov, E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: kod@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: h.hseih@qub.c.uk, E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu, E-mail: lzh@umich.edu

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Algebraic Structure of the Minimum Error Discrimination Problem for Linearly Independent Density Matrices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The minimum error discrimination problem for ensembles of linearly independent pure states are known to have an interesting structure; for such a given ensemble the optimal POVM is given by the pretty good measurment of another ensemble which can be related to the former ensemble by a bijective mapping $\\mathscr{R}$ on the "space of ensembles". In this paper we generalize this result to ensembles of general linearly independent states (not necessarily pure) and also give an analytic expression for the inverse of the map, i.e., for $\\mathscr{R}^{-1}$. In the process of proving this we also simplify the necessary and sufficient conditions that a POVM needs to satisfy to maximize the probability of success for the MED of an LI ensemble of states. This simplification is then employed to arrive at a rotationally invariant necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality. Using these rotationally invariant conditions it is established that every state of a LI mixed state ensemble can be resolved to a pure state decomposition so that the corresponding pure state ensemble (corresponding to pure states of all mixed states together) has as its optimal POVM a pure state decomposition of the optimal POVM of mixed state ensemble. This gives the necessary and sufficient conditions for the PGM of a LI ensemble to be its optimal POVM; another generalization for the pure state case. Also, these rotationally invariant conditions suggest a technique to give the optimal POVM for an ensemble of LI states. This technique is polynomial in time and outpeforms standard barrier-type interior point SDP in terms of computational complexity.

Tanmay Singal; Sibasish Ghosh

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

472

Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization Using Vitreous Ceramics Interim Progress Report October 1994-September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program to support the US Department of Energy`s environmental restoration efforts. These vitreous ceramics are composed of various metal-oxide crystalline phases embedded in a silicate-glass phase. This work extends the success of vitreous ceramic waste forms to treat wastes with both high metal and high alkali contents. Two successful approaches are discussed: developing high-durability alkali-binding crystals in a durable glassy matrix, and developing water-soluble crystals in a durable and continuous glassy matrix. Nepheline-vitreous ceramics were demonstrated for the immobilization of high-alkali wastes with alkali contents up to 21 wt%. The chemical durability of the nepheline-vitreous ceramics is better than the corresponding glasses, especially in over longer times. Vitreous ceramics with Cs{sub 2}O loading up to 35.4 wt% have been developed. Vitreous ceramic waste forms were developed from 90 and 100% Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 pond sludge. Heat treatment resulted in targeted crystal formation of spinels, potassium feldspar, and Ca-P phases. The K-25 pond sludge vitreous ceramics were up to 42 times more durable than high-level environmental assessments (EA) glass. The toxicity characteristics leach procedure (TCLP) concentration of LVC-6 is at least 2,000 times lower than US Environmental Protection Agency limits. Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) calcined wastes were immobilized into vitreous ceramics with calcine loading up to 88%. These ICPP-vitreous ceramics were more durable than the EA glass by factors of 5 to 30. Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed to complement, not to replace, glass waste forms.

Feng, X; Hahn, W K; Gong, M [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Gong, W; Wang, L; Ewing, R C [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Glassy slags for minimum additive waste stabilization. Interim progress report, May 1993--February 1994  

SciTech Connect

Glassy slag waste forms are being developed to complement glass waste forms in implementing Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) for supporting DOE`s environmental restoration efforts. The glassy slag waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. The MAWS approach was adopted by blending multiple waste streams to achieve up to 100% waste loadings. The crystalline phases, such as spinels, are very durable and contain hazardous and radioactive elements in their lattice structures. These crystalline phases may account for up to 80% of the total volume of slags having over 80% metal loading. The structural bond strength model was used to quantify the correlation between glassy slag composition and chemical durability so that optimized slag compositions were obtained with limited crucible melting and testing. Slag compositions developed through crucible melts were also successfully generated in a pilot-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace at Ukiah, California. Utilization of glassy slag waste forms allows the MAWS approach to be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than glass waste forms. The initial work at ANL has indicated that glassy slags are good final waste forms because of (1) their high chemical durability; (2) their ability to incorporate large amounts of metal oxides; (3) their ability to incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components; (4) their less stringent requirements on processing parameters, compared to glass waste forms; and (5) their low requirements for purchased additives, which means greater waste volume reduction and treatment cost savings.

Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Gong, M.; Emery, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Confining sets and avoiding bottleneck cases: A simple maximum independent set algorithm in degree-3 graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present an O ? ( 1.083 6 n ) -time algorithm for finding a maximum independent set in an n -vertex graph with degree bounded by 3, which improves all previous running time bounds for this problem. Our approach has the following two features. Without increasing the number of reduction/branching rules to get an improved time bound, we first successfully extract the essence from the previously known reduction rules such as domination, which can be used to get simple algorithms. More formally, we introduce a procedure for computing “confining sets”, which unifies several known reducible subgraphs and covers new reducible subgraphs. Second we identify those instances that generate the worst recurrence among all recurrences of our branching rules as “bottleneck instances” and prove that bottleneck instances cannot appear consecutively after each branching operation.

Mingyu Xiao; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Coulomb explosion effect and the maximum energy of protons accelerated by high-power lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The acceleration of light ions (protons) through the interaction of a high-power laser pulse with a double-layer target is theoretically studied by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and a one-dimensional analytical model. It is shown that the maximum energy acquired by the accelerated light ions (protons) depends on the physical characteristics of a heavy-ion layer (electron-ion mass ratio and effective charge state of the ions). In our theoretical model, the hydrodynamic equations for both electron and heavy-ion species are solved and the test-particle approximation for the light ions (protons) is applied. The heavy-ion motion is found to modify the longitudinal electric field distribution, thus changing the acceleration conditions for the protons.

E. Fourkal; I. Velchev; C.-M. Ma

2005-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

476

Online Robot Dead Reckoning Localization Using Maximum Relative Entropy Optimization With Model Constraints  

SciTech Connect

The principle of Maximum relative Entropy optimization was analyzed for dead reckoning localization of a rigid body when observation data of two attached accelerometers was collected. Model constraints were derived from the relationships between the sensors. The experiment's results confirmed that accelerometers each axis' noise can be successfully filtered utilizing dependency between channels and the dependency between time series data. Dependency between channels was used for a priori calculation, and a posteriori distribution was derived utilizing dependency between time series data. There was revisited data of autocalibration experiment by removing the initial assumption that instantaneous rotation axis of a rigid body was known. Performance results confirmed that such an approach could be used for online dead reckoning localization.

Urniezius, Renaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

477

Maximum likelihood method to correct for missed levels based on the ?3(L) statistic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ?3(L) statistic of random matrix theory is defined as the average of a set of random numbers {?}, derived from a spectrum. The distribution p(?) of these random numbers is used as the basis of a maximum likelihood method to gauge the fraction x of levels missed in an experimental spectrum. The method is tested on an ensemble of depleted spectra from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) and accurately returned the correct fraction of missed levels. Neutron resonance data and acoustic spectra of an aluminum block were analyzed. All results were compared with an analysis based on an established expression for ?3(L) for a depleted GOE spectrum. The effects of intruder levels are examined and seen to be very similar to those of missed levels. Shell model spectra were seen to give the same p(?) as the GOE.

Declan Mulhall

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

478

Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput  

SciTech Connect

Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

Comparative analysis of structural transformations of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity during carbonization  

SciTech Connect

The variation of the volume of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity (MF) values has been determined using carbonization tests, and the quality of coke obtained has been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The structural and chemical changes in bituminous coals at the pre-plastic stage during carbonization were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques and compared to the changes in their electric and dielectric parameters. It was observed that the structural and chemical transformations occurred in the disordered phase of both coals in different ways. These differences are attributed to the different redistributions of hydrogen between the radicals generated in the aliphatic and aromatic parts of the macromolecule fragments. 42 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Valentina Zubkova; Victor Prezhdo; Andrzej Strojwas [Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland). Institute of Chemistry

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Is the friction angle the maximum slope of a free surface of a non cohesive material?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Starting from a symmetric triangular pile with a horizontal basis and rotating the basis in the vertical plane, we have determined the evolution of the stress distribution as a function of the basis inclination using Finite Elements method with an elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model, defined by its friction angle, without cohesion. It is found that when the yield function is the Drucker-Prager one, stress distribution satisfying equilibrium can be found even when one of the free-surface slopes is larger than the friction angle. This means that piles with a slope larger than the friction angle can be (at least) marginally stable and that slope rotation is not always a destabilising perturbation direction. On the contrary, it is found that the slope cannot overpass the friction angle when a Mohr-Coulomb yield function is used. Theoretical explanation of these facts is given which enlightens the role plaid by the intermediate principal stress in both cases of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion and of the Drucker-Prager one. It is then argued that the Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes a spontaneous symmetry breaking, as soon as the two smallest principal stresses are different ; this is not physical most likely; so this criterion shall be replaced by a Drucker-Prager criterion in the vicinity of the equality, which leads to the previous anomalous behaviour ; so these numerical computations enlighten the avalanche process: they show that no dynamical angle larger than the static one is needed to understand avalanching. It is in agreement with previous experimental results. Furthermore, these results show that the maximum angle of repose can be modified using cyclic rotations; we propose a procedure that allows to achieve a maximum angle of repose to be equal to the friction angle .

A. Modaressi; P. Evesque

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual minimum maximum" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

The Effect of Equilibrating Mounted Dental Stone Casts in Maximum Intercuspation on the Occlusal Harmony of an Indirect Restoration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine if equilibration of dental stone casts mounted in maximum intercuspation can improve occlusal harmony of a cast gold restoration. A dentoform mounted on an articulator with crown preparation on tooth #19...

Benson, Peter Andrew

2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

482

An Eddy Parameterization Based on Maximum Entropy Production with Application to Modeling of the Arctic Ocean Circulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An eddy parameterization derived from statistical mechanics of potential vorticity is applied for inviscid shallow-water equations. The solution of a variational problem based on the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle provides, with some ...

Igor Polyakov

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

A study on the control method of single duct VAV terminal unit through the determination of proper minimum air flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this study was proposed a control method for the minimum air flow rate of a VAV terminal unit at an office building. The minimum air flow rate of the VAV terminal unit is the key factor affecting the thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), stratification and energy consumption, depending on the operating mode of the VAV system. Therefore, selecting the proper minimum air flow is very important. In this study, an algorithm was proposed considering the IAQ and stratification. The vertical air temperature was analyzed to find the supply air temperature that did not cause stratification. The integrated control algorithm with an air flow increase model in the VAV terminal unit and outdoor air intake rate increase model in the AHU was developed by comparing the energy consumption. Finally, the existing and proposed control algorithms were compared through a simulation. The proposed method was found to be more effective than the existing control method. The proposed VAV terminal unit control method satisfies all the conditions of indoor thermal comfort, IAQ and stratification issue. As a result of the energy comparison with the existing control method, the method satisfies not only the indoor thermal comfort, IAQ and stratification issue, but also reduces the energy consumption.

Su-Hyun Kang; Hyo-Jun Kim; Young-Hum Cho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.

P. Somasundaran

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

486

Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows below and above the Wind-Speed Maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of small-scale turbulence made over the complex-terrain atmospheric boundary layer during the MATERHORN Program are used to describe the structure of turbulence in katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured at multiple levels at four towers deployed along the East lower slope (2-4 deg) of Granite Mountain. The multi-level observations made during a 30-day long MATERHORN-Fall field campaign in September-October 2012 allowed studying of temporal and spatial structure of katabatic flows in detail, and herein we report turbulence and their variations in katabatic winds. Observed vertical profiles show steep gradients near the surface, but in the layer above the slope jet the vertical variability is smaller. It is found that the vertical (normal to the slope) momentum flux and horizontal (along the slope) heat flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The vertical momentum flux is directed...

Grachev, Andrey A; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra J S; Pardyjak, Eric R; Fairall, Christopher W

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants  

SciTech Connect

The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Occurrence of high-speed solar wind streams over the Grand Modern Maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the declining phase of the solar cycle, when the new-polarity fields of the solar poles are strengthened by the transport of same-signed magnetic flux from lower latitudes, the polar coronal holes expand and form non-axisymmetric extensions toward the solar equator. These extensions enhance the occurrence of high-speed solar wind streams (HSS) and related co-rotating interaction regions in the low-latitude heliosphere, and cause moderate, recurrent geomagnetic activity in the near-Earth space. Here, using a novel definition of geomagnetic activity at high (polar cap) latitudes and the longest record of magnetic observations at a polar cap station, we calculate the annually averaged solar wind speeds as proxies for the effective annual occurrence of HSS over the whole Grand Modern Maximum (GMM) from 1920s onwards. We find that a period of high annual speeds (frequent occurrence of HSS) occurs in the declining phase of each solar cycle 16-23. For most cycles the HSS activity clearly maximizes during one year...

Mursula, Kalevi; Holappa, Lauri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Depth of Maximum of Air-Shower Profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Composition Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (Xmax), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the distributions with predictions from a variety of hadronic interaction models for variations in the composition of the primary cosmic rays and examining the quality of the fit. Regardless of what interaction model is assumed, we find that our data are not well described by a mix of protons and iron nuclei over most of the energy range. Acceptable fits can be obtained when intermediate masses are included, and when this is done consistent results for the proton and iron-nuclei contributions can be found using the available models. We observe a strong energy dependence of the resulting proton fractions, and find no support from any of the models for a significant contribution from iron nuclei. However, we also observe a...

,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Maximum Reasonable Radioxenon Releases from Medical Isotope Production Facilities and Their Effect on Monitoring Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

Fission gases such as 133Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of 99Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Saey, et al., 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5×109 Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers.

Bowyer, Ted W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kephart, Rosara F.; Eslinger, Paul W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Friese, Judah I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saey, Paul R. [Vienna University of Technology, Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna (Austria)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Thermal properties for the thermal-hydraulics analyses of the BR2 maximum nominal heat flux.  

SciTech Connect

This memo describes the assumptions and references used in determining the thermal properties for the various materials used in the BR2 HEU (93% enriched in {sup 235}U) to LEU (19.75% enriched in {sup 235}U) conversion feasibility analysis. More specifically, this memo focuses on the materials contained within the pressure vessel (PV), i.e., the materials that are most relevant to the study of impact of the change of fuel from HEU to LEU. This section is regrouping all of the thermal property tables. Section 2 provides a summary of the thermal properties in form of tables while the following sections present the justification of these values. Section 3 presents a brief background on the approach used to evaluate the thermal properties of the dispersion fuel meat and specific heat capacity. Sections 4 to 7 discuss the material properties for the following materials: (i) aluminum, (ii) dispersion fuel meat (UAlx-Al and U-7Mo-Al), (iii) beryllium, and (iv) stainless steel. Section 8 discusses the impact of irradiation on material properties. Section 9 summarizes the material properties for typical operating temperatures. Appendix A elaborates on how to calculate dispersed phase's volume fraction. Appendix B shows the evolution of the BR2 maximum heat flux with burnup.

Dionne, B.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L. (Nuclear Engineering Division) [Nuclear Engineering Division

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

492

The wind potential impact on the maximum wind energy penetration in autonomous electrical grids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to long-term wind speed measurements the Aegean Archipelago possesses excellent wind potential, hence properly designed wind energy applications can substantially contribute to fulfill the energy requirements of the island societies. On top of this, in most islands the electricity production cost is extremely high, while significant insufficient power supply problems are often encountered, especially during the summer. Unfortunately, the stochastic behaviour of the wind and the important fluctuations of daily and seasonal electricity load pose a strict penetration limit for the contribution of wind energy in the corresponding load demand. The application of this limit is necessary in order to avoid hazardous electricity grid fluctuations and to protect the existing thermal power units from operating near or below their technical minima. In this context, the main target of the proposed study is to present an integrated methodology able to estimate the maximum wind energy penetration in autonomous electrical grids on the basis of the available wind potential existing in the Aegean Archipelago area. For this purpose a large number of representative wind potential types have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been derived.

J.K. Kaldellis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

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systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165-174. Shipworth, M. ,and sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.timer/programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

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Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

How people actually use thermostats  

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Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

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thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

How people actually use thermostats  

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thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

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2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 8.233-238.244.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Diamond, R.

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z