National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for actual market-clearing cost-of-energy

  1. Levelized Cost of Energy in US | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Levelized Cost of Energy in US Home I'd like to pull a cost comparison for the levelized cost of energy in the US. How do I do this on this site? Does the LCOE interactive table...

  2. levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  3. Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Presented to the EIA Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Chris Namovicz Assessing the Economic Value of New Utility-Scale Renewable Generation Projects Overview * Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) has been used by planners, analysts, policymakers, advocates and others to assess the economic competitiveness of technology options in the electric power sector * While of limited usefulness in the analysis of "conventional" utility systems, this approach is not generally appropriate when

  4. Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2013-03-01

    This presentation examines trends in wind plant cost of energy over the last several decades and discusses methods and examples of projections for future cost trends. First, the presentation explores cost trends for wind energy from the 1980s, where there had been an overall downward trend in wind plant energy costs. Underlying factors that influenced these trends, including turbine technology innovation for lower wind speed sites, are explored. Next, the presentation looks at projections for the future development of wind energy costs and discusses a variety of methods for establishing these projections including the use of learning curves, qualitative assessment using expert elicitation, and engineering-based analysis. A comparison of the methods is provided to explore their relative merits. Finally, a brief introduction is provided for the U.S. Department of Energy program-wide shift towards an integrative use of qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the potential impacts of wind plant technology innovations on reducing the wind plant cost of energy.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  6. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Le [Ames Laboratory; MacDonald, Erin [Ames Laboratory

    2013-10-01

    This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustiy. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, D. S.; Yu, Y. H.; Neary, V.

    2015-04-24

    In 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the development of six marine energy converter reference models. The reference models are point designs of well-known marine energy converters. Each device was designed to operate in a specific marine resource, instead of a generic device that can be deployed at any location. This method allows each device to be used as a benchmark for future reference model to benchmark future devices. The six designs consist of three current energy converters and three wave energy converters. The reference model project has generated both technical and economic data sets that are available in the public domain. The methodology to calculate the levelized cost of energy for the reference model project and an overall comparison of the cost of energy from these six reference-model designs are presented in this paper.

  8. New Database from NREL Makes Costs of Energy Technologies More Transparent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL New Database from NREL Makes Costs of Energy Technologies More Transparent July 16, 2012 A new web application collects cost and performance estimates for electric generation, advanced vehicles, and renewable fuel technologies and makes them available for utilities, policy makers, consumers, and academics. The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) app provides technology cost and performance estimates that can be used to benchmark company costs, model energy scenarios, and

  9. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models Preprint D. S. Jenne and Y.-H. Yu National Renewable Energy Laboratory V. Neary Sandia National Laboratories To be presented at the 3 rd Marine Energy Technology Symposium (METS 2015) Washington, D.C. April 27-29, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5000-64013 April 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government

  10. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  11. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  12. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  13. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy Preprint M. Beam, B. Kline, B. Elbing, W. Straka, and A. Fontaine Pennsylvania State University M. Lawson, Y. Li, and R. Thresher National Renewable Energy Laboratory M. Previsic Re Vision Consulting, LLC To be presented at the 32 nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2013) Nantes, France June 9-14, 2013 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5000-58092 February 2013 NOTICE

  14. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, M.; Kline, B.; Elbing, B.; Straka, W.; Fontaine, A.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Thresher, R.; Previsic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marine hydrokinetic devices are becoming a popular method for generating marine renewable energy worldwide. These devices generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of moving water, wave motion or currents, into electrical energy through the use of a Power-Take-Off (PTO) system. Most PTO systems incorporate a mechanical or hydraulic drive train, power generator and electric control/conditioning system to deliver the generated electric power to the grid at the required state. Like wind turbine applications, the PTO system must be designed for high reliability, good efficiency, and long service life with reasonable maintenance requirements, low cost and an appropriate mechanical design for anticipated applied steady and unsteady loads. The ultimate goal of a PTO design is high efficiency, low maintenance and cost with a low impact on the device Cost-of-Energy (CoE).

  15. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  16. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-30

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  17. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, M.; Kline, B.; Elbing, B.; Straka, W.; Fontaine, A.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Thresher, R.; Previsic, M.

    2013-02-01

    Marine hydrokinetic devices are becoming a popular method for generating marine renewable energy worldwide. These devices generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of moving water, wave motion or currents, into electrical energy through the use of a power-take-off (PTO) system. Most PTO systems incorporate a mechanical or hydraulic drivetrain, power generator, and electric control/conditioning system to deliver the generated electric power to the grid at the required state. Like wind turbine applications, the PTO system must be designed for high reliability, good efficiency, and long service life with reasonable maintenance requirements, low cost, and an appropriate mechanical design for anticipated applied steady and unsteady loads. The ultimate goal of a PTO design is high efficiency and low maintenance and cost, with a low impact on the device cost-of-energy (CoE).

  18. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  19. FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement PDF icon FY ...

  20. FY 2012 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement FY 2012 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement PDF icon FY ...

  1. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",999,1021,1041,1051,1056,1066,1073,1081,1087,1098,1107,1122,1121,1128,1143,1173,1201,1223 "AEO 1995",,1006,1010,1011,1016,1017,1021,1027,1033,1040,1051,1066,1076,1083,1090,1108,1122,1137 "AEO

  2. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",10.89145253,10.73335719,10.63428655,10.48440125,10.33479508,10.20669515,10.06546105,9.94541493,9.822393757,9.707148466,9.595465524,9.499032573,9.390723436,9.29474735,9.185496812,9.096176848,9.007677565,8.928276581 "AEO

  3. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  4. FY 2012 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Requirement | Department of Energy Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement FY 2012 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement PDF icon FY 2012 DARM Transmittal Letter and Attachment Final.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement Real Property Maintenance Reporting Requirement Memorandum (July 13, 2010)

  5. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  6. Cost of Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as well as projections for the future. Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P. (March 2013). 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review. National Renewable...

  7. Microsoft Word - Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It takes into account all costs of generating electricity, including capital costs, ... - see OK wind capacity factor above o Capital cost - 1.75 mmMW (includes regional ...

  8. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV Rollout Conference, Boston, MA February 10, 2011 1 Evaluation of PV Performance Models and Their Impact on Project Risk Christopher P. Cameron, Joshua S. Stein, and Clifford W. Hansen PO Box 5800, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1033 PH: 505 844 8181, Fax: 505 844 3952; email: cpcamer@sandia.gov INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic systems are often priced in $/W p , where W p refers to the DC power rating of the modules at Standard Test Conditions (1000 W/m 2 , 25 ° C cell

  9. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Reliability and Performance Model Jennifer E. Granata, Steven Miller, and Joshua S. Stein PO Box 5800, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1033 Contact info: 505 844 8813, jegrana@sandia.gov INTRODUCTION Accurately predicting the performance of photovoltaic systems can be a challenging undertaking, but a necessary one to assess the financial viability of a PV system and to accelerate the wide scale deployment of PV. PV system energy production can be affected by

  10. FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Requirement | Department of Energy Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement FY 2013 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement PDF icon FY 2013 DARM Transmittal Letter and Attachment Final.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2012 Real Property Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance Reporting Requirement FY_09_DM_RM_AM_Reporting_Memo_and_attachment_072009.pdf Real Property Maintenance Reporting Requirement

  11. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 ...

  12. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 ...

  13. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 "...

  14. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007...

  15. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 "...

  16. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006...

  17. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2007" ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 "...

  18. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009...

  19. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,201...

  20. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012...

  1. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  2. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002...

  3. Table 4. Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",6449.55,6566.35,6643,6723.3,6810.9,6880.25,6956.9,7059.1,7124.8,7205.1,7296.35,7376.65,7446,7522.65,7595.65,7665,7712.45,7774.5 "AEO

  4. Table 6. Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",2934.6,3201.05,3361.65,3504,3657.3,3737.6,3879.95,3993.1,4098.95,4212.1,4303.35,4398.25,4474.9,4540.6,4584.4,4639.15,4668.35,4672 "AEO

  5. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  6. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  7. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area," ,"1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected" ,"(Thousands of...

  8. Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 920 928 933 938 943 948 953 958 962 967 978 990 987 992 1006 1035 1061 1079 AEO 1995 935 940 941 947 948 951 954 958 963 971 984 992 996 1002 1013 1025 1039 AEO 1996 937 942 954 962 983 990 1004 1017 1027 1033 1046 1067 1070 1071 1074 1082 1087 1094 1103 AEO 1997 948 970 987 1003 1017 1020 1025 1034 1041 1054

  9. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 999 1021 1041 1051 1056 1066 1073 1081 1087 1098 1107 1122 1121 1128 1143 1173 1201 1223 AEO 1995 1006 1010 1011 1016 1017 1021 1027 1033 1040 1051 1066 1076 1083 1090 1108 1122 1137 AEO 1996 1037 1044 1041 1045 1061 1070 1086 1100 1112 1121 1135 1156 1161 1167 1173 1184 1190 1203 1215 AEO 1997 1028 1052 1072 1088

  10. Table 15. Total Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual Projected (billion kilowatt-hours) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 2843 2891 2928 2962 3004 3039 3071 3112 3148 3185 3228 3263 3298 3332 3371 3406 3433 3469 AEO 1995 2951 2967 2983 3026 3058 3085 3108 3134 3166 3204 3248 3285 3321 3357 3396 3433 3475 AEO 1996 2973 2998 3039 3074 3106 3137 3173 3215 3262 3317 3363 3409 3454 3505 3553 3604 3660 3722 3775 AEO 1997 3075

  11. Table 4. Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 6450 6566 6643 6723 6811 6880 6957 7059 7125 7205 7296 7377 7446 7523 7596 7665 7712 7775 AEO 1995 6398 6544 6555 6676 6745 6822 6888 6964 7048 7147 7245 7337 7406 7472 7537 7581 7621 AEO 1996 6490 6526 6607 6709 6782 6855 6942 7008 7085 7176 7260 7329 7384 7450 7501 7545 7581 7632 7676 AEO 1997 6636 6694 6826

  12. Table 6. Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 2935 3201 3362 3504 3657 3738 3880 3993 4099 4212 4303 4398 4475 4541 4584 4639 4668 4672 AEO 1995 2953 3157 3281 3489 3610 3741 3818 3920 4000 4103 4208 4303 4362 4420 4442 4460 4460 AEO 1996 3011 3106 3219 3398 3519 3679 3807 3891 3979 4070 4165 4212 4260 4289 4303 4322 4325 4347 4344 AEO 1997 3099 3245 3497

  13. Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",920,928,933,938,943,948,953,958,962,967,978,990,987,992,1006,1035,1061,1079 "AEO 1995",,935,940,941,947,948,951,954,958,963,971,984,992,996,1002,1013,1025,1039 "AEO

  14. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,6.799,6.7999,6.9,6.9,6.9,6.9,7,7,7.1,7.1,7.2,7.2,7.2,7.3,7.3,7.4,7.5,7.6 "AEO

  15. Table 15. Total Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (billion kilowatt-hours)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",2843,2891,2928,2962,3004,3039,3071,3112,3148,3185,3228,3263,3298,3332,3371,3406,3433,3469 "AEO 1995",,2951,2967,2983,3026,3058,3085,3108,3134,3166,3204,3248,3285,3321,3357,3396,3433,3475 "AEO

  16. Table 10. Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (trillion cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",2.02,2.4,2.66,2.74,2.81,2.85,2.89,2.93,2.95,2.97,3,3.16,3.31,3.5,3.57,3.63,3.74,3.85 "AEO 1995",,2.46,2.54,2.8,2.87,2.87,2.89,2.9,2.9,2.92,2.95,2.97,3,3.03,3.19,3.35,3.51,3.6 "AEO

  17. Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",88.02,89.53,90.72,91.73,92.71,93.61,94.56,95.73,96.69,97.69,98.89,100,100.79,101.7,102.7,103.6,104.3,105.23 "AEO 1995",,89.21,89.98,90.57,91.91,92.98,93.84,94.61,95.3,96.19,97.18,98.38,99.37,100.3,101.2,102.1,102.9,103.88 "AEO

  18. Table 9. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (trillion cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",17.71,17.68,17.84,18.12,18.25,18.43,18.58,18.93,19.28,19.51,19.8,19.92,20.13,20.18,20.38,20.35,20.16,20.19 "AEO 1995",,18.28,17.98,17.92,18.21,18.63,18.92,19.08,19.2,19.36,19.52,19.75,19.94,20.17,20.28,20.6,20.59,20.88 "AEO

  19. Table 10. Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected (trillion cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 2.02 2.40 2.66 2.74 2.81 2.85 2.89 2.93 2.95 2.97 3.00 3.16 3.31 3.50 3.57 3.63 3.74 3.85 AEO 1995 2.46 2.54 2.80 2.87 2.87 2.89 2.90 2.90 2.92 2.95 2.97 3.00 3.03 3.19 3.35 3.51 3.60 AEO 1996 2.56 2.75 2.85 2.88 2.93 2.98 3.02 3.06 3.07 3.09 3.12 3.17 3.23 3.29 3.37 3.46 3.56 3.68 3.79 AEO 1997 2.82 2.96

  20. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  1. Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 88.0 89.5 90.7 91.7 92.7 93.6 94.6 95.7 96.7 97.7 98.9 100.0 100.8 101.7 102.7 103.6 104.3 105.2 AEO 1995 89.2 90.0 90.6 91.9 93.0 93.8 94.6 95.3 96.2 97.2 98.4 99.4 100.3 101.2 102.1 102.9 103.9 AEO 1996 90.6 91.3 92.5 93.5 94.3 95.1 95.9 96.9 98.0 99.2 100.4 101.4 102.1 103.1 103.8 104.7 105.5 106.5 107.2

  2. Table 17. Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.6 AEO 1995 11.0 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 AEO 1996 10.4 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 12.0 12.1

  3. Table 18. Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.6 AEO 1995 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.3 AEO 1996 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2 AEO 1997 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.9

  4. Table 19. Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 25.4 25.9 26.3 26.7 27.0 27.1 26.8 26.6 26.9 27.2 27.7 28.1 28.3 28.7 29.1 29.4 29.7 30.0 AEO 1995 26.2 26.3 26.5 27.0 27.3 26.9 26.6 26.8 27.1 27.5 27.9 28.2 28.4 28.7 29.0 29.3 29.6 AEO 1996 26.5 26.6 27.3 27.5 26.9 26.5 26.7 26.9 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.2 28.3 28.5 28.7 28.9 29.2 29.4 29.6

  5. Table 20. Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 23.6 24.1 24.5 24.7 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.2 26.5 26.9 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.3 28.6 28.9 29.2 29.5 AEO 1995 23.3 24.0 24.2 24.7 25.1 25.5 25.9 26.2 26.5 26.9 27.3 27.7 28.0 28.3 28.5 28.7 28.9 AEO 1996 23.9 24.1 24.5 24.8 25.3 25.7 26.0 26.4 26.7 27.1 27.5 27.8 28.1 28.4 28.6 28.9 29.1 29.3

  6. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 10.9 10.7 10.6 10.5 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1995 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 AEO 1996 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 1997 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3

  7. NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Solar, Water Power, Wind Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop...

  8. Reducing the Cost of Energy in Northwest Alaska

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in Reducing the Cost of Northwest Alaska NANA Regional Corporation, Inc. Shopping Trip in Alaska Shopping list: Anchorage Northwest Alaska (average) $20 $60 Diapers Sugar Flour Milk Eggs Bread Keeping the Lights On * This increasing cost of living impacts every aspect of economic life. * Families are choosing between food and fuel. * Organizations make tough choices about maintaining essential services under cost pressure. Real Risks, Real People * There are real risks if we don't find long-

  9. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-411 for 2005" ,"Released: September 26, 2007" ,"Next Update: October 2007" ,"Table 3d. April Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric...

  10. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014" ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and...

  11. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Update: October 2010" ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 "...

  12. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and...

  13. Table 11b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per million Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO

  14. Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per barrel)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO

  15. "Table 2. Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Real GDP Growth Trend" " (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO

  16. "Table 7b. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per million Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO

  17. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under-predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

  18. "Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO

  19. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  20. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  1. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  2. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L.

    1993-03-15

    To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE`s requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?

  3. Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million metric tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 5984 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441 5489 5551 5621 5680 5727 5775 5841 5889 5944 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 6087 6142 6203

  4. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,16.69,16.42999,16.9899,17.66,18.28,19.0599,19.89,20.72,21.65,22.61,23.51,24.29,24.9,25.6,26.3,27,27.64,28.16

  5. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM); Grotbeck, Carter L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  6. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: ? Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. ? Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was independent of added glycolate concentration. The change in soluble plutonium content was dependent on the added glycolate concentration, with higher levels of glycolate (5 g/L and 10 g/L) appearing to suppress the plutonium solubility. The inclusion of glycolate did not change the dissolution of or sorption onto actual-waste 2H-evaporator pot scale to an extent that will impact Tank Farm storage and concentration. The effects that were noted involved dissolution of components from evaporator scale and precipitation of components onto evaporator scale that were independent of the level of added glycolate.

  7. "Table 19. Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",25.43,25.904,26.303,26.659,26.974,27.062,26.755,26.598,26.908,27.228,27.668,28.068,28.348,28.668,29.068,29.398,29.688,30.008 "AEO

  8. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  9. Table 11a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per million Btu in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 1.47 1.48 1.53 1.57 1.58 1.57 1.61 1.63 1.68 1.69 1.70 1.72 1.70 1.76 1.79 1.81 1.88 1.92 AEO 1995 1993 1.39 1.39 1.38 1.40 1.40 1.39 1.39 1.42 1.41 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.47

  10. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63 21.08

  11. Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per barrel) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 17.06 17.21 18.24 19.43 20.64 22.12 23.76 25.52 27.51 29.67 31.86 34.00 36.05 38.36 40.78 43.29 45.88 48.37 AEO 1995 15.24 17.27 18.23 19.26 20.39 21.59 22.97 24.33 25.79 27.27 28.82 30.38 32.14 33.89 35.85 37.97 40.28 AEO 1996 17.16 17.74 18.59 19.72

  12. Table 7a. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per million Btu in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 2.44 2.48 2.57 2.66 2.70 2.79 2.84 2.92 3.04 3.16 3.25 3.36 3.51 3.60 3.77 3.91 3.97 4.08 AEO 1995 1993 2.39 2.48 2.42 2.45 2.45 2.53 2.59 2.78 2.91 3.10 3.24 3.38 3.47 3.53 3.61 3.68

  13. Table 11a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per million Btu in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,1.4699,1.4799,1.53,1.57,1.58,1.57,1.61,1.63,1.68,1.69,1.7,1.72,1.7,1.76,1.79,1.81,1.88,1.92 "AEO

  14. "Table 17. Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",10.31,10.36,10.36,10.37,10.38,10.4,10.4,10.41,10.43,10.43,10.44,10.45,10.46,10.49,10.51,10.53,10.56,10.6 "AEO 1995",,10.96,10.8,10.81,10.81,10.79,10.77,10.75,10.73,10.72,10.7,10.7,10.69,10.7,10.72,10.75,10.8,10.85 "AEO

  15. "Table 18. Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",6.82,6.87,6.94,7,7.06,7.13,7.16,7.22,7.27,7.32,7.36,7.38,7.41,7.45,7.47,7.5,7.51,7.55 "AEO 1995",,6.94,6.9,6.95,6.99,7.02,7.05,7.08,7.09,7.11,7.13,7.15,7.17,7.19,7.22,7.26,7.3,7.34 "AEO

  16. "Table 20. Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",23.62,24.08,24.45,24.72,25.06,25.38,25.74,26.16,26.49,26.85,27.23,27.55,27.91,28.26,28.61,28.92,29.18,29.5 "AEO 1995",,23.26,24.01,24.18,24.69,25.11,25.5,25.86,26.15,26.5,26.88,27.28,27.66,27.99,28.25,28.51,28.72,28.94 "AEO

  17. "Table 7a. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per million Btu in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,2.44,2.48,2.57,2.66,2.7,2.79,2.84,2.92,3.04,3.16,3.25,3.36,3.51,3.6,3.77,3.91,3.97,4.08 "AEO

  18. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

  19. Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

  20. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  1. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  2. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING FOR INCLUSION & COPRECIPITATION WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WARRANT, R.W.

    2006-12-11

    Fractional crystallization is being considered as a pretreatment method to support supplemental treatment of retrieved single-shell tank (SST) saltcake waste at the Hanford Site. The goal of the fractional crystallization process is to optimize the separation of the radioactivity (radionuclides) from the saltcake waste and send it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant and send the bulk of the saltcake to the supplemental treatment plant (bulk vitrification). The primary factors that influence the separation efficiency are (1) solid/liquid separation efficiency, (2) contaminant inclusions, and (3) co-precipitation. This is a report of testing for factors (2) and (3) with actual tank waste samples. For the purposes of this report, contaminant inclusions are defined as the inclusion of supernatant, containing contaminating radionuclides, in a pocket within the precipitating saltcake crystals. Co-precipitation is defined as the simultaneous precipitation of a saltcake crystal with a contaminating radionuclide. These two factors were tested for various potential fractional crystallization product salts by spiking the composite tank waste samples (SST Early or SST Late, external letter CH2M-0600248, ''Preparation of Composite Tank Waste Samples for ME-21 Project'') with the desired target salt and then evaporating to precipitate that salt. SST Early represents the typical composition of dissolved saltcake early in the retrieval process, and SST Late represents the typical composition during the later stages of retrieval.

  3. Table 11b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per million Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1.50 1.55 1.64 1.73 1.78 1.82 1.92 2.01 2.13 2.22 2.30 2.41 2.46 2.64 2.78 2.90 3.12 3.30 AEO 1995 1.42 1.46 1.49 1.55 1.59 1.62 1.67 1.76 1.80 1.89 1.97 2.05 2.13 2.21 2.28 2.38 2.50 AEO 1996 1.35 1.35 1.37 1.39 1.42 1.46 1.50 1.56 1.62 1.67 1.75

  4. Table 2. Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual Projected Real GDP Growth Trend (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 3.09 3.15 2.86 2.78 2.73 2.65 2.62 2.60 2.56 2.53 2.52 2.49 2.45 2.41 2.40 2.36 2.32 2.29 AEO 1995 3.66 2.77 2.53 2.71 2.67 2.61 2.55 2.48 2.46 2.45 2.45 2.43 2.39 2.35 2.31 2.27 2.24 AEO 1996 2.61

  5. Table 7b. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    b. Natural Gas Price, Electric Power Sector, Actual vs. Projected Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per million Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 2.49 2.60 2.76 2.93 3.05 3.24 3.39 3.60 3.86 4.15 4.40 4.70 5.08 5.39 5.85 6.27 6.59 7.01 AEO 1995 2.44 2.61 2.61 2.70 2.78 2.95 3.11 3.44 3.72 4.10 4.43 4.78 5.07 5.33 5.64 5.95 6.23 AEO 1996 2.08 2.19 2.20 2.39 2.47 2.54 2.64 2.74 2.84 2.95 3.09

  6. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  7. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  8. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  9. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, I. S.; Pegg, I. L.; Rielley, Elizabeth; Carranza, Isidro; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  10. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  11. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  12. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carlson, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal.

  13. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  14. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  15. Technique of estimation of actual strength of a gas pipeline section at its deformation in landslide action zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tcherni, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The technique is given which permits determination of stress and strain state (SSS) and estimation of actual strength of a section of a buried main gas pipeline (GP) in the case of its deformation in a landslide action zone. The technique is based on the use of three-dimensional coordinates of axial points of the deformed GP section. These coordinates are received by a full-scale survey. The deformed axis of the surveyed GP section is described by the polynomial. The unknown coefficients of the polynomial can be determined from the boundary conditions at points of connection with contiguous undeformed sections as well as by use of minimization methods in mathematical processing of full-scale survey results. The resulting form of GP section`s axis allows one to determine curvatures and, accordingly, bending moments along all the length of the considered section. The influence of soil resistance to longitudinal displacements of a pipeline is used to determine longitudinal forces. Resulting values of bending moments and axial forces as well as the known value of internal pressure are used to analyze all necessary components of an actual SSS of pipeline section and to estimate its strength by elastic analysis.

  16. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  17. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  18. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    January 2010" ,"Next Update: October 2010" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  19. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  20. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6" ,"Released: February 7, 2008" ,"Next Update: October 2008" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  1. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7" ,"Released: February 2009" ,"Next Update: October 2009" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  2. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

  3. SU-E-T-417: A Method for Predicting and Correcting the Dosimetric Effect of a Radiotherapy Treatment Couch in Actual Treatment Position

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, J; Shen, S; Wu, X; Huang, M; Benhabib, S; Cardan, R; Popple, R; Brezovich, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although radiation attenuation by the treatment couch can be included in the calculation of radiotherapy dose, difference between planned and actual treatment couch positions can generate significant dose discrepancies. We propose a method to predict and correct the dosimetric effect of the couch in actual treatment position. Methods: The couch transmission factor, T, varies with beam angle, G, couch lateral position, x, and vertical position, y, i.e., T=T(x,y,G). If T(x,y,G) is known for a fixed couch vertical position y=h, the transmission of central-axis beam (CAX) T(x,y,G) can be obtained by T(x,y,G)=T(x{sup +},h,G), where x{sup +}=x-(y-h)tan(G) and G is the angle between the beam and the vertical axis. Similarly, the transmission of any off-CAX point can be obtained using a similar formula. We measured CAX couch transmission at a fixed couch vertical position over the couch lateral motion range for all gantry angles by continuously scanning rotating arc beams. A 2D couch transmission correction matrix can thus be generated from T(x,h,G) for each treatment field for the actual couch position. By applying the transmission correction matrix to the planned field dose, the couch effect can be predicted and corrected. To verify this method, we measured couch transmission T(x, y=10cm, G=225)(225=IEC 135) and compared to that obtained from equivalent T(x{sup +}, y=3cm, G=225) over the range of lateral motion with a step size of 2 cm . Results: The measured couch transmission factors T(x, y=10cm, G=225) are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the equivalent T(x{sup +}, y=3cm, G=225). The mean difference is 0.004060.00135. Conclusion: The couch transmission correction matrix for any couch position and beam angle can be obtained from one set of scanning measurements at a fixed couch vertical position. The dosimetric effect of the treatment couch can be predicted and corrected by applying the couch transmission correction to the planned dose.

  4. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small office; and 5) simulated energy savings and peak demand reduction by energy conservation measures using the TMY3 weather data can be significantly underestimated or overestimated. It is crucial to run multi-decade simulations with AMY weather data to fully assess the impact of weather on the long-term performance of buildings, and to evaluate the energy savings potential of energy conservation measures for new and existing buildings from a life cycle perspective.

  5. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Schweizer, T.; Laxson, A.; Butterfield, S.; Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Veers, P.; Ashwill, T.

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  6. Discomfort Glare: What Do We Actually Know?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, Robert

    2012-02-29

    Glare models were reviewed with an eye for missing conditions or inconsistencies. We found ambiguities as to when to use small source versus large source models, and as to what constitutes a glare source in a complex scene. We also found surprisingly little information validating the assumed independence of the factors driving glare. A barrier to progress in glare research is the lack of a standardized dependent measure of glare. We inverted the glare models to predict luminance, and compared model predictions against the 1949 Luckiesh & Guth data that form the basis of many of them. The models perform surprisingly poorly, particularly with regards to the luminance-size relationship and additivity. Evaluating glare in complex scenes may require fundamental changes to form of the glare models.

  7. Low Wind Speed Technology Phase II: Investigation of the Application of Medium-Voltage Variable-Speed Drive Technology to Improve the Cost of Energy from Low Wind Speed Turbines; Behnke, Erdman and Whitaker Engineering, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This fact sheet describes a subcontract with Behnke, Erdman & Whitaker Engineering, Inc. to test the feasibility of applying medium-voltage variable-speed drive technology to low wind speed turbines.

  8. Meteorological field measurements at potential and actual wind turbine sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of experiences gained in a meteorological measurement program conducted at a number of locations around the United States for the purpose of site evaluation for wind energy utilization is provided. The evolution of the measurement program from its inception in 1976 to the present day is discussed. Some of the major accomplishments and areas for improvement are outlined. Some conclusions on research using data from this program are presented.

  9. CCP_FinalActual_2011_11_06.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 TROJAN DECOMMISSIONING (26,485) 1,500 (27,985) 16 WNP-1&3 DECOMMISSIONING 607 448 159 17 Sub-Total (25,878) 1,948 (27,826) 18 Gross Contracted Power...

  10. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  11. Table 9. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    18.90 19.15 19.52 19.59 19.59 19.65 19.73 19.97 20.36 20.82 21.25 21.37 21.68 22.11 22.47 22.83 23.36 23.81 24.11 AEO 1997 19.10 19.70 20.17 20.32 20.54 20.77 21.26 21.90 22.31...

  12. Table 8. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "AEO 1994",19.87,20.21,20.64,20.99,21.2,21.42,21.6,21.99,22.37,22.63,22.95,23.22,23.58,23.82,24.09,24.13,24.02,24.14 "AEO 1995",,20.82,20.66,20.85,21.21,21.65,21.95,22....

  13. Table 8. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2012 2013 AEO 1994 19.87 20.21 20.64 20.99 21.20 21.42 21.60 21.99 22.37 22.63 22.95 23.22 23.58 23.82 24.09 24.13 24.02 24.14 AEO 1995 20.82 20.66 20.85 21.21 21.65 21.95 22.12...

  14. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power Grid","Western...

  15. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power Grid","Western...

  16. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  17. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  18. H. R. 1007: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to exclude from gross income payments made by electric utilities to customers to subsidize the cost of energy conservation services and measures, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The term energy conservation measure, for the purpose of this bill, refers to any residential or commercial energy conservation measure described in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act or any specially defined energy property in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990. This bill shall not apply to any payment to or from a qualified cogeneration facility or qualifying small power production facility defined in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Acts of 1978.

  19. Do we get actual vendor name while we searched with zip code...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    let me know? Submitted by SUTHARI on 29 September, 2014 - 08:02 1 answer Points: 0 Hi SUTHARI, we had a bug in the U.S. Utility Rate Database affecting zip codes with leading...

  20. CCP_FinalActual_FY_2015_crlPrintArea1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PLANNING 6,787 7,948 (1,161) 56 Sub-Total 15,145 18,569 (3,425) 57 Power Services Marketing and Business Support 58 POWER R&D 6,772 5,936 836 59 SALES & SUPPORT 18,293...

  1. File:Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Plan .pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this file. Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. If the file has been modified from...

  2. What do the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Program Specs Actually...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... conditioners, air-source heat pumps, and water-source (i.e., geothermal) heat pumps up to ... In other words, under Revision 07, if a home's heatingcooling system happens to be a ...

  3. Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

  4. Next Update: October 2010 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    found on the EIA web page for electric reliability. * Regional name and function has changed from Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) to Texas Reliability Entity (TRE). ...

  5. Next Update: December 2011 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    found on the EIA web page for electric reliability. * Regional name and function has changed from Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) to Texas Reliability Entity (TRE). ...

  6. Next Update: October 2009 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    found on the EIA web page for electric reliability. * Regional name and function has changed from Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) to Texas Reliability Entity (TRE). ...

  7. Sugars Can Actually Be Good For Your Health (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2011-10-04

    Like peanut M&Ms, all cells are coated with sugars but the functions of these sugar coatings were a mystery until very recently. This presentation will highlight recent fascinating discoveries regarding why cells are coated with sugars, as well as new tools for cancer detection that take advantage of the cells sugar coating. Professor Bertozzis lab focuses on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and exploiting this information for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In addition, her group develops nanoscience-based technologies for probing cell function and for medical diagnostics.

  8. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  9. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  10. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power...

  11. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas-fired units account for nearly 90% of the total generating capacity added in the U.S. between 1999 and 2005 (EIA 2006b), bringing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation to 19%. Looking ahead over the next decade, the EIA expects this trend to continue, increasing the market share of gas-fired generation to 22% by 2015 (EIA 2007a). Though these numbers are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in many other countries as well. A large percentage of the total cost of gas-fired generation is attributable to fuel costs--i.e., natural gas prices. For example, at current spot prices of around $7/MMBtu, fuel costs account for more than 75% of the levelized cost of energy from a new combined cycle gas turbine, and more than 90% of its operating costs (EIA 2007a). Furthermore, given that gas-fired plants are often the marginal supply units that set the market-clearing price for all generators in a competitive wholesale market, there is a direct link between natural gas prices and wholesale electricity prices. In this light, the dramatic increase in natural gas prices since the 1990s should be a cause for ratepayer concern. Figure 1 shows the daily price history of the 'first-nearby' (i.e., closest to expiration) NYMEX natural gas futures contract (black line) at Henry Hub, along with the futures strip (i.e., the full series of futures contracts) from August 22, 2007 (red line). First, nearby prices, which closely track spot prices, have recently been trading within a $7-9/MMBtu range in the United States and, as shown by the futures strip, are expected to remain there through 2012. These price levels are $6/MMBtu higher than the $1-3/MMBtu range seen throughout most of the 1990s, demonstrating significant price escalation for natural gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental cost of renewable energy (relative to conventional fuels), we do seek to quantify the magnitude of these two individual benefit

  12. Microsoft Word - Final Dec 4 Annncmnt of Agg Blocks Adjustmnt...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregate Blocks and Prepayments BPA will Accept for Prepayment Program, the Adjustment Cap, Market Clearing Purchase Price, and Reservation Price Background Pursuant to Paragraph...

  13. 2016-03-11 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy | Department of Energy -03-11 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy 2016-03-11 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy PDF icon Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy More Documents & Publications EA-0819: Finding of No Significant Impact 2016-03-11 Commercial Packaged Boilers_NOPR Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - FEMP

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    customers the New Construction Incentives Program to offset construction and installation costs of energy efficient... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Institutional Savings...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural and institutional buildings. Equipment must... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial,...

  16. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on fundamental sciences: controls, hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, experimentation, etc. Technology Assessment: Reference Model Project Goal: obtain baseline Cost Of Energy...

  17. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process using SRS sludge tank sample material. A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) details the experimental plan as outlined by the Technical Task Request (TTR). The TTR identifies that the data produced by this testing and results included in this report will support the technical baseline with portions having a safety class functional classification. The primary goals for SRNL RWT are as follows: (1) to confirm ECC performance with real tank sludge samples, (2) to determine the impact of ECC on fate of actinides and the other sludge metals, and (3) to determine changes, if any, in solids flow and settling behavior.

  18. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.) "

  19. On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Hale, Elaine; Doebber, Ian; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-07-20

    In the context of future power system requirements for additional flexibility, demand response (DR) is an attractive potential resource. Its proponents widely laud its prospective benefits, which include enabling higher penetrations of variable renewable generation at lower cost than alternative storage technologies, and improving economic efficiency. In practice, DR from the commercial and residential sectors is largely an emerging, not a mature, resource, and its actual costs and benefits need to be studied to determine promising combinations of physical DR resource, enabling controls and communications, power system characteristics, regulatory environments, market structures, and business models. The work described in this report focuses on the enablement of such analysis from the production cost modeling perspective. In particular, we contribute a bottom-up methodology for modeling load-shifting DR in production cost models. The resulting model is sufficiently detailed to reflect the physical characteristics and constraints of the underlying flexible load, and includes the possibility of capturing diurnal and seasonal variations in the resource. Nonetheless, the model is of low complexity and thus suitable for inclusion in conventional unit commitment and market clearing algorithms. The ability to simulate DR as an operational resource on a power system over a year facilitates an assessment of its time-varying value to the power system.

  20. BPA-2014-01241-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a final response to your request for records under the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). You requested: The hourly average MID-Columbia Day Ahead Market Clearing Price,...

  1. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Goal: obtain baseline Cost Of Energy (COE) estimates for a variety of Marine Hydro- Kinetic (MHK) devices. Technology Development: Modeling Tools & Advanced...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial Refrigeration Rebate Program Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial,...

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... concentrating solar power (1) cost (1) cost data (1) cost of energy (1) csp (1) economic analysis (1) economics (1) energy conservation, consumption, and utilization (1) energy ...

  4. Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians- 2010 Energy Efficiency Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This weatherization training will result in a reduction of the use and cost of energy by increasing the number of homes that are weatherized.

  5. Project Reports for Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This weatherization training will result in a reduction of the use and cost of energy by increasing the number of homes that are weatherized.

  6. Commercial Refrigeration Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural, and institutional buildings. 

  7. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION TEMPLATE FOR THE 35TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INTRODUCTION Over the years, the cost of energy produced using rooftop mounted photovoltaic systems has decreased significantly, principally due to improved performance...

  8. SAND2013-7205

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with other forms of power generation. Technological advancements are needed to lower the lifetime levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for large-scale deployments of OWCs...

  9. SAND2013-7204

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with other forms of power generation. Technological advancements are needed to lower the lifetime levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for large-scale deployments of point...

  10. SAND2013-7207

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with other forms of power generation. Technological advancements are needed to lower the lifetime levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for large-scale deployments of...

  11. NREL SBV Pilot Water Power Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance and reliability and lower the cost of energy of marine energy and hydropower technologies. With NREL, partners can: * Collaborate with experts to develop...

  12. Paper preparation to the 7th European Wave and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and to reduce the cost of energy of MHK technologies. ... large energetic organized vortex shedding on machine ... turbine; 2) Collect and process turbulent flow ...

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV) market by enabling a lower levelized cost of energy. ... INNOVATION Successful demonstration of repeatable exfoliation is expected to ...

  14. Pika Energy Develops Innovative Manufacturing Process and Lowers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    produce distributed wind systems to lower the cost of energy from their turbines and ... Pika's innovation was to develop a tooling design and a cooling strategy that enables ...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rebate Program Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural and...

  16. Anaheim Public Utilities - Commercial & Industrial New Construction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Utilities (APU) offers commercial, industrial, and institutional customers the New Construction Incentives Program to offset construction and installation costs of energy...

  17. These open-source products, along...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    operational costs, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE); 2. Design specifications and SolidWorks(tm) geometry files for each reference model device to allow exact replication for...

  18. Wind energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    help industry reduce the cost of energy so that wind can compete with traditional energy sources, providing a clean, renewable alternative for our nation's energy needs. Worldwide...

  19. COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

  20. 2016-03-11 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Unit Costs of Energy 2016-03-11 Energy Conservation Program for ... More Documents & Publications EA-0819: Finding of No Significant Impact 2016-03-11 ...

  1. Anaheim Public Utilities- Commercial & Industrial New Construction Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaheim Public Utilities (APU) offers commercial, industrial, and institutional customers the New Construction Incentives Program to offset construction and installation costs of energy efficient...

  2. Results of fracture mechanics analyses of the Adorer cranes in the device assembly facility using actual, rather than conservative, stress-components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalder, E.N.C.

    1996-12-26

    Fracture mechanics analyses were done on 3 critical locations on the lower flange of the load beam of the Ederer 5 ton and 4 ton cranes in the D.A.F. Facility. This was done to determine appropriate flaw sizes for NDE detection during periodic inspection, and appropriate inspection intervals.

  3. CENTIMETER CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE NORTHERN HEAD OF THE HH 80/81/80N JET: REVISING THE ACTUAL DIMENSIONS OF A PARSEC-SCALE JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masque, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert; Girart, Josep M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Beltran, Maria T.

    2012-10-10

    We present 6 and 20 cm Jansky Very Large Array/Very Large Array observations of the northern head of the HH 80/81/80N jet, one of the largest collimated jet systems known so far, aimed to look for knots farther than HH 80N, the northern head of the jet. Aligned with the jet and 10' northeast of HH 80N, we found a radio source not reported before, with a negative spectral index similar to that of HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N. The fit of a precessing jet model to the knots of the HH 80/81/80N jet, including the new source, shows that the position of this source is close to the jet path resulting from the modeling. If the new source belongs to the HH 80/81/80N jet, its derived size and dynamical age are 18.4 pc and >9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr, respectively. If the jet is symmetric, its southern lobe would expand beyond the cloud edge resulting in an asymmetric appearance of the jet. Based on the updated dynamical age, we speculate on the possibility that the HH 80/81/80N jet triggered the star formation observed in a dense core found ahead of HH 80N, which shows signposts of interaction with the jet. These results indicate that parsec-scale radio jets can play a role in the stability of dense clumps and the regulation of star formation in the molecular cloud.

  4. Analysis of the California WEPEX applications to FERC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoft, S.

    1996-10-01

    The major theme of this report is that the Western Power Exchange (WEPEX) Applications prevent the Independent System Operator (ISO) from clearing the market, and that this is the root of the most important problems. The proposed rules at fault (1) prevent the Power Exchange (PX) and other Scheduling Coordinators from passing on all of their bids to the ISO, and (2) prevent the ISO from dispatching beyond the point at which congestion is eliminated. Although it is generally accepted that these restrictions prevent the ISO from achieving the least-cost dispatch, many other consequences of this market-clearing failure have not been widely recognized. These include sub-optimal dispatches by the PX when the system is uncongested, congestion charges that reward power flow in the congested direction, and incentives for Scheduling Coordinators to ignore known intra-zone congestion. But the most pernicious effect of failing to clear the market may be decreased system reliability. Four minor themes will also be considered but in less detail. Most importantly the author describes several examples of unequal treatment for the PX. Second, he discusses the ambiguities introduced by zonal pricing. WEPEX`s zonal system is based on a view of congestion that largely ignores loop flow and consequently has not been well defined. Third, WEPEX appears to have invented a new definition of the transmission congestion contract (TCC) that is based on actual instead of pre-specified flows. The author shows that this ruins the incentive properties of TCCs, but that this problem is partially rectified by the market in TCCs. Lastly, he discusses losses. The WEPEX proposal intentionally avoids marginal-cost pricing of losses. What has not been recognized is that it significantly increases use of the power grid. Because this effect is greatest during peak usage, it will necessitate costly grid expansion.

  5. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  6. EERE Success Story-Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling When it comes to making performance predictions and cost-of-energy estimates for ... Tax Credit (ITC) and the Production Tax Credit (PTC). ...

  7. Breakthrough in Power Electronics from SiC: May 25, 2004 - May 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marckx, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    This report explores the premise that silicon carbide (SiC) devices would reduce substantially the cost of energy of large wind turbines that need power electronics for variable speed generation systems.

  8. Operations Expenditures: Historical Trends and Continuing Challenges (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2013-05-01

    In this presentation for the American Wind Energy Association 2013 conference, NREL's Eric Lantz examines historical trends and continuing challenges of wind power operating expenses. Lowering such expenses could increase profitability and contribute to lowering the cost of energy.

  9. ocean energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ocean energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine...

  10. current energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    current energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine...

  11. LCOE | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LCOE Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy...

  12. CBS | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CBS Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy MHK...

  13. marine energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    marine energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine...

  14. GMREC | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GMREC Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy...

  15. Advanced Offshore Wind Tech: Accelerating New Opportunities for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    wind industry with innovations which lower the cost of energy and address market barriers ... A recent innovation by a U.S. company has resulted in a twisted jacket foundation, ...

  16. CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation The integration of CSP systems with fossil-based facilities is expected to deliver solar-generated electricity at a lower levelized cost of energy than standalone CSP ...

  17. Alaska Strategic Energy Plan and Planning Handbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Btu British thermal unit DOE U.S. Department of Energy EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour LCOE levelized cost of energy NSEDC ...

  18. Startup Success: Energy Department Helping Small Businesses Bring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of energy that lithium-ion batteries store by 30 percent or more and lower costs ... of energy that lithium-ion batteries store by 30 percent or more and lower costs ...

  19. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: levelized cost of energy Type Term Title Author...

  20. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Custom offerings include the Shared Savings Program, which provides incentives between $2,500 and $50,000 to cover the sometimes daunting upfront cost of energy efficiency improvements. Repayment...

  1. Argonne National Laboratory Develops Extreme-Scale Wind Farm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    studies of complex flow and wind turbine interactions in large land-based and offshore wind farms that will improve wind plant design and reduce the levelized cost of energy. ...

  2. Active Aerodynamic Blade Control Design for Load Alleviation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The accurate evaluation of the impact of AALC fatigue load reductions on the Cost of Energy (COE) of a wind turbine will require a complete new turbine design that fully integrates ...

  3. Low Wind Speed Turbine Development Project Report: November 4, 2002 - December 31, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhail, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Clipper Windpower under the DOE Low Wind Speed Turbine project. The objective of this project was to produce a wind turbine that can lower the cost of energy.

  4. PROJECT PROFILE: Interface Science and Engineering for Reliable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in 2014, cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules are becoming increasingly ... CdTe has the potential to have the lowest levelized cost of energy of any photovoltaic ...

  5. Stereotactic, Single-Dose Irradiation of Lung Tumors: A Comparison of Absolute Dose and Dose Distribution Between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo Algorithms Based on Actual Patient CT Scans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Huixiao; Lohr, Frank; Fritz, Peter; Wenz, Frederik; Dobler, Barbara; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Muehlnickel, Werner

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation based on pencil beam (PB) algorithms has its shortcomings predicting dose in tissue heterogeneities. The aim of this study was to compare dose distributions of clinically applied non-intensity-modulated radiotherapy 15-MV plans for stereotactic body radiotherapy between voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) calculation and PB calculation for lung lesions. Methods and Materials: To validate XVMC, one treatment plan was verified in an inhomogeneous thorax phantom with EDR2 film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). Both measured and calculated (PB and XVMC) dose distributions were compared regarding profiles and isodoses. Then, 35 lung plans originally created for clinical treatment by PB calculation with the Eclipse planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were recalculated by XVMC (investigational implementation in PrecisePLAN [Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden]). Clinically relevant dose-volume parameters for target and lung tissue were compared and analyzed statistically. Results: The XVMC calculation agreed well with film measurements (<1% difference in lateral profile), whereas the deviation between PB calculation and film measurements was up to +15%. On analysis of 35 clinical cases, the mean dose, minimal dose and coverage dose value for 95% volume of gross tumor volume were 1.14 {+-} 1.72 Gy, 1.68 {+-} 1.47 Gy, and 1.24 {+-} 1.04 Gy lower by XVMC compared with PB, respectively (prescription dose, 30 Gy). The volume covered by the 9 Gy isodose of lung was 2.73% {+-} 3.12% higher when calculated by XVMC compared with PB. The largest differences were observed for small lesions circumferentially encompassed by lung tissue. Conclusions: Pencil beam dose calculation overestimates dose to the tumor and underestimates lung volumes exposed to a given dose consistently for 15-MV photons. The degree of difference between XVMC and PB is tumor size and location dependent. Therefore XVMC calculation is helpful to further optimize treatment planning.

  6. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Market Price Forecast Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This study presents BPA's market price forecasts for the Final Proposal, which are based on AURORA modeling. AURORA calculates the variable cost of the marginal resource in a competitively priced energy market. In competitive market pricing, the marginal cost of production is equivalent to the market-clearing price. Market-clearing prices are important factors for informing BPA's power rates. AURORA was used as the primary tool for (a) estimating the forward price for the IOU REP Settlement benefits calculation for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009, (b) estimating the uncertainty surrounding DSI payments and IOU REP Settlements benefits, (c) informing the secondary revenue forecast and (d) providing a price input used for the risk analysis. For information about the calculation of the secondary revenues, uncertainty regarding the IOU REP Settlement benefits and DSI payment uncertainty, and the risk run, see Risk Analysis Study WP-07-FS-BPA-04.

  7. Generator Bidding Strategies in a Competitive Electricity Market with Derating and Bid-Segment Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Chow, Joe H.; Desrochers, Alan A.

    2009-07-31

    This paper develops optimal generator bidding strategies in a competitive electricity market. Starting from a generators cost curve, basic bidding concepts such as the break-even bid curve and the maximum profit bid curve can be readily derived. The maximum profit bid curve can be extended to account for generator availability and derating. In addition, multiple-segment block energy bids can be optimized based on the maximum profit curve and the probabilistic distribution of market clearing prices.

  8. Microsoft Word - RM 1-3 Final Report Nov 2011 final.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices Reference Models #1, #2 and #3 AE Copping SH Geerlofs November 2011 PNNL-20963 The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices Reference Models #1, #2 and #3 AE Copping SH Geerlofs November 2011 Prepared for the U.S.

  9. Microsoft Word - RM 5 final June 2014.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3412 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices Reference Model #5 AE Copping SH Geerlofs LA Hanna June 2014 PNNL - 23412 The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices Reference Model #5 AE Copping SH Geerlofs LA Hanna June 2014 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under

  10. CX-007567: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cost of Energy Reduction for Offshore Tension Leg Platform (TLP) Wind Turbine Systems Through Advanced Control Strategies for Energy Yield Improvement, Load Mitigation and Stabilization CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 01/19/2012 Location(s): Virginia Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  11. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  12. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Vermont Energy Investment Corporation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Vermont Energy Investment Corporation Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Vermont Energy Investment Corporation Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Vermont Energy Investment Corporation Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC) is a mission-driven nonprofit dedicated to reducing the economic and environmental costs of energy use. VEIC developed the nation's first energy efficiency utility and continues to deliver innovative energy efficiency programs. Through

  13. Wind Energy Finance (WEF): An Online Calculator for Economic Analysis of Wind Projects (Double-Gatefold Brochure)

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    How Does WEF Work? Inputs The user enters data about the project, including: * General assumptions * Capital costs * Operating expenses * Financing assumptions * Tax assumptions * Economic assumptions * Financial constraining assumptions. Extensive help notes describe each input and provide reasonable default values. Outputs * Minimum energy payment to meet financial criteria * Levelized cost of energy * Payback period * Net present value * Internal rate of return * Summary and detailed cash

  14. Study Finds 54 Gigawatts of Offshore Wind Capacity Technically Possible by 2030

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE recently funded a study that finds the deployment of at least 54 gigawatts of offshore wind power to be technically possible by 2030. The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS), which focused on two DOE objectives in reducing barriers to deployment of offshore wind, cost of energy and timeline of deployment.

  15. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  16. Field Testing LIDAR Based Feed-Forward Controls on the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholbrock, A. K.; Fleming, P. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Wright, A. D.; Schlipf, D.; Haizmann, F.; Belen, F.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems driven by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic forces. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a chaotic three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. In order to reduce cost of energy, future large multimegawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and University of Stuttgart are designing, implementing, and testing advanced feed-back and feed-forward controls in order to reduce the cost of energy for wind turbines.

  17. Microsoft Word - RIMA_McCourt_21Apr2014.Providence.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reliability & Affordability Bill McCourt, Executive Director, RI Manufacturers Association INTRO: Energy and natural resources are the life blood of manufacturing. Manufacturers need adequate, secure and affordable energy and raw materials to compete in the global marketplace. Manufacturers use one- third of our nation's energy and are directly affected by the cost of energy not only in making the products we sell, but also in the cost of maintaining our administrative and warehousing

  18. Alaska Strategic Energy Plan and Planning Handbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AEA Alaska Energy Authority Btu British thermal unit DOE U.S. Department of Energy EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour LCOE levelized cost of energy NSEDC Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory REAP Rural Energy for America Program START Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team SWOT strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VAGP Value-Added Grant Program

  19. Considerations for Solar Energy Technologies to Make Progress Towards Grid Price Parity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Feldman, David; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-07

    In this seminar the component costs for solar photovoltaics module and system prices will be highlighted. As a basis for comparison to other renewable and traditional energy options, the metric of focus will be total lifecycle cost-of-energy (LCOE). Several innovations to traditional photovoltaics technologies (including crystalline silicon, CdTe, and CIGS) and developing technologies (including organics and perovskites) that may close the gaps in LCOE will be discussed.

  20. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  1. Beasley Lab | Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scavenging Ecology golden eagle scavenging mammal carcass Carrion is a valuable nutrient resource in the environment that is used by a diversity of organisms encompassing all biological kingdoms. Due to the low cost of energy derived from carrion, most vertebrate species are facultative scavengers, and thus provide a critical ecosystem service for humans and other organisms by removing decaying animal matter from the environment. In fact, a surprising array of animals will forage on carrion,

  2. Complex Flow: Workshop Report; January 17-18, 2012, University of Colorado, Boulder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Wind Program organized a two-day workshop designed to examine complex wind flow into and out of the wind farm environment and the resulting impacts on the mechanical workings of individual wind turbines. An improved understanding of these processes will subsequently drive down the risk involved for wind energy developers, financiers, and owner/operators, thus driving down the cost of energy.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) conduc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Sandia) conducts applied research to increase the viability of wind technology by improving wind turbine performance, reliability, and reducing the cost of energy. Sandia specializes in all aspects of wind-turbine blade design, manufacturing, and system reliability. By partnering with universities and industry, Sandia works to advance the state of knowledge in the areas of materials, structurally efficient airfoil designs, active- flow aerodynamic control, and sensors. Researchers at the

  4. Photovoltaic Films - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Photovoltaic Films Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology LANL&rsquo;s solar power portfolio includes a deposition process known as PAD. PAD eliminates the need for vacuum-based thin film equipment. LANL's solar power portfolio includes a deposition process known as PAD. PAD eliminates the need for vacuum-based thin film equipment. Technology Marketing SummaryThe rising total cost of energy

  5. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV Modeling in SAM Aron P. Dobos, NREL Presented at the 2013 Sandia PV Performance Modeling Workshop Santa Clara, CA. May 1-2, 2013 Published by Sandia National Laboratories with the permission of the author. 2 System Advisor Model (SAM) * Performance models calculate a renewable energy system's hourly energy output over a single year * Financial models calculate the cost of energy for a renewable energy project over many years of operation Find out more and download the software free at

  6. Preparation of Papers for AIAA Technical Conferences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 I. Introduction HE availability of offshore wind resources in coastal regions makes offshore wind energy an attractive opportunity 1 . There are, however, significant challenges in realizing offshore wind energy with an acceptable cost of energy due to increased infrastructure, logistics, and operations and maintenance costs. As this paper will argue, the vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) 2 has the potential to alleviate many challenges

  7. PROJECT PROFILE: Addressing Soiling: From Interface Chemistry to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Practicality | Department of Energy Addressing Soiling: From Interface Chemistry to Practicality PROJECT PROFILE: Addressing Soiling: From Interface Chemistry to Practicality Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $6,000,000 Natural soiling is responsible for about 4% output power loss and may be adding one cent per kilowatt hour to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) depending on the site.

  8. Key Concepts in Project Development and Financing in Alaska

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Project Options Narrowing project options, selection, ownership through pros and cons 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 4 Implementation 2 Options Key Concepts 3 In-depth information on each key concept available in Advanced Courses * Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) * Business Structures for Tribes * AEA Grants and Loans * Tax-Equity Partnership * Risk and Uncertainty * Roles of the Tribe About the Speaker Paul Schwabe * Renewable energy finance and policy

  9. Lower Sioux Indian Community Wind Energy Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Review, October 2010 Lower Sioux Indian Community Wind Energy Development Lower Sioux Community Lower Sioux Energy Goals * Provide clean and environmentally safe energy resources for tribal reservation by installing wind turbine in community * Sell excess power to nearby power utility * Lower cost of energy to local businesses and homeowners in the community * Provide new employment opportunities Facility-Scale Wind * The Lower Sioux Community's original renewable energy goal was to

  10. PVWatts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PVWatts PVWatts NREL's PVWatts® Calculator estimates the energy production and cost of energy of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems throughout the world. It allows homeowners, small building owners, installers and manufacturers to easily develop estimates of the performance of potential PV installations. Partner Agency: U.S. Department of Energy Resource Type: Interactive Tool Stakeholder Group(s): Residential; Commercial Publication Date: N/A Resource Link:

  11. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    69 4. Photovoltaics: Technologies, Cost, and Performance 4.1 INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV) technologies currently supply only a small fraction of U.S. energy needs, largely because PV-generated electricity historically has cost more than electricity from conventional sources. Achieving the SunShot Initiative's PV cost- reduction targets-reducing the price of PV systems by about 75% by 2020-is projected to make PV competitive with conventional sources on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis.

  12. Systems Advisor Model | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Advisor Model Systems Advisor Model Systems Advisor Model (SAM) makes performance predictions and cost of energy estimates for grid-connected power projects based on installation and operating costs and system design parameters that you specify as inputs to the model. Projects can be on the customer side of the utility meter - buying and selling electricity at retail rates - or on the utility side of the meter, selling electricity at a price negotiated through a power purchase agreement.

  13. Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Wind Energy - Wind EnergyTara Camacho-Lopez2016-02-16T22:30:00+00:00 Conducting applied research to increase the viability of wind technology by improving wind turbine performance, reliability, and reducing the cost of energy. Advancing the state of knowledge in the areas of materials, structurally efficient airfoil designs, active-flow aerodynamic control, and sensors. Rotor Innovation Advancing rotor technology such that they capture more energy,

  14. Request for Information: Photovoltaic Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing costs associated with photovoltaic module production have decreased dramatically over the past decade, but further improvements are still needed. Cell and module developments that maximize efficiency, service lifetime, and total energy output while minimizing installation material and labor costs are critical to the future of commercial photovoltaic technologies. Continued innovation in these areas will play a vital role in achieving a levelized cost of energy that is low enough to drive widespread deployment for decades to come.

  15. Argonne National Laboratory Develops Extreme-Scale Wind Farm Simulation Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at DOE's Argonne National Laboratory are developing a computational simulation tool to conduct studies of complex flow and wind turbine interactions in large land-based and offshore wind farms that will improve wind plant design and reduce the levelized cost of energy. Simulations on a wind-plant-scale require accurate simultaneous resolution of multiple flow scales, from mesoscale weather to turbine-blade scale turbulence, which presents special demands on the computational solver efficiency and requires extreme scalability.

  16. Project Profile: System Advisor Model Enhancements for CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since the first public release, over 35,000 people representing manufacturers, project developers, academic researchers, and policy makers have downloaded the System Advisor Model (SAM). Manufacturers are using the model to evaluate the impact of efficiency improvements or cost reductions in their products on the cost of energy from installed systems. Project developers use SAM to evaluate different system configurations to maximize earnings from electricity sales. Policy makers and designers use the model to experiment with different incentive structures.

  17. NREL: Energy Analysis - Michael Woodhouse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Woodhouse Photo of Michael Woodhouse Michael Woodhouse is a member of the Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group in the Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Solar PV Technologies and Economics Analyst On staff since 2008 Phone number: 303-384-7623 E-mail: Michael.Woodhouse@nrel.gov Areas of expertise Fundamental science of photovoltaics (PV) and solar hydrogen technologies Economics of PV - From manufacturing to levelized cost of energy (LCOE) Primary research interests Manufacturing

  18. NREL: Energy Analysis - Tyler Stehly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tyler Stehly Photo of Tyler Stehly. Tyler Stehly is a member of the Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group in the Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Engineering Wind Technology Analyst On staff since 2012 Phone number: 303-384-7190 E-mail: Tyler.Stehly@nrel.gov Areas of expertise Energy economic models Wind energy systems Cost of energy analysis Project cost estimation Technical report writing Primary research interests Wind technologies Renewable energy systems Mechanisms and

  19. Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5 Boulder, Colorado PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Evaluation of a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, CO Location: Boulder, CO Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings www.carb-swa.com Building Component: Building envelope, lighting, appliances, water conservation Application: Retrofit Years Tested: 2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold, very cold PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure (including labor): $3,300-$6,100 per unit with

  20. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tower Manufacturing and Installation Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation December 18, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis The DOE Wind Program has issued a Notice of Intent for a funding opportunity that it intends to post early in 2014, pending Congressional appropriations. The funding opportunity, tentatively titled "U.S. Wind Manufacturing: Taller Hub Heights to Access Higher Wind Resources, and Lower Cost of Energy" intends to support

  1. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Retrofit Type: Multifamily, affordable Builder: Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) www.merrimackvalleyhabitat.org Size: 840 to 1,170 ft 2 units Price Range: $125,000-$130,000 Date completed: Slated for 2014 Climate Zone: Cold (5A) PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Range: 48 to 63 Projected annual energy cost savings: $1,797 Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $3,747

  2. DoD Energy Innovation on Military Installations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DoD Energy Innovation on Military Installations November 5, 2014 Dr. James Galvin Program Manager, ESTCP Energy & Water Program 2 Energy Audit Demonstrations 1. Traditional energy audits are expensive and time consuming. 2. Tablet-based software may improve the quality and reduce the cost of energy audits. 3. An ESTCP demonstration showed that a "touchless" energy audit using Remote Building Analytics requires only about 25% of the time and money of a traditional energy audit.

  3. Microsoft Word - RM1_Tidal Turbine_ARL_PTO_OMAE_Paper-Abstract.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    xx by ASME 31st International Conference on Ocean Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE) June 10-15, 2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil OMAE 2012 - 84074 Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy ABSTRACT Marine hydrokinetic devices are becoming a popular method for generating marine renewable energy worldwide. These devices generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of moving water, wave motion or currents, into electrical

  4. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION TEMPLATE FOR THE 35TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levelized Cost of Energy for Distributed PV: A Parametric Study Christopher P. Cameron 1 , Alan C. Goodrich 2 1 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA 2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO ABSTRACT The maturation of distributed solar PV as an energy source requires that the technology no longer compete on module efficiency and manufacturing cost ($/Wp) alone. Solar PV must yield sufficient energy (kWh) at a competitive cost (¢/kWh) to justify its system investment and

  5. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller Location: Chicago, IL Partners: Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), gastechnology.org/PARR Greffen Systems, greffensys.com Building Component: HVAC Application: New or retrofit; multifamily Year Tested: 2013-2014 Applicable Climate Zones: Cold, Very Cold, Mixed-Humid PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of energy efficiency measure (including labor):

  6. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space - Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space Waldorf, Maryland PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Ventilation Effectiveness Location: Waldorf, MD Partners: Building Science Corporation, buildingscience.com K. Hovnanian Homes, khov.com Building Component: Building and garage ventilation Application: New and retrofit; single and multifamily Year Tested: 2013 Applicable Climate Zone(s): All PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of energy efficiency measure (including labor): $0 if no garage

  7. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Location: Chicago, IL area Partners: Elevate Energy elevateenergy.org/ Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit gastechnology.org/PARR Building Component: HVAC Application: Multifamily Year Tested: 2014 Applicable Climate Zones: 1, 2, 3 PERFORMANCE DATA Retrofit: Booster pump to increase flow in an underheated zone Cost of energy efficiency measure (including labor): $6,330 Temperature spread decrease:

  8. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duct In Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down Gainesville, Florida PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Belmont Location: Gainesville, FL Partners: Tommy Williams Homes; Florida H.E.R.O. Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, bapirc.org Building Component: HVAC Application: New; single and/or multifamily Year Tested: 2011 Applicable Climate Zone(s): All PERFORMANCE DATA [of the measure alone, not whole house] Cost of energy efficiency measure (including

  9. Building America Case Study: Innovative Retrofit Foundation Insulation Strategies, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative Retrofit Foundation Insulation Strategies Minneapolis, Minnesota PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Innovative Retrofit Foundation Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations Location: Minneapolis, MN NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership Building Component: Concrete block masonry foundation Application: Retrofit Year Tested: 2013 Climate Zones: Cold (6 and 7) PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of energy-efficiency measure (including labor): $4,600 Projected energy savings: 8.8% site

  10. Building America Case Study: Marketing Zero Energy Homes: Tommy Williams Homes, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet), Business Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tommy Williams Homes Gainesville, Florida PARTNER INFORMATION Builder: Tommy Williams Homes Location: Florida Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, ba-pirc.org Application: New, single-family Partnership Period: 2004-present Climate Zone: Hot-humid PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Score: 57 Cost of energy efficiency measures (including labor): $3,138 Projected annual source energy savings: 31% Projected annual energy cost savings: $430 Projected first-year positive cash

  11. Building America Case Study: Singer Village: A Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Home, Derby, Connecticut (Fact Sheet), Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Singer Village: A Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Home Derby, Connecticut PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Singer Village Home Location: Derby, CT Partners: Brookside Development, LLC. brooksidedevelopment.com Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, carb-swa.com Size: 4,456 ft 2 including basement Year Completed: 2014 Climate Zone: Cold PERFORMANCE DATA Source energy savings: 29.6% HERS index: 45 Projected annual utility costs: $2,443 Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: 5.5%

  12. Building America Case Study: Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit, Sunnyvale, California (Fact Sheet), Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit Sunnyvale, California PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Retrofit Type: Single-family Partners: Builder: One Sky Homes of San Jose, CA, oneskyhomes.com Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, arbi.davisenergycom Size: 1,658 ft 2 Vintage: 1957 Date completed: 2013 Climate Zone: Marine PERFORMANCE DATA Source energy savings: 54 MMBtu/yr (40%) Annual energy cost savings: $500 Incremental cost of energy-efficiency measures: $21,000 The U.S. Department of

  13. Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps Sharon, Connecticut PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Sharon Ridge Apartments Location: Sharon, CT Partners: Sharon Housing Authority, www.sharonct.org/ Advanced Residential Integrated Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), http://levypartnership.com/ Building Component: HVAC Application: Retrofit, single, or multifamily Year Tested: 2012-2013 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Mixed-humid and cold PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of energy efficiency measure

  14. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    building science.com © 2009 Building Science Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis Research Report - 0903 March 11, 2009 (Rev. June 8, 2011) John Straube and Jonathan Smegal Abstract: Many concerns, including the rising cost of energy, climate change concerns, and demands for increased comfort, have lead to the desire for increased insulation levels in many new and existing buildings. More building

  15. Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New home Type: Single-family, market-rate and affordable Builder: Transformations, Inc. www.transformations-inc.com Size: 1,064 to 2,365 ft 2 Price Range: $125,000-$400,000 Date Completed: 2010-ongoing Climate Zone: Cold PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Range: -21 to 43 Projected annual energy cost: $88* Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $3/ft 2 * Incremental

  16. Stand-Off Furring in Deep Energy Retrofits, Syracuse, New York (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stand-Off Furring in Deep Energy Retrofits Syracuse, New York PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Deep Energy Retrofit Location: Syracuse, NY Project Partners: GreenHomes America, www.greenhomesamerica.com/ IBACOS, www.ibacos.com Building Component: Building envelope Application: Single-family retrofit Year Tested: 2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of energy efficiency measure (including labor): $23,518 Projected energy savings: Approximately 50% overall savings Exterior

  17. State Energy Finance Programs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Finance Programs Alaska Native Village Energy Development Workshop April 29, 2014  Energy Planning and Policy  Technical and Community Assistance  Investing in Alaska's Energy Infrastructure  Diversifying Alaska's Energy Portfolio Reducing the Cost of Energy 2 Alaska's Energy Policy Reinforces AEA as the Lead Energy Agency "It is the policy of the state to coordinate governmental functions by using one office or agency, as may be specified by law, to serve as a clearinghouse in

  18. Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Project Financing Concepts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Concepts Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Project Financing Concepts Watch the DOE Office of Indian Energy's advanced renewable energy course entitled "Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development: Advanced Financing Concepts" by clicking on the .swf link below. You can also download a PDF of the PowerPoint slides. This course covers the following concepts for financing renewable energy projects on tribal lands: Levelized Cost of Energy Business

  19. Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Minneapolis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Minneapolis Residence Minneapolis, MN PROJECT INFORMATION Private residence, basement renovation Minneapolis, MN Builder: Otogawa-Anschel Design + Build Designer: Otogawa-Anschel Design + Build Building Component: Envelope: Foundation W all Application: Single family home, retrofit (also suitable for multi-family) Project year: 2006 Climate Zone 6A (applicable to most climate zones. Termite risk must be assessed) PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy-Efficiency Measure (including labor): Walls- dimple

  20. Better Buildings Accelerators: Driving Uptake of Home Energy Information

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Upgrade Programs Nationwide | Department of Energy Accelerators: Driving Uptake of Home Energy Information and Upgrade Programs Nationwide Better Buildings Accelerators: Driving Uptake of Home Energy Information and Upgrade Programs Nationwide March 14, 2016 - 2:18pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Home Upgrade Program and Home Energy Information Accelerators work with partners across the nation and are making important progress in lowering the costs of energy

  1. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Improving Gas Furnace Performance-A Field and Lab Study at End of Life Location: Chicago, IL Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit www.gastechnology.org Building Component: Natural Gas Furnaces Application: New and/or retrofit; Single and/or multifamily Year Tested: 2012/2013 Applicable Climate Zone(s): All or specify which ones PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure (including

  2. Property-Assessed Clean Energy Programs | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Property-Assessed Clean Energy Programs Property-Assessed Clean Energy Programs The property-assessed clean energy (PACE) model is an innovative mechanism for financing energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements on private property. PACE programs allow local governments, state governments, or other inter-jurisdictional authorities, when authorized by state law, to fund the up-front cost of energy improvements on commercial and residential properties, which are paid back over time by the

  3. Lower Sioux Indian Community Wind Energy Development

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program Review, October 2010 Lower Sioux Indian Community Wind Energy Development Lower Sioux Community Lower Sioux Energy Goals * Provide clean and environmentally safe energy resources for tribal reservation by installing wind turbine in community * Sell excess power to nearby power utility * Lower cost of energy to local businesses and homeowners in the community * Provide new employment opportunities Facility-Scale Wind * The Lower Sioux Community's original renewable energy goal was to

  4. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Virginia | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Virginia Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Virginia Location Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued for actions in Virginia. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD March 7, 2016 CX-100548 Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost Of Energy reduction for offshore Tension Leg Platform (TLP) wind turbine systems through advanced control strategies for energy yield improvement, load mitigation and stabilization Award Number: DE-EE00005494 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B5.15 Geothermal Technology Office

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Competitive Awards | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power » Concentrating Solar Power Competitive Awards Concentrating Solar Power Competitive Awards The SunShot Initiative supports the development of novel concentrating solar power (CSP) research and development projects that will reduce the levelized cost of energy to $0.06 per kilowatt hour or less without subsidies by the end of the decade. These projects aim to engineer new concepts in the collector, receiver, thermal storage, heat transfer fluids and power cycle subsystems, including

  6. Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Technology to Market » Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty As a basis for strategic planning, competitiveness analysis, funding metrics and targets, SunShot supports analysis teams at national laboratories to assess technology costs, location-specific competitive advantages, policy impacts on system financing, and to perform detailed levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses. This shows the

  7. NANA Regional Corporation - Geothermal Assessment Program & Wind Resource Assessment Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Overview of Region * 35,989 square miles * 11 villages * 7,400 (pop. 2008) * 82.5 % Alaska Native * More than 12,000 NANA shareholders * 48 % more expensive than Anchorage Source: Alaska Economic Trends, August 2009 Cost of Energy * 55.4% of households received energy assistance last winter (2008) * Gasoline - $6.68 per gallon (average) * Stove oil - $630 per winter month (average) * Electricity - $ 294 per month (average) Opportunities * Alternative and traditional energy sources *

  8. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  9. Technology Advances Needed for Photovoltaics to Achieve Widespread Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Price Parity | Department of Energy Technology Advances Needed for Photovoltaics to Achieve Widespread Grid Price Parity Technology Advances Needed for Photovoltaics to Achieve Widespread Grid Price Parity Abstract: To quantify the potential value of technological advances to the photovoltaics (PV) sector, this paper examines the impact of changes to key PV systems parameters on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The parameters selected include module manufacturing cost, efficiency,

  10. DOE Office of Indian Energy Renewable Energy Project Development: Advanced Financing Concepts

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concepts Why It Makes Sense to Bring on a Third-Party Partner Course Outline What we will cover...  About the DOE Office of Indian Energy Education Initiative  Concepts for Financing Renewable Energy Projects on Tribal Lands - Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) - Business Structures - Tax-Equity Partnerships - Introduction  Additional Information and Resources 2 Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs is responsible for assisting Tribes

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.9 Low-Income Housing

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Energy Burden Definitions Energy burden is an important statistic for policy makers who are considering the need for energy assistance. Energy burden can be defined broadly as the burden placed on household incomes by the cost of energy, or more simply, the ratio of energy expenditures to household income. However, there are different ways to compute energy burden, and different interpretations and uses of the energy burden statistics. DOE Weatherization primarily uses mean individual burden

  12. EIS-0427-ROD-2012.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    829 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 176 / Tuesday, September 11, 2012 / Notices supplied for the benefit of the customer for pumping during the specified month. L p = Energy loss factor for transmission on energy purchased or supplied for the benefit of the customer for pumping (Expected to be .03 or three percent.) = Kilowatt-hours of energy in storage as of the end of the month immediately preceding the specified month. = Weighted average cost of energy for pumping for the month immediately

  13. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resor, Brian Ray; Maniaci, David Charles; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-05-01

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  14. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

  15. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomlinson, John J; Christian, Jeff; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

  16. Mr. John E. Kieling, Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    there were no actual or potential hazards to human health or the environment due to exposure to hazardous waste or waste constituents. Further assessment of actual or...

  17. "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy for load, actual and projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area," "1990-2011 actual, 2012-2016 projected" "thousands of...

  18. The

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    road to E x c e p t i o n a l s e r v i c e i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e re s t Sustainable Transportation Sandia, industry partner to transform transportation to meet future demand The U.S. faces significant challenges in transportation energy based on our reliance on foreign oil and an economy strongly dependent on the cost of energy. It has become clear that one magic solution won't solve all these problems; rather, we must pursue a suite of approaches and solutions to transportation

  19. PROJECT PROFILE: System Advisor Model (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project focuses on the System Advisor Model (SAM) software created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). SAM is a performance and finance model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM makes performance predictions and cost of energy estimates for grid-connected power projects based on installation, operating costs, and system design parameters that users enter into the tool. This project will improve and maintain many features of the tool that has been instrumental in advancing the solar industry. Basic maintenance for the PVWatts Calculator tool will also be completed.

  20. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-02

    DOE2.1E-121SUNOS is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating,more » cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS).« less

  1. End-use taxes: Current EIA practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-17

    There are inconsistencies in the EIA published end-use price data with respect to Federal, state, and local government sales and excise taxes; some publications include end-use taxes and others do not. The reason for including these taxes in end-use energy prices is to provide consistent and accurate information on the total cost of energy purchased by the final consumer. Preliminary estimates are made of the effect on prices (bias) reported in SEPER (State Energy Price and Expenditure Report) resulting from the inconsistent treatment of taxes. EIA has undertaken several actions to enhance the reporting of end-use energy prices.

  2. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  3. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.; Zimmerle. D.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  4. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Zimmerle, D.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  5. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program (The Program). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC, in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE).

  6. NuMAD User's Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    028 Unlimited Release Printed August 2012 Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD v2.0) for Wind Turbine Blades: User's Guide Jonathan C. Berg Brian R. Resor Wind Energy Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1124 Abstract Sandia National Laboratories has an on-going effort to reduce the cost of energy and improve reliability for wind systems through improved blade design and manufacture. As part of this effort, a software tool named NuMAD

  7. PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $4,000,000 Low-cost III-V photovoltaics have the potential to lower the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) because III-V cells outperform silicon in terms of efficiency and annual energy

  8. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  9. Advanced Wind Turbine Program Next Generation Turbine Development Project: June 17, 1997--April 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Wind Energy, LLC

    2006-05-01

    This document reports the technical results of the Next Generation Turbine Development Project conducted by GE Wind Energy LLC. This project is jointly funded by GE and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.The goal of this project is for DOE to assist the U.S. wind industry in exploring new concepts and applications of cutting-edge technology in pursuit of the specific objective of developing a wind turbine that can generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy of $0.025/kWh at sites with an average wind speed of 15 mph (at 10 m height).

  10. AEA Hydroelectric Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Authority AEA Hydroelectric Program Daniel Hertrich, PE BIA Providers Conference, December, 2015 Alaska Energy Authority: Mission "To Reduce the Cost of Energy in Alaska"  AEA is an independent and public corporation of the State of Alaska  Created by the Alaska Legislature in 1976  44.83.070: " The purpose of the Authority is to promote, develop, and advance the general prosperity and economic welfare of the people of the state by providing a means of financing

  11. SunShotBook-all.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Photovoltaics To meet the SunShot Initiative goal of an unsubsidized utility- scale PV system cost of $1/W and to attain a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.06/kWh by 2020, the PV program has the following targets: * Module cost of $0.50/W (including margin) * Module efficiency of 20% While module costs have decreased dramatically since the start of the SunShot Initiative, an additional 1/3 cost reduction is necessary. Further, increases in module efficiency enable decreases in the balance

  12. CX-100548 Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-100548 Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost of Energy Reduction for Offshore Tension Leg Platform (TLP) Wind Turbine Systems through Advanced Control Strategies for Energy Yield Improvement, Load Mitigation and Stabilization Award Number: DE-EE0005494 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B5.15 Wind Program Date: 07/31/2014 Location(s): VA Office(s): Golden Field Office The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide federal funding to Alstom Power

  13. Wind Turbine Gearbox Failure Modes - A Brief (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.; McDade, M.; Errichello, R.

    2011-10-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes are not always meeting 20-year design life. Premature failure of gearboxes increases cost of energy, turbine downtime, unplanned maintenance, gearbox replacement and rebuild, and increased warranty reserves. The problem is widespread, affects most Original Equipment Manufacturers, and is not caused by manufacturing practices. There is a need to improve gearbox reliability and reduce turbine downtime. The topics of this presentation are: GRC (Gearbox Reliability Collaborative) technical approach; Gearbox failure database; Recorded incidents summary; Top failure modes for bearings; Top failure modes for gears; GRC test gearbox; Bearing nomenclature; Test history; Real damage; Gear sets; Bearings; Observations; and Summary. 5 refs.

  14. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

  15. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  16. Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y. H.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Previsic, M.; Epler, J.; Lou, J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy established a reference model project to benchmark a set of marine and hydrokinetic technologies including current (tidal, open-ocean, and river) turbines and wave energy converters. The objectives of the project were to first evaluate the status of these technologies and their readiness for commercial applications. Second, to evaluate the potential cost of energy and identify cost-reduction pathways and areas where additional research could be best applied to accelerate technology development to market readiness.

  17. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm, D. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2006-04-01

    This report presents the results of the turbine rotor study completed by Global Energy Concepts (GEC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) project. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy from wind turbines to fall to a target of 3.0 cents/kilowatt-hour in low wind speed sites. The study focused on different rotor configurations and the effect of scale on those rotors.

  18. New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind May 18, 2015 - 2:48pm Addthis A new report recently published by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory shows a downward trend in levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind projects since 2010. The 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review presents a picture of the levelized cost of land-based and offshore wind energy using real and modeled data that represents

  19. Automation for industrial wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning automated monitoring and purification of wastewater. The design and development of new automated systems and improvements to existing applications are described. The citations examine the benefits of automation, including more efficient use of chemicals, continuous operation, and early warning of equipment failure. Disadvantages are addressed, as well, including increased cost of energy, the need for sophisticated hardware and software, and inability to maintain operation during electric power failure. Case histories of operating automated industrial and municipal systems are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search SciTech Connect Search Results Page 1 of 1 Search for: All records Creators/Authors contains: "Smith, Aaron" × Sort by Relevance Sort by Date (newest first) Sort by Date (oldest first) Sort by Relevance « Prev Next » Everything9 Electronic Full Text6 Citations3 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject market report (2) wind energy offshore wind (2) -2015 (1) analysis (1) brain (1) capex (1) cost of energy (1) cost trends

  1. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence Atlanta, Georgia PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New Home Type: Single-family Builder: TaC Studios, tacstudios.com Size: 3,570 ft 2 Price Range: about $750,000 Date completed: 2011 Climate zone: Mixed-humid PERFORMANCE DATA HERS index: 66 Builder standard practice = 75 Case study house 3,570 ft 2 Projected annual energy cost savings: $493 Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $51,036 Incremental annual mortgage: $1,449 Annual

  2. The Status of Clean Energy in the United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Status of Clean Energy in the United States Tribal Energy Program Review May 6, 2015 Travis Lowder, NREL 2 Lazard's Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) Estimates Source: Lazard 2013 3 Lazard's Capital Cost Estimates Source: Lazard 2013 4 EIA Estimates (2012 data) 5 Solar PV 6 Solar PV Installed Capacity and Weighted Average System Cost $0 $2 $4 $6 $8 $10 $12 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Wtd. Avg. System Price ($/W)

  3. Solar Energy in Alaska

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy in Alaska Photo by: Cassandra Cerny, GVEA David Lockard, Solar Program Manager Alaska Energy Authority BIA Providers Conference December 2, 2015 Alaska Energy Authority: Mission "To Reduce the Cost of Energy in Alaska"  AEA is an independent and public corporation of the State of Alaska  Created by the Alaska Legislature in 1976  44.83.070: " The purpose of the Authority is to promote, develop, and advance the general prosperity and economic welfare of the people

  4. Regional Energy Planning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Energy Planning Photo by: Cassandra Cerny, GVEA Jed Drolet, Energy Information Analyst BIA Providers Conference December 3, 2015 Alaska Energy Authority: Mission "To Reduce the Cost of Energy in Alaska"  AEA is an independent and public corporation of the State of Alaska  Created by the Alaska Legislature in 1976  44.83.070: " The purpose of the Authority is to promote, develop, and advance the general prosperity and economic welfare of the people of the state by

  5. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  6. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  7. Geothermal Glossary | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Glossary Geothermal Glossary This list contains terms related to geothermal energy and technologies./ A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z A Ambient Natural condition of the environment at any given time. / Aquifer Water-bearing stratum of permeable sand, rock, or gravel./ Back to Top/ B Baseload Plants Electricity-generating units that are operated to meet the constant or minimum load on the system. The cost of energy from such

  8. The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electricity storage can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including the ability to levelize load, provide ancillary services, and provide firm capacity. Historically, it has been difficult to compare the value of electricity storage to alternative generation resources using simplified metrics, such as levelized cost of energy. To properly value energy storage requires detailed time-series simulations using software tools that can co-optimize multiple services provided by different storage technologies. This analysis uses a commercial grid simulation tool to examine the potential value of different general classes of storage devices when providing both energy and ancillary services.

  9. Reliable, Lightweight Transmissions For Off-Shore, Utility Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean-Claude Ossyra

    2012-10-25

    The objective of this project was to reduce the technical risk for a hydrostatic transmission based drivetrain for high-power utility-size wind turbines. A theoretical study has been performed to validate the reduction of cost of energy (CoE) for the wind turbine, identify risk mitigation strategies for the drive system and critical components, namely the pump, shaft connection and hydrostatic transmission (HST) controls and address additional benefits such as reduced deployment costs, improved torque density and improved mean time between repairs (MTBR).

  10. Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling July 9, 2015 - 11:15am Addthis Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling When it comes to making performance predictions and cost-of-energy estimates for grid-connected power projects, you can trust SAM to make it happen. SAM, or the System Advisor Model, is a performance and financial analysis tool funded by the SunShot Initiative that was built based on computer models developed at the National Renewable Energy

  11. EERE Success Story-Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling EERE Success Story-Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling July 9, 2015 - 11:15am Addthis EERE Success Story—Uncle Sam Turns to SAM for Solar Modeling When it comes to making performance predictions and cost-of-energy estimates for grid-connected power projects, you can trust SAM to make it happen. SAM, or the System Advisor Model, is a performance and financial analysis tool funded by the SunShot Initiative that was built based on

  12. U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.

    2012-10-01

    With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

  13. Combined cycle phosphoric acid fuel cell electric power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollot, D.J.; Micheli, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    By arranging two or more electric power generation cycles in series, combined cycle systems are able to produce electric power more efficiently than conventional single cycle plants. The high fuel to electricity conversion efficiency results in lower plant operating costs, better environmental performance, and in some cases even lower capital costs. Despite these advantages, combined cycle systems for the 1 - 10 megawatt (MW) industrial market are rare. This paper presents a low noise, low (oxides of nitrogen) NOx, combined cycle alternative for the small industrial user. By combining a commercially available phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with a low-temperature Rankine cycle (similar to those used in geothermal applications), electric conversion efficiencies between 45 and 47 percent are predicted. While the simple cycle PAFC is competitive on a cost of energy basis with gas turbines and diesel generators in the 1 to 2 MW market, the combined cycle PAFC is competitive, on a cost of energy basis, with simple cycle diesel generators in the 4 to 25 MW market. In addition, the efficiency and low-temperature operation of the combined cycle PAFC results in a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions with NO{sub x} concentration on the order of 1 parts per million (per weight) (ppmw).

  14. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  15. International DSM and DSM program evaluation: An INDEEP assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses the current level of demand-side management (DSM) occurring in selected European countries and reviews the availability of information on DSM programs and program evaluation. Next, thirteen European DSM programs are compared by examining such factors as: motivations for program implementation, marketing methods, participation rates, total energy savings, and program costs. The transfer of DSM program results and experiences found in these case studies is also discussed, as well as the lessons learned during the design, implementation, and evaluation of these programs. This paper represents a preliminary assessment of the state of DSM and DSM program evaluation in Europe. The findings from this work also represent the first steps in a joint international effort to compile and analyze the measured results of energy efficiency programs in a consistent and comprehensive fashion. The authors find that these programs represent cost-effective resources: the cost of energy saved by the programs ranged from a low of 0.0005 ECUs/kWh (0.01 {cents}/kWh) to a high of 0.077 ECUs/kWh (9.7 {cents}/kWh), with an average cost of 0.027 ECUs/kWh (3.3 {cents}/kWh). Weighted by energy savings, the average cost of energy saved by the programs was 0.014 ECUs/kWh (1.8 {cents}/kWh).

  16. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  17. FY 2016 Financial Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actual financial results, forecasts of BPA's financial position at the end of the current fiscal year, comparisons of actual financial results to start-of-year budgets and rate...

  18. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2011 Target FY 2011 Actual FY 2011 Pre- & Post-CAP Actual Comment 1a. Capital Asset Line Item Projects: ...

  19. FY 2003 Generation Audited Accumlated Net Revenues, March 2004

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3rd Quarter Review Forecast FY 2003 Actual Results 1 FY 2000 PBL Actual Modified Net Revenue 252 252 2 Energy Northwest Debt Service Adjustment for FY 2000 (82) (82) 3 SFAS...

  20. 2016 Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If the actual generation exceeds the Exhibit A amount, the Customer will receive a credit. If the actual generation is less than the Exhibit A amount, the Customer will...

  1. Master Document

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If the actual generation exceeds the Exhibit A amount, the Customer will receive a credit. If the actual generation is less than the Exhibit A amount, the Customer will...

  2. Beamline 5.3.2.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    size at sample (FWHM) 25 nm (theoretical), 31 nm actual Scientific applications Photovoltaics, thin films, macromolecular chemistry, geology, cosmological chemistry,...

  3. SECTION C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... decontamination, decommissioning, and demolishing ... nuclear power reactor, the Columbia Generating Station. ... Site Assignment List, versus the actual project status. ...

  4. Role of Geological and Geophysical Data in Modeling a Southwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    actual computer time necessary for model calibration was minimal. The conceptually straightforward approach for parameter estimation utilizing existing hydrological, geophysical,...

  5. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident...

  6. Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Resor, B.; Platt, A.; Guo, Y.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Parsons, T.; Petch, D.; Veers, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of tip-velocity constraints on system levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The results indicate that a change in maximum tip speed from 80 to 100~m/s could produce a 32% decrease in gearbox weight (a 33% reduction in cost) which would result in an overall reduction of 1%-9% in system LCOE depending on the design approach. Three 100~m/s design cases were considered including a low tip-speed ratio/high-solidity rotor design, a high tip-speed ratio/ low-solidity rotor design, and finally a flexible blade design in which a high tip-speed ratio was used along with removing the tip deflection constraint on the rotor design. In all three cases, the significant reduction in gearbox weight caused by the higher tip-speed and lower overall gear ratio was counterbalanced by increased weights for the rotor and/or other drivetrain components and the tower. As a result, the increased costs of either the rotor or drivetrain components offset the overall reduction in turbine costs from down-sizing the gearbox. Other system costs were not significantly affected, whereas energy production was slightly reduced in the 100~m/s case low tip-speed ratio case and increased in the high tip-speed ratio case. This resulted in system cost of energy reductions moving from the 80~m/s design to the 100~m/s designs of 1.2% for the low tip-speed ratio, 4.6% for the high tip-speed ratio, and 9.5% for the final flexible case (the latter result is optimistic because the impact of deflection of the flexible blade on power production was not modeled). Overall, the results demonstrate that there is a trade-off in system design between the maximum tip velocity and the overall wind plant cost of energy, and there are many trade-offs within the overall system in designing a turbine for a high maximum tip velocity.

  7. The impact of summer heat islands on cooling energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Huang, J.; Martien, P.; Rainer, L.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1988-08-01

    It has been well documented that summer heat islands increase the demand for air conditioning. Several studies have suggested developing guidelines to mitigate this negative effect, on both micro- and meso-scales. Reducing summer heat islands saves cooling energy, reduces peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants. This paper summarizes some of the efforts to quantify the effects of techniques to reduce heat islands. In particular, the authors summarize simulations they have made on the effects of plating trees and switching to light colored surfaces in cities. The results indicate that these techniques effectively reduce building cooling loads and peak power in selected US cities, and are the cheapest way to save energy and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper compares the economics of technologies to mitigate summer heat islands with other types of conservation measures. The authors estimate the cost of energy conserved by planting trees and recoating surfaces on a national level and compare it with the cost of energy conserved by increasing efficiencies in electrical appliances and cars. Early results indicate that the cost of energy saved by controlling heat islands is less than 1{cents}/kWh, more attractive than efficient electric appliances ({approximately} 2{cents}/kWh), and far more attractive than new electric supplies ({approximately}10{cents}/kWh). In transportation, the cost of conserving a gallon of gasoline, though far more attractive than buying gasoline at current prices, is again more expensive than controlling heat islands. By accounting for the carbon content of the fuels used for power generation and transportation, the authors restate these comparisons in terms of cents per avoided pound of carbon emitted as CO{sub 2}. The results show that the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} from planting trees/increasing albedo is about 0.3--1.3{cents}/lb. of carbon; for buying efficient electric appliances, 2.5{cents}/lb. of carbon; and for efficient cars, 10{cents}/lb. of carbon.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-04-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime.

  9. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  10. Will competition hurt electricity consumers in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1998-11-01

    A computer model was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to analyze the electricity production, costs, and prices for two geographical regions for a single year. Bulk-power trading is allowed between the two regions and market clearing prices are determined based on marginal costs. The authors used this model, ORCED, to evaluate the market price of power over the year 2000 in the Pacific Northwest and California. The authors found that, absent intervention by the regulators in the Northwest, generation prices would increase 1.1 {cents}/kWh on average, from 1.91 {cents}/kWh for the regulated price to 3.02 {cents}/kWh as the competitive price. If regulators use transition charges and price caps, then customers in the Pacific Northwest need not be penalized by the change to marginal-cost pricing. Customer responses to price changes will increase the transfer of power between regions. A gas price increase of 20%, while only raising the average-cost-based price to 1.95 {cents}/kWh, raised the marginal-cost-based price to 3.56{cents}/kWh. Reductions in hydroelectric resources also dramatically change the price and flow of power.

  11. Revenue adequate bidding strategies in competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.; Svoboda, A.J.; Guan, X.; Singh, H.

    1999-05-01

    Energy trading in a competitive electricity market can be modeled as a two-level optimization. At the top level a Centralized Economic Dispatch (CED) uses a priority list method to solve the fundamental problem of reliable market clearing with price discovery. The lower level consists of a set of Decentralized Bidding (DB) subproblems. The DB model uses a self-unit scheduling simulator based on parametric dynamic programming to produce hourly bid curves for the central dispatch coordinator. Unit operating constraints and costs such as the unit minimum-up and minimum-down times, ramp rates, and the unit start-up, no-load and sunk capital costs are internalized in the bid curves through the simulator. A special algorithm is presented to solve the revenue adequacy problem for marginal units. Both CED and DB models are based on the revenue maximization in contrast with the cost minimization criteria used in the conventional Unit Commitment (UC). The proposed method has been tested in a study case and some interesting results have been demonstrated.

  12. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  13. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  14. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  15. Carbon sequestration technology roadmap and program plan: ensuring the fossil energy systems through the successful deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The overall goal of the Carbon Sequestration Program is to develop, by 2012, fossil fuel conversion systems that achieve 90 percent CO{sub 2} capture with 99 percent storage permanence at less than a 10 percent increase in the cost of energy services. This document describes the Technology Roadmap and Program Plan that will guide the Carbon Sequestration Program in 2007 and beyond. An overview of the Program and the key accomplishments in its 10-year history are presented as well as the challenges confronting deployment and successful commercialization of carbon sequestration technologies. The research pathways that will be used to achieve Program goals and information on key contacts and web links related to the Program are included. 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTPs involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs. The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  17. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-24

    DOE2.1E-121 is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating,more » cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS). DOE2.1E-121 contains modifications to DOE2.1E which allows 1000 zones to be modeled.« less

  18. United States Supports Distributed Wind Technology Improvements; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Karin

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides information on the activities conducted through the Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP), initiated in 2012 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the distributed wind industry. The CIP provides research and development funding and technical support to improve distributed wind turbine technology and increase the competitiveness of U.S. small and midsize wind turbine manufacturers. Through this project, DOE/NREL assists U.S. manufacturers to lower the levelized cost of energy of wind turbines through component improvements, manufacturing process upgrades, and turbine testing. Ultimately, this support is expected to lead to turbine certification through testing to industry-recognized wind turbine performance and safety standards.

  19. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitina, Aisma; Luers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabo, Leif I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto; Hand, M. Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  20. Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.

    2010-05-01

    The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

  1. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  2. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  3. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  4. Geothermal Brief: Market and Policy Impacts Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    Utility-scale geothermal electricity generation plants have generally taken advantage of various government initiatives designed to stimulate private investment. This report investigates these initiatives to evaluate their impact on the associated cost of energy and the development of geothermal electric generating capacity using conventional hydrothermal technologies. We use the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) to analyze the effects of tax incentives on project economics. Incentives include the production tax credit, U.S. Department of Treasury cash grant, the investment tax credit, and accelerated depreciation schedules. The second half of the report discusses the impact of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loan Guarantee Program on geothermal electric project deployment and possible reasons for a lack of guarantees for geothermal projects. For comparison, we examine the effectiveness of the 1970s DOE drilling support programs, including the original loan guarantee and industry-coupled cost share programs.

  5. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  6. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G.; Nix, G.

    2007-03-01

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.

  7. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  8. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  9. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  10. Energy in housing and community development: Report of the DOE/HUD seventh national conference on Community Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This, the seventh in a series of annual HUD-DOE Conferences on Community Energy Systems, linked two topics basic to today's economic development market place--energy competitiveness and environmental impact. Energy competitiveness is a theme which implies the need for minimizing the cost of energy as a component of reducing the cost of doing business. Environment encompasses the closely related issues of toxics, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, global warming and the protection of earth's life-sustaining ecological base. In linking the two topics, the underlying premise was the view that, when intentionally mobilized to do so, urban communities can have a major positive impact on global warming, and they can indeed reduce the energy cost of doing business.

  11. Review of the thermal energy standards for manufactured housing proposed by the Manufactured Housing Institute Consensus Committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, C.C.

    1992-02-01

    Congress passed legislation that requires the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise the energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing contained in the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (MHCSS). The Manufactured Housing Institute's Consensus Committee (MHICC) proposed revised standards to HUD based on an analysis contained in a 1989 report by E. Levy. This document is primarily a review of the Levy report, including the methods and inputs to that analysis. The approach to be used in developing the revised standard was specified by Congress as a cost-benefit analysis in which the costs of energy efficiency measures (EEM) were balanced against the benefits of energy savings. The resulting optimum specified an overall level of energy efficiency in terms of a maximum allowable building shell U-value (overall thermal transmittance) that produced the lowest life-cycle cost to the owner of a manufactured home. In his 1989 analysis, this was the general approach used by Levy.

  12. Environmental Emissions Nonenergy Benefits Working Paper: ARRA Period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, David; Bausch, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Weatherization reduces energy usage by low-income households, and thereby reduces the environmental impacts of the production and consumption of energy and reduces the social costs associated with those environmental impacts. The nonenergy benefits study conducted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) evaluation focused on measuring the emissions reductions resulting from WAP program energy usage reductions and estimating the societal value of those emission reductions. While there are other environmental impacts associated with the WAP program, this study focused on emissions impacts because the 2010 National Research Council (NRC) report Hidden Costs of Energy: The Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use recommended that Congress focus on emissions costs because they have the highest documented social impact costs

  13. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than todays lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  14. Geothermal energy technology: issues, R and D needs, and cooperative arrangements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the National Research Council, through its Energy Engineering Board, formed the Committee on Geothermal Energy Technology. The committee's study addressed major issues in geothermal energy technology, made recommendations for research and development, and considered cooperative arrangements among government, industry, and universities to facilitate RandD under current severe budget constraints. The report addresses four types of geothermal energy: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. Hydrothermal systems are the only type that are now economically competitive commercially. Further technology development by the Department of Energy could make the uneconomical hydrothermal resources commercially attractive to the industry. The economics are more uncertain for the longer-term technologies for extracting energy from geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. For some sites, the cost of energy derived from geopressured and hot dry rock systems is projected within a commercially competitive range. The use of magma energy is too far in the future to make reasonable economic calculations.

  15. A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Greg Young; Abbey, Chad; Joos, Geza; Marnay, Chris

    2011-07-15

    A Microgrid is recognized as an innovative technology to help integrate renewables into distribution systems and to provide additional benefits to a variety of stakeholders, such as offsetting infrastructure investments and improving the reliability of the local system. However, these systems require additional investments for control infrastructure, and as such, additional costs and the anticipated benefits need to be quantified in order to determine whether the investment is economically feasible. This paper proposes a methodology for systematizing and representing benefits and their interrelationships based on the UML Use Case paradigm, which allows complex systems to be represented in a concise, elegant format. This methodology is demonstrated by determining the economic feasibility of a Microgrid and Distributed Generation installed on a typical Canadian rural distribution system model as a case study. The study attempts to minimize the cost of energy served to the community, considering the fixed costs associated with Microgrids and Distributed Generation, and suggests benefits to a variety of stakeholders.

  16. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  17. Technical support document: Survey data used in revising the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Conner, C.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report documents data used in the development of revised energy conservation standards for manufactured housing. The approach used in developing the proposed standard revision is a cost-benefit analysis in which the costs of energy conservation measures (ECM) are balanced against the benefits of energy savings. The analysis used to develop the recommendations for revision of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) energy conservation standards for manufactured housing requires information on specific ECMs. This technical support document contains the data from two of the three surveys that were used primarily to characterize the available ECMs and their associated costs. The analyses of these data are provided in separate reports. 5 refs.

  18. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain???????¢????????????????s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

  19. Technological cost%3CU%2B2010%3Ereduction pathways for axial%3CU%2B2010%3Eflow turbines in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laird, Daniel L.; Johnson, Erick L.; Ochs, Margaret Ellen; Boren, Blake

    2013-05-01

    This report considers and prioritizes potential technical costreduction pathways for axialflow turbines designed for tidal, river, and ocean current resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were utilized to understand current cost drivers and develop a list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to axialflow turbines, the U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model effort, and informal webinars and other targeted interactions with industry developers. Data from these various information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy. The four most promising costreduction pathways include structural design optimization; improved deployment, maintenance, and recovery; system simplicity and reliability; and array optimization.

  20. Optical and Durability Evaluation for Silvered Polymeric Mirrors and Reflectors: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number, CRD-08-316

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.

    2014-08-01

    3M is currently developing silvered polymeric mirror reflectors as low-cost replacements for glass mirrors in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This effort is focused on development of reflectors comprising both metallized polymeric mirror films based on improved versions of ECP-305+ or other durable mirror film concepts and appropriate mechanically robust substrates. The objectives for this project are to reduce the system capital and operating costs and to lower the levelized cost of energy for CSP installations. The development of mirror reflectors involves work on both full reflectors and mirror films with and without coatings. Mirror reflectors must meet rigid optical specifications in terms of radius of curvature, slope errors and specularity. Mirror films must demonstrate long-term durability and maintain high reflectivity. 3M would like to augment internal capabilities to validate product performance with methods and tools developed at NREL to address these areas.

  1. Preliminary structural design conceptualization for composite rotor for verdant power water current turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Verdant Power Inc. (VPI) have partnered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a new kinetic hydropower rotor. The rotor features an improved hydrodynamic and structural design which features state-of-the-art technology developed for the wind industry. The new rotor will have higher energy capture, increased system reliability, and reduction of overall cost of energy. This project was divided into six tasks: (1) Composite Rotor Project Planning and Design Specification; (2) Baseline Fatigue Testing and Failure analysis; (3) Develop Blade/Rotor Performance Model; (4) Hydrofoil Survey and Selection; (5) FEM Structural Design; and (6) Develop Candidate Rotor Designs and Prepare Final Report.

  2. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, and legal and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of sites to allow the making of creditable forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. A total of 1265 potential geothermal resource sites were identified from existing literature. Site selection was based upon the presence of thermal and mineral springs or wells and/or areas of recent volcanic activity and high heat flow. 250 sites were selected for detailed analysis. A methodology to rank the sites by energy potential, degree of developability, and cost of energy was developed. Resource developability was ranked by a method based on a weighted variable evaluation of resource favorability. Sites were ranked using an integration of values determined through the cost and developability analysis. 75 figs., 63 tabs.

  3. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  4. The WEI6K, a 6-kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Kyle K.; McCleer, Patrick J.; Hahlbeck, Edwin C.; DOE Project Office - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-21

    This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation “Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.” The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness in Class 3 wind resources that can now be achieved in Class 5 resources. The scope of work for this project has been to complete the preliminary design of an improved small wind turbine, including preliminary loads and strength analyses; analysis and design of all major components; systems integration and structural dynamic analysis; estimation of life-cycle cost of energy; and design documentation and review. The project did not entail hardware fabrication or testing. The WEI6K Turbine resulting from this project is an upwind horizontal-axis wind turbine rated at 6 kW. It features a 3-blade 7-m diameter rotor. The generator is a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous machine generating 3-phase power at 240 VAC. The turbine is maintained oriented in to the wind via active yaw control using electromechanical servos. Power is regulated with active blade pitch control. The turbine is presently designed to be placed on a 100-foot (30m) tower. The turbine is predicted to generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy (COE) between 7.3 and 8.9 ¢/kWh at an IEC Class II site, with an average wind speed of 8.5 m/s at hub height, depending upon whether the customer uses a guyed truss tower (the lower figure) or a monopole tower. For the NREL Reference Site, with a mean wind speed of 5.35 m/s at 10 m height, the turbine would generate at a levelized cost of energy of between 9.7 and 11.9 ¢/kWh. The lowest of these numbers is presently competitive with retail electricity rates in most of the country. The 8.9 ¢/kWh is still competitive with retail rates in many regions of the country with high electricity costs. The study further concludes that several design changes could shave 10-14% from the cost of energy determined in the preliminary design. These changes include a new tower design that offers tilt-up capability without guy wires and takes better advantage of the lowered loads produced by pitch control; design a family of airfoils more appropriate for pitch regulation on a turbine of this size; tune the pitch controller properly to minimize shedding of power during turbulent operation in the transition from Region 2 to 3; value engineer the pitch system to shave costs, including consideration of a collective pitch system; and refine the design of the hub and main frame castings to minimize weight and cost. We are generally encouraged by the results. These preliminary numbers show that we can produce a turbine that is competitive with retail electric rates at relatively windy IEC Class II sites. With further improvements in the design, we believe the turbine could be competitive at sites with lesser wind resource.

  5. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  6. Advanced Gearless Drivetrain - Phase I Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandy Butterfield; Jim Smith; Derek Petch; Brian Sullivan; Peter Smith; Kirk Pierce

    2012-08-31

    Boulder Wind Power (“BWP”) collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the economics of scaling an advanced gearless drivetrain technology to 6MW (and larger) turbine applications. The project goal was to show that this advanced drivetrain technology enables a cost of energy of less than $0.10/kWH in offshore applications. This drivetrain technology achieves this Cost of Energy (“COE”) advantage via a 70% greater torque density versus current state-of-the-art drivetrain technologies. In addition, a new dynamically compliant design strategy is required to optimize turbine system-level COE. The BWP generator is uniquely suited for this new design strategy. This project developed a concept design for a 6MW drivetrain and culminated in a plan for a system-level test of this technology at 3MW scale. The project further demonstrated the advantage of the BWP drivetrain with increasing power ratings, with conceptual designs through 10 MW.

  7. NREL Establishes a 1.5-MW Wind Turbine Test Platform for Research Partnerships (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Research turbine supports sustained technology development. For more than three decades, engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) have worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program and industry partners to advance wind energy technology, improve wind turbine performance, and reduce the cost of energy. Although there have been dramatic increases in performance and drops in the cost of wind energy-from $0.80 per kilowatt-hour to between $0.06 and $0.08 per kilowatt-hour-the goal of the DOE Wind Program is to further increase performance and reduce the cost of energy for land-based systems so that wind energy can compete with natural gas by 2020. In support of the program's research and development (R and D) efforts, NREL has constructed state-of-the-art facilities at the NWTC where industry partners, universities, and other DOE laboratories can conduct tests and experiments to further advance wind technology. The latest facility to come online is the DOE-GE 1.5-MW wind turbine test platform. Working with DOE, NREL purchased and installed a GE 1.5-MW wind turbine at the NWTC in 2009. Since then, NREL engineers have extensively instrumented the machine, conducted power performance and full-system modal tests, and collected structural loads measurements to obtain baseline characterization of the turbine's power curve, vibration characteristics, and fatigue loads in the uniquely challenging NWTC inflow environment. By successfully completing a baseline for the turbine's performance and structural response, NREL engineers have established a test platform that can be used by industry, university, and DOE laboratory researchers to test wind turbine control systems and components. The new test platform will also enable researchers to acquire the measurements needed to develop and validate wind turbine models and improve design codes.

  8. FuelClinic | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that you already own, while helping improve road safety, reducing traffic congestion, and saving you money. FuelClinic.com will accurately calculate and track your actual gas...

  9. The Easy Way to Use Renewables: Buy Clean Electricity | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    above actually sells Renewable Energy Credits ("RECs" or "green tags") from wind power farms situated across the United States, bundled together and supplied by the local natural...

  10. Statistical Significance of Data

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    are based on data collected from a randomly chosen subset of the entire commercial building population. One source of the difference between the estimated values and the actual...

  11. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-02-17

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell.

  12. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of capacity that may understate the amount that can actually be stored. Working Gas Design Capacity: This measure estimates a natural gas facility's working gas capacity, as...

  13. DOE National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... applied by any organizational element of DOE. ... is small, in addition to the actual magnitude of the proposal, DOE considers factors ... A1 Routine DOE Business Actions Routine ...

  14. BPA-2016-00103-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to warrant expedited processing because there is: an imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual. an urgency to inform the public concerning actual or...

  15. BPA-2014-00361-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to warrant expedited processing because there is: Dan imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual. Dan urgency to inform the public concerning actual or...

  16. BPA-2014-00614-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to warrant expedited processing because there is: Dan imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual. lan urgency to inform the public concerning actual or...

  17. BPA-2014-01173-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to warrant expedited processing because there is: an imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual. an urgency to inform the public concerning actual or...

  18. BPA-2014-01121-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to warrant expedited processing because there is: Dan imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual. Dan urgency to inform the public concerning actual or...

  19. I U.S. Department of Energy Corrective Action Plan for Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Additionally, planned assessments will ensure timely and accurate notification and categorization is made during all exercises and actual events. Assessment corrective actions will ...

  20. Power Business Line Decision Forums, as of March 14, 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation - Rate Case 6 Renewable Budget Levels (wo rate credit) PFR PFR 7 Calpine Geothermal PFR Forecast Assumption - Rate Case Actual Implementation Cancellation -...

  1. Wind Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Generation - ScheduledActual Balancing Reserves - Deployed Near Real-time Wind Animation Wind Projects under Review Growth Forecast Fact Sheets Working together to address...

  2. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facility use by total visitor days and facility to track actual visitors and active user research computer accounts. Historical data show an apparent relationship between the...

  3. Completed Projects Table 2015-08-21.xlsx

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Completed Projects 2005-Present Approved Actual Soil and Water Remediation Soil and Water Remediation ANLE-0030 a 28 30 2007 2007 Yes Yes Yes Nuclear Facility Deactivation and...

  4. DSO216_Phase_II_Summary_Updates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Limiting Wind Output to Scheduled Value and Curtailing Schedules to Actual Wind Generation Updated: December 13, 2013 I. PURPOSE The purpose of Dispatcher Standing Order (DSO)...

  5. HIV virus spread and evolution studied through computer modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the actual, rapid evolution of the virus (phylogenetics) within each patient's body. "We have developed novel ways of estimating epidemics dynamics such as who infected...

  6. Science On Tap - Phylogenetics and Epidemics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the actual, rapid evolution of the virus (phylogenetics) within each patient's body. "We have developed novel ways of estimating epidemics dynamics such as who infected...

  7. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Nov. 19, 2013-Researchers at Los Alamos National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the actual, rapid evolution of the virus (phylogenetics) within each patient's body. "We have developed novel ways of estimating epidemics dynamics such as who infected...

  8. Patent Waivers Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    research so that private entities may expedite commercialization, quickly bringing their technologies from lab to market... first actually reduced to practice in the course of or under ...

  9. Part II: Section B - Supplies, Services, and Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Actual construction management fee available will be established through negotiation of ... Contractor's team that are: (1) small business(es); (2) Protg firms as part of an ...

  10. Microsoft Word - Short Form CRADA Agreement Boilerplate Approved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of or first actually reduced to practice in the performance of work under this CRADA. H. "Intellectual Property" means patents, trademarks, copyrights, mask works, Protected CRADA...

  11. Routing performance analysis and optimization within a massively parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen

    2013-04-16

    An apparatus, program product and method optimize the operation of a massively parallel computer system by, in part, receiving actual performance data concerning an application executed by the plurality of interconnected nodes, and analyzing the actual performance data to identify an actual performance pattern. A desired performance pattern may be determined for the application, and an algorithm may be selected from among a plurality of algorithms stored within a memory, the algorithm being configured to achieve the desired performance pattern based on the actual performance data.

  12. SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... rountable, for technical reasons, in the interest of economic access to the subsurface, ... actual impact, making the transition from theory to practice--so often missing in ...

  13. Wind Program Budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-06

    On this page, you can learn more about the Program's budget request for this fiscal year as well as actual budgets in previous fiscal years.

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) team uses 0.13 (Nakajima and King 1990). These distributions are not necessarily representative of the actual sizes...

  15. Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants; Volume...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cases) X LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AACE Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering acfm Actual cubic feet per minute AEO Annual Energy Outlook BACT Best...

  16. PART I - THE SCHEDULE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    minimum, breakouts for merit, promotion, variable pay, special adjustments, and structure movements for each pay structure showing actual against approved amounts. (2) A list of...

  17. California Energy Commission

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    14,000 megawatts of hydroelectric generation capacity, or about 25% of the state's electricity production capacity. Actual annual in-state hydroelectric production varies from ...

  18. Aeromagnetic Survey At Mt St Helens Area (Towle, 1983) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structure of Mount St. Helens in more detail. Electrical and electromagnetic methods would be especially useful in determining the actual electrical conductivity of...

  19. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the dew point represent low relative humidity). Where the dew point approaches the actual temperature, the air is nearing 100% relative humidity, or saturation, near the...

  20. Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Fact Sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scheduled and actual output inside each hour. WIT projects advance the state of the art The Wind Integration Team was designed to help stretch the federal hydro system's...

  1. Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Proposed Action Title...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    modeling, and analysis of actual system flow information in a simulated environment. Project work will take place at Smart Wire Grid, Inc. (Oakland, CA), Innoventor, Inc. (Earth ...

  2. Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Pro Forma Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma Home Performance Contractor Pro Forma, with program HR, assumptions, marketing actuals and costs, and more, as posted on ...

  3. Portland HQ Letterhead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The QBR will continue with a focus on Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) finances with a review of current fiscal year actual financial results compared to financial...

  4. Untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    position of the fixture affect the actual output of compact fluorescent bulbs, and the quality of the light may differ between compact fluorescents and incandescents....

  5. GLAST And Dark Matter Substructure in the Milky Way (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    or not GLAST will actually detect a DM annihilation signal depends on both unknown particle physics and unknown astrophysics theory. Particle physics uncertainties include...

  6. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table 1: Actual and Projected Growth Rates for Motor Gasoline and Distillate Fuel Oil Consumption and their Major Economic Drivers (Percent) 2007 2008 2009 2010* 2011*...

  7. Summary Notes from 28 May 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    clearly. NRC staff also stated that information on the physical configuration of the inventory in the system and any simplifications to the actual configuration that are made...

  8. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract does not describe study in explicit detail, need to obtain actual source material to write exploration activity summary. References Peter M. Roberts, Keiiti Aki,...

  9. Category:ISGAN Definitions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shift Factor Definition:Load-Serving Entity Definition:Loading Monitor M Definition:Microgrid Controller Definition:Misoperation N Definition:Native Load Definition:Net Actual...

  10. Interviewee Travel Regulations Scope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For interviewees, airfare reimbursement is limited to the lesser of the standard coach airfare or the actual amount paid. The lowest available airfare should be obtained...

  11. Microsoft Word - gra-ugs-program-travel-regs-tr9003.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    permanent duty station, airfare reimbursement is limited to the lesser of the standard coach airfare or the actual amount paid. The lowest available airfare should be obtained...

  12. Sandia Energy - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forecasts automatically from deterministic historical forecasts for load, solar, andor wind power production and their respective actuals, using a technology known as...

  13. "Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption" " Potential by Census Region, 1991" " (Estimates in Physical Units)" ... (a) Minimum consumption represents actual 1991 consumption decreased by the" "quantity of ...

  14. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    out the person you needed from a listing of multiple names? Actually, searching the internet doesn't make this process any easier. Related Topics: author names, disambiguation,...

  15. Microsoft Word - RPP-RPT-47167_R0

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actual field work to remove tanks. Performing additional work (e.g., characterization, engineering development, work planning) to resolve these unknowns would be expected to...

  16. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ride in product prices. EIA projects that these markets will recover along with the economy, but in different ways. Table 1 summarizes actual and projected annual percentage...

  17. Energy Incentive Programs, Connecticut | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... These customers are paid for cleared reductions in the market and are expected to ... state, and local permitting limits operation to actual or imminent loss of external power. ...

  18. Energy Incentive Programs, Vermont | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... These customers are paid for cleared reductions in the market and are expected to ... state, and local permitting limits operation to actual or imminent loss of external power. ...

  19. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual...

  20. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Winter...

  1. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Summer...

  2. Primary and Site Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    electricity reflect the amount of energy actually consumed within the building. Site energy data are most useful to building engineers, energy managers, building owners and others...

  3. Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... their activities and determining whether they conform to ... In connection with our fiscal year (FY) 2012 audit, we also ... Actual results could differ from those estimates. (l) Tax ...

  4. DOE Announces Tougher Enforcement of Appliance Standards Reporting...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE will begin aggressively enforcing these reporting requirements, including seeking civil penalties or fines. This 30 day period does not apply to violations of the actual...

  5. New Cyanobacteria Metabolic Pathway Critical to Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    A little-known metabolic pathway in photosynthetic organisms is actually a major pathway for converting carbon dioxide to biofuels and bioproducts.

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Grant Program The AEA will not actually approve projects; it will issue recommendations to the state legislature, which will make funding decisions. The AEA...

  7. "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Net Internal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B Winter net internal demand, capacity resources, and capacity margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation" "Region, 2001-2011 actual, 2012-2016 projected" ...

  8. Form EIA-411 for 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC monthly peak hour demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area," "1996-2011 actual, 2012-2013 projected" "megawatts" "FRCC","Year","January",...

  9. ,"Table 4.B Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region," ,"2001-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected" ...

  10. Annual Power Electric

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, Actual Table 8.6.B. Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability ...

  11. ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009. " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours)" ,"Net Energy For Load ...

  12. winter_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base ...

  13. monthly_peak_byarea_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) FRCC Year January February ...

  14. Electric Power Annual 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2001-2011 Actual, 2012-2016 Projected megawatts ...

  15. Appendix E: Standard Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    not to exceed total cost of coach class airfare. Original receipts are required. iv. Cab andor limousine: Actual costs will be reimbursed. Receipts are required for expenses...

  16. I:'"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The actual schedule will depend upon the current status of completion and the complexity ... the tank will be available for decommissioning by the Environmental Restoration (ER) ...

  17. SECTION C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... decommissioning, and demolishing excess facilities; placing former production reactors in ... commercial nuclear power reactor, the ... List, versus the actual project status. ...

  18. J. C. Fulton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... sludge from the K West Reactor fuel storage basin. ... Number Title Type Due Date Actual Date Forecast Date Status ... Project Manager for Decommissioning, Waste, Fuels, and ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the ... No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but ...

  20. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    EIA uses the confidential version of the STB Waybill data, which includes actual revenue for shipments that originate and terminate at specific locations. The STB Waybill...

  1. Jan 8 2012 RAP Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complies with ARARs - The conditions do not currently present an actual risk to human or ecological receptors. - The vadose zone sources of the observed contamination...

  2. Jan 8 2012 RAP Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Attenuation (MNA) - Conditions do not currently present an actual risk to human or ecological receptors - Achieves cleanup within timeframe comparable to other...

  3. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    for the oil industry (Figure 1). Each EIA product is distinct in its purpose, methodology, timeframe, and regional coverage. Some reports are estimates of actual production...

  4. 2009-06 "Support for Innovative Approaches to Community Outreach...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The intent of this Recommendation is to support community outreach objectives using innovative approaches that would make use of web-based tools to demonstrate actual work being ...

  5. Quantifying the Value of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultimately they conclude that CSP with TES can actually complement other variable generation sources including solar PV and act as an enabling technology to achieve higher overall ...

  6. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    humidity (UTH) based on Geostationary satellite data; (middle) PI, CLD, and UTH from the IR simulator applied to the MMF; (bottom) the MMF actual surface precipitation rate, CLD,...

  7. Capital Reporting Company Quadrennial ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 5 MS. KENDERDINE: Actually, National 6 Journal. ... as it relates to 9 public health and public safety is ... Facilitator for the Mid 15 American Freight Coalition. ...

  8. Field Testing of the Advanced Worker Protection System

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to demonstrate the potential of the system for increasing user work times and decreasing recovery times for tasks which simulate actual decontamination activities. + to shake down...

  9. TEG On-Vehicle Performance & Model Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Details efforts and results of steady-state and transient models validated with bench, engine dynamometer, and on-vehicle tests to measure actual performance

  10. Preparing for Project Implementation before an Energy Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Utilize Save Energy Now LEADER Pledge Use the logo to brand the assessment Create posters using the actual pledge Use logo on shirts Create special stationery ...

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.B. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2013 Actual, 2014-2018 Projected Net...

  12. winter_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)...

  13. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak...

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.B. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2013 Actual, 2014-2018 Projected Net...

  15. summer_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c . Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S....

  16. net_energy_load_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for this table format Table 1a . Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004. (Thousands of Megawatthours)...

  17. winter_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d . Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous...

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2003 - 2013, Actual Summer Peak Load (Megawatts) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT...

  19. winter_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Megawatts and...

  20. Next Update: December 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f . Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 (Megawatts) 20052006 626,365 42,657 33,748 ...

  1. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the projects Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50/kWhe , which achieved the Phase 2 Go/No Go target of less than 0.12/kWhe. Abengoa Solar has high confidence that the primary risk areas have been addressed in the project and a commercial plant utilizing molten salt is economically and technically feasible. The strong results from the Phase 1 and 2 research, testing, and analyses, summarized in this report, led Abengoa Solar to recommend that the project proceed to Phase 3. However, a commercially viable collector interconnection was not fully validated by the end of Phase 2, combined with the uncertainty in the federal budget, forced the DOE and Abengoa Solar to close the project. Thus the resources required to construct and operate a molten salt pilot plant will be solely supplied by Abengoa Solar.

  2. ,"Table 2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area," ,"1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected" ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Summer" ,,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Projected"

  3. NREL's Water Power Software Makes a Splash; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    WEC-Sim is a DOE-funded software tool being jointly developed by NREL and SNL. WEC-Sim computationally models wave energy converters (WEC), devices that generate electricity using movement of water systems such as oceans, rivers, etc. There is great potential for WECs to generate electricity, but as of yet, the industry has yet to establish a commercially viable concept. Modeling, design, and simulations tools are essential to the successful development of WECs. Commercial WEC modeling software tools can't be modified by the user. In contrast, WEC-Sim is a free, open-source, and flexible enough to be modified to meet the rapidly evolving needs of the WEC industry. By modeling the power generation performance and dynamic loads of WEC designs, WEC-Sim can help support the development of new WEC devices by optimizing designs for cost of energy and competitiveness. By being easily accessible, WEC-Sim promises to help level the playing field in the WEC industry. Importantly, WEC-Sim is also excellent at its job! In 2014, WEC-Sim was used in conjunction with NREL’s FAST modeling software to win a hydrodynamic modeling competition. WEC-Sim and FAST performed very well at predicting the motion of a test device in comparison to other modeling tools. The most recent version of WEC-Sim (v1.1) was released in April 2015.

  4. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  5. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annualmore » thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.« less

  6. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY UPGRADES FOR SANITATION FACILITIES IN SELAWIK, AK FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POLLIS, REBECCA

    2014-10-17

    The Native Village of Selawik is a federally recognized Alaskan tribe, located at the mouth of the Selawik River, about 90 miles east of Kotzebue in northwest Alaska. Due to the communitys rural location and cold climate, it is common for electric rates to be four times higher than the cost urban residents pay. These high energy costs were the driving factor for Selawik pursuing funding from the Department of Energy in order to achieve significant energy cost savings. The main objective of the project was to improve the overall energy efficiency of the water treatment/distribution and sewer collection systems in Selawik by implementing the retrofit measures identified in a previously conducted utility energy audit. One purpose for the proposed improvements was to enable the community to realize significant savings associated with the cost of energy. Another purpose of the upgrades was to repair the vacuum sewer system on the west side of Selawik to prevent future freeze-up problems during winter months.

  8. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  9. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  10. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-06-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  11. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 3 Gearbox 2 Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, H.; Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-04-01

    Gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life even though they commonly meet or exceed the design criteria specified in current design standards. One of the basic premises of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is that the low gearbox reliability results from the absence of critical elements in the design process or insufficient design tools. Key goals of the GRC are to improve design approaches and analysis tools and to recommend practices and test methods resulting in improved design standards for wind turbine gearboxes that lower the cost of energy (COE) through improved reliability. The GRC uses a combined gearbox testing, modeling and analysis approach, along with a database of information from gearbox failures collected from overhauls and investigation of gearbox condition monitoring techniques to improve wind turbine operations and maintenance practices. Testing of Gearbox 2 (GB2) using the two-speed turbine controller that has been used in prior testing. This test series will investigate non-torque loads, high-speed shaft misalignment, and reproduction of field conditions in the dynamometer. This test series will also include vibration testing using an eddy-current brake on the gearbox's high speed shaft.

  12. Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for the Makah Indian Tribe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RobertLynette; John Wade; Larry Coupe

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to determine the technical feasibility, economic viability, and potential impacts of installing and operating a wind power station and/or small hydroelectric generation plants on the Makah reservation. The long-term objective is to supply all or a portion of Tribe's electricity from local, renewable energy sources in order to reduce costs, provide local employment, and reduce power outages. An additional objective was for the Tribe to gain an understanding of the requirements, costs, and benefits of developing and operating such plants on the reservation. The Makah Indian Reservation, with a total land area of forty-seven square miles, is located on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. Four major watersheds drain the main Reservation areas and the average rainfall is over one hundred inches per year. The reservation's west side borders the Pacific Ocean, but mostly consists of rugged mountainous terrain between 500 and 1,900 feet in elevation. Approximately 1,200 tribal members live on the Reservation and there is an additional non-Indian residential population of about 300. Electric power is provided by the Clallam County PUD. The annual usage on the reservation is approximately 16,700 mWh. Project Work Wind Energy--Two anemometer suites of equipment were installed on the reservation and operated for a more than a year. An off-site reference station was identified and used to project long-term wind resource characteristics at the two stations. Transmission resources were identified and analyzed. A preliminary financial analysis of a hypothetical wind power station was prepared and used to gauge the economic viability of installation of a multi-megawatt wind power station. Small Hydroelectric--Two potential sites for micro/small-hydro were identified by analysis of previous water resource studies, topographical maps, and conversations with knowledgeable Makah personnel. Field trips were conducted to collect preliminary site data. A report was prepared by Alaska Power & Telephone (Larry Coupe) including preliminary layouts, capacities, potential environmental issues, and projected costs. Findings and Conclusions Wind Energy The average wind resources measured at both sites were marginal, with annual average wind speeds of 13.6-14.0 mph at a 65-meter hub height, and wind shears of 0.08-0.13. Using GE 1.5 MW wind turbines with a hub height of 65 meters, yields a net capacity factor of approximately 0.19. The cost-of-energy for a commercial project is estimated at approximately 9.6 cents per kWh using current costs for capital and equipment prices. Economic viability for a commercial wind power station would require a subsidy of 40-50% of the project capital cost, loans provided at approximately 2% rate of interest, or a combination of grants and loans at substantially below market rates. Recommendations: Because the cost-of-energy from wind power is decreasing, and because there may be small pockets of higher winds on the reservation, our recommendation is to: (1) Leave one of the two anemometer towers, preferably the 50-meter southern unit MCC, in place and continue to collect data from this site. This site would serve as an excellent reference anemometer for the Olympic Peninsula, and, (2) If funds permit, relocate the northern tower (MCB) to a promising small site closer to the transmission line with the hope of finding a more energetic site that is easier to develop. Small Hydroelectric There are a very limited number of sites on the reservation that have potential for economical hydroelectric development, even in conjunction with water supply development. Two sites emerged as the most promising and were evaluated: (1) One utilizing four creeks draining the north side of the Cape Flattery peninsula (Cape Creeks), and (2) One on the Waatch River to the south of Neah Bay. The Cape Creeks site would be a combination water supply and 512 kW power generation facility and would cost a approximately $11,100,000. Annual power generation would be approximately 1,300,000 kWh and the plant would have a cost-of-energy of approximately 65 cents per kWh, substantially above market rates. The Waatch site would also be a combination water supply and power generation facility. It would have a rated capacity of 935 kW and would cost approximately $16,400,000. Annual power generation would be approximately 3,260,000 kWh and the plant would have a cost-of-energy of approximately 38 cents per kWh, also substantially above market rates. Recommendation: Stand-alone hydroelectric development is not commercially viable. The Tribal Council should not pursue development of hydroelectric facilities on the Makah Reservation unless they are an adjunct to a water supply development, and the water supply systems absorbs almost all the capital cost of the project.

  13. Land-Based Wind Turbine Transportation and Logistics Barriers and Their Effects on U.S. Wind Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotrell, J.; Stehly, T.; Johnson, J.; Roberts, J.O.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Heimiller, D.

    2014-05-01

    The average size of land based wind turbines installed in the United States has increased dramatically over time. As a result wind turbines are facing new transportation and logistics barriers that limit the size of utility scale land based wind turbines that can be deployed in the United States. Addressing these transportation and logistics barriers will allow for even further increases in U.S. turbine size using technologies under development for offshore markets. These barriers are important because larger taller turbines have been identified as a path to reducing the levelized cost of energy for electricity. Additionally, increases in turbine size enable the development of new low and moderate speed markets in the U.S. In turn, wind industry stakeholder support, market stability, and ultimately domestic content and manufacturing competitiveness are potentially affected. In general there is very little recent literature that characterizes transportation and logistics barriers and their effects on U.S. wind markets and opportunities. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is to report the results of a recent NREL study that identifies the barriers, assesses their impact and provides recommendations for strategies and specific actions.

  14. An Analysis Framework for Investigating the Trade-offs Between System Performance and Energy Consumption in a Heterogeneous Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Ryan; Khemka, Bhavesh; Maciejewski, Anthony A; Siegel, Howard Jay; Koenig, Gregory A; Powers, Sarah S; Hilton, Marcia M; Rambharos, Rajendra; Okonski, Gene D; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Rising costs of energy consumption and an ongoing effort for increases in computing performance are leading to a significant need for energy-efficient computing. Before systems such as supercomputers, servers, and datacenters can begin operating in an energy-efficient manner, the energy consumption and performance characteristics of the system must be analyzed. In this paper, we provide an analysis framework that will allow a system administrator to investigate the tradeoffs between system energy consumption and utility earned by a system (as a measure of system performance). We model these trade-offs as a bi-objective resource allocation problem. We use a popular multi-objective genetic algorithm to construct Pareto fronts to illustrate how different resource allocations can cause a system to consume significantly different amounts of energy and earn different amounts of utility. We demonstrate our analysis framework using real data collected from online benchmarks, and further provide a method to create larger data sets that exhibit similar heterogeneity characteristics to real data sets. This analysis framework can provide system administrators with insight to make intelligent scheduling decisions based on the energy and utility needs of their systems.

  15. Energy generation from cotton gin trash: an economic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacewell, R.D.; Taylor, C.R.; Hiler, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    This study consists of economic analyses of electric power generation and low-Btu (British thermal unit) gas generation from cotton gin trash. Both analyses consider the use of a large gin, sized at 40,000 bales per year. A fluidized-bed combustor is used to produce the low Btu gas and in conjunction with a boiler and turbine to produce electricity. For this case study, the consideration of economic feasibility involves the saving of the cost of energy not purchased, the sale of surplus electricity, and the saving of the cost of gin trash disposal eliminated; all are results of on-site energy generation. Electricity requirements will be satisfied, and waste heat will be used for cotton drying. The savings that would result from these two measures total about $126,000 (based on a 300,000 Btu per bale requirement for cotton drying with natural gas priced at $2.50 per thousand cubic feet and electricity priced at 4 cents per kWh). (MCW)

  16. Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Williams, B.; Ferry, M.; Eyer, J.

    2012-06-01

    Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and deployment of grid-connected energy storage are restricted by the high cost of lithium-ion batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to lower material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. A fraction of the battery cost may be recovered after vehicular service by reusing the battery where it may have sufficient performance for other energy-storage applications. By extracting post-vehicle additional services and revenue from the battery, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased. The overall cost of energy-storage solutions for both primary (automotive) and secondary (grid) customer could be decreased. This techno-economic analysis of battery second use considers effects of battery degradation in both automotive and grid service, repurposing costs, balance-of-system costs, the value of aggregated energy-storage to commercial and industrial end users, and competitive technology. Batteries from plug-in electric vehicles can economically be used to serve the power quality and reliability needs of commercial and industrial end users. However, the value to the automotive battery owner is small (e.g., $20-$100/kWh) as declining future battery costs and other factors strongly affect salvage value. Repurposed automotive battery prices may range from $38/kWh to $132/kWh.

  17. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE?EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven?stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy? technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling?up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke? unlimited Power Take?Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  18. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  19. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Plants; Final Report of Sandia R&D Activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2015-04-01

    This final report is a compilation of resear ch efforts - funded by the US Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Technolog ies Office over a four-year period from FY11 through FY14. The goals of this re search program were to develop and evaluate technical innovati ons with promise for maxi mizing revenues and reducing levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for offs hore wind plants - more specifically the goals of the Structural H ealth and Prognostics Management (SHPM) program were to reduce O&M costs and increase energy capture through use of SHPM-based technologies. A technology roadmap was deve loped at the start of the project to guide the research efforts. This roadmap identified and outlined six major research thrust areas each having five stages of ma turity. Research was conducted in each of these thrust areas, as documented throughout this report, although a major focus was on development of damage detection strategi es for the most frequent blade damage conditions and damage mitigation and life-exte nsion strategies via changes in turbine operations (smart loads management). Th e work summarized in this compilation report is the product of the work of many researchers. A summary of the major findings, status of the SHPM Technology Ro admap and recommendations for future work are also provided.

  20. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, Tim

    2013-10-30

    The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to assess the feasibility of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. A solar energy project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of potential future energy savings, increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a solar project’s overall feasibility, including:  Technical appropriateness;  Solar resource characteristics and expected system performance;  Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) economic assessment. The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to prepare a biomass resource assessment study and evaluate the feasibility of a bioenergy project on Community land. A biomass project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a biomass project’s overall feasibility, including:  Resource analysis and costs;  Identification of potential bioenergy projects;  Technical and economic (levelized cost of energy) modeling for selected project configuration.

  1. IEA Wind Task 26 - Multi-national Case Study of the Financial Cost of Wind Energy; Work Package 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwabe, P.; Lensink, S.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The lifetime cost of wind energy is comprised of a number of components including the investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, financing costs, and annual energy production. Accurate representation of these cost streams is critical in estimating a wind plant's cost of energy. Some of these cost streams will vary over the life of a given project. From the outset of project development, investors in wind energy have relatively certain knowledge of the plant's lifetime cost of wind energy. This is because a wind energy project's installed costs and mean wind speed are known early on, and wind generation generally has low variable operation and maintenance costs, zero fuel cost, and no carbon emissions cost. Despite these inherent characteristics, there are wide variations in the cost of wind energy internationally, which is the focus of this report. Using a multinational case-study approach, this work seeks to understand the sources of wind energy cost differences among seven countries under International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 26 - Cost of Wind Energy. The participating countries in this study include Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Due to data availability, onshore wind energy is the primary focus of this study, though a small sample of reported offshore cost data is also included.

  2. Superconductivity for Large Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Fair; W. Stautner; M. Douglass; R. Rajput-Ghoshal; M. Moscinski; P. Riley; D. Wagner; J. Kim; S. Hou; F. Lopez; K. Haran; J. Bray; T. Laskaris; J. Rochford; R. Duckworth

    2012-10-12

    A conceptual design has been completed for a 10MW superconducting direct drive wind turbine generator employing low temperature superconductors for the field winding. Key technology building blocks from the GE Wind and GE Healthcare businesses have been transferred across to the design of this concept machine. Wherever possible, conventional technology and production techniques have been used in order to support the case for commercialization of such a machine. Appendices A and B provide further details of the layout of the machine and the complete specification table for the concept design. Phase 1 of the program has allowed us to understand the trade-offs between the various sub-systems of such a generator and its integration with a wind turbine. A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) analysis have been completed resulting in the identification of high risk components within the design. The design has been analyzed from a commercial and economic point of view and Cost of Energy (COE) calculations have been carried out with the potential to reduce COE by up to 18% when compared with a permanent magnet direct drive 5MW baseline machine, resulting in a potential COE of 0.075 $/kWh. Finally, a top-level commercialization plan has been proposed to enable this technology to be transitioned to full volume production. The main body of this report will present the design processes employed and the main findings and conclusions.

  3. Final Technical Report: Supporting Wind Turbine Research and Testing - Gearbox Durability Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Malkin

    2012-04-30

    The combination of premature failure of wind turbine gearboxes and the downtime caused by those failures leads to an increase in the cost of electricity produced by the wind. There is a need for guidance to asset managers regarding how to maximize the longevity of their gearboxes in order to help keep the cost of wind energy as low as possible. A low cost of energy supports the US Department of Energy's goal of achieving 20% of the electricity in the United States produced by wind by the year 2030. DNV KEMA has leveraged our unique position in the industry as an independent third party engineering organization to study the problem of gearbox health management and develop guidance to project operators. This report describes the study. The study was conducted in four tasks. In Task 1, data that may be related to gearbox health and are normally available to wind project operators were collected for analysis. Task 2 took a more in-depth look at a small number of gearboxes to gain insight in to relevant failure modes. Task 3 brought together the previous tasks by evaluating the available data in an effort to identify data that could provide early indications of impending gearbox failure. Last, the observations from the work were collected to develop recommendations regarding gearbox health management.

  4. Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhiping; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K.

    1994-09-01

    The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

  5. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  6. Recent improvements to software used for optimization of SRF linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Tom J.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, where operation costs includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. The program includes estimates for the associated cryogenic facility, and controls hardware. The software interface provides the ability to vary the cost of the different aspects of the machine as well as to change the cryomodule and cavity types. Additionally, this work will describe the recent improvements to the software that allow one to estimate the costs of energy-recovery based linacs and to enter arbitrary values of the low field Q0 and Q0 slope. The initial goal when developing the software was to convert a spreadsheet format to a graphical interface and to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand tradeoffs. An example of how it was used to independently investigate cost optimization tradeoffs for the LCLS-II linac will also be presented.

  7. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  8. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  9. Review of the thermal energy standards for manufactured housing proposed by the Manufactured Housing Institute Consensus Committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, C.C.

    1992-02-01

    Congress passed legislation that requires the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise the energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing contained in the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (MHCSS). The Manufactured Housing Institute`s Consensus Committee (MHICC) proposed revised standards to HUD based on an analysis contained in a 1989 report by E. Levy. This document is primarily a review of the Levy report, including the methods and inputs to that analysis. The approach to be used in developing the revised standard was specified by Congress as a cost-benefit analysis in which the costs of energy efficiency measures (EEM) were balanced against the benefits of energy savings. The resulting optimum specified an overall level of energy efficiency in terms of a maximum allowable building shell U-value (overall thermal transmittance) that produced the lowest life-cycle cost to the owner of a manufactured home. In his 1989 analysis, this was the general approach used by Levy.

  10. Reference Model 2: %22Rev 0%22 Rotor Design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew F.; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Griffith, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  11. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  12. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  13. Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

    2012-08-01

    The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

  14. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  15. Design and Analysis for a Floating Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y. H.; Li, Y.; Hallett, K.; Hotimsky, C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a recent study on the design and analysis of an oscillating surge wave energy converter. A successful wave energy conversion design requires the balance between the design performance and cost. The cost of energy is often used as the metric to judge the design of the wave energy conversion system. It is often determined based on the device power performance, the cost for manufacturing, deployment, operation and maintenance, as well as the effort to ensure the environmental compliance. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of a cost driven design strategy and how it can affect a WEC design. Three oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) designs were used as the example. The power generation performance of the design was modeled using a time-domain numerical simulation tool, and the mass properties of the design were determined based on a simple structure analysis. The results of those power performance simulations, the structure analysis and a simple economic assessment were then used to determine the cost-efficiency of selected OSWEC designs. Finally, a discussion on the environmental barrier, integrated design strategy and the key areas that need further investigation is also presented.

  16. DMP: Simple, Scalable, and Submerged; FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT (REDACTED VERSION)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, Mike; Delos-Reyes, Michael; McNatt, Cameron; Ozkan-Haller, Tuba; Klure, Justin; Kopf, Steven; Ai, Zhuan; Cleary, Casey; Goold, Caitlin; Vanithbuncha, Phattharawan

    2012-02-08

    At the start of work by M3 Wave under the current DOE funding, the DMP technology was nominally at TRL2 with some physical model testing completed. With DOE and OWET funding, much progress was made on several fronts including: cost of energy modeling, 1:50 scale model testing, numerical modeling, site evaluation, cost of mooring, construction, operations and maintenance, regulatory, and power take off. Since the technology is stationary on the ocean floor, arrays can be very dense. Even though overall efficiency is lower than buoys, the total power per acre of the technology looks to be at least twice the output per acre of known buoy WEC technologies. If the assumptions and inputs are correct, then DMP ocean power devices could be commercially competitive with other offshore renewable energy resources, such as off-shore wind power. Leveraging the data, analysis, and engineering conducted on this project, larger 1:6 scale testing was recently completed under separate funding. All aspects tested at 1:6 suggest that the DMP is a viable and disruptive technology, leading M3 Wave to continue development of the DMP.

  17. Systems Engineering Applications to Wind Energy Research, Design, and Development (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Graf, P.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Ning, A.; Scott, G.; Sirnivas, S.; Veers, P.

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few decades, wind energy has evolved into a large international industry involving major players in the manufacturing, construction, and utility sectors. Coinciding with the industry's growth, significant innovation in the technology has resulted in larger turbines with lower associated costs of energy and more complex designs in all subsystems. However, as the deployment of the technology grows, and its role within the electricity sector becomes more prominent, so has the expectations of the technology in terms of performance, reliability, and cost. The industry currently partitions its efforts into separate paths for turbine design, plant design and development, grid interaction and operation, and mitigation of adverse community and environmental impacts. These activities must be integrated to meet a diverse set of goals while recognizing trade-offs between them. To address these challenges, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has embarked on the Wind Energy Systems Engineering (WESE) initiative to use methods of systems engineering in the research, design, and development of wind energy systems. Systems engineering is a field that has a long history of application to complex technical systems. The work completed to date represents a first step in understanding this potential. It reviews systems engineering methods as applied to related technical systems and illustrates how these methods can be combined in a WESE framework to meet the research, design, and development needs for the future of the industry.

  18. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  19. QER- Comment of Bill Sackett

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Quadrennial Energy Review: The health of the people of our nation is a major vulnerability that must be addressed in any energy policy. Pollution produced by generating energy impacts our overall health. To encourage healthful sources of energy we have to make sure that the true costs of energy are paid up front. This means not allowing energy development that produces dangerous pollutants. Coal burning causes asthma and mercury poisoning and contributes to climate change that is not priced into energy generated by coal. Allowing liability exemptions to energy producers hides true costs. Nuclear power producers must be accountable for any radiation sickness that resulting from their operations. Fracking must not be exempted from safe drinking water regulations. Even more significant for oil and gas production, hazardous wastes (including methane) generated by exploration and production must be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). (Pertinent to this, please enter into the Quadrennial Energy Review proceedings the attached first three pages of an article about RCRA. The full article can be found at http://npaper-wehaa.com/boulder-weekly/2014/03/13/?article=2174620.) Removing exemptions like these will allow clean forms of energy to predominate to the overall benefit of us all. Let us not be guilty of the moral cowardice of business as usual that will cause tremendous problems for future generations. Thank you, Bill Sackett

  20. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmarker, Marc; Campbell, Mark

    2012-03-16

    Design, validate at prototype level, and then demonstrate a full size, 800 MWht Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system based on Phase Changing Material (PCM) TES modules with round trip efficiency in excess of 93%. The PCM TES module would be the building block of a TES system which can be deployed at costs inline with the DOE benchmark of 2020. The development of a reliable, unsophisticated, modular, and scalable TES system designed to be massmanufactured utilizing advanced automated fabrication and assembly processes and field installed in the most cost-effective configuration could facilitate the attainment of a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of $.07/kWh by 2015. It was believed that the DOE targets can be attained by finding the best combinationTES module size, its optimal integration in the power cycle, and readily available PCM. Work under this project ultimately focused on the development and performance evaluation of a 100kWht prototype heat exchanger. The design utilizes a commercially available heat exchanger product to create a unique latent heat PCM storage module. The novel ideal associated with this technology is the inclusion of an agitation mechanism that is activated during the discharge process to improve heat transfer. The prototype unit did not meet the performance goals estimated through modeling, nor did the estimated costs of the system fall in line with the goals established by DOE.